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clonal dissemination of oxa-232 carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae in neonates.five oxa-232 carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, belonging to the pandemic clone sequence type 15 (st15), were isolated from neonates and coproduced blactx-m-15 and blashv-1 genes. all isolates were resistant to ertapenem (mics of >32 μg/ml) and meropenem (mics of 4 to 8 μg/ml) and susceptible or intermediate to imipenem (mics of 1 to 2 μg/ml). the blaoxa-232 gene was located on a cole-type transformable plasmid of 6,141 bp. to the best of our knowledge, this is the first rep ...201728533245
roles of ramr and tet(a) mutations in conferring tigecycline resistance in carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates.tigecycline is regarded as a last-resort treatment for carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (crkp) infections, but increasing numbers of tigecycline-resistant k. pneumoniae isolates have been reported. the tigecycline resistance mechanisms in crkp are undetermined. this study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying tigecycline resistance in 16 tigecycline- and carbapenem-resistant k. pneumoniae (tcrkp) isolates. mutations in tigecycline resistance determinant genes [ramr, acrr, oqxr, ...201728533243
potentiation of antibiotic activity by a novel cationic peptide: potency and spectrum of activity of spr741.novel approaches for the treatment of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections are urgently required. one approach is to potentiate the efficacy of existing antibiotics whose spectrum of activity is limited by the permeability barrier presented by the gram-negative outer membrane. cationic peptides derived from polymyxin b have been used to permeabilize the outer membrane, granting antibiotics that would otherwise be excluded access to their targets. we assessed the in vitro effica ...201728533232
antimicrobial consumption, costs and resistance patterns: a two year prospective study in a romanian intensive care unit.due to the vulnerable nature of its patients, the wide use of invasive devices and broad-spectrum antimicrobials used, the intensive care unit (icu) is often called the epicentre of infections. in the present study, we quantified the burden of hospital acquired pathology in a romanian university hospital icu, represented by antimicrobial agents consumption, costs and local resistance patterns, in order to identify multimodal interventional strategies.201728532467
effect of gnp functionalisation and multiple n-methylation of β-amyloid residue (32-37) on gram-positive bacterium.in the previous report, the authors showed the gold nanoparticle (gnp) functionalised multiple n-methylated fragments of the residue (32-37) of beta (β)-amyloid protein (1-42), cggiglmvg and cgggggiglmvg toward disruption of β-amyloid (1-42), the predominant component of senile plaques. herein the in vitro antimicrobial activities of both normal and multiple n-methylated sequences of cggiglmvg and cgggggiglmvg were screened and it was found that all the eight sequences including four (non-functi ...201728530185
septicemic invasive klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a cynomolgus monkey (macaca fascicularis) with severe diffused suppurative meningoencephalitis.a 2-year-old male cynomolgus monkey (macaca fascicularis) showed neurological symptoms during quarantine for importation into japan, and was euthanized due to poor prognosis. gross anatomical examination revealed a hemorrhagic lesion around the lateral ventricle in the cerebrum. histologically, severe diffused suppurative meningitis and ventriculitis were detected with numerous gram-negative bacilli in the cerebrum. immunohistochemically, the bacilli were positively stained with an antibody agai ...201728529273
environmental spread of new delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1-producing multidrug-resistant bacteria in dhaka, bangladesh.resistance to carbapenem antibiotics through the production of new delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (ndm-1) constitutes an emerging challenge in the treatment of bacterial infections. to monitor the possible source of the spread of these organisms in dhaka, bangladesh, we conducted a comparative analysis of wastewater samples from hospital-adjacent areas (har) and from community areas (com), as well as public tap water samples, for the occurrence and characteristics of ndm-1-producing bacteria. of 72 ...201728526792
first report of oxa-181 and ndm-1 from a clinical klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from nigeria. 201728526566
klebsiella pneumoniae: a major worldwide source and shuttle for antibiotic resistance.klebsiella pneumoniae is an important multidrug-resistant (mdr) pathogen affecting humans and a major source for hospital infections associated with high morbidity and mortality due to limited treatment options. we summarize the wide resistome of this pathogen, which encompasses plentiful chromosomal and plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes (args). under antibiotic selective pressure, k. pneumoniae continuously accumulates args, by de novo mutations, and via acquisition of plasmids and tr ...201728521338
genomic epidemiology of global vim-producing enterobacteriaceae.international data on the molecular epidemiology of enterobacteriaceae with vim carbapenemases are limited.201728520983
activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam against surveillance and 'problem' enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa and non-fermenters from the british isles.we assessed the activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam against consecutive isolates collected in the bsac bacteraemia surveillance from 2011 to 2015 and against 'problem' isolates sent to the uk national reference laboratory from july 2015, when routine testing began.201728520867
microbial competition in environmental nosocomial reservoirs and diffusion capacity of oxa48-klebsiella pneumoniae: potential impact on patients and possible control methods.we have found clusters of klebsiella pneumoniae with oxa48-carbepenemase cases in some hospital rooms, and decided to investigate whether bathroom siphons could be a reservoir for oxa48 bacteria, as occurs with k. oxytoca with other types of carbepenemases.201728515629
respiratory multiplex polymerase chain reaction: an important diagnostic tool in immunocompromised patients.viruses and atypical pathogens can cause significant respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients. multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mpcr) has improved the diagnostic yield of pathogens, and it is easier to identify the co-infections also. the present study was done to evaluate the performance of mpcr on bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) samples in immunocompromised patients.201728515602
