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diversity of arsenite oxidase gene and arsenotrophic bacteria in arsenic affected bangladesh soils.arsenic (as) contaminated soils are enriched with arsenotrophic bacteria. the present study analyzes the microbiome and arsenotrophic genes-from as affected soil samples of bhanga, charvadrason and sadarpur of faridpur district in bangladesh in summer (sfdsl1, 2, 3) and in winter (wfdsl1, 2, 3). total as content of the soils was within the range of 3.24-17.8 mg/kg as per atomic absorption spectroscopy. the aioa gene, conferring arsenite [as (iii)] oxidation, was retrieved from the soil sample, w ...201626980601
draft genome sequence of alcaligenes faecalis strain iitr89, an indole-oxidizing bacterium.we report the draft genome sequence of alcaligenes faecalis strain iitr89, a bacterium able to form indigo by utilizing indole as the sole carbon source. the alcaligenes species is increasingly reported for biodegradation of diverse toxicants and thus complete sequencing may provide insight into biodegradation capabilities and other phenotypes.201626941148
redox-coupled proton transfer mechanism in nitrite reductase revealed by femtosecond crystallography.proton-coupled electron transfer (pcet), a ubiquitous phenomenon in biological systems, plays an essential role in copper nitrite reductase (cunir), the key metalloenzyme in microbial denitrification of the global nitrogen cycle. analyses of the nitrite reduction mechanism in cunir with conventional synchrotron radiation crystallography (srx) have been faced with difficulties, because x-ray photoreduction changes the native structures of metal centers and the enzyme-substrate complex. using seri ...201626929369
triggering dectin-1-pathway alone is not sufficient to induce cytokine production by murine macrophages.β-glucans (bg) are abundant polysaccharides of the saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall (sc cw), an industry byproduct. they have immuno-stimulatory properties upon engagement of dectin-1 (clec7a), their main receptor on particular immune cells, and they actually become of great interest because of their preventive or therapeutic potentials. zymosan, a crude extract of sc cw was studied as a prototypic bg, despite its miscellaneous pamps content. here, we examined the response of murine wild type ...201626840954
nanosilver biocidal properties and their application in disinfection of hatchers in poultry processing plants.the aim of this study was to use aqueous suspensions of silver nanoparticles with a wide spectrum of particle sizes, variable morphology, high stability, and appropriate physicochemical properties to examine their bactericidal and fungicidal properties against microorganisms present in poultry processing plants. at the same time, the particles were tested for preventing the production of odorogenous pollutants during incubation and thereby reducing the emission of harmful gases from such types o ...201626903785
glycin-rich antimicrobial peptide yd1 from b. amyloliquefaciens, induced morphological alteration in and showed affinity for plasmid dna of e. coli.antimicrobial peptides (amps), low-molecular-weight proteins with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, are the most promising candidates for the development of novel antimicrobials. a powerful cationic glycine-rich amp yd1 (mw ~ 1.0 kda) was purified from bacillus amyloliquefaciens cbsyd1 isolated from traditional korean fermented food kimchi, for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (mdr) bacteria. strain cbsyd1 was identified 99.79% similar to bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum fzb4 ...201728050849
distribution of epiphytic bacteria on olive leaves and the influence of leaf age and sampling time.mesophilic heterotrophic, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that grow on yeast tryptone glucose extract agar were isolated from the surface of olive leaves of 3 or 4 different ages in january, april, july, and october from 1984 to 1989. unweighted average linkage cluster analysis on either the jaccard coefficient or the simple matching coefficient recovered 1,701 representative strains in 32 phena defined at the 70% and 80% similarity level, respectively. of these, 25 were identified t ...199124194200
biotransformation of arsenite and bacterial aox activity in drinking water produced from surface water of floating houses: arsenic contamination in cambodia.the potential arsenite bioteansformation activity of arsenic was investigated by examining bacterial arsenic arsenite-oxidizing gene such as aoxs, aoxr, aoxa, aoxb, aoxc, and aoxd in high arsenic-contaminated drinking water produced from the surface water of floating houses. there is a biogeochemical cycle of activity involving arsenite oxidase aox system and the ars (arsenic resistance system) gene operon and aoxr leader gene activity in alcaligenes faecalis srr-11 and aoxs leader gene activity ...201526219073
in vitro antimicrobial activity of "last-resort" antibiotics against unusual nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli clinical isolates.in this prospective multicentric study, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem), tigecycline, and colistin against 166 unusual nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (nf-gnb) clinical isolates collected from nine french hospitals during a 6-month period (from december 1, 2008, to may 31, 2009). all nf-gnb isolates were included, except those phenotypically identified as pseudomonas aeruginosa or acinetobacter baumannii. minimal inhibitory ...201222335615
emergence of unusual nonfermenting gram-negative nosocomial pathogens in a saudi hospital.this study aimed to determine the frequency of isolation and prevalence of drug resistance in nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (nfgnb) other than pseudomonas aeruginosa and predisposing factors for the acquisition of nosocomial infections caused by these emerging pathogens in a saudi tertiary care hospital. a total of 125 nonduplicating nfgnb nosocomial strains were isolated, of these, 68 (54.4%) were acinetobacter baumannii, 26 (20.8%) stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 14 (11.2%) alcaligenes fae ...201324270139
role of the moth fly clogmia albipunctata (diptera: psychodinae) as a mechanical vector of bacterial pathogens in german hospitals.the formerly mediterranean moth fly species clogmia albipunctata (diptera: psychodidae) is now present in germany, where it has become a common, year-round pest in hospital buildings.201323182212
