PMID(sorted descending)
human salivary protein histatin 5 has potent bactericidal activity against eskape pathogens.eskape (enterococcus faecium, staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella pneumoniae, acinetobacter baumanni, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and enterobacter species) pathogens have characteristic multiple-drug resistance and cause an increasing number of nosocomial infections worldwide. peptide-based therapeutics to treat eskape infections might be an alternative to conventional antibiotics. histatin 5 (hst 5) is a salivary cationic histidine-rich peptide produced only in humans and higher primates. it has high ...201728261570
carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazine (cccp) reverses resistance to colistin, but not to carbapenems and tigecycline in multidrug-resistant enterobacteriaceae.background: carbapenems (car), colistin (cst), and tigecycline (tgc) alone or in combination therapy has become the last-resort antibiotics for treating infections caused by multidrug resistant (mdr) bacteria. however, resistance to these reserve antibiotics are increasingly being reported worldwide. hence, the quest to find other agents that will synergistically restore the efficacy of these antibiotics have increased. methods: sixty-three clinical enterobacteriaceae isolates comprising of kleb ...201728261184
aberrant th2 inflammation drives dysfunction of alveolar macrophages and susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia.the ubiquitin ligase, itch, is required to prevent autoinflammatory disease in mice and humans. itch-deficient mice develop lethal pulmonary inflammation characterized by the production of th2 cytokines (for example, interleukin-4 (il-4)); however, the contribution of itch to immune defense against respiratory pathogens has not been determined. we found that itch-deficient mice were highly susceptible to intranasal infection with the respiratory pathogen klebsiella pneumoniae. infected itch-defi ...201728260794
does second place count? lessons from a major discrepancy between carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae and carbapenem-resistant enterobacter cloacae in a one-year follow-up study. 201728260534
microbiological aspects of fournier's gangrene.fournier's gangrene (fg) is a devastating disease that is characterized by necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal region. broad-spectrum antibiotics are the key component of its treatment. however, there is paucity of data regarding the optimal empirical antibiotherapy for fg.201728257985
long-term outbreak of klebsiella pneumoniae& third generation cephalosporin use in a neonatal intensive care unit in north india.the indiscriminate use of third generation cephalosporin has contributed to the emergence and widespread dissemination of extended spectrum β lactamases (esbl) genes in klebsiella pneumoniae. this study was undertaken to elaborate the genetic behaviour of esbl - producing k. pneumoniae isolates in the neonatal intensive care unit (nicu) of a tertiary care hospital in north india causing successive outbreaks in context with empirical third generation cephalosporin use.201628256474
surveillance culture for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: performance in liver transplant recipients.the prevalence of infection with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (mdr-gnb) after solid-organ transplantation is increasing. surveillance culture (sc) seems to be an important tool for mdr-gnb control. the goal of this study was to analyze the performance of sc for mdr-gnb among liver transplant (lt) recipients.201728254253
epidemiological surveillance of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria in a solid organ transplantation department.we assessed the impact of intensified infection control measures (icm) on colonization and infection caused by carbapenem-resistant (cr) klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and acinetobacter baumannii in a solid organ transplantation (sot) department.201728251730
[five-year analysis of microbial landscape of transplantation and dialysis center (20112015)].treatment of bacterial infections is pressing and difficult task of modern transplantology.201628247627
new mouse model for chronic infections by gram-negative bacteria enabling the study of anti-infective efficacy and host-microbe interactions.only a few, relatively cumbersome animal models enable long-term gram-negative bacterial infections that mimic human situations, where untreated infections can last for weeks. here, we describe a simple murine cutaneous abscess model that enables chronic or progressive infections, depending on the subcutaneously injected bacterial strain. in this model, pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis epidemic isolate lesb58 caused localized high-density skin and soft tissue infections and necrotic skin l ...201728246361
plasmid interference for curing antibiotic resistance plasmids in vivo.antibiotic resistance increases the likelihood of death from infection by common pathogens such as escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae in developed and developing countries alike. most important modern antibiotic resistance genes spread between such species on self-transmissible (conjugative) plasmids. these plasmids are traditionally grouped on the basis of replicon incompatibility (inc), which prevents coexistence of related plasmids in the same cell. these plasmids also use post-segreg ...201728245276
very high prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae in bacteriemic patients hospitalized in teaching hospitals in bamako, mali.the worldwide dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae, (esbl-e) and their subset producing carbapenemases (cpe), is alarming. limited data on the prevalence of such strains in infections from patients from sub-saharan africa are currently available. we determined, here, the prevalence of esbl-e/cpe in bacteriemic patients in two teaching hospitals from bamako (mali), which are at the top of the health care pyramid in the country. during one year, all entero ...201728245252
fluorescence high-throughput screening for inhibitors of tonb action.gram (-) bacteria acquire ferric siderophores through tonb-dependent outer membrane transporters (tbdt). by fluorescence spectroscopic high-throughput screening (flhts) we identified inhibitors of tonb-dependent ferric enterobactin (feent) uptake through e. coli fepa (ecofepa). among 165 inhibitors found in a primary screen of 17,441 compounds, we evaluated 20 in secondary tests: tonb-dependent ferric siderophore uptake and colicin killing; proton-motive force-dependent lactose transport. 6 of 2 ...201728242720
