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regulation of nitrogen fixation. nitrogenase-derepressed mutants of klebsiella pneumoniae.1. a new procedure is described for selecting nitrogenase-derepressed mutants based on the method of brenchley et al. (brenchley, j.e., prival, m.j. and magasanik, b. (1973) j. biol. chem. 248, 6122-6128) for isolating histidase-constitutive mutants of a non-n2-fixing bacterium. 2. nitrogenase levels of the new mutants in the presence of nh4+ were as high as 100% of the nitrogenase activity detected in the absence of nh4+. 3. biochemical characterization of these nitrogen fixation (nif) derepres ...197559
comparative study of virological infections in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children.the author shows complex analyses: clinical, laboratory, x-rays, bronchoscopical, bronchographical and measuring lung function tests as well as the serological examinations in blood serum of both groups of asthmatic and nonasthmatic children with virological infection. the calculation of statistically significant differences between the various diagnostical results of both groups has confirmed that in asthmatic children virological infection of the respiratory tract, pathological findings in x-r ...1975884
inhibition of the adenylylation of glutamine synthetase by methionine sulfone during nitrogenase derepression. 19751024
microbiological study of gentamiycin.gentamycin prepared at the all-union research institute of antibiotics did not differ by its antibacterial spectrum and the activity level from gentamycin samples from other countries. by its activity against clinical strains of ps. aeruginosa gentamycin was somewhat inferior than polymyxin but much more superior than carbenicillin. an agar-diffusion method using bac. pumilus ntcc 8241 as the test microbe was developed for determination of gentamycin activity. the gentamycin sulfate complex and ...19752095
bacterial and fungal growth in total parenteral nutrition solutions,.the most serious complication of prolonged intravenous infusion of hypertonic dextrose and amino acids is infection. frequently, the etiology is fungal rather than bacterial. previous authors have suggested that bacterial survival and growth in the solutions is suppressed by (a) high dextrose concentration, (b) high osmolality, or (c) low ph. this paper presents evidence that proposals (a) and (b) are untenable and (c) is only partly responsible. we call attention to the presence of a factor tha ...19752102
carbohydrate containing media for the detection of urease in "klebsiella".sone strains of klebsiella pneumoniae and k. oxytoca grown on nutrient agar may appear "urease negative" in a ferguson type reagent medium after a 24 h incubation at 37 degrees c. amongst such 147 so called urease negative strains, urease has been detected within a few hours in 79 strains, when bacteria have grown on media containing carbohydrates (kligler iron agar, drigalski lactose agar, ss agar and worfel-ferguson sucrose medium). acid production by carbohydrate fermentation increases urease ...19753130
the role of some microorganisms in the pathogenesis of non-specific bronchopulmonary infections. 19763770
purification and properties of klebsiella pneumoniae heat-stable enterotoxin.the enterotoxic material in cell-free growth preparations of klebsiella pneumoniae serotype 5 was purified by sequential ultrafiltration and gel filtration (gf) procedures and the fractions were assayed for enterotoxic activity by determining their ability to induce in vivo net water secretion in the rat jejunum. whole-cell lysates were inactive. anaerobic broth culture conditions yielded a 10-fold increase in toxin production over aerobic conditions. enterotoxic activity was absent in the um-10 ...19764375
partial purification and properties of enterobacter cloacae heat-stable enterotoxin.cell free preparations of the whole-cell lysate and ultrafiltration (uf) fractions of broth cultures of a strain of enterobacter cloacae, isolated from a puerto rican with tropical sprue, were assayed for their ability to induce in vivo net water secretion in the rat jejunum. the whole-cell lysate and um-10 retentate of broth cultures were inactive. the um-2 retentate and filtrate were active at a concentration of 100 mug/ml or more; the toxigenic activity was entirely retained, and increased to ...19765376
studies on vitamin b12 production by strains of klebsiella pneumoniae and bacillus pasteurii. 19765392
comparative in vitro activity of cephalosporins.the in vitro activity of cephalexin, cephaloridine, cephalothin, cephapirin, cefoxitin, cephamycin c, cepharadine and cefazolin was determined against 443 isolates of bacteria. at a concentration of 12.5 mug/ml, all of the cephalosporins inhibited more than 60% of the isolates of klebsiella pneumoniae. at the same concentration, cephalexin, cephaloridine, cephalothin, cephapirin, cephamycin c and cefazolin inhibited more than 90% of isolates of proteus mirabilis. all of the cephalosporins except ...19766411
classical and postclassical modes of regulation of the synthesis of degradative bacterial enzymes. 19766998
determinants of lung bacterial clearance in normal mice.the determinants of the lung clearance of streptococcus pneumoniae, klebsiella pneumoniae, escherichia coli, and staphylococcus aureus were studied in normal mice after exposure to an aerosol of viable bacteria and 99mtc-labeled dead bacteria. the fraction of bacteria in lungs that remained viable 4 h after exposure were: s. pneumoniae, 7.3%; k. pneumoniae, 121%; e. coli, 88.5%; s. aureus, 27.6%. the rate of physical removal of bacterial particles (kmc) was determined from the change in lung 99m ...19767575
amino acids as repressors of nitrogenase biosynthesis in klebsiella pneumoniae.nitrogenase biosynthesis in klebsiella pneumoniae including mutant strains, which produce nitrogenase in the presence of nh+4 (shanmugam, k.t., chan, irene, and morandi, c. (1975) biochim. biophys. acta 408, 101--111) is repressed by a mixture of l-amino acids. biochemical analysis shows that glutamine synthetase activity in strains sk-24, sk-28, and sk-29 is also repressed by amino acids, with no detectable effect on glutamate dehydrogenase. among the various amino acids, l-glutamine in combina ...19768101