bacterial community structure in treated sewage sludge with mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion.stabilized sewage sludge is applied to agricultural fields and farmland due to its high organic matter content. the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of sludge stabilization, mesophilic anaerobic digestion (mad) and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (tad), on bacterial communities in sludge, including the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. bacterial community structure and phylogenetic diversity were analyzed in four sewage sludge samples from the czech republic. a ...201525921720
bacterial and fungal contamination risks in human oocyte and embryo cryopreservation: open versus closed vitrification systems.to study the contamination risk in open and closed vitrification devices for oocyte/embryo cryopreservation by evaluating the contaminants present (bacteria and fungi) in the thaw medium and in liquid nitrogen (ln) storage containers.201627025548
pathogenic features of heterotrophic plate count bacteria from drinking-water boreholes.evidence suggests that heterotrophic plate count (hpc) bacteria may be hazardous to humans with weakened health. we investigated the pathogenic potential of hpc bacteria from untreated borehole water, consumed by humans, for: their haemolytic properties, the production of extracellular enzymes such as dnase, proteinase, lipase, lecithinase, hyaluronidase and chondroitinase, the effect simulated gastric fluid has on their survival, as well as the bacteria's antibiotic-susceptible profile. hutu-80 ...201627959868
synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 4-acylaminobenzenethiosulfoacid s-esters.a series of esters of 4-acetyl, 4-trifluoroacetyl- and 4-(3-chloropropionyl)aminobenzenethiosulfoacids (twenty-four compounds) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, (1)h nmr and ir spectroscopy. the antibacterial activity of the novel candidates has been screened using the agar diffusion or serial dilution methods against representative gram-positive (staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis, bacillus mesentericus, mycobacterium sp., mycobacterium luteum), gram-negative (aero ...201728344478
new molecular packing in a crystal of pseudoazurin from alcaligenes faecalis: a double-helical arrangement of blue copper.pseudoazurin from the denitrifying bacterium alcaligenes faecalis (afpaz) is a blue copper protein and functions as an electron donor to copper-containing nitrite reductase (cunir). conventionally, afpaz has been crystallized using highly concentrated ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. here, a needle-like crystal of afpaz grown in a solution containing a macromolecular precipitant, polyethylene glycol 8000 (peg 8000), is reported. the crystal belonged to space group p61, with unit-cell parameter ...201728291752
insight into the bacterial diversity of fermentation woad dye vats as revealed by pcr-dgge and pyrosequencing.the bacterial diversity in fermenting dye vats with woad (isatis tinctoria l.) prepared and maintained in a functional state for approximately 12 months was examined using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent pcr-dgge analyses and next-generation sequencing of 16s rrna amplicons. an extremely complex ecosystem including taxa potentially contributing to both indigo reduction and formation, as well as indigo degradation was found. pcr-dgge analyses revealed the presence of paenibaci ...201728246965
biodegradation of picolinic acid by a newly isolated bacterium alcaligenes faecalis strain jq135.we isolated a bacterial strain jq135 from municipal wastewater, which was capable of efficiently degrading picolinic acid (pa). based on the physico-biochemical characteristics and 16s rdna analysis, strain jq135 was identified as alcaligenes faecalis. in addition, strain jq135 produced an orange pigment when cultured in the luria-bertani medium, which is different from the previously reported strains of a. faecalis. during the degradation of pa by the resting strain jq135 cells, only one interm ...201728243718
metal induced changes in trivalent chromium resistant alcaligenes faecalis vitsim2.the changes induced in bacterial strains under stress conditions provide an insight into metal resistance strategies. trivalent chromium resistant bacterium were isolated and identified by 16s rrna gene sequencing and designated as alcaligenes faecalis vitsim2. the growth pattern was monitored. the organism also showed resistance to copper, cadmium, and certain antibiotics. the differentially expressed proteins in sds page were identified by mass spectrometry as flagellin and 50s ribosomal l36 p ...201728217898
identification of new bacteria harboring qnrs and aac(6')-ib/cr and mutations possibly involved in fluoroquinolone resistance in raw sewage and activated sludge samples from a full-scale wwtp.wastewater treatment plants (wwtps) harbor bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes, favoring gene exchange events and resistance dissemination. here, a culture-based and metagenomic survey of qnra, qnrb, qnrs, and aac(6')-ib genes from raw sewage (rs) and activated sludge (as) of a full-scale municipal wwtp was performed. a total of 96 bacterial isolates were recovered from nalidixic acid-enrichment cultures. bacteria harboring the aac(6')-ib gene predominated in rs, whereas qnrs-positive is ...201727984803
characteristics of a heterotrophic nitrogen removal bacterium and its potential application on treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater.nitrogen and organic carbon are major pollutants in wastewater causing environmental problems. alcaligenes faecalis strain nr, isolated from activated sludge, exhibited the ability to remove ammonium and organic carbon from wastewater simultaneously under sole aerobic conditions in batch culture. changes in carbon type, c/n ratio, oxygen concentration and inorganic ions significantly affected the treatment efficiency. furthermore, a continuous bioreactor, solely inoculated with a. faecalis strai ...201727978438
biochemical and histochemical analyses revealing endophytic alcaligenes faecalis mediated suppression of oxidative stress in abelmoschus esculentus challenged with sclerotium rolfsii.sclerotium rolfsii is a highly aggressive pathogen that causes huge economic losses, especially in temperate climates. alcaligenes faecalis, particularly in endophytic form, has rarely been used to control this fungus. in this study, endophytic alcaligenes sp. strain bhu 12, bhu 16 (isolated from abelmoschus esculentus leaf) and bhu m7 (isolated from andrographis paniculata leaf) were reported to trigger a wide range of host defenses in okra plant against the collar-rot pathogen s. rolfsii. endo ...201627816824
