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haemolytic activity of acinetobacter calcoaceticus. 19715280419
phospholipase activity of acinetobacter calcoaceticus. 19715283982
production of phospholipase c in acinetobacter calcoaceticus. 19715290406
comparison of the two isofunctional enol-lactone hydrolases from acinetobacter calcoaceticus.the rates of thermal denaturation and the molecular weights of the two isofunctional enol-lactone hydrolases (elh i and elh ii) of acinetobacter calcoaceticus were determined. the molecular weights of elh i and elh ii were found by gel filtration to be approximately 24,000 and 21,000, respectively. in crude extract at 45 c the two enzymes showed a marked difference in rate of thermal denaturation. after chromatography on sephadex g-100, however, the rates were nearly identical. the thermolabilit ...19715573730
regulation of the enzymes of the beta-ketoadipate pathway in moraxella calcoacetica. 2. the role of protocatechuate as inducer. 19685645525
regulation of the enzymes of the beta-ketoadipate pathway in moraxella calcoacetica. 4. constitutive synthesis of beta-ketoadipate succinyl-coa transferases ii and 3. 19685645526
regulation of the enzymes of the beta-ketoadipate pathway in moraxella calcoacetica. 3. effects of 3-hydroxy-4-methylbenzoate on the synthesis of enzymes of the protocatechuate branch. 19685650850
regulation of the enzymes of the beta-ketoadipate pathway in moraxella calcoacetica. 1. general aspects. 19676060184
transposon-mediated multiple antibiotic resistance in acinetobacter strains.acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus, which is unusually resistant to multiple antibiotics, was the cause of an epidemic of respiratory tract infections in patients in an intensive care unit. a representative isolate of the epidemic strain was found to contain the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes 3-n-acetyltransferase, 3'-phosphotransferase, and 3"-adenylyltransferase, which confer resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin, respectively. in addition, the strain produced a cep ...19826100428
acinetobacter calcoaceticus causing subacute bacterial endocarditis. 19816114359
sensitivity of acinetobacter calcoaceticus strains to seven cephalosporins. 19816115226
[gamma-glutamyl-transferase activity in the family "neisseriaceae" (author's transl)].members of the family neisseriaceae (554 strains) were screened for gamma-glutamyl-transferase (gamma gt) activity. gamma gt was produced by neisseria meningitidis but not produced by any strain of n. gonorrhoeae, n. lactamica and branhamella catarrhalis. most non-proteolytic acinetobacter calcoaceticus produced gamma gt whereas most a. lwoffii failed to produce gamma gt.19826125120
phh502, a plasmid with incp and inci alpha characters, loses the latter by a specific reca-independent deletion event.plasmid phh502, of molecular weight 70 x 10(6), determined resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, sulphonamides and mercuric chloride and was incompatible with members of incp and inci alpha. it resembled other plasmids of inci alpha in the following properties: it determined pili that were morphologically and serologically i alpha pili, whose production was repressed in established plasmid-carrying (r+) cultures; its transfer was equally efficient in liquid or on solid mediu ...19826130120
clues from xanthomonas campestris about the evolution of aromatic biosynthesis and its regulation.the recent placement of major gram-negative prokaryotes (superfamily b) on a phylogenetic tree (including, e.g., lineages leading to escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and acinetobacter calcoaceticus) has allowed initial insights into the evolution of the biochemical pathway for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and its regulation to be obtained. within this prokaryote grouping, xanthomonas campestris atcc 12612 (a representative of the group v pseudomonads) has played a key role in facili ...19846152589
acinetobacter spp.: distinct morphology on eosin methylene blue agar as an aid to identification in drinking water.acinetobacter calcoaceticus, frequently found in drinking waters and implicated in nosocomial infections, was presumptively identified by its tiny, blue colonial appearance on levine eosin methylene blue agar. all of the 33 isolates from drinking water showing this distinctive colonial appearance were identified as a. calcoaceticus.19816165324
acinetobacter calcoaceticus: some approaches to a problem. 19816174586
meningitis due to acinetobacter calcoaceticus variant anitratus. 19806182240
disinfection of respirator tubing: a comparison of chemical versus hot water machine-assisted processing.a comparison of machine-assisted chemical disinfection, using a glutaraldehyde solution, and machine-assisted hot water disinfection was made by placing a large inoculum (approximately 10(7) colonies of pseudomonas aeruginosa or acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus) in sets of tubing before processing. machine-assisted chemical processing proved to be the most efficient method with a disinfection failure rate of 6 per cent (two positive tubes out of 35). machine-assisted hot water processi ...19836195230
studies on the utilization of octane by algae.the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of various octane concentrations on a mixed culture of scenedesmus obliquus, chlorella vulgaris and oscillatoria sp. and the ability of these algae to utilize octane as the sole source of organic carbon in the medium. the same investigations were carried out for a mixed culture consisting of algae and the strain acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and for a. calcoaceticus alone. the results obtained show that all of the strains under study, b ...19836196951