factors influencing the immune enhancement of intrapulmonary bactericidal mechanisms.the effect of specific immunization on the antibacterial defense mechanisms of the murine lung was assessed against streptococcus pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus aureus (smith), serratia marcescens, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabilis, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. immunization by aerosol inhalation significantly enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of pseudomonas aeruginosa and proteus mirabilis but not the remaining organisms. with p. mirabilis, systemic immunization induce ...19769364
effect of capsular polysaccharide of klebsiella pneumoniae on host resistance to bacterial infections. i. induction of increased susceptibility to infections in mice.when klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (cps-k) from type 1, kasuya strain, was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) immediately before i.p. bacterial challenge, the survival time of mice infected with salmonella enteritidis nub 1 (virulent strain) was shortened and the mortality rate for mice infected with s. enteritidis nub 31 (avirulent strain) was enhanced. the promotion of infection with s. enteritidis nub 1 by cps-k depended upon its dose, the effect of cps-k being demonstrable up ...19769528
in vitro study of netilmicin compared with other aminoglycosides.netilmicin (sch 20569) is an ethyl derivative of gentamicin c(1a) that is active against most enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and staphylococcus aureus isolates. among 342 clinical isolates tested, all staphylococci; 92% of escherichia coli, 93% of klebsiella pneumoniae, and 92% of enterobacter were inhibited by 0.8 mug or less of netilmicin per ml, but only 78% of p. aeruginosa were inhibited by 3.1 mug or less per ml. most clinical isolates of enterococci, serratia marcescens, and ...197610829
approach to a practical method for screening and identifying microorganism genera from urine (author's transl).in this study the author reported upon a practical new system for screening and identifying the microbial agents causing urinary tract infections. this system is composed of a combination of 3 screening procedures (ph-value + nitrite-test + catalase-test) and 8 selective culture media for the purpose of genus identification within 24 hours (uripret-g). a total of 130 cultures was investigated. the employed microorganisms were mainly recovered from urine samples. they included the following speci ...197611179
the regulation of respiration rate in growing bacteria. 197612649
1, 4-alpha-glucan phosphorylase from klebsiella pneumoniae purification, subunit structure and amino acid composition.1. a 1,4-alpha-glucan phosphorylase from klebsiella pneumoniae has been purified about 80-fold with an over-all yield greater than 35%. the purified enzyme has been shown to be homogeneous by gel electrophoresis at different ph-values, by isoelectric focusing, by dodecylsulfate electrophoresis and by ultracentrifugation. 2. the molecular weight of the native enzyme has been determined to be 180 000 by ultra-centrifugation studies, in good agreement with the value of 189 000 estimated by gel perm ...197612945
transport of cyclitols by a proton symport in klebsiella aerogenes.the respiration and the atp content of klebsiella aerogenes in the presence of various inhibitors were compared to the transport of scyllo-inositol. the atpase was found to be inhibited by dicyclohexyl carbodiimide. the transport has been tested in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis. from the results obtained it is concluded that either atp or respiration can sustain the transport activity in independent manner. 2. the energy derived from the respiratory chain reactions or the atp hydrolysis results in ...197712979
bacteriological examination of sputum (author's transl).the aa., emphasizing the importance of ascertain the bronchial source of microorganisms recoverable from sputum, recommend for this purpose the use of properly collected sputum specimens and the application of washing treatment for mucopurulent materials. the aim of the present study has been to verify the effectiveness of mechanical apparatus to homogenize sputum without affecting the viability of resident microorganisms and the usefulness of prior microscopical examination to establish the rat ...197613741
study on the viscolytic activity of the sputum (author's transl).several mucolytic agents were evaluated on sputum for testing their viscolytic activity and the bacterial tollerance to each of them. proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, pepsin, papain, pancreatin), kj, and dithiothreitol (or its derivatives) were better tollerated by common respiratory pathogens (h. influenzae, d. pneumoniae, klebsiella, etc.) than other mucolytic agents, as acetil-cysteine, cisteamine-hcl, tension active substances, mercaptoethanol, and others. the dithiothreitol showed also one of ...197613742
ammonium uptake and metabolism by mitrogen fixing bacteria. ii. klebsiella pneumoniae.the primary steps of n2, ammonia and nitrate metabolism in klebsiella pneumoniae grown in a continuous culture are regulated by the kind and supply of the nitrogenous compound. cultures growing on n2 as the only nitrogen source have high activities of nitrogenase, unadenylated glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase and low levels of glutamate dehydrogenase. if small amounts of ammonium salts are added continuously, initially only part of it is absorbed by the organisms. after 2-3 h complete ...197613759