evaluation of the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of chitosan edible films incorporated with organic essential oils obtained from four thymus species.the aims of this study were to evaluate, (1) the antibacterial properties, (2) the total phenol content and (3) the antioxidant activity, of chitosan edible films incorporated with certified organic essential oils (eos) obtained from thymus zygis, thymus mastichina, thymus capitatus and thymus vulgaris. the agar disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activities of chitosan edible films while for the antioxidant activity, two different analytical assays were used (dpph and ...201627784932
improving the bioremoval of sulfamethoxazole and alleviating cytotoxicity of its biotransformation by laccase producing system under coculture of pycnoporus sanguineus and alcaligenes faecalis.the occurrence of sulfamethoxazole (smx) in aquatic environment is a health concern. the presence of smx significantly inhibited the laccase activity of pycnoporus sanguineus with a lower removal efficiency of smx. although a laccase system with 2,20-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (abts) eliminated 100% smx within 6h, abts might cause an environmental issue. an alternative to smx elimination is the coculture of alcaligenes faecalis and p. sanguineus. the smx removal efficienc ...201627591519
experimental studies and kinetic modeling of the growth of phenol-degrading bacteria in turbulent fluids.understanding the interaction between microorganisms and fluid dynamics is important for aquatic ecosystems, though only sporadic attention has been focused on this topic in the past. in this study, particular attention was paid to the phenol-degrading bacterial strains microbacterium oxydans ly1 and alcaligenes faecalis ly2 subjected to controlled fluid flow under laboratory conditions. these two strains were found to be able to degrade phenols over a concentration range from 50 to 500 mg/l und ...201627557974
curdlan activates dendritic cells through dectin-1 and toll-like receptor 4 signaling.curdlan, a β-1,3-glucan isolated from alcaligenes faecalis, is an agonist of dectin-1 in various immune cells, including dendritic cells (dcs). however, whether curdlan also activates dcs through other receptors remains unknown. in this study, we found that curdlan activates dcs through dectin-1 and toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4). curdlan increased the expression levels of surface molecules (cd40, cd80, cd86, and mhc-i/ii), the production of cytokines (il-12, il-1β, tnf-α, and ifn-β), migration tow ...201627449326
structural insights into the catalytic reaction trigger and inhibition of d-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase.d-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reversible conversion of acetoacetate and d-3-hydroxybutyrate. these ketone bodies are both energy-storage forms of acetyl-coa. in order to clarify the structural mechanisms of the catalytic reaction with the cognate substrate d-3-hydroxybutyrate and of the inhibition of the reaction by inhibitors, the enzyme from alcaligenes faecalis has been analyzed by x-ray crystallography in liganded states with the substrate and with two types of inhibitor: m ...201627380367
rhizoma coptidis alkaloids alleviate hyperlipidemia in b6 mice by modulating gut microbiota and bile acid pathways.it is hypothesized that rhizoma coptidis (rc) alkaloids exert their hypolipidemic effects primarily by targeting the gastrointestinal tract and liver. thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic mechanisms of rc alkaloids (at a daily dose of 140mg/kg for 35days) in high-fat and high-cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic b6 mice. after treatment, serum lipid parameters were determined, the expression of lipid metabolism related genes and pathways such as the sterol regulatory e ...201627287254
exogenous cofactors for the improvement of bioremoval and biotransformation of sulfamethoxazole by alcaligenes faecalis.sulfamethoxazole (smx), an extensively prescribed or administered antibiotic pharmaceutical product, is usually detected in aquatic environments, because of its incomplete metabolism and elimination. this study investigated the effects of exogenous cofactors on the bioremoval and biotransformation of smx by alcaligenes faecalis. high concentration (100mg·l(-1)) of exogenous vitamin c (vc), vitamin b6 (vb6) and oxidized glutathione (gssg) enhanced smx bioremoval, while the additions of vitamin b2 ...201627203516
an adsorption-release-biodegradation system for simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater.the feasibility of simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonium in phenol-rich wastewater was evaluated in a reusable system, which contained macroporous adsorption resin and alcaligenes faecalis strain wy-01. in the system, up to 6000mg/l phenol could be completely degraded by wy-01; meanwhile, 99.03±3.95% of ammonium was removed from the initial concentration of 384mg/l. this is the first study to show the capability of single strain in simultaneous removal of ammonium and phenol in wast ...201627060247
potential application of alcaligenes faecalis strain no. 4 in mitigating ammonia emissions from dairy wastewater.this research examined the potential mitigation of nh3 emissions from dairy manure via an enhanced aerobic bio-treatment with bacterium alcaligenes faecalis strain no. 4. the studies were conducted in aerated batch reactors using air and pure oxygen. aeration with air and oxygen removed approximately 40% and 100% total ammoniacal nitrogen (tan), respectively. intermittent oxygenation (every 2 or 4 h) reduced oxygen consumption by 95%, while attaining nearly identical tan removal to continuous ae ...201626845217
kinetic characteristics and modelling of growth and substrate removal by alcaligenes faecalis strain nr.alcaligenes faecalis strain nr has the capability of simultaneous ammonium and organic carbon removal under sole aerobic conditions. the growth and substrate removal characteristics of a. faecalis strain nr were studied and appropriate kinetic models were developed. the maximum substrate removal rate of nh4 (+)-n and toc were determined as 2.27 mg nh4 (+)-n/l/h and 30.00 mg toc/l/h, respectively with initial nh4 (+)-n = 80 mg/l and toc = 800 mg/l. single-substrate models and double-substrate mod ...201626796583
alcaligenes faecalis cellulitis after a dog bite: case report and literature review.alcaligenes faecalis is a gram-negative organism that is commonly found in the environment and may also be a part of normal fecal flora in humans. although various infections with this bacteria have been described in the pediatric population, it has not been previously identified in infections as the pathogen after a dog bite. a case of a 19-month-old boy is presented with a cellulitis secondary to a dog bite, which failed oral antibiotic therapy, and progressed to worsening fever and swelling. ...201626760830