in vitro antibacterial activity of norfloxacin (mk-0366).the in vitro activity of norfloxacin (mk-0366) compared with that of beta-lactam antibiotics and, where appropriate of gentamicin or metronidazole was assessed against recent clinical isolates of common bacteria. the compound was highly active against most enterobacteria (minimal inhibitory concentrations [mics], 0.008 to 32 micrograms/ml; 90% inhibited by 0.25 micrograms/ml), haemophilus influenzae (mics, 0.03 to 0.12 micrograms/ml), and neisseria gonorrhoeae (mics, 0.008 to 0.016 micrograms/ml ...19826211139
moxalactam therapy of bacterial meningitis in adults.the therapeutic efficacy and attainable cerebrospinal fluid (csf) concentrations of moxalactam, administered by intravenous drip in a dose of 2 g every 4 to 8 h, were evaluated in seven adult patients with bacterial meningitis. streptococcus pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, each caused infection in four patients, whereas escherichia coli was the cause of infection in the other three patients. the mean moxalactam concentrat ...19836220673
in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid.the in vitro antibacterial activity of the new quinoline derivative ciprofloxacin (bay 0 9867) was evaluated in comparison to norfloxacin and nalidixic acid using 495 clinical strains of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. the compound was highly active against enterobacteriaceae, with mics ranging from 0.008 mg/l to 4 mg/l, whereas the mics of norfloxacin ranged from 0.03 mg/l to 16 mg/l. all strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter calcoaceticus were inhibited with a concentra ...19836222896
norfloxacin (mk-0366, am-715): in vitro activity and cross-resistance with other organic acids including quality control limits for disk diffusion testing.norfloxacin is a new organic acid antimicrobic with an expanded spectrum that includes staphylococcus spp, most pseudomonas spp, acinetobacter calcoaceticus ssp anitratus, some streptococci, as well as nearly all enteric bacilli. the drug appears to be bactericidal. its expanded spectrum suggests that it should be tested separately by disk diffusion or other susceptibility testing methods. tentative norfloxacin disk test quality control limits were derived from the results of a multi-laboratory ...19836232084
[quantitative immunological method for determining rubredoxin in crude extracts of acinetobacter calcoaceticus]. 19806246689
properties of six pesticide degradation plasmids isolated from alcaligenes paradoxus and alcaligenes eutrophus.biophysical and genetic properties of six independently isolated plasmids encoding the degradation of the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid are described. four of the plasmids, pjp3, pjp4, pjp5, and pjp7, had molecular masses of 51 megadaltons, belonged to the incp1 incompatibility group, and transferred freely to strains of escherichia coli, rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, rhizobium sp., agrobacterium tumefaciens, pseudomonas putida, pseudomonas flu ...19816257648
in vitro antimicrobial activity of ceftizoxime against glucose-nonfermentative gram-negative rods.ceftizoxime, a new cephalosporin, was active against pseudomonas cepacia, flavobacterium meningosepticum, alcaligenes faecalis, and acinetobacter calcoaceticus and was more potent against pseudomonas aeruginosa and pseudomonas putida than was carbenicillin.19816269480
enzymatic adenylylation of spectinomycin by acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus.spectinomycin (spc) was inactivated in the presence of adenosine-5'-triphosphate and magnesium ion by an enzyme preparation made from acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus gn12313 resistant to both spc and streptomycin. the structure of the inactivated spc was found to be the adenylylated product of the hydroxy group on c-9 of the actinamine moiety.19816270047
[in vitro activity of ceftazidime compared with five beta-lactamase stable compounds against clinical strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus ].acinetobacter calcoaceticus is recognized as one of the most resistant nosocomial pathogens. clinical isolates of acinetobacter are usually resistant to most beta-lactam antibiotics. the objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of ceftazidime, a new broad spectrum highly potent beta-lactam antibiotic, able to inhibit especially pseudomonas and providencia. its activity against 96 clinical strains of acinetobacter was compared with the activity of 5 recent beta-lactam antibio ...19826289227
ceftriaxone: in vitro studies and clinical evaluation.the in vitro activity of ceftriaxone against 437 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli was determined. ceftriaxone was found to have high in vitro activity against enterobacteriaceae, with the exception of enterobacter cloacae. ceftriaxone was only minimally active against pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter calcoaceticus. we evaluated the clinical efficacy and toxicity of ceftriaxone in 55 adult patients. bacterial infection was confirmed by the isolation of etiological bacteria in 30 ...19826289734
cefotaxime: a review of in vitro antimicrobial properties and spectrum of activity.cefotaxime has remarkable potency against all enterobacteriaceae, including enterobacter species, citrobacter freundii, serratia marcescens, and morganella morganii, proteus vulgaris, and providencia species--all of which are resistant to earlier cephalosporins. cefotaxime generally inhibits greater than 90% of enteric bacilli at concentrations of less than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml; in one study it inhibited greater than 98% of isolates at less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml. for staphyloc ...19826294779