in vitro selection of meropenem resistance among ceftazidime-avibactam resistant, meropenem susceptible klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with variant kpc-3 carbapenemases.ceftazidime-avibactam resistance is mediated by blakpc-3 mutations, which restore carbapenem susceptibility. we subjected blakpc-3 mutant (n=5) and wild-type (n=2) k. pneumoniae isolates to serial meropenem passage. meropenem mics against all isolates increased. ompk36 porin mutations evolved in 5 isolates, including those with wild-type blakpc-3 in different passage lineages, blakpc-3 mutations reverted to wild-type, were replaced by new mutations, or were retained. carbapenem treatment of ceft ...201728242667
molecular epidemiology of colistin-resistant, carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae, serbia, 2013-2016.twenty-seven colistin-resistant, carbapenemase-producing k. pneumoniae isolates were identified from hospitals in serbia. all isolates were blactx-m-15 positive; st101, st888, st437, st336 and st307 were blaoxa-48 and st340 was blandm-1 positive. st307 had insertion and st336 premature stop codon in the mgrb gene. amino acid substitutions were detected in pmrab of st101, st888, st336 and st307. the mcr-1 and mcr-2 were not detected. increase in the phop, phoq and pmrk genes transcription was det ...201728242665
effect of prior receipt of antibiotics on the pathogen distribution and antibiotic resistance profile of key gram-negative pathogens among patients with hospital-onset urinary tract infections.this retrospective cohort study characterized the impact of prior antibiotic exposure on distribution and nonsusceptibility profiles of gram-negative pathogens causing hospital-onset urinary tract infections (uti).201728241755
simultaneous detection of nine key bacterial respiratory pathogens using luminex xtag(®) technology.early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to the outcome of lower respiratory tract infections (lrtis). in this study, we developed an assay combining multiplex pcr and luminex technology (mplt) for the detection of nine important respiratory bacterial pathogens, which frequently cause lrtis. these were streptococcus pneumoniae, moraxella catarrhalis, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogenes, haemophilus influenzae, mycoplasma pneumoniae, legionella spp., pseudomonas aeruginosa, and klebsie ...201728241513
inhibition of klebsiella pneumoniae growth by selected australian plants: natural approaches for the prevention and management of ankylosing spondylitis.a wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional australian medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune inflammatory diseases. one hundred and six extracts from 40 native australian plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation and/or to inhibit bacterial growth were investigated for their ability to inhibit the growth of a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (k. pneumoniae). eighty-six of the extracts (81.1%) inhibited the growth of k. p ...201728239782
correlation of bacterial isolates from middle ear and nasopharynx in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media in ilorin, determine the association between isolates in the middle ear (me) and nasopharynx of patients with chronic otitis media in ilorin, north-central nigeria.201528239265
the multidrug-resistant gram-negative superbugs threat require intelligent use of the last weapon.the global emergence and dissemination of multidrug-resistant gram-negative superbugs, particularly carbapenem-resistant acinetobacter baumannii and klebsiella pneumoniae, lead to the limited effectiveness of antibiotics for treating nosocomial infections. in most cases, polymyxins are the last resort therapy, and these antibiotics must be used intelligently to prolong their efficacy in clinical practice. polymyxin b and colistin (polymyxin e) were introduced prior to modern drug regulation, and ...201528239263
prevalence and characteristics of pks genotoxin gene cluster-positive clinical klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in taiwan.the pks gene cluster encodes enzymes responsible for the synthesis of colibactin, a genotoxin that has been shown to induce dna damage and contribute to increased virulence. the present study investigated the prevalence of pks in clinical k. pneumoniae isolates from a national surveillance program in taiwan, and identified microbiological and molecular factors associated with pks-carriage. the pks gene cluster was detected in 67 (16.7%) of 400 isolates from various specimen types. multivariate a ...201728233784
the risk factors, etiology, and drug resistance of infection after plastic surgery, and corresponding measures.explore the risk factors, etiology, and drug resistance of infection after plastic surgery, and present corresponding measures.201728233479
genome sequence of klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophage pmbt1 isolated from raw sewage.a bacteriophage virulent for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing klebsiella pneumoniae strain 182 was isolated from sewage. the double-stranded dna (dsdna) genome showed high similarity to the genomes of other klebsiella pneumoniae phages. it comprises 175,206 bp with a mol% g+c content of 41.9 and contains 276 putative open reading frames (orfs) and one trna.201728232430
increasing resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, and carbapenem in gram-negative bacilli and the emergence of carbapenem non-susceptibility in klebsiella pneumoniae: analysis of korean antimicrobial resistance monitoring system (karms) data from 2013 to 2015.national surveillance of antimicrobial resistance becomes more important for the control of antimicrobial resistance and determination of treatment guidelines. we analyzed korean antimicrobial resistance monitoring system (karms) data collected from 2013 to 2015.201728224769
can contaminated water be rendered safe for nasal saline irrigations?to compare sterile water to three methods of sterilization (carbon filtration, boiling, and ultraviolet [uv] light) for preparation of nasal saline irrigants free of bacterial and amebic contaminants.201728224696
biogenic nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity and their synergistic effect with broad spectrum antibiotics: emerging strategy to combat drug resistant pathogens.the present study emphasizes on synthesis of bimetallic silver-gold nanoparticles from cell free supernatant of pseudomonas veronii strain as41g inhabiting annona squamosa l. the synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using hyphenated techniques with uv-visible spectra ascertained absorbance peak between 400 and 800 nm. possible interaction of biomolecules in mediating and stabilization of nanoparticles was depicted with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ftir). x-ray diffraction (xr ...201728223861