efficient cascade synthesis of ampicillin from penicillin g potassium salt using wild and mutant penicillin g acylase from alcaligenes faecalis.to avoid isolation and purification of the intermediate 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-apa), a two-enzyme two-step cascade synthesis of ampicillin from penicillin g was established. in purely aqueous medium, penicillin g hydrolysis and ampicillin synthesis were catalyzed by immobilized wild-type and mutagenized penicillin g acylases from alcaligenes faecalis (af pga), respectively (fig. 1). the βf24 g mutant af pga (the 24th phenylalanine of the β-subunit was replaced by glycine) was employed for i ...201626732414
production, purification and characterization of halophilic organic solvent tolerant protease from marine crustacean shell wastes and its efficacy on deproteinization.the quantum of marine fish wastes produced by fish processing industries has necessitated to search new methods for its disposal. hence, this study is focused on production and purification of halophilic organic solvent tolerant protease (hosp) from marine alcaligenes faecalis apcmst-mkw6 using marine shell wastes as substrate. the candidate bacterium was isolated from the marine sediment of manakudi coast and identified as a. faecalis apcmst-mkw6. the purified protease showed 16.39-fold purity, ...201628330229
the complete genome sequence of alcaligenes faecalis zd02, a novel potential bionematocide.root-knot nematodes (rkns) can infect almost all crops, and result in huge economic losses in agriculture. there is no effective and environmentally safe means available to control rkns. alcaligenes faecalis zd02 isolated from free living nematode caenorhabditis elegans cadavers shows toxicity against rkn meloidogyne incognita, that makes this strain to be a good bionematicide candidate for controlling of rkns. here, we firstly report the complete genome of a. faecalis zd02 and describe its feat ...201626656226
biomimetic approach to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of the synthetic polyester poly(1,4-butylene adipate): fusing binding modules to esterases.mimicking a concept of nature for the hydrolysis of biopolymers, the thermobifida cellulosilytica cutinase 1 (thc_cut1) was fused to a polymer binding module (pbm) to enhance the hydrolysis of the polyester poly(1,4-butylene adipate) (pba). namely, the binding module of a polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis (thc_cut1_pbm) was attached to the cutinase via two different linker sequences varying in length. in order to investigate the adsorption behavior, catalytically inacti ...201526566664
biodegradation of nicosulfuron by a novel alcaligenes faecalis strain zws11.a bacterial strain zws11 was isolated from sulfonylurea herbicide-contaminated farmland soil and identified as a potential nicosulfuron-degrading bacterium. based on morphological and physicochemical characterization of the bacterium and phylogenetic analysis of the 16s rrna sequence, strain zws11 was identified as alcaligenes faecalis. the effects of the initial concentration of nicosulfuron, inoculation volume, and medium ph on degradation of nicosulfuron were investigated. strain zws11 could ...201526354704
[activated sludge bacteria transforming cyanopyridines and amides of pyridinecarboxylic acids].species diversity of bacteria from the activated sludge of perm biological waste treatment facilities capable of transformation of cyanopyridines and amides of pyridinecarboxylic acids was investigated. enrichment cultures in mineral media with 3-cyanopyridine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source were used to obtain 32 clones of gram-negative heterotrophic bacteria exhibiting moderate growth on solid and liquid media with 3- and 4-cyanopyridine. sequencing of the 16s rrna gene fragments reveal ...201526263697
imidase catalyzing desymmetric imide hydrolysis forming optically active 3-substituted glutaric acid monoamides for the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) analogs.the recent use of optically active 3-substituted gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) analogs in human therapeutics has identified a need for an efficient, stereoselective method of their synthesis. here, bacterial strains were screened for enzymes capable of stereospecific hydrolysis of 3-substituted glutarimides to generate (r)-3-substituted glutaric acid monoamides. the bacteria alcaligenes faecalis nbrc13111 and burkholderia phytofirmans dsm17436 were discovered to hydrolyze 3-(4-chlorophenyl) glu ...201526205522
molecular weight-dependent degradation of d-lactate-containing polyesters by polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerases from variovorax sp. c34 and alcaligenes faecalis t1.polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase derived from variovorax sp. c34 (phazvs) was identified as the first enzyme that is capable of degrading isotactic p[67 mol% (r)-lactate(la)-co-(r)-3-hydroxybutyrate(3hb)] [p(d-la-co-d-3hb)]. this study aimed at analyzing the monomer sequence specificity of phazvs for hydrolyzing p(la-co-3hb) in comparison with a p(3hb) depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis t1 (phazaf) that did not degrade the same copolymer. degradation of p(la-co-3hb) by action of phazvs gene ...201526109003
nitrilase-catalyzed conversion of (r,s)-mandelonitrile by immobilized recombinant escherichia coli cells harboring nitrilase.(r)-(-)-mandelic acid (r-ma) is widely used both as a versatile intermediate for pharmaceuticals and a resolving agent in chiral resolution processes. in the current study, to improve the stability of operation, recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing nitrilase from alcaligenes faecalis were immobilized for the enantioselective hydrolysis of (r,s)-mandelonitrile to r-ma. different immobilization methods including entrapment matrices, entrapment matrices cross-linked by cross-linking and po ...201626014754
[screening, combination of microbial deodorizer and the optimization of its deodorizing conditions].in order to obtain the candidate strains of deodorizing microorganism, three optimization strains with relatively higher deodorizing capacity were isolated from landfill leachate, which were given the labels of cc3, cc7, cc13 and cc16. according to the results of morphological observation, physiological and biochemical tests, 16s rdna sequence homology analysis, the strains cc3, cc7, cc13 and cc16 were identified as pediococcus acidilactici, bacillus megaterium, lactobacillus acidophilus and alc ...201525898673