outbreak of ndm-1-producing klebsiella pneumoniae in a dutch hospital, with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected occurrence in unrelated health care centers.in the netherlands, the number of cases of infection with new delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (ndm)-positive enterobacteriaceae is low. here, we report an outbreak of ndm-1-producing klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a dutch hospital with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected occurrence in other unrelated health care centers (hccs). next-generation sequencing was performed on 250 carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae isolates, including 42 ndm-positive isolates obtain ...201728515215
angiotensin-converting enzyme enhances the oxidative response and bactericidal activity of neutrophils.angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors are widely used to reduce blood pressure. here, we examined if an ace is important for the antibacterial effectiveness of neutrophils. ace knockout mice or mice treated with an ace inhibitor were more susceptible to bacterial infection by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa). in contrast, mice overexpressing ace in neutrophils (neu(ace) mice) have increased resistance to mrsa and better in vitro killing of mrsa, pseudomonas aeruginosa, ...201728515091
oral gentamicin therapy for carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae gut colonization in hematologic patients: a single center experience.the mortality for carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (kpc-kp) infection ranges from 18 to 48% depending on the type of therapy. mortality rates in hematologic patients are even higher, up to 85%. gut decontamination with oral gentamicin might be an option to avoid a subsequent kpc-kp infection in colonized patients. we treated 14 hematologic patients with oral gentamicin, 80 mg four times daily, for 7 to 25 days in order to eradicate kpc-kp from the gut, starting oral gentamicin therapy ...201728513809
biofilm is a major virulence determinant in bacterial colonization of chronic skin ulcers independently from the multidrug resistant phenotype.bacterial biofilm is a major factor in delayed wound healing and high levels of biofilm production have been repeatedly described in multidrug resistant organisms (mdros). nevertheless, a quantitative correlation between biofilm production and the profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in delayed wound healing remains to be determined. microbial identification, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm production were assessed in 135 clinical isolates from 87 patients. gram-negative bacteria were ...201728513576
selective inhibition of escherichia coli rna and dna topoisomerase i by hoechst 33258 derived mono- and bisbenzimidazoles.a series of hoechst 33258 based mono- and bisbenzimidazoles have been synthesized and their escherichia coli dna topoisomerase i inhibition, binding to b-dna duplex, and antibacterial activity has been evaluated. bisbenzimidazoles with alkynyl side chains display excellent e. coli dna topoisomerase i inhibition properties with ic50 values <5.0 μm. several bisbenzimidazoles (3, 6, 7, 8) also inhibit rna topoisomerase activity of e. coli dna topoisomerase i. bisbenzimidazoles inhibit bacterial gro ...201728513176
anti-restriction protein, klcahs, promotes dissemination of carbapenem resistance.carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae (kpc) has emerged and spread throughout the world. a retrospective analysis was performed on carbapenem-resistant k. pneumoniae isolated at our teaching hospital during the period 2009-2010, when the initial outbreak occurred. to determine the mechanism(s) that underlies the increased infectivity exhibited by kpc, multilocus sequence typing (mlst) was conducted. a series of plasmids was also extracted, sequenced and analyzed. concurrently, the comple ...201728512626
documentation of ethnomedicinal information and antimicrobial validation of thespesia populnea used by yanadi tribe of ganugapenta village, chittoor district, andhra pradesh, india.this study aimed to document the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and antimicrobial validation of thespesia populnea used by yanadi tribe of chittoor district, andhra pradesh, india.201728512597
population genomic analysis of 1,777 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, houston, texas: unexpected abundance of clonal group 307.klebsiella pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. the emergence and spread of strains resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents and documented large nosocomial outbreaks are especially concerning. to develop new therapeutic strategies for k. pneumoniae, it is imperative to understand the population genomic structure of strains causing human infections. to address this knowledge gap, we sequenced the genomes of 1,777 extended-spectrum beta-lactam ...201728512093
study on mics of tigecycline in clinical isolates of carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre) at a tertiary care centre in north india.members of family enterobacteriaceae are the most common gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical samples. those enterobacteriaceae which have acquired resistance to all β-lactams antibiotics including the carbapenems are considered as carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre). these cre isolates are often resistant to most other classes of antimicrobials as well, making their treatment a great challenge. tigecycline is one of the last resort antimicrobials against such multidrug resist ...201728511383
development of a panel of recombinase polymerase amplification assays for detection of common bacterial urinary tract infection pathogens.to develop and evaluate the performance of a panel of isothermal real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assays for detection of common bacterial urinary tract infection (uti) pathogens.201728510991
preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan from cuttlebone of sepia kobiensis (hoyle, 1885).chitosan is a commercially available derivative of chitin that has been extensively studied for its antimicrobial properties. in order to improve the water solubility and its biological activity, the chemical modification or derivatisation is attempted. in the present investigation, the chitosan prepared from the cuttlebone of sepia kobiensis was being chemically modified by reacting it with orthophosphoric acid so as to obtain phosphorylated chitosan. then the chitosan and phosphorylated chitos ...201628507912
microbiological analysis of acute infections of the nail fold on the basis of bait thread test.an acute infection of the nail fold, called paronychia, is a common clinical problem. the basis for the implementation of the treatment is the result of microbiological examination. due to the rapid and painful course of infection, usually an empirical antimicrobial treatment prior to obtaining microbiological test results is introduced.201728507488