evolution and epidemiology of multidrug-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae in the united kingdom and ireland.klebsiella pneumoniae is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that has become a leading causative agent of hospital-based infections over the past few decades. the emergence and global expansion of hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant (mdr) clones of k. pneumoniae have been increasingly reported in community-acquired and nosocomial infections. despite this, the population genomics and epidemiology of mdr k. pneumoniae at the national level are still poorly understood. to obtain insights ...201728223459
mutations in blakpc-3 that confer ceftazidime-avibactam resistance encode novel kpc-3 variants that function as extended-spectrum β-lactamases.we identified four blakpc-3 mutations in ceftazidime-avibactam resistant clinical klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, corresponding to d179y, t243m, d179y/t243m, and el165 kpc-3 variants. using site-directed mutagenesis and transforming vectors into escherichia coli, we conclusively demonstrated that mutant blakpc-3 encoded enzymes that functioned as extended-spectrum β-lactamases; mutations directly conferred higher mics of ceftazidime-avibactam mics, and decreased mics of carbapenems and other β-l ...201728223379
recurring septic shock in a patient with blunt abdominal and pelvic trauma: how mandatory is source control surgery?: a case critically ill patients with colonization/infection of multidrug-resistant organisms, source control surgery is one of the major determinants of clinical success. in more complex cases, the use of different tools for sepsis management may allow survival until complete source control.201728222811
characterisation of the first kpc-2-producing klebsiella pneumoniae st340 from peru.the aim of this study was to characterise a kpc-carrying klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from a peruvian hospital setting.201728219824
proteomic analysis of a carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae strain in response to meropenem stress.antibiotic resistance has become a major problem in treating bacterial infections. the aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of meropenem on a blakpc-2-harbouring multidrug-resistant clinical strain of klebsiella pneumoniae through a proteomics approach in order to attain a deeper understanding of bacterial resistance strategies.201728219823
phytochemical screening and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the indigenous medicinal plant albizia odoratissima.albizia odoratissima (l. f.) benth has been used in indian folk medicine to treat numerous inflammatory pathologies, such as leprosy, ulcers, burns and asthma.201728219296
a combination of mutational and computational scanning guides the design of an artificial ligand-binding controlled lipase.allostery, i.e. the control of enzyme activity by a small molecule at a location distant from the enzyme's active site, represents a mechanism essential for sustaining life. the rational design of allostery is a non-trivial task but can be achieved by fusion of a sensory domain, which responds to environmental stimuli with a change in its structure. hereby, the site of domain fusion is difficult to predict. we here explore the possibility to rationally engineer allostery into the naturally not a ...201728218303
prospective, randomised, controlled study evaluating early modification of oral microbiota following admission to the intensive care unit and oral hygiene with chlorhexidine.chlorhexidine (chx) is the most commonly used oral hygiene product for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (vap) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (mv). the change in dental plaque (dp) microbiota following chx use in patients under mv has not been described previously. the aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pathogenic bacteria associated with vap and the coverage of dp within the oral cavity in patients administered chx.201728216018
fecal carriage of mdros in a population of lebanese elderly: dynamics and impact on bacterial fitness.muti-drug resistant organisms (mdros) are problematic all over the world, especially in lebanon. high fecal carriage rates of mdr enterobacteriaceae were reported from lebanese nursing homes. some studies show that mdros have a fitness cost as compared to sensitive isolates. in this study, the competitive growth of mdr escherichia coli obtained from fecal samples from elderly is assessed. fecal swabs from ten elderly patients from a lebanese nursing home were obtained between june and december, ...201728215914
is surveillance for colonization of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria important in adult bone marrow transplantation units?the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli (crgnb) colonization and to analyze the risk factors associated with crgnb colonization.201728214159
double-carbapenem combination as salvage therapy for untreatable infections by kpc-2-producing klebsiella pneumoniae.we report our experience using the double-carbapenem combination as salvage therapy for patients with untreatable infections caused by kpc-2- producing klebsiella pneumoniae. a total of 27 patients in two institutions in athens, greece suffering from complicated urinary tract infections (16) with or without secondary bacteraemia (four and 12 respectively), primary (six) or catheter-related bloodstream infections (two), hap or vap (two) and external ventricular drainage infection (one) were treat ...201728210888
coexistence of blaoxa-48 and truncated blandm-1 on different plasmids in a klebsiella pneumoniae isolate in china.objectives: to describe the genetic environment, transferability, and antibiotic susceptibility of one clinical klebsiella pneumoniae isolate harboring both blaoxa-48 and blandm-1 on different plasmids from a chinese hospital. methods: the isolate was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multilocus sequence typing using etest and pcr. the plasmids harboring blaoxa-48 and blandm-1 were analyzed through conjugation experiments, s1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hyb ...201728210248
draft genome sequence of a colistin-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strain carrying the blandm-1 carbapenemase gene.klebsiella pneumoniae strain wchkp1845, recovered from the sputum of a patient with pneumonia, was resistant to colistin and carried the carbapenemase gene blandm-1 here, we report its 5.4-mb draft genome sequence, comprising 140 contigs with an average 57.33% g+c content. the genome contains 5,118 coding sequences and 88 trna genes.201728209835