comparative activity of cefotaxime and selected beta-lactam antibiotics against haemophilus influenzae and aerobic gram-negative bacilli.the activity of cefotaxime was compared with that of ampicillin, moxalactam, and cefoperozone against 50 isolates of haemophilus influenzae and with that of ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefazolin, and several other established and investigational beta-lactam antibiotics against several hundred isolates of gram-negative aerobic enteric bacilli. minimal inhibitory concentrations of the drugs were determined by the agar plate dilution technique for h. influenzae a ...19826294790
transposon-directed mutagenesis and chromosome mobilization in acinetobacter calcoaceticus ebf65/65. 19836301938
is15, a new insertion sequence widely spread in r plasmids of gram-negative bacteria.we have shown that the is15 element, first detected in salmonella ordonez and previously designated is1522 (labigne-roussel et al. 1981), could transpose, with an approximate frequency of 5 x 10(-5), to various sites of different replicons in an escherichia coli host deficient for general homologous recombination. physical mapping with restriction endonucleases of this 1,500 base pairs (bp) transposable module indicated the presence of two, possibly contiguous, directly repeated internal sequenc ...19836304459
[activity of sulbactam and clavulanic acid, alone and combined, on acinetobacter calcoaceticus].sulbactam and clavulanic acid, both beta-lactamase inhibitors, were studied alone or associated on 85 isolates of acinetobacter calcoaceticus. when sulbactam was tested alone the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) was less than 2 micrograms/ml with the carbenicillin-sensitive strains of a. calcoaceticus and between 8 to 16 micrograms/ml with the carbenicillin-resistant strains. in the presence of clavulanic acid (5 or 10 micrograms/ml) the mic of sulbactam on all the carbenicillin-resistant ...19836307103
pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter calcoaceticus: in vitro susceptibility of 150 clinical isolates to five beta-lactam antibiotics and tobramycin.the in vitro activities of azlocillin, carbenicillin, ceftriaxone, piperacillin, n-formimidoyl thienamycin (n-f thienamycin) and tobramycin have been compared against clinical isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 100) and acinetobacter calcoaceticus (n = 50). an agar dilution method was employed for measurement of minimal inhibitory concentration (mic). tobramycin was the most active drug against p. aeruginosa (mic less than or equal to 2 mg/l). of the beta-lactam antibiotics, n-f thienamycin ...19836311491
susceptibility of 324 nonfermentative gram-negative rods to 6 cephalosporins and azthreonam.susceptibility of 324 isolates of nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria to cephalothin, cefamandole, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, cefsulodin, and azthreonam was determined by agar dilution and disc diffusion techniques. with the exception of moraxella species, first- and second-generation cephalosporins were minimally active against nonfermenters tested. cefsulodin and azthreonam were mainly active against pseudomonas aeruginosa. in contrast, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone exhibited wider activity spec ...19836311492
[in vitro bacteriostatic activity of cefmenoxime (sce 1365), cefotaxime and moxalactam].the in vitro activity of cefmenoxime (sce 1365), a new cephalosporin derivate was compared with two other "third generation" cephalosporins: cefotaxime and moxalactam. cefmenoxime as cefotaxime and moxalactam were very active against 305 cephalosporinase-producing and cephalosporinase-non-producing enterobacteriaceae. cefmenoxime was the most active against serratia marcescens, citrobacter freundii, morganella morganii, salmonella, shigella and yersinia enterocolitica with a mean mic at least tw ...19836312395
the absence of quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase in acinetobacter calcoaceticus.it is shown that the unusual nad(p)+-independent quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase, said previously to be responsible for oxidation of ethanol during growth of acinetobacter calcoaceticus lmd 79.39, was in fact isolated from an unidentified organism which contained cytochrome c and which has now been lost. several genuine strains of a. calcoaceticus do not contain cytochrome c nor do they contain a quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase. the enzyme responsible for ethanol oxidation in these bacteri ...19836317794
insertional specificity of transposon tn5 in acinetobacter sp.suicide plasmid pjb4ji, containing transposon tn5 and phage mu, was introduced from escherichia coli 1830 into acinetobacter sp. strain ho1-n and acinetobacter calcoaceticus bd413. kanamycin-resistant (kmr) exconjugants of ho1-n and bd413, isolated on complex medium, were screened for auxotrophic requirements. over 10,000 kmr clones were examined, but no auxotrophs were detected. several kmr exconjugants of bd413 and ho1-n, obtained from independent matings, were chosen for further study. all tn ...19846319369