rapid susceptibility profiling of carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae.the expanding global distribution of multi-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae demands faster antimicrobial susceptibility testing (ast) to guide antibiotic treatment. current asts rely on time-consuming differentiation of resistance and susceptibility after initial isolation of bacteria from a clinical specimen. here we describe a flow cytometry workflow to determine carbapenem susceptibility from bacterial cell characteristics in an international k. pneumoniae isolate collection (n = 48), with a r ...201728507322
colistin resistance in carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae mediated by chromosomal integration of plasmid dna.here we describe the spread of colistin resistance in clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae in medellín, colombia. among 32 isolates collected between 2012 and 2014, 24 showed genetic alterations in mgrb nineteen isolates belonged to sequence type 512 (st512) (or its single locus variant [slv]) and harbored an 8.1-kb hsdmsr insertion corresponding to iskpn25, indicating a clonal expansion of the resistant strain. the insertion region showed 100% identity to several plas ...201728507118
mcr-1 and oxa-48 in vivo acquisition in kpc-producing escherichia coli after colistin treatment.the spread of mcr-1-encoding plasmids into carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae raises concerns about the emergence of untreatable bacteria. we report the acquisition of mcr-1 in a carbapenem-resistant escherichia coli strain after a 3-week course of colistin in a patient repatriated to france from portugal. whole-genome sequencing revealed that the klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing e. coli strain acquired two plasmids, an incl oxa-48-encoding plasmid and an incx4 mcr-1-encoding p ...201728507112
efficacy and pharmacokinetics of the combination of op0595 and cefepime in a mouse model of pneumonia caused by extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae.op0595 (rg6080) is a novel diazabicyclooctane that inhibits class a and c serine beta-lactamases. although the combination of op0595 and cefepime (fep) showed good in vitro activity against extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing pathogens, the effect of the combination therapy against severe infections, such as pneumonia or bacteremia, remains unknown in vivo in this study, we investigated the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of the combination therapy of op0595 and fep in a mouse model ...201728507106
prevalence of acquired carbapenemase genes in klebsiella pneumoniae by multiplex pcr in isfahan.multi-drug resistant klebsiella pneumoniae has been considered as a serious global threat. this study was done to investigate carbapenemase producing genomes among k. pneumoniae isolates in isfahan, central iran.201728503496
a 5-day antibiotic course for treatment of intermittent catheter-associated urinary tract infection in patients with spinal cord injury.this was a retrospective monocentric study conducted at centre calvé, france, with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of a 5-day course of antibiotics for symptomatic (mild urinary tract infection, uti) or asymptomatic (abact) bacteriuria in patients with spinal cord injury on intermittent catheterization.201728503324
liposome loaded phage cocktail: enhanced therapeutic potential in resolving klebsiella pneumoniae mediated burn wound infections.klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the predominant pathogens in burn wound infections, and prevalence of multidrug resistant strains has further complicated the situation. an increased interest in phage therapy as a means of combating infection has been accruing in recent years. in order to overcome the drawbacks associated with phage therapy, the present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of liposomes as a delivery vehicle for phage in the treatment of burn wound infection.201728502784
changing trends in the aetiology, treatment and outcomes of bloodstream infection occurring in the first year after solid organ transplantation: a single-centre prospective cohort study.to analyse trends in the aetiology, treatment and outcomes of bloodstream infection (bsi) within the first year post-transplant over the last 10-year period, we prospectively recorded all episodes of bsi occurring in solid organ transplant (sot) recipients during the first year post-transplant from 2007 to 2016. trends of factors were analysed by 2-year periods. of 475 consecutive episodes of bsi, 218 occurred within a year of sot in 178 sot recipients. gram-positive bsi decreased over time (40. ...201728500792
examining the efficacy of intravenous administration of predatory bacteria in rats.the proteobacteria bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and micavibrio aeruginosavorus are obligate predators of gram-negative bacteria, and have been proposed to be used to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. the ability of predatory bacteria to reduce bacterial burden in vivo within the lungs of rats has been demonstrated, but it was unknown if predatory bacteria can attenuate systemic bacterial burden administered intravenously. in this study, we first assessed the safety of intravenous ino ...201728500337
major role of pkpqil-like plasmids in the early dissemination of kpc-type carbapenemases in the uk.klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc)-producing enterobacteriaceae were first seen in the uk in 2003 and have been increasingly reported since 2010, largely owing to an ongoing outbreak in north-west england. we examined the role of clonal spread and plasmid transmission in their emergence.201728498924
antimicrobial resistance patterns in women with positive urine culture: does menopausal status make a significant difference?aim. urinary tract infection (uti) is considered one of the most common bacterial infections in women. the aim of this study was to investigate the types of uropathogens present, as well as the degree of antimicrobial drug resistance seen among premenopausal (n = 2748) and postmenopausal (n = 1705) women with uncomplicated uti. methods. urinary samples (n = 4453) collected from women with uti were analyzed in terms of uropathogens present. these were considered as positive if bacterial growth wa ...201728497048
determining the possible etiology of hospital-acquired pneumonia using a clone library analysis in japan.obtaining precise etiological information regarding causative bacteria is important for the proper use of antimicrobials in hospital-acquired pneumonia (hap), which is associated with a high rate of mortality. the aim of this study was to comparatively investigate the bacterial diversity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) in japanese patients with hap by the clone library method using the 16s rrna gene. this study included japanese patients with hap who were treated at our hospital and refer ...201728496015