approach to carbapenemase detection in klebsiella pneumoniae in routine diagnostic laboratories.resistance to carbapenems in klebsiella may be due to carbapenem hydrolysing enzymes. accurate detection of carbapenemase must be done for patient treatment and epidemiological purposes.201628208858
re: intermingled klebsiella pneumoniae populations between retail meats and human urinary tract infections. 201728208528
potassium iodide potentiates broad-spectrum antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation using is known that noncationic porphyrins such as photofrin (pf) are effective in mediating antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (apdi) of gram-positive bacteria or fungi. however, the apdi activity of pf against gram-negative bacteria is accepted to be extremely low. here we report that the nontoxic inorganic salt potassium iodide (ki) at a concentration of 100 mm when added to microbial cells (10(8)/ml) + pf (10 μm hematoporphyrin equivalent) + 415 nm light (10 j/cm(2)) can eradicate (>6 log ...201728207234
microbiological and clinical characteristics of hypermucoviscous klebsiella pneumoniae isolates associated with invasive infections in china.a distinctive syndrome caused by hypermucoviscous klebsiella pneumoniae (hmkp) including pyogenic liver abscess (pla) is now becoming a globally emerging disease. in the present study, 22.8% (84/369) of k. pneumoniae clinical isolates associated with various types of invasive infections were identified as hmkp, with 45.2% associated with pla. multivariate regression analysis showed that male patients with 41-50 years, pla, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were independent risk factors for hmk ...201728203549
potency of parenteral antimicrobials including ceftolozane/tazobactam against nosocomial respiratory tract pathogens: considerations for empiric and directed therapy.empiric therapy decisions are predicated on knowledge of both the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the probable infecting pathogen(s). the objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial distribution and phenotypic profiles of nosocomial respiratory isolates collected from multiple us hospitals and assess the clinical utility of various monotherapy and combination regimens.201728203427
cationic net charge and counter ion type as antimicrobial activity determinant factors of short get a better insight into the antimicrobial potency of short cationic lipopeptides, 35 new entities were synthesized using solid phase peptide strategy. all newly obtained lipopeptides were designed to be positively charged from +1 to +4. this was achieved by introducing basic amino acid - lysine - into the lipopeptide structure and had a hydrophobic fatty acid chain attached. lipopeptides were subjected to microbiological tests using reference strains of gram-negative bacteria: escherichia c ...201728203232
a klebsiella pneumoniae antibiotic resistance mechanism that subdues host defences and promotes virulence.klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of multidrug-resistant infections worldwide. recent studies highlight the emergence of multidrug-resistant k. pneumoniae strains which show resistance to colistin, a last-line antibiotic, arising from mutational inactivation of the mgrb regulatory gene. however, the precise molecular resistance mechanisms of mgrb-associated colistin resistance and its impact on virulence remain unclear. here, we constructed an mgrb gene k. pneumoniae mutant and perform ...201728202493
[pathogens of infections in the induction period of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and drug resistance of isolated strains].to investigate the infections occurring in the induction period of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (all), the pathogens of the infections, and drug resistance of isolated strains.201728202116
the hospital water environment as a reservoir for carbapenem-resistant organisms causing hospital-acquired infections-a systematic review of the literature.over the last 20 years there have been 32 reports of carbapenem-resistant organisms in the hospital water environment, with half of these occurring since 2010. the majority of these reports have described associated clinical outbreaks in the intensive care setting, affecting the critically ill and the immunocompromised. drains, sinks, and faucets were most frequently colonized, and pseudomonas aeruginosa the predominant organism. imipenemase (imp), klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc), and ...201728200000
oxa-48-like carbapenemases in the uk: an analysis of isolates and cases from 2007 to 2014.oxa-48-like carbapenemases have spread worldwide since 2001. we analysed patient and microbiological data for uk isolates with these enzymes as confirmed by the national reference laboratory from november 2007 to december 2014.201728199647
the secondary resistome of multidrug-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae.klebsiella pneumoniae causes severe lung and bloodstream infections that are difficult to treat due to multidrug resistance. we hypothesized that antimicrobial resistance can be reversed by targeting chromosomal non-essential genes that are not responsible for acquired resistance but essential for resistant bacteria under therapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials. conditional essentiality of individual genes to antimicrobial resistance was evaluated in an epidemic multidrug-resistant clone of ...201728198411
antibacterial effect of sevoflurane and isoflurane.multidrug resistant bacteria are increasing worldwide and therapeutic options are limited. some anaesthetics have shown antibacterial activity before. in this study, we have investigated the antibacterial effect of the halogenated anaesthetic agents sevoflurane and isoflurane against a range of resistant pathogens.201728198170
antibiotic-dependent perturbations of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing klebsiella pneumoniae proteome.extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing klebsiella pneumoniae (esbl-kp) causes life-threatening infections in susceptible and immuno-compromised individuals. because of the emergence of multidrug resistance and tolerance, it is crucial to better understand the mechanisms by which esbl-kp can adapt to antibiotic stress. the aim of this study was to provide an overview of the global proteome changes occurring in esbl-kp in response to sub-lethal concentrations of the antibiotics doxycycline (dc ...201728198105