transposon tn5 encodes streptomycin resistance in nonenteric bacteria.strains of caulobacter crescentus, pseudomonas putida, acinetobacter calcoaceticus, rhizobium meliloti, and rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides carrying the kanamycin resistance-encoding transposon tn5 were 15 to 500 times more resistant to streptomycin than transposon-free strains. the streptomycin resistance determinant, which is separable from the kanamycin resistance determinant of tn5, was not expressed in escherichia coli or klebsiella aerogenes.19846330041
susceptibility of gram-negative bacteria to polymyxin b nonapeptide.subinhibitory concentrations of polymyxin b nonapeptide sensitized all 21 polymyxin-susceptible gram-negative bacterial strains studied to hydrophobic antibiotics such as fusidic acid, novobiocin, and erythromycin. the susceptibility increases were usually 30- to 300-fold. the strains included representatives of escherichia coli with different o- and k-antigens, klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytoca, enterobacter cloacae, enterobacter agglomerans, salmonella typhimurium, acinetobacter calcoa ...19846331296
proteolysis of acinetobacter citrate synthase by subtilisin.citrate synthase from acinetobacter calcoaceticus was subjected to proteolysis with subtilisin. although the enzyme proved relatively resistant to inactivation by this treatment, sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis clearly revealed breakdown of the citrate synthase to smaller fragments. the regulatory responses of the native enzyme to inhibition by nadh and re-activation by amp were retained on proteolysis, indicating that the fragments bind tightly to each other and preserve the overall coop ...19836339274
[long-term preservation of reference cultures of microorganisms in the form of gelatin disks].the survival of the various bacteria, yeast and fungal species maintained in gelatinous disks for 1-2 years has been tested. as a rule, cultures with poor lyophilization performance were badly preserved in gelatinous disks (e.g. non-sporulating fungi and certain bacteria and yeast species). acinetobacter calcoaceticus and candida requinyii species after being stored for two years do not change the main taxonomic characteristics and possess the growth ability.19836340744
inhibition of bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons and epithelial cells by emulsan.acinetobacter calcoaceticus rag-1 and bd413, as well as streptococcus pyogenes m-5, adhered to octane. adherence was inhibited by emulsan (100 micrograms/ml), the polymeric emulsifying agent produced by a. calcoaceticus rag-1. emulsan also inhibited adherence of s. pyogenes and rag-1 to buccal epithelial cells. the mean values of bound s. pyogenes per epithelial cell were 57.2 and 20.7 for the control and emulsan-containing suspensions, respectively; mean values of bound rag-1 per epithelial cel ...19836341225
a new lipopolysaccharide antigen identified in acinetobacter calcoaceticus: occurrence of widespread natural antibody.serological investigation of the lipopolysaccharide (lps) of acinetobacter calcoaceticus revealed a new antigen to which antibody in high titre is present in the serum of many mammalian species. the passive haemolysis test showed that antibody, in titres ranging from 32-4096, was invariably present in the serum of mice, rats, guinea-pigs, and horses. rabbits and human beings had lower and more variable titres (less than 2-512). the antigen persisted after prolonged hydrolysis of the lps in 1% ac ...19836341597
mutant strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus possessing additional mandelate dehydrogenases. identification and preliminary characterization of the enzymes.acinetobacter calcoaceticus wild-type strain n.c.i.b. 8250 can grow on only the l(+)-isomer of mandelate but mutant strains have been isolated that can grow on d(-)-mandelate. these mutants contain a novel d(-)-mandelate dehydrogenase in addition to the original l(+)-mandelate dehydrogenase. a second wild-type strain, ebf 65/65, shows the opposite pattern and can grow on d(-)-mandelate but not on l(+)-mandelate; mutants have been isolated that possess an l(+)-mandelate dehydrogenase in addition ...19836342613
evaluation of the updated ms-2 bacterial identification system in comparison with the api 20e system.the recently updated ms-2 bacterial identification system software (abbott laboratories, diagnostic division, irving, tex.) was compared with the original ms-2 bacterial identification software and the api 20e, using 968 strains of enterobacteriaceae. the updated ms-2 software correctly identified 94.4% of the isolates tested. api 20e and the original ms-2 software correctly identified 91 and 85.3% of the strains, respectively. ms-2 responses were considered to be equivocal (needing additional t ...19836350342
[identification of gram-negative nonfermentation bacteria in the air of a surgical hospital].the method of detecting gram-negative nonfermentative bacteria in the air of surgical hospitals by means of the -1 apparatus has been developed. 167 strains of nonfermentative bacteria have been isolated and studied; of these, acinetobacter calcoaceticus constitute 88%. nonfermentative bacteria occur most frequently in the air of wards for patients with severe burns, as well as in the air of dressing rooms when patients with burns are being bandaged there. the possibility of the spread of nonfer ...19836351508
acinetobacter contamination of laboratory dental pumice.micro-organisms of the genus acinetobacter, implicated as opportunistic pathogens, have been recovered from dentures after laboratory repair. a study was undertaken to determine if acinetobacter could be isolated from used dental pumice. cultural studies demonstrated that acinetobacter calcoaceticus variety lwoffi was present in high numbers in used pumice and was a major gram-negative microbial contaminant.19836352756