complete genome sequence of a novel multidrug-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae phage, vb_kpn_ime260.klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common clinically important opportunistic bacterial pathogen and its infection is often iatrogenic. its drug resistance poses a grave threat to public health. the genomic data reported here comprise an important resource for research on phage therapy in the control of drug-resistant bacteria.201728495757
hypervirulent klebsiella pneumoniae in california sea lions ( zalophus californianus): pathologic findings in natural infections.tissues of stranded california sea lions ( zalophus californianus) naturally infected with a hyperviruluent strain of klebsiella pneumoniae were examined by histopathology and immunohistochemistry against the k. pneumoniae k2 capsular antigen. in 7 of 8 animals, there was severe purulent bronchopneumonia, sometimes complicated by fibrinonecrotizing pleuritis with pyothorax. in affected areas of lung, large numbers of degenerate neutrophils and macrophages were admixed with rare large extracellul ...201728494709
inhibition of nitric oxide production reverses diabetes-induced kupffer cell activation and klebsiella pneumonia liver translocation.klebsiella pneumoniae (kp) is the most common pathogen of pyogenic liver abscess in east and southeast asia and diabetes mellitus (dm) is a major risk factor. the effect and mechanism of diabetes on kp liver abscess was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and akita mice (c57bl/6j-ins2akita). kp translocation to liver and plasma alaine transaminase levels were increased and liver clearance of kp was decreased in dm mice. diabetic mice exhibited overgrowth of enterococcus as well as e ...201728493939
coagulation factor xi improves host defence during murine pneumonia-derived sepsis independent of factor xii activation.bacterial pneumonia, the most common cause of sepsis, is associated with activation of coagulation. factor xi (fxi), the key component of the intrinsic pathway, can be activated via factor xii (fxii), part of the contact system, or via thrombin. to determine whether intrinsic coagulation is involved in host defence during pneumonia and whether this is dependent on fxii activation, we infected in parallel wild-type (wt), fxi knockout (ko) and fxii ko mice with two different clinically relevant pa ...201728492700
an uncommon st1224 ndm-1-producing klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the bloodstream of a leukemia patient in china.this study aimed to analyze the clinical data and characteristics of an ndm-1 (new delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1)-producing klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the bloodstream of a leukemia patient.201728490008
liver abscess caused by pannonibacter phragmitetus: case report and literature review.bacterial hepatic abscess is a common occurrence in developing countries, which is mostly caused by klebsiella pneumoniae and escherichia coli. pannonibacter phragmitetus is a gram-negative alkali-tolerant bacillus that exists in the natural environment. human infection by this bacterium is rare, with only four cases reported.201728487855
identification of d-galactan-iii as part of the lipopolysaccharide of klebsiella pneumoniae serotype o1.klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative, ubiquitous bacterium capable of causing severe nosocomial infections in individuals with impaired immune system. emerging multi-drug resistant strains of this species and particularly carbapenem-resistant strains pose an urgent threat to public health. the lipopolysaccharide (lps) o-antigen is the main surface antigen. it contributes to the virulence of this species and determines the o-serotype of k. pneumoniae isolates. among the nine main o-serotypes ...201728487676
diversity-oriented sustainable synthesis of antimicrobial spiropyrrolidine/thiapyrrolizidine oxindole derivatives: new ligands for a metallo-β-lactamase from klebsiella pneumonia.a simple, environmentally benign and highly proficient microwave assisted one-pot approach for the synthesis of antimicrobial spiropyrrolidine/thiapyrrolizidine oxindole derivatives is reported assembling two pharmacophoric moieties (1,3-indanedione and pyrrolidine/thiapyrrolizidine) in a single molecular framework via three-component 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of substituted isatin, sarcosine/1,3-thiazoles-4-carboxylic acid and knoevenagel adduct (2-cyano-3-phenyl-acrylic acid ethyl est ...201728487071
molecular characterization of carbapenem- resistant enterobacteriaceae yields increasing rates of ndm-1 carbapenemases and colistin resistance in an oxa-48- endemic area.we aimed to characterize carbapenem-resistant isolates in a tertiary hospital in istanbul, turkey, high-prevelance area for oxa-48 producers. about 76 enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates were included. carbapenemase production was detected by carbapenem inactivation method and carbapenemase genes were investigated by pcr. the clonal relationships were evaluated by ap-pcr. nineteen klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were colistin resistant. about 75 isolates yielded carbapenemase by cim. 52 oxa-48, ...201728486840
evolution and dissemination of the klebsiella pneumoniae clonal group 258 throughout israeli post-acute care hospitals, 2008-13.the kpc-producing klebsiella pneumoniae (kpc-kp) clonal group (cg) 258 has disseminated throughout israeli post-acute care hospitals (pachs). the objectives of the study were (i) to describe the evolution and (ii) to understand the dissemination modes of cg 258 in the pach system in israel.201728486697
characterization of oxa-48-like-producing enterobacteriaceae isolated from river water in algeria.the spread of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (cpe) is a significant problem for healthcare worldwide. the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cpe) in water environments in algeria are unknown. the aim of this study was to screen for the presence of cpe isolates in the soummam river in bejaia, algeria. isolates of enterobacteriaceae recovered from twelve samples of river water and showing reduced susceptibility to carbapenems were included in this study. the isolate ...201728486169
epidemiological typing of multidrug-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae, which causes paediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia in egypt.multidrug-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae is a common nosocomial pathogen that plays an important role in ventilator-associated pneumonia (vap). this study aimed to define the clonal relatedness of k. pneumoniae strains isolated from paediatric vap in addition to those isolated from environmental samples.201728485710