utilization of microbial community potential for removal of chlorpyrifos: a review.chlorpyrifos (cp) is the most commonly used pesticide in agricultural fields worldwide. exposure to cp and its metabolites creates severe neuron-disorders in human beings. improper handling and uncontrolled application of cp by farmers have lead to the contamination of surface and ground water bodies. biodegradation offers an efficient and cost effective method for the removal of cp and other toxic organophosphorus pesticides from the contaminated environment. the degradation of cp by various mi ...201625782532
efficient enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin by mutant alcaligenes faecalis penicillin g acylase.semi-synthetic β-lactam antibiotics (ssbas) are one of the most important antibiotic families in the world market. their enzymatic synthesis can be catalyzed by penicillin g acylases (pgas). in this study, to improve enzymatic synthesis of ampicillin, site-saturating mutagenesis was performed on three conserved amino acid residues: βf24, αr146, and αf147 of thermo-stable penicillin g acylase from alcaligenes faecalis (af pga). four mutants βf24g, βf24a, βf24s, and βf24p were recovered by screeni ...201525681630
tributyltin chloride (tbtcl)-enhanced exopolysaccharide and siderophore production in an estuarine alcaligenes faecalis strain.tributyltin chloride (tbtcl) has been used extensively as an antifouling agent in ship paints, which results in the contamination of aquatic sites. these contaminated sites serve as enrichment areas for tbtcl-resistant bacterial strains. one tbtcl-resistant bacterial strain was isolated from the sediments of zuari estuary, goa, india, which is a major hub of various ship-building activities. based on biochemical characteristics and 16s rdna sequence analysis, this bacterial strain was identified ...201525612551
antibiotic-resistant heterotrophic plate count bacteria and amoeba-resistant bacteria in aquifers of the mooi river, north west province, south africa.groundwater in the mooi river catchment is prone to mining, agricultural, municipal and septic tank pollution. in this study physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were determined using appropriate methods. bacterial isolates were identified by 16s rrna sequencing (heterotrophic plate count (hpc) bacteria and amoeba-resistant bacteria (arb)) and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (escherichia coli). antibiotic resistance tests were also performed. physico-chemical parameters were gener ...201425473993
alcaligenes faecalis: an unusual cause of skin and soft tissue infection.skin and soft tissue infection (ssti) due to alcaligenes faecalis is very rare and has never been studied. the aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of this infection. we conducted a retrospective review of 5 cases that occurred at our institution over a period of 6 years. all patients had underlying diseases, and infection was secondary to vascular disease or recent surgery in 4 of them. the most common clinical presentations were vascular ...201525420652
the type 1 copper site of pseudoazurin: axial and rhombic.we report on a high-frequency electron-paramagnetic-resonance study of the type 1 copper site of pseudoazurin. the spectra fully resolve the contribution of a nearly axial spectrum besides the rhombic spectrum, which unequivocally proves the existence of two conformations of the copper site. pseudoazurins have been considered from achromobacter cycloclastes including eight mutants and from alcaligenes faecalis. the two conformations are virtually the same for all pseudoazurins, but the rhombic/a ...201424813397
light controlled reversible inversion of nanophosphor-stabilized pickering emulsions for biphasic enantioselective biocatalysis.in this work, by utilizing photochromic spiropyrans conjugated upconversion nanophosphors, we have successfully prepared nir/visible light tuned interfacially active nanoparticles for the formulation of pickering emulsions with reversible inversion properties. by loading a model enantioselective biocatalytic active bacteria alcaligenes faecalis atcc 8750 in the aqueous phase, we demonstrated for the first time that the multifunctional pickering emulsion not only highly enhanced its catalytic per ...201424784766
improvement of alcaligenes faecalis nitrilase by gene site saturation mutagenesis and its application in stereospecific biosynthesis of (r)-(-)-mandelic acid.nitrilases have recently received considerable attention as the biocatalysts for stereospecific production of carboxylic acids. to improve the activity, the nitrilase from alcaligenes faecalis was selected for further modification by the gene site saturation mutagenesis method (gssm), based on homology modeling and previous reports about mutations. after mutagenesis, the positive mutants were selected using a convenient two-step high-throughput screening method based on product formation and ph ...201424766313
development of a pcr-based method for monitoring the status of alcaligenes species in the agricultural environment.to analyze the status of the genus alcaligenes in the agricultural environment, we developed a pcr method for detection of these species from vegetables and farming soil. the selected pcr primers amplified a 107-bp fragment of the 16s rrna gene in a specific pcr assay with a detection limit of 1.06 pg of pure culture dna, corresponding to dna extracted from approximately 23 cells of alcaligenes faecalis. meanwhile, pcr primers generated a detectable amount of the amplicon from 2.2×10(2) cfu/ml c ...201424670615
biodegradation of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan by bacterial strain alcaligenes faecalis jbw4.the recently discovered endosulfan-degrading bacterial strain alcaligenesfaecalis jbw4 was isolated from activated sludge. this strain is able to use endosulfan as a carbon and energy source. the optimal conditions for the growth of strain jbw4 and for biodegradation by this strain were identified, and the metabolic products of endosulfan degradation were studied in detail. the maximum level of endosulfan biodegradation by strain jbw4 was obtained using broth at an initial ph of 7.0, an incubati ...201324552054
heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of high-strength ammonium in anaerobically digested sludge by alcaligenes faecalis strain no. 4.alcaligenes faecalis strain no. 4 which is capable of heterogeneous nitrification and aerobic denitrification, was used to remove high-strength ammonium (approximately 1 g nh4(+)-n/l) from digested sludge, the product of an anaerobic digestion reactor, in which methane was produced from excess municipal sewage sludge. repeated batch operations were conducted at 20°c and 30°c for 550 h, using a jar fermentor. the removal ratios of high-strength ammonium reached 90-100% within 24 h, and the averag ...201424411668