[comparative in vitro activity of 6 recent beta-lactams against hospital strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus: role of the monobactam sq 26,776].acinetobacter calcoaceticus is recognized as one of the most resistant nosocomial pathogens. clinical isolates of acinetobacter are usually resistant to most beta-lactam antibiotics and even to carbenicillin; 50% of the strains isolated in 1981-82 at the bichat hospital were inhibited only at a concentration of 180 micrograms/ml. recently several new molecules belonging to the beta-lactam group were discovered. among them, monobactam sq 26 776, a new broad spectrum highly potent monocyclic beta- ...19836353329
regulation of expression of novel mandelate dehydrogenases in mutants of acinetobacter calcoaceticus.wild-type strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus able to grow on only l(+)- or d(-)-mandelate gave rise to mutants that could grow on the other isomer of mandelate. each mutant contained an additional mandelate dehydrogenase which was not expressed in the parent strain. the novel enzymes were shown to be controlled co-ordinately with the pre-existing enzymes for the conversion of mandelate into benzoate when induced with phenylglyoxylate, gratuitously induced with thiophenoxyacetate, subjected t ...19836355386
transferable plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance in acinetobacter.acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain bm2500 was resistant to ampicillin, aminoglycoside-aminocyclitols, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, and high levels of trimethoprim. resistance to ampicillin was due to the presence of a beta-lactamase (tem-1) and the aminoglycoside-aminocyclitol resistance was mediated by phosphotransferase (aph(3')(5")i) and adenylyltransferase (aad(3)(9] activities. the resistance genes were carried by a 167 kilobase plasmid, pip1031, belonging to incompatibility group 6-c; th ...19836356187
[clinical importance of acinetobacter calcoaceticus isolations from blood and venous catheters].from 1980 to 1982 acinetobacter calcoaceticus (a.c.) derived from blood cultures and venous catheters of 29 patients could be grown. 6 patients with clinical signs of gram-negative septicemia had two or more blood cultures positive for a.c. thus, the role of a.c. as the etiologically relevant pathogen seems to be evident. in 14 cases with clinical signs of septicemia but only one set of blood cultures positive for a.c. it is felt to be the causative agent since no other cause could be found. in ...19836362283
ceftazidime: in vitro comparison with cephalothin, cefuroxime, and netilmicin. a norwegian study.the in vitro activity of ceftazidime has been compared with those of cephalothin, cefuroxime, and netilmicin against a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in order to register sensitivity patterns in the western part of norway. an agar dilution method was used for minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) determination. ceftazidime was the most active agent against enterobacteriaceae; all isolates being inhibited by 2 mg/l or less, whereas netilmicin was slightly less active, especi ...19846365480
[bioenzymatic and lysotypic study of 200 strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus].two hundred strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus isolated between 1971 and 1978 at the bichat hospital were studied by means of a biochemical and enzymatic technique thanks to 150 tests per strain. most strains (about 60%) were acinetobacter calcoaceticus variety anitratus which is more frequently isolated than var. lwoffi . three bioenzymatic groups have been statistically defined. this classification corresponds to the main lines of previous descriptions by henriksen (1960) and those indicat ...19846371676
[isolation of the l forms of acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. lwoffii in infectious endocarditis].in the bacteriological study of blood samples taken from a patient with infectious endocarditis the hemoculture of the l-forms of a. calcoaceticus, var. lwoffii, was isolated. this hemoculture reverted into the bacterial form in the process of subculturing on solid media. the species of the isolated l-forms was established on the basis of the data obtained in the study of the biological properties of the revertants. to ensure the effectiveness of bacteriological investigations, a special search ...19846380163
serotyping of acinetobacter calcoaceticus.serotyping of acinetobacter calcoaceticus by direct immunofluorescence and a capsule swelling reaction is described. one hundred isolates, including 12 from an outbreak in a neonatal department, were studied. ninety five per cent of the isolates were typable by immunofluorescence and could be divided into 30 separate types, but 42.1% of typable strains, including 11 from the outbreak, were of one type. typing results by the capsular swelling reaction generally followed those of immunofluorescenc ...19846392349
direct identification and susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli from bactec bottles by use of the ms-2 system with updated bacterial identification software.the abbott ms-2 system (abbott laboratories, diagnostic division, irving, tex.), equipped with updated bacterial identification software (version 03.02), was used to perform both direct identification and susceptibility tests on gram-negative bacilli from positive bactec blood culture bottles. ninety-eight of 101 enterobacteriaceae strains, one strain of acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and two strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa were correctly identified by following a direct inoculation procedure. o ...19846394624