bacteriological trends and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates at government cancer hospital, marathwada.preventing and starting early treatment of infections in patients whose immunity system is weak due to malignancies can reduce mortality. since our hospital is a newly constructed one, this study aimed to determine microbial and antibiotic resistance patterns in clinical samples of patients with cancer at our center to start early treatment before the results of clinical tests are known.201728485357
impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme on antibiotic usage and resistance in a tertiary hospital in china.antimicrobial misuse has been commonly observed in china. this phenomenon can cause antibiotic resistance. this study was designed to evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme implemented in a tertiary hospital in china from 2011 to 2014.201728485087
detection of a ctx-m group 2 beta-lactamase gene in a klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from a tertiary care hospital, trinidad and tobago.identification of the prevalence and spread of esbl-mediated antibiotic resistance is essential especially in the hospital setting. it is for this reason, more and more studies are highlighting the importance of complementing phenotypic esbl-detection techniques with molecular techniques in order to understand the basis and extent of this form of resistance among clinically evolved bacterial populations, especially those belonging to the enterobacteriaceae family. however, in trinidad and tobago ...201728482925
assessment of herbal drugs for promising anti-candida activity.microbial infections are diverse and cause serious human diseases. candida albicans infections are serious healthcare-related infections that are complicated by its morphological switching from yeast to hyphae, resistant biofilm formation and mixed infections with bacteria. due to the increase in drug resistance to currently used antimicrobial agents and the presence of undesirable side effects, the need for safe and effective novel therapies is important. compounds derived from plants are known ...201728482836
high prevalence of multi-drug resistant klebsiella pneumoniae in a tertiary teaching hospital in western kenya.klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram negative enterobacteriaciae commonly associated with nosocomial infections. multidrug resistant strains are increasingly being reported with corresponding increase in morbidity and mortality. the study outlines the epidemiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of k. pneumonia over a 10 year period in moi teaching and referral hospital, eldoret, kenya.201628480442
from clsi to eucast guidelines in the interpretation of antimicrobial susceptibility: what is the effect in our setting?implementation of the breakpoints established in the european committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (eucast) guidelines in comparison with those of the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) means that the criteria for interpreting the susceptibility of some antimicrobials have been modified, resulting in changes in the reports of accumulated antibiotic susceptibility.201728479139
reduced nosocomial infection rate in a neonatal intensive care unit during a 4-year surveillance period.hospital-acquired infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (nicu). the aim of the study was to investigate the change of nosocomial infection rate in a nicu during a 4-year surveillance period.201728479017
saccharomyces cerevisiae from brazilian kefir-fermented milk: an in vitro evaluation of probiotic properties.the therapeutic use of probiotics for supporting the antibiotic action against gastrointestinal disorders is a current trend and emerging applications have gained popularity because of their support for various microbiological activities in digestive processes. microorganisms isolated from kefir with great probiotic properties, in addition to high resistance to harsh environmental conditions, have been widely researched. administration of probiotic yeasts offers a number of advantages, when comp ...201728478200
synthesis and characterization of mwcnt/tio2/au nanocomposite for photocatalytic and antimicrobial activity.a novel combination of titanium oxide (tio2)/gold (au)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (mwcnts) nanocomposite (nc) was synthesised by sol- gel method. mwcnt functionalisation by modified hummers method. tio2/au nanoparticles (nps) were synthesised by biological method using terminalia chebula bark extract. mwcnt/tio2/au nc samples were characterised by x-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible-diffuse reflectance spectra, microraman, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution-transmission electr ...201728476971
clinical and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae among adult inpatients in singapore.since 2010, the incidence of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre) has been increasing in singapore. we analyzed the clinical and molecular epidemiology of cre among adult inpatients in singapore.201728475792
optimization of cord blood unit sterility testing: impact of dilution, analysis delay, and inhibitory substances.different methods are used by cord blood banks to prepare samples for sterility testing. suboptimal methods can result in the release of contaminated products. in our organization, samples are prepared by diluting the final product in rpmi-1640 medium. in this work, we have compared our method with different approaches to verify whether optimization should be sought.201728474347
high burden of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre) fecal carriage at a teaching hospital: cost-effectiveness of screening in low-resource setting.infections by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (mdr-gnb) have been continuously growing and pose challenge to health institution globally. carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriacea (cre) was identified as one of the mdr-gnb which has limited treatment options and higher mortality compared to those of sensitive strains. we report an increased burden of cre fecal carriage at a hospital in the north-eastern region of malaysia.201728473912
klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia in preweaned pigs.this article has been prepared by susanna williamson and colleagues of the apha pig expert group.201728473488
disease surveillance in england and wales, april 2017.▪ current and emerging issues: update on schmallenberg virus▪ highlights from the scanning surveillance network▪ update on international disease threats▪ focus on klebsiella pneumoniae septicaemia in preweaned pigsthese are among matters discussed in the animal and plant health agency's (apha's) disease surveillance report for april 2017.201728473487