fecal microbiota transplantation: is there a role in the eradication of carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae intestinal carriage?the authors present the case of a 66-year-old woman with four hospitalizations due to recurrent clostridium difficile infection (cdi) non responsive to vancomycin and fidaxomicin. furthermore, intestinal colonization with carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (crkp) was identified after a positive stool culture in a screening routinely performed in our center in patients recently hospitalized.201728196423
qnre1, a member of a new family of plasmid-located quinolone resistance genes originated from the chromosome of enterobacter spp.qnre1, found in a clinical klebsiella pneumoniae, resulted undetectable by pcr assays used for the six qnr families. qnre1 was located on a conjugative plasmid (ca. 185 kb) and differed from qnrb alleles by 25%. phylogenetic reconstructions of qnr genes and proteins, and analysis of the qnre1 surroundings showed that this gene belongs to a new qnr family and was likely mobilized by isecp1 from the chromosome of enterobacter spp. to plasmids of k. pneumoniae.201728193666
pharmacodynamics of finafloxacin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin in serum and urine against tem- and shv-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae isolated from patients with urinary tract infections.background: pharmacodynamics of finafloxacin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against esbl-producing enterobacteriaceae were compared. as quinolones loose activity in acidic media and in particular in urine, their activities were tested in parallel under conventional conditions and in acidic artificial urine.methods: tem- and shv-type esbl-producing e. coli and k. pneumoniae and their wild-type counterparts were exposed in a modified grasso model to serum- and urine-concentrations following oral ...201728193648
high carbapenem resistance in clinical gram-negative pathogens isolated in egypt.the emergence and spread of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria poses a serious threat to human health worldwide. currently, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying carbapenem resistance and their prevalence among gram-negative bacteria in egypt. in this study, we analyzed carbapenemase production in gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients in egypt in 2014. all isolates were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic susceptibility testing for carbapenem r ...201728191865
klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess: a case report and review of literature.klebsiella pneumoniae (k.pneumoniae) is a known cause of pyogenic liver abscess (pla) in the absence of hepatobiliary disease. in settings of hepatic infection, it has also been known to cause disseminated infections including meningitis and endopthalmitis. several groups of patients are particularly susceptible to infection, including patients with diabetes mellitus, those from southeast asia and those with the preexisting hepatobiliary disease. we present a case of k.pneumoniae pla with bacter ...201728191374
in vitro screening of an fda-approved library against eskape pathogens.bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is an increasingly serious threat to public health worldwide that requires immediate exploration and the development of novel antimicrobial compounds. drug repurposing is an inexpensive and untapped source of new antimicrobial leads, and it holds many attractive features warranting further attention for antimicrobial drug discovery. in an effort to repurpose drugs and explore new leads in the field of antimicrobial drug discovery, we performed a w ...201728190396
is continuous infusion of imipenem always the best choice?monte carlo simulations allow prediction and comparison of concentration-time profiles arising from different dosing regimens in a defined population, provided a population pharmacokinetic model has been established. the aims of this study were to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of imipenem in critically ill patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (hap) and to assess the probability of target attainment (pta) and cumulative fraction of response (cfr) using eucast data. a two-compartme ...201728189734
improvement of infection control management by routine molecular evaluation of pathogen clusters.undetected pathogen clusters can often be a source of spreading in-hospital infections. unfortunately, detection of clusters can be problematic because epidemiological connection is not always easily established. infection prevention and control (ipc) measures, however, are most effective when applied at the earliest possible stage.201728189284
functional expression and purification of recombinant hepcidin25 production in escherichia coli using sumo fusion technology.hepcidin25 is a small cysteine-rich peptide hormone known as a new class of antimicrobial peptides. the purpose of the present study was to express, purify and investigate the antibacterial properties of recombinant human hepcidin25 protein production in escherichia coli. human hepcidin25 gene was optimized and fused to a small ubiquitin-related modifier (sumo) gene for higher expression. then sumo-hepcidin25 was cloned into the pet-32a (+) vector and expressed in e. coli origami. the fusion pro ...201728188870
epithelial myeloid-differentiation factor 88 is dispensable during klebsiella pneumonia.klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia. previous studies have documented an important role for toll-like receptors (tlrs) expressed by myeloid cells in the recognition of k. pneumoniae and the initiation of a protective immune response. lung epithelial cells also express tlrs and can participate in innate immune defense. the aim of this study was to examine the role of the common tlr adaptor protein myeloid-differentiation factor (myd) 88 in lung epithelium during host defense agai ...201728187270
complement-activated vitronectin enhances the invasion of nonphagocytic cells by bacterial pathogens burkholderia and klebsiella.burkholderia pseudomallei is a serum-resistant gram-negative bacterium capable of causing disseminated infections with metastatic complications. however, its interaction with nonphagocytic cells is poorly understood. we observed that exposure of b. pseudomallei and the closely related yet avirulent b. thailandensis to human plasma increased epithelial cell invasion by >20 fold. enhanced invasion was primarily driven by a plasma factor, which required a functional complement cascade, but surprisi ...201728186697