potential probiotic attributes and antagonistic activity of an indigenous isolate lactobacillus plantarum dm5 from an ethnic fermented beverage "marcha" of north eastern himalayas.a novel isolate dm5 identified as lactobacillus plantarum displayed in vitro probiotic properties as well as antimicrobial activity. it showed adequate level of survival to the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and survived low acidic ph 2.5 for 5 h. artificial gastric juice and intestinal fluidic environment decreased the initial viable cell population of isolate dm5 only by 7% and 13%, respectively, while lysozyme (200 µg/ml) and bile salt (0.5%) enhanced its growth. it was found ...201424393040
caenorhabditis elegans-based in vivo screening of bioactives from marine sponge-associated bacteria against vibrio alginolyticus.to establish caenorhabditis elegans based in vivo method for screening bioactives from marine sponge associated bacteria (sab) against vibrio species.201324034129
effect of tween 80 on the production of curdlan by alcaligenes faecalis atcc 31749.this study aims to investigate the effects of tween 80 on curdlan production, cell growth, and glucosyltransferase activity. the addition of tween 80 to the culture medium increased curdlan production. however, curdlan production did not increase further when excessive tween 80 (>0.3% tween 80) was added to the culture medium. the addition of tween 80 to the culture medium did not affect cell growth. the glucosyltransferase activity involved in the curdlan synthesis increased with the increase o ...201323987333
isolation of an indigenous imidacloprid-degrading bacterium and imidacloprid bioremediation under simulated in situ and ex situ conditions.the bacterial community structure and its complexity of the enrichment culture during the isolation and screening of imidacloprid-degrading strain were studied using denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. the dominant bacteria in the original tea rhizosphere soil were uncultured bacteria, rhizobium sp., sinorhizobium, ochrobactrum sp., alcaligenes, bacillus sp., bacterium, klebsiella sp., and ensifer adhaerens. the bacterial community structure was altered extensively and its comple ...201323985542
endophthalmitis caused by alcaligenes faecalis: a case series.to profile the etiology, clinical outcomes and drug sensitivity patterns in endophthalmitis caused by alcaligenes faecalis.201323895234
colonization of alcaligenes faecalis strain jbw4 in natural soils and its detoxification of endosulfan.alcaligenes faecalis strain jbw4, a strain of bacteria that is capable of degrading endosulfan, was inoculated into sterilized and natural soils spiked with endosulfan. jbw4 degraded 75.8 and 87.0 % of α-endosulfan and 58.5 and 69.5 % of β-endosulfan in sterilized and natural soils, respectively, after 77 days. endosulfan ether and endosulfan lactone were the major metabolites that were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. this result suggested that a. faecalis strain jbw4 degrades ...201423812277
emergence of vim-6 metallo-beta-lactamase-producing alcaligenes faecalis clinical isolates in a hospital in india. 201323771294
fusion of binding domains to thermobifida cellulosilytica cutinase to tune sorption characteristics and enhancing pet hydrolysis.a cutinase from thermomyces cellullosylitica (thc_cut1), hydrolyzing the synthetic polymer polyethylene terephthalate (pet), was fused with two different binding modules to improve sorption and thereby hydrolysis. the binding modules were from cellobiohydrolase i from hypocrea jecorina (cbm) and from a polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase from alcaligenes faecalis (pbm). although both binding modules have a hydrophobic nature, it was possible to express the proteins in e. coli . both fusion enzymes ...201323718548
enzymatic reduction of levulinic acid by engineering the substrate specificity of 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase.enzymatic reduction of levulinic acid (la) was performed for the synthesis of 4-hydroxyvaleric acid (4hv)--a monomer of bio-polyester and a precursor of bio-fuels--using 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (3hbdh) from alcaligenes faecalis. due to the catalytic inactivity of the wild-type enzyme toward la, engineering of the substrate specificity of the enzyme was performed. a rational design approach with molecular docking simulation was applied, and a double mutant, his144leu/trp187phe, which has ...201323489571
specific and sensitive detection of alcaligenes species from an agricultural environment.a quantitative real-time pcr assay to specifically detect and quantify the genus alcaligenes in samples from the agricultural environment, such as vegetables and farming soils, was developed. the minimum detection sensitivity was 106 fg of pure culture dna, corresponding to dna extracted from two cells of alcaligenes faecalis. to evaluate the detection limit of a. faecalis, serially diluted genomic dna from this organism was mixed with dna extracted from soil and vegetables and then a standard c ...201323489084
heterotrophic nitrifying and oxygen tolerant denitrifying bacteria from greenwater system of coastal aquaculture.in this work, herbivorous fish mugil cephalus has been cultured to secrete protein rich green slime, which helps nitrifying and oxygen tolerant denitrifying bacteria to grow and colonize. four strains representing alcaligenaceae family have been isolated from greenwater system and characterized using biochemical test, fatty acid methyl ester (gc-fame) analysis, 16s rrna and functional gene approaches. they were tested for an ability to nitrify ammonia and nitrite aerobically. two strains showed ...201323354499
high-throughput system for screening of cephalosporin c high-yield strain by 48-deep-well microtiter plates.improvement of microbial strains for the high-production of industrial products has been the hallmark of all commercial fermentation processes. strain improvement has been conventionally achieved through mutation and selection. however, most of the screenings were performed in shake flasks, which made the screening procedure very complex, time-consuming, and inefficient. most mutant spore suspension had no chance to be screened due to the low-throughput of shake flasks and had to be sacrificed. ...201323334835
enantioselective acylation of β-phenylalanine acid and its derivatives catalyzed by penicillin g acylase from alcaligenes faecalis.this study developed a simple, efficient method for producing racemic β-phenylalanine acid (bpa) and its derivatives via the enantioselective acylation catalyzed by the penicillin g acylase from alcaligenes faecalis (af-pga). when the reaction was run at 25°c and ph 10 in an aqueous medium containing phenylacetamide and bpa in a molar ratio of 2:1, 8 u/ml enzyme and 0.1 m bpa, the maximum bpa conversion efficiency at 40 min only reached 36.1%, which, however, increased to 42.9% as the ph value a ...201323302108