biochemical parameters of glutamine synthetase from klebsiella aerogenes.the glutamine synthetase (gs) from klebsiella aerogenes is similar to that from escherichia coli in several respects: (i) it is repressed by high levels of ammonia in the growth medium; (ii) its biosynthetic activity is greatly reduced by adenylylation; and (iii) adenylylation lowers the ph optimum and alters the response of the enzymes to various inhibitors in the gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammagt) assay. there are, however, several important differences: (i) the isoactivity point for the ade ...197714104
regulation of glna messinger ribonucleic acid synthesis in klebsiella aerogenes.we examined wild-type and mutant strains of klebsiella aerogenes for the relative amounts of ribonucleic acid (rna) hybridizing specifically to deoxyribonucleic acid from a transducing phage carrying glnak, the structural gene for glutamine synthetase. our data showed a positive correlation between the intracellular level of glutamine synthetase and the level of glna messenger rna; we were unable to detect glna messinger rna in strains devoid of glutamine synthetase protein. therefore, it is pos ...197714114
glutamine synthetase of klebsiella aerogenes: genetic and physiological properties of mutants in the adenylylation system.mutations resulting in defects in the adenylylation system of glutamine synthetase (gs) affect the expression of glna, the structural gene for gs. mutants with lesions in glnb are glutamine auxotrophs and contain repressed levels of highly adenylylated gs. glutamine-independent revertants of the glnb3 mutant have acquired an additional mutation at the glne site. the glne54 mutant is incapable of adenylylating gs and produces high levels of enzyme, even when ammonia is present in the growth mediu ...197714117
hormonal control of zinc uptake and binding in the rat dorsolateral prostate.the zinc uptake in the dorsolateral prostate of rats was studied after different hormonal manipulations. orchiectomy reduced the uptake of 65zn. administration of estradiol benzoate to orchiectomized rats doubled the 65zn uptake, a phenomenon which was not observed in orchiectomized-adrenalectomized rats. adrenalectomy in orchiectomized rats had no effect on the concentration of radioactivity beyond the castration-induced decrease. a prolactin release inhibitor, 6-methyl-8-erogelenylacetamide, r ...197715955
determination of the effective concentration of jodonal a for the disinfection of the skin and teats after milking.the bactericidal effectivity of jodonal a in 1:10, 1:5, and 1:3 solutions was tested on human skin and on the teats of cow mammary glands. the 1:3 dilution ratio proved best for three-minute exposure. jodonal a used in this concentration in 522 cows for the post-milking disinfection of teats for 10 months exerted no harmful effect on the skin of the mammary glands.197616377
devitalizing effect of jodonal a in vitro on bacteria subject to a short-term exposure.in a three-minute exposure in vitro jodonal a devitalized a culture of serological group b streptococci in a 2% concentration, staphylococcus aureus in a 16% concentration, pneumococcus in a 4.5% concentration, corynebacterium pyogenes in a 2.5% concentration, pseudomonas aeruginosa in a 3% concentration, and klebsiella pneumoniae in a 2% concentration. hence jodonal a concentrations higher than 16% should be tested for udder teat disinfection after the removal of teat cups.197616378
purification and properties of a membrane-associated, folate-binding protein from lactobacillus casei.a folate-binding protein has been solubilized from lactobacillus casei by treatment of membrane preparations with triton x-100 in the presence of 3hfolate. the protein-folate complex was purified 100-fold and recovered in a 22% yield by adsorption and elution from microgranular silica (quso g-32), followed by passage through sephadex g-150. when subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified preparations showed only a single, protein-staining band whose mole ...197716917
a microcalorimetric study of the growth of klebsiella aerogenes in simple salts/glucose media.heat output-time records or 'thermograms' produced during the aerobic growth of klebsiella aerogenes in simple salts/glucose media with growth limiting glucose concentrations of 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5 g dm-3 were obtained using a flow-microcalorimeter fitted with an aerobic cell. these traces are interpreted in terms of the recorded oxygen tension, ph, glucose concentration and bacterial population of the culture. heat output is greatest during the phase of exponential growth, indicating that here the ...197617049
significance of fecal coliform-positive klebsiella.a total of 191 klebsiella pneumoniae isolates of human clinical, bovine mastitis, and a wide variety of environmental sources were tested for fecal coliform (fc) response with the membrane filtration and most probable number techniques. twenty-seven escherichia coli cultures of human clinical and environmental origins were also tested. eighty-five percent (49/58) of known pathogenic k. pneumoniae were fc positive, compared with 16% (19/120) of the environmental strains. e. coli results indicated ...197718086
the cellulase enzyme system during growth and development of acanthamoeba castellanii (author's transl).it could be shown that extracts of growing cultures of acanthamoeba castellanii contained a cellulose degrading system. reducing sugars are split off by one component of this system at an optimum of ph 4, another enzyme changes the viscosity at an optimum of ph 6, and a third component is a beta-glucosidase with an optimum at ph 3.5. at ph 4 the cellulose degradation products are cellobiose and glucose; at ph 6 higher molecular weight oligosaccharides are produced. during the development from tr ...197718125
cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate--mediator of the action of the hormaone erythropoietin. 197718327