mincle-mediated neutrophil extracellular trap formation by regulation of autophagy.neutrophil extracellular traps (nets) constitute antimicrobial function of neutrophils but have also been linked to perpetuation of inflammation. despite this evident physiological relevance, mechanistic understanding of net formation is poor. in this study, we examined the mechanism by which mincle, a c-type lectin receptor, regulates net formation.201728186242
microorganisms and heavy metals associated with atmospheric deposition in a congested urban environment of a developing country: sri lanka.the presence of bacteria and heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were investigated in kandy, sri lanka, which is a typical city in the developing world with significant traffic congestion. atmospheric deposition samples were analyzed for al, cr, mn, fe, ni, cu, zn, cd and pb which are heavy metals common to urban environments. al and fe were found in high concentrations due to the presence of natural sources, but may also be re-suspended by vehicular traffic. relatively high concentrations of ...201728185730
outbreak of kpc-2-producing enterobacteriaceae caused by clonal dissemination of klebsiella pneumoniae st307 carrying an incx3-type plasmid harboring a truncated tn4401a.over a 5-month period between the end of june and the beginning of november in 2015, a kpc-producing enterobacteriaceae outbreak occurred in a general hospital in busan, south korea, being associated with a total of 50 clinical isolates from 47 patients. multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were carried out for strain typing and whole-genome sequencing was performed to characterize the plasmids. a clonal spread of k. pneumoniae sequence type 307 (st307) carrying a self ...201728185686
trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy for patients with carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae infections: retrospective single-center case series.the objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (also known as co-trimoxazole, tmps) to treat klebsiella pneumoniae (kp)-k. pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc) infections.201728185222
draft genome sequence of a sequence type 11 klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strain carrying a blakpc-2 carbapenemase gene and an rmtb 16s rrna methylase gene.klebsiella pneumoniae strain wchkp649, recovered from a human wound, carried the carbapenemase gene blakpc-2 and 16s rrna methylase gene rmtb here, we report its 5.6-mb draft genome sequence, comprising 171 contigs with an average 57.34% g+c content. the genome contained 5,284 coding sequences and 84 trna genes.201728183754
aetiology and significance of hospital-acquired infections in infections (hais) are infections that develop in the hospital environment and can be acquired by a patient or hospital staff. they are complications that combine diverse risk factors that make an individual susceptible and are frequently caused by endogenous and exogenous bacterial agents. the most commonly studied etiological agents are bacteria and fungi, with the former representing the most common etiological agents reported to the hospital epidemiological surveillance netw ...201728182358
extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- and carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae among ethiopian children.infections by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (esbl) and carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre) are an emerging problem in children nowadays. hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of esbl- and carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae among children suspected of septicemia and urinary tract infections (utis).201728182124
metabolic diversity of the emerging pathogenic lineages of klebsiella pneumoniae.multidrug resistant and hypervirulent clones of klebsiella pneumoniae are emerging pathogens. to understand the association between genotypic and phenotypic diversity in this process, we combined genomic, phylogenomic and phenotypic analysis of a diverse set of k. pneumoniae and closely related species. these species were able to use an unusually large panel of metabolic substrates for growth, many of which were shared between all strains. we analysed the substrates used by only a fraction of th ...201728181409
synthesis and characterization of cefotaxime conjugated gold nanoparticles and their use to target drug-resistant ctx-m-producing bacterial pathogens.multidrug-resistance due to 'β lactamases having the expanded spectrum' (esbls) in members of enterobacteriaceae is a matter of continued clinical concern. ctx-m is among the most common esbls in enterobacteriaceae family. in the present study, a nanoformulation of cefotaxime was prepared using gold nanoparticles to combat drug-resistance in esbl producing strains. here, two ctx-m-15 positive cefotaxime resistant bacterial strains (i.e. one escherichia coli and one klebsiella pneumoniae strain) ...201728181300
clinical and microbiological determinants of severe and fatal outcomes in patients infected with enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase.although extended-spectrum β-lactamase (esbl)-producing enterobacteriaceae have become a worldwide public health concern, little is known regarding the clinical course of colonized or infected individuals. our objective was to characterize the determinants of fatal outcomes related to esbl-producing microorganisms at a large hospital in paris, france. in 2012-2013, all consecutive patients with clinical samples testing positive for esbl-producing enterobacteriaceae at saint-antoine hospital were ...201728181033
rediscovering the octapeptins.covering: 1975 up to the end of 2016the decline in the discovery and development of novel antibiotics has resulted in the emergence of bacteria that are resistant to almost all available antibiotics. currently, polymyxin b and e (colistin) are being used as the last-line therapy against life-threatening infections, unfortunately resistance to polymyxins in both the community and hospital setting is becoming more common. octapeptins are structurally related non-ribosomal lipopeptide antibiotics t ...201728180225
monomicrobial klebsiella pneumoniae necrotizing fasciitis with liver abscess: a case report and literature review.necrotizing fasciitis is one of the most life-threatening soft tissue infections and usually follows a major or minor trauma. published reports regarding single microorganism liver abscess caused by klebsiella pneumoniae in taiwan indicate a septic metastasis rate about 12%. although a hematogenous origin of necrotizing fasciitis from a liver abscess is rare in taiwan, it remains possible in our clinical practice.201728177973