isolation, characterization and mapping of mandelate pathway mutants of acinetobacter calcoaceticus.mutants of acinetobacter calcoaceticus ebf 65/65 that could not grow on intermediates of the mandelate or benzyl alcohol pathways were isolated and in some cases the enzymic lesions were identified. several catabolic markers were mapped using the plasmid pav1. the mandelate genes appeared to be clustered near the auxotrophic marker phe-1 but were not all contiguous with each other. the gene responsible for the appearance of the novel l(+)-mandelate dehydrogenase appeared to be close to a gene re ...19846396377
bacteriological analysis of water by potentiometric measurement of lipoic acid reduction: preliminary assays for selective detection of indicator organisms.the practical task of adapting an original potentiometric technique to the bacteriological analysis of water is discussed. various laboratory strains of organisms belonging to the usual aquatic flora were inoculated one by one in a minimal lactose broth supplied with lipoic (thioctic) acid. the time evolution of the redox potential of the cultures was followed during incubation by combined gold versus reference electrodes. when the incubation temperature was regulated at 36 degrees c, most organ ...19846421230
immunologically related ketodeoxyoctonate-containing structures in chlamydia trachomatis, re mutants of salmonella species, and acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus.the lipopolysaccharides (lps) of chlamydia trachomatis, acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, and re mutants of salmonella sp. were shown to share related immunodeterminants , as demonstrated by double immunodiffusion and immunoblotting from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. the cross-reactive material in the extracellular slime of a. calcoaceticus var. anitratus was shown to be released lps. the acinetobacter lps was found to separate in sodium dodecyl sulfat ...19846427112
nature and location of amide-bound (r)-3-acyloxyacyl groups in lipid a of lipopolysaccharides from various gram-negative bacteria.it has previously been demonstrated [eur. j. biochem. 124, 191-198 (1982) and 137, 15-22 (1983)] that the lipid a component of salmonella and proteus lipopolysaccharides contains amide-linked (r)-3-acyloxyacyl residues. in the present study lipid a of other gram-negative bacteria was analysed for the presence of amide-bound 3-acyloxyacyl residues. it was found that such residues are constituents of all lipid a tested (agrobacterium tumefaciens, chromobacterium violaceum, pseudomonas aeruginosa, ...19846437812
in-vitro activity of enoxacin against aminoglycoside-resistant gram-negative bacilli and other clinical isolates.the in-vitro activity of enoxacin was tested against 500 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli that were resistant to one or more of gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin, and against 1060 recent consecutive clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci. enoxacin was active against staphylococci (mics less than or equal to 4 mg/l) but less active against streptococcus faecalis (mics mostly 8 mg/l). it was active against pseudomonas aeruginosa (mics 0.5-4 mg/l) and very ac ...19846438046
postoperative ocular infections: an analysis of laboratory data on 750 cases.from 1981-1982, 750 clinical specimens from patients who developed postoperative infections were processed in the ocular microbiology laboratory. bacterial cultures were positive in 71.0%, fungal in 1.3% and another 1.4% yielded both. the remaining 26.3% were sterile. infections were due chiefly to gram positive organisms (63.6%); only 6.4% were due to gram negative bacteria while 0.9% were due to both. staphylococcus aureus (52.0%) was the most common isolate, followed by s epidermidis (37.2%). ...19846439098
comparative in vitro activities of apalcillin and piperacillin against gram-negative bacilli.the susceptibilities of 317 gram-negative bacilli to apalcillin and piperacillin were determined by standardized microdilution and disk diffusion tests. the respective percentages of strains susceptible to less than or equal to 64 micrograms of apalcillin and piperacillin per ml were as follows: members of the family enterobacteriaceae, 90 and 88%; randomly selected pseudomonas aeruginosa, 100 and 100%; multi-drug-resistant p. aeruginosa, 100 and 75%; and other nonfermenters and aeromonas hydrop ...19846440476
in vitro antibacterial properties of brl 36650, a novel 6 alpha-substituted penicillin.brl 36650 is a new type of penicillin in which a formamido group has been introduced into the 6 alpha-position of the nucleus. the compound is highly active against aerobic gram-negative bacteria and is stable to a wide range of beta-lactamases produced by these organisms. against members of the family enterobacteriaceae, brl 36650 was considerably more active than piperacillin, particularly against beta-lactamase-producing strains, and showed a similar level of activity to moxalactam, aztreonam ...19846440479
inhibitory and bactericidal activities of amifloxacin, a new quinolone carboxylic acid, compared with those of seven other antimicrobial agents.the activity of amifloxacin, a new quinolone carboxylic acid compound, against 147 strains of microorganisms was studied and was compared with the activities of cinoxacin, trimethoprim, amikacin, and four beta-lactam antimicrobials. the minimal concentration at which 90% of strains were inhibited by amifloxacin was lowest for escherichia coli and klebsiella sp (less than or equal to 0.125 microgram/ml), followed by proteus sp (less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml), enterobacter sp and citroba ...19846440708