urease of klebsiella aerogenes: control of its synthesis by glutamine synthetase.urease was purified 24-fold from extracts of klebsiella aerogenes. the enzyme has a molecular weight of 230,000 as determined by gel filtration, is highly substrate specific, and has a km for urea of 0.7 mm. a mutant strain lacking urease was isolated; it failed to grow with urea as the sole source of nitrogen but did grow on media containing other nitrogen sources such as ammonia, histidine, or arginine. urease was present at a high level when the cells were starved for nitrogen; its synthesis ...197718438
effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, baclofen, aminooxyacetic acid, and apomorphine on dopamine turnover in corpus striatum and limbic system. 197718898
1,4-alpha-glucan phosphorylase form klebsiella pneumoniae covalently couple on porous glass.a simplified procedure for the preparation of 1,4-alpha-glucan phosphorylase from klebsiella pneumoniae is described. an 80-fold purification is achieved in two steps with an overall yield of about 50%. the specific activity of the homogeneous enzyme protein is 17.7 units/mg. compared with glycogen phosphorylase from rabbit muscle the enzyme from k. pneumoniae shows a markedly higher stability against deforming and chaotropic agents. the 1,4-alpha-glucan phosphorylase was covalently bound to por ...197719112
antimicrobial activity of human ascitic fluid. 197719339
cross-protective immunity to gram-negative bacilli: studies with core glycolipid of salmonella minnesota and antigens of streptococcus pneumoniae.two immunoprophylactic approaches to the control of infections caused by gramnegative bacilli were evaluated by study of experimental infections in animals. the core glycolipid antigen derived from the re mutant of salmonella minnesota r595 is shared by virtually all enteric bacteria, and immunization with this endotoxin protects against the hemodynamic sequelae of bacterial infection and pyrexia without enhancing intravascular clearance of bacteria. the degree of protection afforded by active a ...197719538
demonstration of cryoprecipitable immune complexes in pneumococcal pneumonia.cold-insoluble protein complexes (cryoprecipitates) can be found in the serum in a variety of infectious diseases. we studied serum cryoprecipitates isolated from three patients with pneumococcal pneumonia by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (cep) and immunofluorescent technics for the presence of immune complexes. the cryoprecipitates and supernatant serum were tested for pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (pcp) by cep at 37 c and 56 c with the appropriate controls. antibodies against pcp in the ...197719847
soterenol and related compounds: molecular modifications and changes in selectivity, affinity and efficacy at beta-adrenoreceptors in guinea-pig atria and trachea. 197720258
general principles of antimicrobial therapy.in the initial therapy of life-threatening infections in which a bacterial cause is suspected, the emphasis should be on broad antibiotic coverage in contrast to definitive therapy, which is dependent on microbial isolation and, when indicated, in vitro susceptibility tests. in severe infections, antimicrobial agents should be given parenterally, at least initially. the need for optimal dosage is emphasized. this is particularly important when aminoglycosides are administered, for there is a ten ...197720538
regulatory mutations in the klebsiella aerogenes structural gene for glutamine synthetase.glutamine synthetase could be repressed several hundredfold rather than 6- to 10-fold as previously reported. ammonia was not the primary repression signal for glutamine synthetase. repression appeared to be mediated by a high level of glutamine and probably by a high ratio of glutamine to alpha-ketoglutarate. mutations in glna (the structural gene for glutamine synthetase) were seen to fall into three phenotypic groups: glutamine auxotrophs that produced no detectable glna product; glutamine au ...197721157
autogenous regulation of the synthesis of glutamine synthetase in klebsiella aerogenes.we isolated an f' episome of escherichia coli carrying the glna+ gene from k. aerogenes and an f' episome of e. coli carrying the glna4 allele from k. aerogenes responsible for the constitutive synthesis of glutamine synthetase. complementation tests with these episomes showed that the glna4 mutation (leading to the constitutive synthesis of active glutamine synthetase) was in the gene identified by mutations glna20, glna51, and glna5 as the structural gene for glutamine synthetase. by using the ...197721158
determinants of lung bacterial clearance in mice after acute hypoxia.net lung bacterial clearance in normal mice is determined by the balance of in vivo bacterial multiplication on the one hand, and the defense mechanisms of mucociliary clearance and phagocytosis and killing by the oxygen-dependent alveolar macrophage on the other. the bactericidal function of the macrophage is the major component of the defense mechanism. the effect of acute hypoxia on the defense mechanism was studied in mice exposed to aerosols of staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, klebs ...197721603
cloning nitrogen fixing genes from klebsiella pneumoniae in vitro and the isolation of nif promoter mutants affecting glutamine synthetase regulation. 197721649
importance of the components of the woman's milk for infants in the neonatal period. 197722196
calf liver nuclear n-acetyltransferases. purification and properties of two enzymes with both spermidine acetyltransferase and histone acetyltransferase activities.calf liver contains two nuclear n-acetyltransferases which are separated by chromatography on hydroxylapatite. both acetyltransferase a and acetyltransferase b will transfer acetate from acetyl-coa to either histone or spermidine. the same protein catalyzes the reaction with both substrates; this is shown by a constant ratio of spermidine to histone activity over a 5,000-fold purification and identical heat denaturation kinetics for both spermidine and histone acetyltransferase activity with eac ...197822543