microbial population responses to ph and salt shock during phenols degradation under high salt conditions revealed by risa and afdra.the responses of microbial community to ph and salt shock during phenols degradation under high salt conditions were revealed by two dna fingerprint methods, i.e. ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (risa) and amplified functional dna restriction analysis (afdra), together with 16s rdna clone library analysis. it was shown that the phenols removal rate was improved with increasing nacl concentration from 0 to 50 mg/l, and could remain at a high level even in the presence of 100 mg/l nacl. the d ...201323202556
cold-adapted arsenite oxidase from a psychrotolerant polaromonas species.polaromonas sp. str. gm1 is an aerobic, psychrotolerant, heterotrophic member of the betaproteobacteria and is the only isolate capable of oxidising arsenite at temperatures below 10 °c. sequencing of the aio gene cluster in gm1 revealed the presence of the aiob and aioa genes, which encode the arsenite oxidase but the regulatory genes typically found upstream of aiob in other members of the proteobacteria were absent. the gm1 aio was purified to homogeneity and was found to be a heterodimer. th ...201323150098
effect of nitrogen source on curdlan production by alcaligenes faecalis atcc 31749.this study aims to investigate the effect of nitrogen source on curdlan production by alcaligenes faecalis atcc 31749. curdlan production fell when excess nitrogen source was present, while biomass accumulation increased as the level of nitrogen source raised. curdlan production and biomass accumulation were greater with urea compared with those with other nitrogen sources. the highest production of curdlan and biomass accumulation by a. faecalis atcc 31749 was 28.16 g l(-1) and 9.58 g l(-1), re ...201323085490
carbon fiber as an excellent support material for wastewater treatment biofilms.fibrous materials made of carbon fiber (cf), aromatic polyamide (ap), preoxidized polyacrylonitrile (pan), and polyethylene (pe), which are widely used in the textile industry, were evaluated as biofilm supports for wastewater treatment. we found that cf has a high capacity for adsorbing nitrifying bacterial sludge. the adhesion rate of four pure strains-cytophaga hutchinsonii, alcaligenes faecalis, bacillus subtilis, and escherichia coli-was highest to cf. the ζ-potentials of the fibrous suppor ...201222906194
the importance of rhamnolipid-biosurfactant-induced changes in bacterial membrane lipids of bacillus subtilis for the antimicrobial activity of thiosulfonates.the antimicrobial properties of methyl (mts) and ethyl (ets) esters of thiosulfonic acid alone and in combination with rhamnolipid-biosurfactant (rl) have been characterized for their ability to disrupt the normal physiological functions of living pathogens. bactericidal and fungicidal activities of mts and ets and their combination with rhamnolipid were demonstrated on strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacillus subtilis, alcaligenes faecalis, and rhizopus ngtricans. it was found that the combi ...201222810959
purification, characterization, and primary structure of a novel n-acyl-d-amino acid amidohydrolase from microbacterium natoriense tnjl143-2.a novel n-acyl-d-amino acid amidohydrolase (daa) was purified from the cells of a novel species of the genus microbacterium. the purified enzyme, termed acym, was a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular weight of 56,000. it acted on n-acylated hydrophobic d-amino acids with the highest preference for n-acetyl-d-phenylalanine (nadf). optimum temperature and ph for the hydrolysis of nadf were 45°c and ph 8.5, respectively. the k(cat) and k(m) values for nadf were 41 s⁻¹ and 2.5 mm at 37°c a ...201222721690
induction of immune-related gene expression in ctenopharyngodon idella kidney cells by secondary metabolites from immunostimulatory alcaligenes faecalis fy-3.this study was undertaken to isolate active secondary metabolites from immunostimulatory alcaligenes faecalis fy-3 and evaluate their activities using grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (cik) cells. by applying chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, three purified metabolites were obtained and identified by spectral data (mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance) as: (1) phenylacetic acid, (2) p-hydroxyphenylacetylamide and (3) cyclo-(gly-(l)-pro). cik cells w ...201222606987
isolation and characterization of a heterotrophic nitrifier from coke plant wastewater.this study investigated some factors affecting ammonium removal and nitrite accumulation by alcaligenes faecalis c16, which was isolated from the activated sludge of a coking wastewater treatment plant. nitrite was produced from ammonium only in the presence of citrate, acetate, meat extract, peptone or ethanol. the highest amount of nitrite was found with citrate as carbon source. a. faecalis c16 could not use glucose, fructose, sucrose and methanol. under the optimum conditions of initial ph 6 ...201222592482
bacteria from ips sexdentatus (coleoptera: curculionidae) and their biocontrol potential.ips sexdentatus (coleoptera: curculionidae) is one of the most destructive pests of the spruce trees in europe. in this study, we have isolated and characterized culturable bacteria from i. sexdentatus and tested their insecticidal activity against the last instar larvae of the pest as a possible biocontrol agent. a total of eight bacterial isolates was determined and four of them were identified at species level, and the others were identified at genus level. isolates were identified as stenotr ...201222581609
n2o and n2 production during heterotrophic nitrification by alcaligenes faecalis strain nr.a heterotrophic nitrifier, strain nr, was isolated from a membrane bioreactor. strain nr was identified as alcaligenes faecalis by auto-microbic system and 16s rrna gene sequence analysis. a. faecalis strain nr shows a capability of heterotrophic nitrification and n(2)o and n(2) production as well under the aerobic condition. further tests demonstrated that neither nitrite nor nitrate could be denitrified aerobically by strain nr. however, when hydroxylamine was used as the sole nitrogen source, ...201222534373
chronic laminitis is associated with potential bacterial pathogens in the laminae.a common sequella of chronic laminitis in horses is repeated abscesses with variable lameness and drainage. it is unclear whether the exudate represents the debridement phase of a non-septic inflammatory process involving clearance of laminar tissue damaged during the acute episode of laminitis, or a response to a microbial infection developed by ascent of microbes from the environment to the tissue via the white line. the objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility that an undiagnos ...201222410310