characterization of an antibiotic resistance plasmid pav5 and its constituent replicons in acinetobacter calcoaceticus. 19846489752
evaluation of the rapid nft system for identification of gram-negative, nonfermenting rods.this study evaluated the ability of the rapid nft system (api system sa, montalieu-vercieu, france) to accurately identify 262 clinically isolated, gram-negative, nonfermentative rods without additional tests. identifications were classified as correct; low discrimination, with a spectrum of two or more possibilities (additional tests necessary for accurate identification); and incorrect. correct identification rates were analyzed in two categories: (i) correct to species or biotype for all orga ...19846490857
effect of antibiotic use on the incidence of cephalosporin resistance in two australian hospitals.the incidence of resistance of gram-negative bacteria to three generations of cephalosporins was surveyed in two large hospitals with widely differing rates of cephalosporin usage. overall resistance (mic greater than 5 mg/l) of enterobacteriaceae to cefotaxime in the hospital using large amounts of cephalosporins was 4% compared with 0.7% in the other. enterobacter species accounted for most resistant isolates and resistant enterobacter cloacae replaced sensitive strains in four patients given ...19846501136
phage-types and susceptibility to 26 antibiotics of nosocomial strains of acinetobacter isolated in portugal.sixty-two strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus isolated from pathological samples or from the environment in several hospitals in lisbon, were studied by means of two complementary phage-typing systems. eighteen phage-types or sub-types, one group of uncommon types (9.6%) and one group of untypable strains (20.9%) were found. a new phage-type (no. 104) and a new sub-type (no. 18) were defined among the portuguese strains. the in vitro activity of 26 antibiotics against 48 nosocomial strains wa ...19846519351
[acinetobacter calcoaceticus, a potential pathogen with an increasing role in pathology]. 19846522946
specific binding of a bacteriophage at a hydrocarbon-water interface.emulsan, the extracellular polyanionic emulsifying agent produced by acinetobacter calcoaceticus rag-1, has been implicated as a receptor for a specific virulent rag-1 bacteriophage, ap3. aqueous solutions of emulsan did not interfere with phage ap3 adsorption to rag-1 cells. however, binding of phage ap3 occurred at the interfaces of hexadecane-in-water emulsions specifically stabilized by emulsan polymers. binding of ap3 to emulsions was inhibited either in the presence of anti-emulsan antibod ...19846546308
direct dilution sampling, quantitation, and microbial assessment of open-system ventilation circuits in intensive care units.in a systematic approach, 37 duplicate samples of open system circuits (bennett ma-1 ventilators) of patients in medical and surgical intensive care units were processed by direct and serial (apha guidelines) dilutions. the paired difference test on 15 of the in-use circuitry solution samples indicated no difference between the direct and serial dilution methods (p less than 0.001). seventy-seven additional respiratory therapy circuitry samples from similar intensive care patients were analyzed ...19836575015
meningitis with acinetobacter calcoaceticus in cerebrospinal fluid. a case report.a case of meningitis due to acinetobacter calcoaceticus occurred after neurosurgery. the cerebrospinal fluid cytology showed intracellular diplococci that strongly resembled neisseria meningitidis. however, subsequent bacteriologic studies revealed a bacterium identical to a. calcoaceticus. it is of practical importance for cytology laboratories to recognize this diplococcal form of organism.19836575544
factors affecting quantitative transformation of streptomycin resistance markers in acinetobacter calcoaceticus.quantitative transformation of acinetobacter calcoaceticus bd4-ss exposed to autologous dna in a liquid system was examined with streptomycin resistance as a marker. the exposure to dna was terminated by addition of dnase at set intervals. the variables tested were concentrations of autologous sr-dna, exposure time, growth phase, recipient cell density, and the ph of the liquid transformation system. the ratio of transformants to total number of recipient cells (t/r-ratio) was proportional to th ...19836586036
taxonomic implications of quantitative transformation in acinetobacter calcoaceticus.quantitative transformation of streptomycin resistance marker was carried out with strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus. standard recipient strain was the competent bd4-ss. transformation proceeded in a liquid system with a concentration of 20 micrograms/ml of streptomycin resistant dna (sr-dna) from bd4, 17 reference strains of acinetobacter, and 42 recent clinical isolates of the acid forming variant (anitratus) and 12 of the non-acid forming variant (lwoffi) as donors of sr-dna. the exposur ...19836586037
p-chloromercuribenzoate specifically modifies thiols associated with the active sites of beta-ketoadipate enol-lactone hydrolase and succinyl coa: beta-ketoadipate coa transferase.beta-ketoadipate enol-lactone hydrolase (ec 3.1.1.24) and succinyl coa: beta-ketoadipate transferase (ec 2.8.3.6) catalyze consecutive metabolic reactions in bacteria. the enzymes appear to be members of different families of related proteins. enzymes within the enol-lactone hydrolase family appear to have diverged so extensively that common ancestry sometimes is not directly evident from comparison of nh2-terminal amino acid sequences of the proteins. amino acid sequences at or near the active ...19846591865