energetics of biological nitrogen fixation: determination of the ratio of formation of h2 to nh4+ catalysed by nitrogenase of klebsiella pneumoniae in vivo.nitrogen fixation (nif)-derepressed mutants of klebsiella pneumoniae consumed, under optimum conditions, 7.5 to 8.5 mol glucose per mol n2 fixed. the nitrogenase system of these mutants catalysed the production of about 1.3 mol h2 per mol n2 reduced. almost one-third of the energy as atp and reductant used by nitrogenase in vivo may be lost in h2 production, since an atp/2e ratio of approximately 4 was obtained. nitrogenase-catalysed h2 production was not substantially suppressed by increasing t ...197722579
comparative digestibility of acid detergent fiber by laboratory albino and wild polynesian rats.the effects of adding 5%, 10%, and 15% acid detergent fiber to a nonfibrous basal diet were examined in a comparative feeding study with polynesian rats (rattus exulans) and laboratory rats. digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy declined significantly in both species as fiber content increased, but averaged significantly lower in the polynesian than in the laboratory rat. fiber digestibility was not significantly affected by fiber level but was by species, wi ...197823419
a serotonergic component of neuroleptic receptors. 197723731
catabolic n2-acetylornithine 5-aminotransferase of klebsiella aerogenes: control of synthesis by induction, catabolite repression, and activation by glutamine synthetase.klebsiella aerogenes formed two n2-acetylornithine 5-aminotransferases (acoat) which were separable by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose chromatography. one acoat was repressed when the cells grew on arginine-containing medium, indicating its function in arginine biosynthesis. the second acoat was induced when arginine or ornithine was present in the medium as the sole source of carbon or nitrogen, suggesting its function in the catabolism of these compounds. the induced enzyme was purified almost to ...197824039
genetic analysis of the nitrogen fixation system in klebsiella pneumoniae.fine structure mapping of nif mutations of klebsiella pneumoniae was accomplished by means of pl-transductional crosses and the plasmid r144 drd mediated conjugations. the physical distance between nif mutations based on the percentage of co-transduction with hisd of the nif mutations was estimated. the maximal distance between two mutations was calculated about 3 kb, and the average distance between different nif mutations was about 1 to 2 kb. so no "silent region" was shown within the nif clus ...197724272
cellular distribution and some properties of 5'-nucleotidases in bacillus subtilis k. 197824621
nitrogenase synthesis in klebsiella pneumoniae: comparison of ammonium and oxygen regulation.rates of nitrogenase synthesis by klebsiella pneumoniae were measured by pulse-labelling organisms with a mixture of 14c-labelled amino acids followed by sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. populations from an nh4+-repressed, so42--limited chemostat (0.46 mg dry wt ml-1), when released from nh4+ repression, simultaneously synthesized detectable quantities of the three nitrogenase polypeptides 45 min before acetylene-reducing activity was observed. exposure of populat ...197824675
hormonal induction of enzyme functions, cyclic amp levels and aib transport in morris hepatomas and in normal liver systems. 197724990
involvement of the product of the glnf gene in the autogenous regulation of glutamine synthetase formation in klebsiella aerogenes.mutations in a site, glnf, linked by p1-mediated transduction of argg on the chromosome of klebsiella aerogenes, result in a requirement for glutamine. mutants in this gene have in all media a level of glutamine synthetase (gs) corresponding to the level found in the wild-type strain grown in the medium producing the strongest repression of gs. the adenylylation and deadenylylation of gs in glnf mutants is normal. the glutamine requirement of glnf mutants could be suppressed by mutations in the ...197825264
organic compounds. their interaction with and degradation of hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in vitro. 197826540
glutamine synthetase of klebsiella aerogenes: properties of glnd mutants lacking uridylyltransferase.the glnd mutation of klebsiella aerogenes is cotransducible by phage p1 with pan (requirement for pantothenate) and leads to a loss of uridylytransferase and uridylyl-removing enzyme, components of the glutamine synthetase adenylylation system. this defect results in an inability to deadenylylate glutamine synthetase rapidly and in a requirement for glutamine for normal growth. suppression of the glnd mutation are located at the glutamine synthetase structural gene glna.197826659
immuno-stimulation by a ribosomal vaccine associated with a bacterial cell wall adjuvant in humans.we have studied a new vaccine of ribosomal nature associated with glycoprotein cell walls from klebsiella pneumoniae which served as an immunoadjuvant. thus vaccine was administered by the aerosol route to working men free of any important disease, especially of respiratory disease. a total of 104 men working for the commissariat à l'energie atomique, all volunteers, were randomly placed into two groups. during the first period, 51 patients (group i) were vaccinated three times a week during 5 w ...197827461
the effect of complement depletion on lung clearance of bacteria.we have investigated the effect of hypocomplementemia on early pulmonary clearance of four species of bacteria. the experiments were performed in an inbred animal model to minimize immunologic variability. complement was depleted by cobra venom factor, and activity in serum was monitored with a phagocytic assay. bacterial specific antibodies were examined by an indirect radioimmunoassay, and animals with high levels of activity were excluded from anaysis. 4 h after aerosolization with streptococ ...197827534