il-36γ is a crucial proximal component of protective type-1-mediated lung mucosal immunity in gram-positive and -negative bacterial pneumonia.interleukin-36γ (il-36γ) is a member of novel il-1-like proinflammatory cytokine family that are highly expressed in epithelial tissues and several myeloid-derived cell types. little is known about the role of the il-36 family in mucosal immunity, including lung anti-bacterial responses. we used murine models of il-36γ deficiency to assess the contribution of il-36γ in the lung during experimental pneumonia. induction of il-36γ was observed in the lung in response to streptococcus pneumoniae (sp ...201728176791
synergistic activity profile of an antimicrobial peptide against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains of gram-negative bacterial pathogens.infection sustained by multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is often untreatable with the standard of care antibiotics, and the combination of anti-infective compounds often represents the only therapeutic strategy to face this major clinical treat. set-m33 is a novel antimicrobial peptide (amp) that has demonstrated in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria and has shown interesting features in preclinical evaluations. particula ...201728176481
incidence and etiology of surgical site infections among emergency postoperative patients in mbarara regional referral hospital, south western uganda.background. this prospective hospital based study was conducted to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of surgical site infection their susceptibility to among 114 emergency postoperative patients at the mbarara regional referral hospital between september 2014 and january 2015. methods. consented patients were consecutively enrolled and their preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected. follow-ups were done in the surgical outpatient clinics. woun ...201728168215
implant-associated esbl-klebsiella pneumonia producing small colony variant bone and joint infection in a healthy 40-year-old man. 201728167688
multiclonal expansion of klebsiella pneumoniae isolates producing ndm-1 in rio de janeiro, brazil.we characterized ndm-1-producing klebsiella isolates from rio de janeiro, brazil. pcr was applied for resistance and virulence determinants. the genetic context of blandm was determined by s1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and hybridization. genotyping was performed by pfge and multilocus sequence typing (mlst). most isolates carried multiple resistance genes and remained susceptible to amikacin, fosfomycin-trometamol, polymyxin b, and tigecycline. the spread of ndm-1-producing ...201728167564
importance of clonal complex 258 and incfk2-like plasmids among a global collection of klebsiella pneumoniae with blakpc.this study was designed to determine the global distribution of clonal complex (cc) 258 and incfiik2-like plasmids with blakpc among 522 global klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc)-producing k. pneumoniae isolates. cc258 (i.e., st258 [clades i and ii], st11, st340, and st512) and st147 were statistically associated with incfiik2-like kpc-containing plasmids and may possess an epidemiological advantage over isolates that harbored non-incf kpc-harboring plasmids.201728167556
global molecular epidemiology of imp-producing data on the molecular epidemiology of enterobacteriaceae with imp carbapenemases are lacking. we performed short-read (illumina) whole-genome sequencing on a global collection of 38 imp-producing clinical enterobacteriaceae (2008 to 2014). imp-producing enterobacteriaceae (7 varieties within 11 class 1 integrons) were mainly present in the south pacific and asia. specific blaimp-containing integrons (in809 with blaimp-4, in722 with blaimp-6, and in687 with blaimp-14) were circulati ...201728167555
genomic characterization of two kpc-producing klebsiella isolates collected in 1997 in new york city.klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc)-producing enterobacteriaceae have now become a global public health threat. however, the origin of this pandemic and the characterization of pre-2003 blakpc-harboring plasmids remain unknown. here we used next-generation sequencing to characterize two kpc-2-producing k. pneumoniae and kmichiganensis isolates collected from a new york city hospital in 1997. although identified in two different klebsiella species, the blakpc-2 gene was harbored by tn4401b ...201728167551
new polymyxin b dosing strategies to fortify old allies in the war against kpc-2-producing klebsiella pneumoniae.pharmacodynamics of a polymyxin b, meropenem, and rifampin triple combination were examined against klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae (kpc-kp) st258. in time-kill experiments against three kpc-kp isolates, triple combination generated 8.14, 8.19, and 8.29 log10 cfu/ml reductions within 24 h. in the hollow-fiber infection model, the triple combination caused maximal killing of 5.16 log10 cfu/ml at 78 h and the time required for regrowth was more than doubled vers ...201728167549
multicenter clinical and molecular epidemiological analysis of bacteremia due to carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre) in the cre epicenter of the united states.although the new york/new jersey (ny/nj) area is an epicenter for carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre), there are few multicenter studies of cre from this region. we characterized patients with cre bacteremia in 2013 at eight ny/nj medical centers and determined the prevalence of carbapenem resistance among enterobacteriaceae bloodstream isolates and cre resistance mechanisms, genetic backgrounds, capsular types (cps), and antimicrobial susceptibilities. of 121 patients with cre bactere ...201728167547
potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of sambucus australis.sambucus australis cham. & schltdl. (adoxaceae) is used in brazilian folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders.201728166708
aerobic microbiology and culture sensitivity of head and neck space infection of odontogenic origin.head and neck space infections source, age, gender, tooth involved, fascial spaces involved, microbiological study of aerobic flora, and antibiotic susceptibilities.201728163480
resistance to polymyxins in gram-negative organisms.polymyxins have recently been re-introduced into the therapeutic arsenal to combat infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. however, the emergence of strains resistant to these last-resort drugs is becoming a critical issue in a growing number of countries. both intrinsic and transferable mechanisms of polymyxin resistance have been characterised. these mechanisms as well as the epidemiological data regarding four relevant bacterial pathogens (escherichia coli, klebsiella ...201728163137