investigation of the antimicrobial effect of natural deep eutectic solvents (nades) as solvents in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.natural deep eutectic solvents (nades) are a third class of liquids, separate from water and lipids. some nades, especially those containing organic acids, have been suggested to possess antimicrobial properties. such properties may be advantageous when nades are used as solvents in e.g. antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. however, to control the toxicity of acid-containing nades, they must retain their specific qualities upon dilution. hence, the aims of this study were to investigate the effec ...201728472722
synergistic activity of synthetic n-terminal peptide of human lactoferrin in combination with various antibiotics against carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae strains.the spread of multi-drug resistant (mdr) klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing carbapenemases points to a pressing need for new antibacterial agents. to this end, the in-vitro antibacterial activity of a synthetic n-terminal peptide of human lactoferrin, further referred to as hlf1-11, was evaluated against k. pneumoniae strains harboring different carbapenemase genes (i.e. oxa-48, kpc-2, kpc-3, vim-1), with different susceptibility to colistin and other antibiotics, alone or in combination wi ...201728470337
assessment of urinary pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orbifloxacin in healthy dogs with ex vivo modelling.the aim of this study was to investigate the urinary pharmacokinetics (pk) of orbifloxacin (obfx) administered at 5 mg kg-1 in six healthy dogs. a further aim was to use an ex vivo model to evaluate the urinary pk and pharmacodynamics (pd) of obfx to determine its urinary bactericidal titre (ubt), which represents the maximal dilution of urine allowing bactericidal activity.201728470147
validity of somatic cell count as indicator of pathogen-specific intramammary infections.the objective of this study was to determine whether somatic cell count (scc) was an effective test, with a sensitivity exceeding 85%, to determine species-specific bacterial infections. in addition, the relation between the scc and various udder pathogen groups was investigated. scc thresholds of greater than 200 000 cells/ml were used in quarter and greater than 150 000 cells/ml in composite milk samples. a retrospective study was conducted on a data set for 89 635 quarter and 345 467 composit ...201728470079
neonatal sepsis in a nigerian private tertiary hospital: bacterial isolates, risk factors, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns.neonatal sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric age group in spite of several attempts at mitigating its effects. this article determines the prevalence of neonatal sepsis and the pathogens responsible for sepsis as well as risk factors and outcome at the babcock university teaching hospital.201728469117
anti-lps antibodies protect against klebsiella pneumoniae by empowering neutrophil-mediated clearance without neutralizing tlr4.initial promising results with immune sera guided early human mab approaches against gram-negative sepsis to an lps neutralization mechanism, but these efforts failed in human clinical trials. emergence of multidrug resistance has renewed interest in pathogen-specific mabs. we utilized a pair of antibodies targeting klebsiella pneumoniae lps, one that both neutralizes lps/tlr4 signaling and mediates opsonophagocytic killing (opk) (54h7) and one that only promotes opk (kpe33), to better understan ...201728469079
silver nanoparticles mediated by costus afer leaf extract: synthesis, antibacterial, antioxidant and electrochemical properties.synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical routes has been extensively reported. however, green synthesized metal nanoparticles are currently in the limelight due to the simplicity, cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness of their synthesis. this study explored the use of aqueous leaf extract of costus afer in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (ca-agnps). the optical and structural properties of the resulting silver nanoparticles were studied using uv ...201728468278
differences in antimicrobial consumption, prescribing and isolation rate of multidrug resistant klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter baumannii on surgical and medical wards.in order to provide guidance data for clinically rational use of an antibiotics consuption, prescribing and prevalence of multidrug resistant (mdr) klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter baumannii were monitored on the surgical (s) and medical (m) wards of the university hospital center "dr. dragisa misovic-dedinje" (belgrade, serbia), in the study period from 2012 to 2015. appropriateness of antimicrobial use was evaluated using the global-prevalence survey method desig ...201728467437
simple and fast detection of resistance to antibiotic inhibitors of protein synthesis in gram-negative pathogens through evaluation of mitomycin c-induced cell elongation.increasing the resistance of gram-negative pathogens to antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis is of great concern. in life-threatening situations, an early detection of antibiotic resistance may improve patient outcome. a rapid assay for the identification of antibiotic resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, and tigecycline has been designed and tested in clinical strains of acinetobacter baumannii, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the enterobacteriaceae escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae ...201728467172
frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls) in strains of klebsiella and e. coli isolated from patients hospitalized in yazd.frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls) and its variants may vary in different geographical areas, as reports indicate their spread in some certain communities. the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of esbls in strains of klebsiella and e. coli, isolated from patients hospitalized in teaching hospitals of yazd.201728465811
synthesis and biological evaluation of indole core-based derivatives with potent antibacterial activity against resistant bacterial pathogens.the emergence of drug resistance in bacterial pathogens is a growing clinical problem that poses difficult challenges in patient management. to exacerbate this problem, there is currently a serious lack of antibacterial agents that are designed to target extremely drug-resistant bacterial strains. here we describe the design, synthesis and antibacterial testing of a series of 40 novel indole core derivatives, which are predicated by molecular modeling to be potential glycosyltransferase inhibito ...201728465626
knowledge, behaviour and microbial load of workers handling dental solid waste in a public health service in brazil.healthcare wastes are those generated inside healthcare services, including dental clinics. workers coming into close proximity to hazardous healthcare waste are potentially at risk. in an attempt to assess the knowledge and attitudes of workers dealing with infectious waste, a questionnaire was administered. the biological risk was investigated by evaluating the microbial load and screening some clinically relevant micro-organisms in the nasal mucosa, hands and coats of these workers. the resul ...201728464731