bacteriologic flora of aspiration-induced pulmonary infections.the role of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms in the genesis of pneumonia or lung abscess in patients with historical, clinical, and radiologic findings suggestive of aspiration was compared to their role in similar patients without these findings. bacterial specimens were obtained by transtracheal aspiration or thoracentesis. anaerobes were isolated in 100% of the patients who were aspiration-prone as contrasted with only 20% of those who were not. isolation of a single species or no growth ...197528705
autolysins and shape change in roda mutants of bacillus subtilis.the biochemical phenotype of roda mutants was not affected by the simultaneous presence in double mutants of the lyt gene which makes them 90 to 95% deficient in autolysin action. the only morphological effect of this deficiency on the expression of the rod gene was that both the rod and the coccal forms of the mutant failed to separate and grew as long chains of cells. inhibition of protein synthesis stopped the increase in peptidoglycan that occurred when the growth temperature for the mutants ...197829031
electron-paramagnetic-resonance studies on the redox properties of the molybdenum-iron protein of nitrogenase between +50 and -450 mv.the midpoint potentials, em, for the oxidation of the characteristic e.p.r. signal with g values near 4.3, 3.7 and 2.01, of the nitrogenase mo-fe proteins from a number of bacteria were measured. they were 0mv for clostridium pasteurianum, -42mv for azotobacter chroococcum and azotobacter vinelandii, -95mv for bacillus polymyxa and -180mv for klebsiella pneumoniae mo-fe proteins at ph 7.9. the oxidations were thermodynamically reversible for the proteins from a. chroococcum, a. vinelandii and k. ...197830448
cyclic pharyngeal lymphoiditis: immunological considerations.this communication presents the concept that recurrent infections of the lingual tonsils, lateral pharyngeal lymphoid bands and lymphoid follicles on the posterior pharyngeal wall, occurring with the same periodicity, is a cyclic clinical and immunological entity. these patients lacked resistance to the normal flora of the nasopharynx and pharynx. they were accordingly treated with a mixed respiratory bacterial vaccine, administered intradermally and according to a formulated program, to improve ...197831128
[bacterial allergy in asthmatic syndromes]. 197631959
a d-serine dehydratase acting also on l-serine from klebsiella pneumoniae.d-serine dehydratase [ec 4.2.1.14] was purified from a strain of klebsiella pneumoniae 140-fold from crude extract with a yield of 5%. this enzyme catalyzed formation of pyruvate and ammonia not only from d-serine but also from l-serine, and also catalyzed the formation of alpha-ketobutyrate and ammonia from d-threonine. km values for d-serine, l-serine, and d-threonine were 2.8 mm, 20 mm, and 3.6 mm, respectively. km for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was 2.5 micron. the molecular weight was estimated ...197832169
a comparison of the size distribution of collagen fibrils in connective tissues as a function of age and a possible relation between fibril size distribution and mechanical properties. 197833395
bacterial allergy in allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma.nineteen patients suffering from allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma were studied for bacterial allergy with staphylococcus aureus, kelbsiella pneumoniae and diplococcus pneumoniae. allergy skin tests, provocative tests and the migratory inhibition factor were employed. the correlation indicates to the authors that bacterial allergy is more important than bacterial "infection" as a cause of allergic rhinitis and asthma in many instances. this is often overlooked by practicing allergists.197933586
reactivity of the imino acids formed in the amino acid oxidase reaction.the reactivity of the imino acids formed in the d- or l-amino acid oxidase reaction was studied. it was found that: (1) when imino acids reacted with the alpha-amino group of glycine or other amino acids, transimination yielded derivatives less stable to hydrolysis than the parent imino acids. in contrast, when imino acids reacted with the epsilon-amino group of lysine or other primary amines, transimination yielded derivatives more stable to hydrolysis than the parent imino acids. (2) imino aci ...197933698
laboratory studies with bl-s 578 (cefadroxil) a new broad-spectrum orally active cephalosporin.bl-s 578 (cefadroxil) is a new orally active semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. the new compound was evaluated in vitro in comparison with cephalexin. some properties studies such as, antibacterial activity, binding with serum proteins and stability in acid and neutral solution at 37 degrees c for both cephalosporins were similar. in experimental infections of mice, the protective action of bl-s 578 was more effective than cephalexin against staphy ...197933784
studies on some metalloenzymes in aqueous/organic solvents at subzero temperatures [proceedings]. 197833858
glutamine synthetase regulation, adenylylation state, and strain specificity analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.we used polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to examine the regulation and adenylylation states of glutamine synthetases (gss) from escherichia coli (gs(e)) and klebsiella aerogenes (gs(k)). in gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds), we found that gs(k) had a mobility which differed significantly from that of gs(e). in addition, for both gs(k) and gs(e), adenylylated subunits (gs(k)-adenosine 5'-monophosphate [amp] and gs(e)-amp) had lesser mobilities in sds gels than did the corresponding n ...197933958
peptidoglycan synthesis in cocci and rods of a ph-dependent, morphologically conditional mutant of klebsiella pneumoniae.mir m7 is a spontaneous morphologically conditional mutant of klebsiella pneumoniae which grows as round cells (cocci) at ph 7 and as normal rods at ph 5.8. we studied the rates of peptidoglycan synthesis of cocci and rods growing at ph values of 7 and 5.8, respectively. it was found that exponentially growing cocci produced a reduced amount of peptidoglycan per cell, compared with rods. moreover, a shift of cocci to the permissive ph (5.8) caused an increase in the rate of peptidoglycan synthes ...197933960