cold atmospheric pressure plasma elimination of clinically important single- and mixed-species biofilms.mixed-species biofilms reflect the natural environment of many pathogens in clinical settings and are highly resistant to disinfection methods. an indirect cold atmospheric-pressure air-plasma system was evaluated under two different discharge conditions for its ability to kill representative gram-positive (staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (pseudomonas aeruginosa) pathogens. plasma treatment of individual 24-h-old biofilms and mixed-species biofilms that contained additional species (ent ...201728161488
infectious disease exposures and outbreaks at a south african neonatal unit with review of neonatal outbreak epidemiology in africa.hospitalized neonates are vulnerable to infection, with pathogen exposures occurring in utero, intrapartum, and postnatally. african neonatal units are at high risk of outbreaks owing to overcrowding, understaffing, and shared equipment.201728161461
molecular epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae in a primary care hospital in japan, 2010-2013.recently, carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (cpe) have been spreading worldwide and have become a threat in healthcare systems. we investigated the isolation frequency and molecular epidemiological characteristics of cpe isolated from clinical samples collected at a primary care hospital over the four years of 2010-2013 in japan. cpe were detected in 17 (0.34%) of 4875 isolates by the broth microdilution method, sodium mercaptoacetate inhibition test, and modified hodge test using merop ...201728161293
peracute bacterial meningitis due to infection with klebsiella pneumoniae in captive-bred ruffed lemurs (varecia variegate).we describe the development of neurological signs in four juvenile black-and-white ruffed lemurs (varecia variegate), housed at a petting zoo in japan. the clinical course was severe, with three lemurs dying within 1 day of the appearance of clinical signs. the other lemur was treated and survived. pathological analyses demonstrated meningitis and the presence of gram-negative bacilli in the cerebrum, cerebellum, palatine tonsil and liver. klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the brain of all ...201728161098
factors associated with carriage of carbapenem-non-susceptible enterobacteriaceaein north-eastern france and outcomes of infected patients.carbapenems are frequently used as a last resort to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms, thus carbapenem-non-susceptible enterobacteriaceae (cnse) is an emerging health threat.201728158526
determining β-lactam exposure threshold to suppress resistance development in gram-negative bacteria.β-lactams are commonly used for nosocomial infections and resistance to these agents among gram-negative bacteria is increasing rapidly. optimized dosing is expected to reduce the likelihood of resistance development during antimicrobial therapy, but the target for clinical dose adjustment is not well established. we examined the likelihood that various dosing exposures would suppress resistance development in an in vitro hollow-fibre infection model.201728158470
prevalence of 16s rrna methylase genes among β-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates in saudi arabia.background co production of 16s rrna methylases gene and β-lactamase gene among enterobacteriaceae isolates conferring resistance to both therapeutic options has serious implications for clinicians worldwide. methods to study co existence of 16s rrna methylases (arma, rmta, rmtb, rmtc, rmtd, and npma) and β-lactamase (blatem-1, blashv-12, blactx-m-14) genes, we screened all phenotypic positive β-lactamase producing enterobacteriaceae by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting above genes. a to ...201428156269
comparative analysis of crispr-cas systems in klebsiella genomes.prokaryotic crispr-cas system provides adaptive immunity against invasive genetic elements. bacteria of the genus klebsiella are important nosocomial opportunistic pathogens. however, information of crispr-cas system in klebsiella remains largely unknown. here, we analyzed the crispr-cas systems of 68 complete genomes of klebsiella representing four species. all the elements for crispr-cas system (cas genes, repeats, leader sequences, and pams) were characterized. besides the typical type i-e an ...201728156004
the effect of selective d- or n(α)-methyl arginine substitution on the activity of the proline-rich antimicrobial peptide, vivo pharmacokinetics studies have shown that the proline-rich antimicrobial peptide, a3-apo, which is a discontinuous dimer of the peptide, chex1-arg20, undergoes degradation to small fragments at positions pro6-arg7 and val19-arg20. with the aim of minimizing or abolishing this degradation, a series of chex1-arg20 analogs were prepared via fmoc/tbu solid phase peptide synthesis with d-arginine or, in some cases, peptide backbone n(α)-methylated arginine, substitution at these sites. all the ...201728154813
bacterial meningitis caused by hypervirulent klebsiella pneumoniae capsular genotype k54 with development of granuloma-like nodal enhancement in the brain during the subacute phase.a 72-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department due to coma. the cerebrospinal fluid cell count was 40,080 cells/μl, and klebsiella pneumoniae was detected on culture. stretching the bacterial colonies on an agar plate showed the formation of a viscous string with a length exceeding 5 mm, indicating hypervirulent k. pneumoniae (hv-kp). a genome analysis suggested hv-kp capsular genotype k54 with sequence type 29. although no brain abscess was detected on contrast-enhanced computed tom ...201728154286
draft genome sequence of klebsiella pneumoniae, we report the draft genome sequence of klebsiella pneumoniae strain awd5, isolated from an automobile workshop in india. the de novo assembly resulted in a 4,807,409 bp genome containing 25 rrna genes, 81 trnas, and 4,636 coding sequences (cds). it carries important genes for polyaromatic hydrocarbon degradation and benzoate degradation.201728153891
first report on a cluster of colistin-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from a tertiary care center in india: whole-genome shotgun sequencing.klebsiella pneumoniae is a nosocomial pathogen with clinical importance due to its increasing resistance to carbapenems and colistin. here, we report the genome sequences of eight colistin-resistant k. pneumoniae strains which might help in understanding the molecular mechanism of the species. the sequence data indicate genomes of ~5.2 to 5.4 mb, along with several plasmids.201728153885
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