copper as a controlling factor of anaerobic growth under n2o and biosynthesis of n2o reductase in denitrifying bacteria.in order to determine the specific mineral requirement for n2o-anaerobic growth of the denitrifying bacteria alcaligenes sp. ngib 11015 and alcaligenes faecalis iam 1015, investigations were done using dithizone-treated kno3-free modified giltay's medium (dithizone-treated medium). when grown aerobically, the bacteria exhibited equally good growth in the presence or absence of an appropriate amount of copper. anaerobic growth under n2o was stimulated by the addition of a proper amount of copper ...198025385973
paenalcaligenes suwonensis sp. nov., isolated from spent mushroom compost.a bacterial strain, abc02-12(t), was isolated from spent mushroom compost, a waste product of button mushroom cultivation. cells of the strain were gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming, aerobic flagellated rods. optimum growth occurred at 28 °c and ph 7.0. 16s rrna gene sequence analysis showed that strain abc02-12(t) shared the highest sequence similarities with paenalcaligenes hominis ccug 53761a(t) (96.0 %), alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis g(t) (95.7 ...201424271214
characterization of alcaligenes faecalis strain ad15 indicating biocontrol activity against plant pathogens.bacterial strain possessing both bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity (biocontrol activity) against pathogens of cyclamen (cyclamen sp.) was isolated from the soil in gifu prefecture, japan, and characterized with respect to its taxonomic and biocontrol properties. the sequence of its 16s rrna gene, morphology, biochemistry, and fatty acid composition demonstrated that it is a strain most closely related to alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis lmg 1229(t). the isolate was named a. faecalis st ...201323759862
using phenotype microarrays in the assessment of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from wastewater in on-site treatment facilities.the scope of the study was to apply phenotype biolog microarray (pm) technology to test the antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial strains isolated from on-site wastewater treatment facilities. in the first step of the study, the percentage values of resistant bacteria from total heterotrophic bacteria growing on solid media supplemented with various antibiotics were determined. in the untreated wastewater, the average shares of kanamycin-, streptomycin-, and tetracycline-resistant bacteria wer ...201728451946
genomic characterization of vim metallo-β-lactamase-producing alcaligenes faecalis from gaza, palestine.carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacteria (cp-gnb) have increasingly spread worldwide, and different families of carbapenemases have been identified in various bacterial species. here we report the identification of five vim metallo-β-lactamase-producing alcaligenes faecalis, associated with a small outbreak in a large hospital in gaza, palestine. next generation sequencing analysis showed blavim-2 is harbored by a chromosomal genomic island among three strains, while blavim-4 is carried by ...201728848020
bacterial species and mycotoxin contamination associated with locust bean, melon and their fermented products in south-western nigeria.the microbiological safety of spontaneously fermented foods is not always guaranteed due to the undefined fermenting microbial consortium and processing materials. in this study, two commonly consumed traditional condiments (iru and ogiri) and their respective raw seeds (locust bean and melon) purchased from markets in south-western nigeria were assessed for bacterial diversity and mycotoxin contamination using 16s rrna gene sequencing and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms ...201728759798
application of magnetic oms-2 in sequencing batch reactor for treating dye wastewater as a modulator of microbial community.the potential and mechanism of synthesized magnetic octahedral molecular sieve (fe3o4@oms-2) nanoparticles in enhancing the aerobic microbial ability of sequencing batch reactor (sbr) for treating dye wastewater have been revealed in this study. the addition of fe3o4@oms-2 of 0.25g/l enhanced the decolorization of sbrs with an operation cycle of 24h by more than 20%. the 16s rrna gene high-throughput sequencing indicated fe3o4@oms-2 increased the microbial richness and diversity of sbrs, and mor ...201728711831
biodegradation of ochratoxin a by alcaligenes faecalis isolated from soil.the aim of this study is to report on the hydrolytic action of alcaligenes faecalis isolated from soil samples and its ability to degrade ochratoxin a.201728708280
enzymatic hydrolysis of poly(ethyleneterephthalate) used for and analysed by pore modification of track-etched membranes.the potential of limited enzymatic poly(ethylene terephthalate) (pet) surface hydrolysis for the modification of track-etched (te) membranes was investigated. cutinases 1 and 2 from thermobifida cellulosilytica as well as a fusion protein of cutinase 1 with the polymer binding module from the polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase of alcaligenes faecalis (thc_cut1_pbm) were shown to hydrolyse highly crystalline pet te membranes with a pore diameter of ∼120nm at very narrow size distribution. furtherm ...201728698130
an alcaligenes strain emulates bacillus thuringiensis producing a binary protein that kills corn rootworm through a mechanism similar to cry34ab1/cry35ab1.crops expressing bacillus thuringiensis (bt)-derived insecticidal protein genes have been commercially available for over 15 years and are providing significant value to growers. however, there remains the need for alternative insecticidal actives due to emerging insect resistance to certain bt proteins. a screen of bacterial strains led to the discovery of a two-component insecticidal protein named afip-1a/1b from an alcaligenes faecalis strain. this protein shows selectivity against coleoptera ...201728596570
a cocktail of volatile compounds emitted from alcaligenes faecalis jbcs1294 induces salt tolerance in arabidopsis thaliana by modulating hormonal pathways and ion transporters.in our previous study we showed that volatile organic compounds (vocs) from alcaligenes faecalis jbcs1294 (jbcs1294) induced tolerance to salt stress in arabidopsis thaliana by influencing the auxin and gibberellin pathways and upregulating the expression of key ion transporters. the aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of each voc and blends of the vocs on the induction of salt tolerance and signaling pathways. the key vocs emitted from jbcs1294 were dissolved in lanolin and appli ...201728448840
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