nomenclature of graft-versus-host disease in popliteal lymph node. 197934907
serum opsonic deficiency produced by streptococcus pneumoniae and by capsular polysaccharide antigens.the opsonic requirements for phagocytosis of s. pneumoniae types 6, 7, 18, and 23 were determined in normal and c2 deficient serum, and in normal serum chelated with magnesium ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid. all four strains were effectively opsonized via the alternative complement pathway, a finding suggesting that the capsular polysaccharides of these strains activated complement via the alternative pathway. since bacteremic pneumococcal disease is often associated with circulating capsular po ...197834937
enzymes of agmatine degradation and the control of their synthesis in klebsiella aerogenes.the degradation of agmatine to succinate by klebsiella aerogenes occurs in five steps. the enzyme catalyzing the first step, agmatinase, is induced by agmatine. the enzymes catalyzing the second and third steps, putrescine aminotransferase and 4-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, are induced by putrescine and also by their product, 4-aminobutyrate. the enzymes catalyzing the fourth and fifth steps, 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, are induced by 4-aminobu ...197935512
relation between the adenylylation state of glutamine synthetase and the expression of other genes involved in nitrogen metabolism.we have partially characterized the biochemical parameters of glutamine synthetase from klebsiella pneumoniae and have shown that the differential affinity of adenylylated and unadenylylated glutamine synthetase for adenosine diphosphate provides a convenient means of determining the adenylylation state. using this assay procedure, we examined the relationship between the adenylylation state and the expression of other genes involved in nitrogen assimilation. we observed no correlation between t ...197935515
intradermal responses to common bacterial antigens: influences of sex and clinical condition.intradermal responses to antigens of 12 common bacteria were evaluated in 218 dermatologic and 155 respiratory patients. women responded more frequently than men and respiratory patients responded significantly more frequently than dermatologic patients to certain antigens. interpretation of interspecies associations of responses suggested that certain organisms may be key species in the development of bacterial hypersensitivity.197937788
ps-5, a new beta-lactam antibiotic. ii. antimicrobial activity.ps-5, a new beta-lactam antibiotic, has relatively potent antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, especially the enterobacter groups, serratia marcescens, the proteus groups and klebsiella pneumoniae. the activity of ps-5 against many beta-lactamase-producing organisms is greater than that of cefoxitin or cefazolin. ps-5 has good therapeutic activity in mice infected with staphylococcus aureus smith or enterobacter cloacae 45.197938238
detection of experimental bacteremia and fungemia by examination of buffy coat prepared by a micromethod.rabbits received intravenous injections of bacteria or fungi, and a comparison was made of the abilities of broth cultures, plating after dilution either in saline solution or in distilled water containing triton x-100, and buffy coat examinations to detect the organisms in heart blood. the most sensitive method was broth culture. by microscopy or subculture of buffy coat cells prepared by centrifugation of blood in microhematocrit tubes, organisms were rapidly and regularly detected when their ...197938662
the role of bacterial interference in the increased prevalence of oropharyngeal gram-negative bacilli among alcoholics and diabetics.the oral flora of alcoholics, diabetics, and normal control subjects were compared using an agar overlay technique to determine whether the increased prevalence of oropharyngeal gram-negative bacilli among alcoholics and diabetics exists because patients with these diseases have decreased numbers of normal inhibitory bacteria in the oropharynx. alcoholics generally had slightly lower concentrations of inhibitory bacteria than control subjects, and diabetics had somewhat higher concentrations tha ...197939482
evidence for pili-mediated adherence of klebsiella pneumoniae to rat bladder epithelial cells in vitro.the possible role of pili in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections caused by klebsiella pneumoniae was studied in an in vitro mixture of a phosphate-buffered saline suspension of rat bladder epithelial cells and phosphate-buffered saline-washed k. pneumoniae. nonpiliated and piliated populations derived from a single k. pneumoniae strain were obtained by controlling the total time of growth in broth medium. the piliated phase demonstrated a significant increase in adherence when compared ...197939895
the interaction between microorganisms and their growth environment [proceedings]. 197940531
glutamine synthetase mutations which affect expression of nitrogen fixation genes in klebsiella pneumoniae.previous studies have implicated glutamine synthetase (l-glutamate:ammonia ligase [adenosine diphosphate for-ing], ec 6.6.1.2) as a major controlling element of the nitrogen fixation (nif) genes in klebsiella pneumoniae. we report here the isolation of a new class of k. pneumoniae mutants which exhibit altered patterns of nif and hut (histidine utlization) regulation. the expression of nif in these mutants, which were isolated as gln+ (glutamine nonrequiring) revertants of a particular glna muta ...197940960