characterization of the polymyxin d synthetase biosynthetic cluster and product profile of paenibacillus polymyxa atcc 10401.the increasing prevalence of polymyxin-resistant bacteria has stimulated the search for improved polymyxin lipopeptides. here we describe the sequence and product profile for polymyxin d nonribosomal peptide synthetase from paenibacillus polymyxa atcc 10401. the polymyxin d synthase gene cluster comprised five genes that encoded abc transporters (pmxc and pmxd) and enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of polymyxin d (pmxa, pmxb, and pmxe). unlike polymyxins b and e, polymyxin d contains d-se ...201728463513
[kpc-producing klebsiella pneumoniae colonization at a university hospital].a surveillance study was conducted at a university hospital in buenos aires city aimed to assess the rates of colonization with carbapenemase-producing strains of klebsiella pneumoniae, which are bacteria of utmost epidemiological importance. to this end, rectal swabs collected from all inpatients were cultured for the presence of these bacteria. two point prevalence surveys showed high prevalence rates (up to 25%). the following variables were evaluated in all inpatients: place of origin (home ...201728463215
characterization of carbapenemases, esbls, and plasmid-mediated quinolone determinants in carbapenem-insensitive escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae in riyadh hospitals.the main objective of this work was to characterize carbapenemases, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (esbls), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (pmqr) among carbapenem-insensitive klebsiella pneumoniae and escherichia coli clinical isolates which were isolated from three hospitals in riyadh. thirty-one carbapenem-insensitive isolates (21 k. pneumoniae and 10 e. coli) were recovered from march 2014 to may 2014. susceptibility testing and phenotypic detection tests were used to characterize ...201728462854
honeycomb liver abscess. 201728462151
impaired inhibition by avibactam and resistance to the ceftazidime-avibactam combination due to the d(179)y substitution in the kpc-2 β-lactamase.the ceftazidime-avibactam antibiotic combination was recently shown to be at risk for the emergence of resistance under treatment. to gain insight into the underlying mechanism, we have analyzed the catalytic properties of a klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase type 2 (kpc-2) β-lactamase harboring the d(179)y substitution. we show that impaired inhibition by avibactam combined with significant residual activity for ceftazidime hydrolysis accounts for the resistance. in contrast, the d(179)y subst ...201728461318
ndm-5 and oxa-181 beta-lactamases, a significant threat continues to spread in the americas.among gram-negative bacteria, carbapenem-resistant infections pose a serious and life-threatening challenge. here, the crackle network reports a sentinel detection and characterization of a carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae st147 isolate harboring blandm-5 and blaoxa-181 from a young man who underwent abdominal surgery in india. blandm-5 was located on an incfii plasmid of ≈90 kb, whereas blaoxa-181 was chromosomally encoded. resistome and genome analysis demonstrated multiple copies of ...201728461314
applications of copolymer for rapid identification of bacteria in blood culture broths using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) can be used to identify pathogens in blood culture samples. however, sample pretreatment is needed for direct identification of microbes in blood culture bottles. conventional protocols are complex and time-consuming. therefore, in this study, we developed a method for collecting bacteria using polyallylamine-polystyrene copolymer for application in wastewater treatment technology. using representative ba ...201728461023
[a dead case of severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by highly pathogenic klebsiella pneumoniae]. 201728459411
the use of bloodstream infection mortality to measure the impact of antimicrobial stewardship interventions: assessing the evidence.this review sets out to evaluate the current evidence on the impact of inappropriate therapy on bloodstream infections (bsi) and associated mortality. based on the premise that better prescribing practices should result in better patient outcomes, bsi mortality may be a useful metric to evaluate antimicrobial stewardship (ams) interventions. a systematic search was performed in key medical databases to identify papers published in english between 2005 and 2015 that examined the association betwe ...201728458799
infected aortic and iliac aneurysms: clinical manifestations in the emergency departments of two hospitals in southern taiwan, china.accurate diagnosis of infected aortic and iliac aneurysms is often delayed, hampering timely treatment and potentially resulting in a fatal consequence. the aim of this study was to discover useful clinical features that can help physicians to identify these patients.201728458756
inflammatory responses regulating alveolar ion transport during pulmonary infections.the respiratory epithelium is lined by a tightly balanced fluid layer that allows normal o2 and co2 exchange and maintains surface tension and host defense. to maintain alveolar fluid homeostasis, both the integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and the expression of epithelial ion channels and pumps are necessary to establish a vectorial ion gradient. however, during pulmonary infection, auto- and/or paracrine-acting mediators induce pathophysiological changes of the alveolar-capillary barr ...201728458673
conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropanoic acid by genetically engineered bacillus subtilis.3-hydroxypropanoic acid (3-hp) is an important biomass-derivable platform chemical that can be converted into a number of industrially relevant compounds. there have been several attempts to produce 3-hp from renewable sources in cell factories, focusing mainly on escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, and saccharomyces cerevisiae. despite the significant progress made in this field, commercially exploitable large-scale production of 3-hp in microbial strains has still not been achieved. in th ...201728458661
international high-risk clones of klebsiella pneumoniae kpc-2/cc258 and escherichia coli ctx-m-15/cc10 in urban lake waters.the emergence of high-risk clones of multidrug-resistant (mdr) bacteria in aquatic environments has generated an important public health problem, creating an urgent need to strengthen surveillance. this study reports the occurrence of clinically significant mdr enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative bacteria carrying carbapenemases (kpc-2), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ctx-m) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (pmqr) genes in urban lakes and reservoirs, in southeastern brazil. in this ...201728458208