interferon and cytotoxic factor (cytotoxin) released in the blood of mice infected with mycobacterium bovis bcg. i. enhanced production of interferon and appearance of cytotoxin stimulated by capsular polysaccharide of klebsiella pneumoniae or bacterial lipopolysaccharide.interferon production stimulated by the active substance (neutral fraction) of the capsular polysaccharide of klebsiella pneumoniae (neutral cps-k) in bcg-infected mice was compared with that by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (lps). prior infection with bcg increased the responsiveness of mice to the lethal effect of neutral cps-k as well as to that of lps. associated with this, bcg-infected mice showed a markedly enhanced ability to produce interferon after stimulation not only by lps but also by ...197941163
evolution of enzyme structure.three-dimensional structures of enzymes offer evidence about their evolution. there are clear examples of divergent families (e.g. mammalian serine proteases) and convergence (e.g. chymotrypsin and subtilisin). topological similarities in dehydrogenases may reflect an ancient divergence or merely chemical constraints on protein architectures. further experimental evidence is desirable to back up arguments based on molecular morphology. by growing microorganisms on novel foodstuffs in a chemostat ...197942054
antigenic variation in klebsiella.the serological reactions of klebsiella strains repeatedly isolated from four patients were examined. variations in capsular antigens of strains from the same patient were mainly restricted to slight changes in the titre of quellung reactions and occasionally differences in cross-reactions were noted. in one case a strain reacted more strongly with a heterologous antiserum than with homologous antiserum after it had been resident in the bowel of a patient for five weeks. no significant antigenic ...197944943
incompatibility of r plasmids from clinical material.thirteen r plasmids derived from strains of e enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical material have been characterized. they belonged to many incompatibility groups and differ widely respecting other phenotypic characteristics, even if they come from bacteria isolated from a small geographic area.197944944
fine structure and distribution of extracellular polymer surrounding selected aerobic bacteria.the structure and distribution of extracellular polymer surrounding bacillus circulans, diplococcus (streptococcus) pneumoniae, streptococcus salivarius, staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, herella vaginacola (acinetobacter calcoaceticus), and agrobacterium tumefaciens were studied by electron microscopy. a modified ruthenium red staining procedure was used to examine the fine structure of capsule and slime. freeze-etching and critical-point drying were used to ...197546774
letter: in-vitro minocycline activity against tetracycline-resistant staphylococcus aureus. 197547049
letter: sex-chromosome loss in human tumours. 197547450
release of proteolytic enzymes in bile-induced pancreatitis in dogs.pancreatitis was induced by injection of autologous bile into the main pancreatic duct of dogs. an initial fall in blood pressure was accompanied by appearance of large quantities of active trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase in pancreatic exudate with full saturation of protease inhibitors. the enzymes soon appeared in ascitic fluid and lymph, but only in the form of complexes with alpha1-antitrypsin, and alpha2-macroglobulin. no such complexes were detected in venous blood indicating short hal ...197550958
[bacteriological studies of butirosin sulfate, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic (author's transl)]. 197551941
cell-mediated immune response in mice treated with steroidal contraceptives.the splenomegaly assay (simonsen, 1962) was standardized using different strains of rats and mice. male wistar rat (donor)-female swiss mouse (host) was found to be the suitable combination that could be employed in subsequent experiments to study the potential of contraceptive steroids to alter cmir. the index of splenomegaly appeared to increase in case of mice treated with combination oral contraceptives (ovulen, ovral or enovid). the differences observed, however, neared significance only in ...197555327
cellular aspects of non-specific stimulation of antibody production by capsular polysaccharide of klebsiella pneumoniae. 197657096
a serial study of pregnancy proteins in primigravidae.the plasma concentrations from four 'pregnancy proteins' and three steroid hormones have been measured throughout pregnancy in 15 primigravidae. two of the proteins, human placental lactogen (hpl) and pregnancy-specific beta1-glycoprotein (psbetag), are specific for pregnancy and correlate well with the stage of gestation. it is suggested that measurement of psbetag may be useful in assessing feto-placental wellbeing. neither of the pregnancy-associated proteins, steriod-binding beta-globulin (s ...197657799
current questions on the tumour-associated antigens of chemically-induced tumours ii. in search of practical uses.with special reference to tumours which were chemically-induced in animals, we present a brief review on the applicability of the results obtained, as to immunoprophylaxis and to immunotherapy. a search is made onto what are the mostly representative animal models for human studies. from the present available data, experimental chemically-induced bladder and colonic tumours seem to be the "best" models for human counterparts.197657809
the contribution of plasma protease inhibitors to antiplasmin activity in man.1. human plasma contains a variety of proteins that are capable of inhibiting plasmin activity. whole plasma possesses 'rapid' and 'progressive' plasmin-neutralizing activity: this study assesses the contribution of individual protease inhibitors to this plasmin-neutralizing property of plasma. 2. rapid and progressive antiplasmin activities of human plasma correlate with alpha2-macroglobulin and alpha1-antitrypsin concentrations respectively. 3. fluctuations in the amounts of the other measured ...197660190
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