emergence and nosocomial spread of carbapenem-resistant oxa-232-producing klebsiella pneumoniae in brunei darussalam.carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre) are identified as a major global health concern. the success of cre is facilitated by the emergence, acquisition and spread of successful clones carrying plasmid-encoded resistance genes. in this study, an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (crkp) infections in patients hospitalised in brunei darussalam was investigated.201728458051
early rehospitalization post-kidney transplant due to infectious complications: can we predict the patients at risk?rehospitalization early post-kidney transplant is common and has a negative impact in morbidity, graft survival, and health costs. infection is one the most common causes, and identifying the risk factors for early readmission due to infectious complications may guide a preventive program and improve outcome. the aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, characterize the population, and identify the risk factors associated with early readmission for infectious complications post-kidney tr ...201728457394
carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae infections early after liver transplantation: a single-center experience.the aims of this study were to define in a cohort of 310 liver transplant recipients, the incidence of post-liver transplantation (lt) non-carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (crkp) and crkp infections, pre- and post-lt crkp colonization, crkp-associated mortality, and risk factors for non-crkp and crkp infections. every patient was screened for crkp immediately before and after lt. the 6-month survival rate was 95%. fifty-two patients became infected (16.5%): 8 by crkp (2.5%) and 44 (14% ...201728457370
changing antimicrobial resistance pattern of isolates from an icu over a 3 year period.to study the changing patterns of antimicrobial resistance in gram negative bacilli esp. escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa species and gram positive staphylococcus aureus isolates from a 37 bedded icu of a private hospital.201728457027
mortality due to nosocomial infection with klebsiella pneumoniae esbl().klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important hospital pathogens, particularly concerning the multidrug-resistant strain esbl(+). the aim of this study was to evaluate nosocomial infections with k. pneumoniae esbl(+) in the context of infection location, risk factors, and prognosis. this hospital study was conducted retrospectively and covered a 3 months' period. the infection with k. pneumoniae esbl(+) was diagnosed in 36 patients (19 women and 17 men) of the mean age of 74.2 ± 14.8 years. ...201728456930
long-lasting outbreak due to ctx-m-15-producing klebsiella pneumoniae st336 in a rehabilitation ward: report and literature review.whereas klebsiella species are the most frequently occurring agents in nosocomial outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms, very few outbreaks have been reported from rehabilitation wards.201728454769
characteristics of carbapenemase-producing klebsiella pneumoniae as a cause of neonatal infection in shandong, china.the goal of the present study was to examine the characteristics of carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae as a cause of neonatal infection. a total of 37 carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae-positive newborns hospitalized in shandong provincial hospital, china between april 2011 and october 2013 were examined. antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the agar dilution method and the etest. resistance genes were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequencing. p ...201728450951
retrospective analysis of fosfomycin combinational therapy for sepsis caused by carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae.the aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and safety of fosfomycin combinational therapy with other antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae (crkp). this retrospective cohort study examined 104 cases of sepsis caused by crkp occurring between january 2012 and november 2014 in shanghai tenth people's hospital. three categories of patient outcome were assessed: survival/mortality, duration of intensive care unit stays and durat ...201728450933
paneth-cell-disruption-induced necrotizing enterocolitis in mice requires live bacteria and occurs independently of tlr4 signaling.necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. both human surgical specimens and animal models suggest a potential involvement of paneth cells in nec pathogenesis. paneth cells play critical roles in epithelial homeostasis, innate immunity and host-microbial interactions. yet, the complex interplay between paneth cell disruption, epithelial barrier dysfunction and microbial-driven inflammation remains unclear in the immature intestine. in ...201728450472
arginine-lysine positional swap of the ll-37 peptides reveals evolutional advantages of the native sequence and leads to bacterial probes.antimicrobial peptides are essential components of the innate immune system of multicellular organisms. although cationic and hydrophobic amino acids are known determinants of these amphipathic molecules for bacterial killing, it is not clear how lysine-arginine (k-r) positional swaps influence peptide structure and activity. this study addresses this question by investigating two groups of peptides (gf-17 and 17biphe2) derived from human cathelicidin ll-37. k-r positional swap showed little eff ...201728450045
indistinguishable ndm-producing escherichia coli isolated from recreational waters, sewage, and a clinical specimen in ireland, 2016 to 2017.in this study, new delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (ndm)-producing enterobacteriaceae were identified in irish recreational waters and sewage. indistinguishable ndm-producing escherichia coli by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were isolated from sewage, a fresh water stream and a human source. ndm-producing klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from sewage and seawater in the same area were closely related to each other and to a human isolate. this raises concerns regarding the potential for sewage disch ...201728449738
structure, genetics and worldwide spread of new delhi metallo-β-lactamase (ndm): a threat to public health.the emergence of carbapenemase producing bacteria, especially new delhi metallo-β-lactamase (ndm-1) and its variants, worldwide, has raised amajor public health concern. ndm-1 hydrolyzes a wide range of β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are the last resort of antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by resistant strain of bacteria.201728449650
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