enoxacin: worldwide in-vitro activity against 22451 clinical isolates.a worldwide multicentre study involving 31 centres in eight countries was conducted to compare the in-vitro activity of enoxacin with that of other currently available antibiotics. enoxacin was active against virtually all of the species of enterobacteriaceae tested (mic90 less than or equal to 0.25-2 mg/l). it was also effective at inhibiting pseudomonas aeruginosa (mic90 = 2 mg/l; n = 3540), staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis (mic90 = 2 mg/l; n = 2635 and 837 resp.), acinetobacter calcoacet ...19846594322
nucleotide sequence of the acinetobacter calcoaceticus trpgdc gene cluster.a plasmid library of acinetobacter calcoaceticus hindiii fragments was constructed, and clones that complemented an escherichia coli paba mutant were selected. plasmids containing a 3.9-kb fragment of a. calcoaceticus dna that also complemented e. coli trpd and trpc-(trpf+) mutants were obtained. we infer that complementation of e. coli paba mutants was the result of the expression of the amphibolic anthranilate-synthase/p-aminobenzoate-synthase glutamine-amidotransferase gene and that the plasm ...19846599977
n-formimidoyl thienamycin: in vitro comparison with cefoxitin and tobramycin against clinical, bacterial isolates.the in vitro activity of the novel beta-lactam antibiotic, n-formimidoyl thienamycin (n-f thienamycin) has been compared with those of cefoxitin and tobramycin. an agar dilution method was employed. n-f thienamycin was active against all enterobacteriaceae isolates (mic less than or equal to 4 mg/l). all pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were inhibited by 2 mg/l. n-f thienamycin was also active against acinetobacter calcoaceticus (96 per cent inhibited by 0.5 mg/l) and gram-positive cocci. all ent ...19836603093
acinetobacter calcoaceticus infection in and around manipal (karnataka). 19836605922
in vitro activities of new beta-lactam antibiotics against acinetobacter spp.the in vitro activities of new beta-lactam antibiotics was studied and compared with those of other known agents against 51 clinical isolates of acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus and 23 isolates of a. calcoaceticus subsp. lwoffi. of the new beta-lactam antibiotics, imipemide (n-formimidoyl thienamycin), ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, and piperacillin demonstrated good activities. the minimal inhibitory concentrations for a. calcoaceticus subsp. lwoffi were lower than those obt ...19836638992
modulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase activity in acinetobacter calcoaceticus by acetate.the addition of acetate to a culture of acinetobacter calcoaceticus grown in medium containing limiting succinate as the sole carbon and energy source leads to an increase in the specific activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase. this is in contrast to similar studies with several other microorganisms in which acetate induces an atp-dependent phosphorylation and concomitant decrease in the specific activity of this enzyme.19836641942
bacteria-immune system interactions. ii. adherence of acinetobacter calcoaceticus strains to human lymphocytes.out of twenty-nine strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus (a. calcoaceticus) only eight adhered to lymphocytes. the percentage of lymphocytes labeled with bacteria varied from 5 to 70%. most of the labeled lymphocytes had large numbers of bacteria attached to them. the variation in the percentages of lymphocytes labeled in various individuals was minimal.19836642551
localization of emulsan-like polymers associated with the cell surface of acinetobacter calcoaceticus.various immunochemical techniques were employed to probe the relationship between the extracellular emulsifying agent (emulsan) and the cell-associated form of the polymer in acinetobacter calcoaceticus rag-1. using an emulsan-specific antibody preparation, immunocytochemical labeling revealed that an emulsan-like antigen is a major component of the 125-nm minicapsule which envelopes the exponential-phase cell of the parent strain. the marked reduction of this capsule in stationary-phase cells w ...19836687725
immunochemical identification of the major cell surface agglutinogen of acinetobacter calcoaceticus rag-92.the immunochemical and immunocytochemical characteristics of three acinetobacter calcoaceticus rag strains were compared in order to clarify the relationship between antibody-induced agglutination and the production of polyanionic extracellular emulsifier (termed emulsan). in addition to the parent, rag-92, two mutant strains were examined: (1) a non-agglutinating emulsan-producer (ab15), and (2) an agglutinating mutant (16tlu) defective in the production of emulsan. a combined genetic-immunoche ...19836688443
enzymatic depolymerization of emulsan.emulsan, the polyanionic emulsifying agent synthesized by acinetobacter calcoaceticus rag-1, was depolymerized by an enzyme obtained from a soil bacterium yuv-1. the extracellular emulsan depolymerase was produced when strains rag-1 and yuv-1 were grown together on agar medium. the enzyme was extracted from the agar and concentrated by ultrafiltration and ammonium sulfate precipitation. the molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 89,000. emulsan depolymerase activity was due to an eli ...19836688620
bacterial degradation of emulsan.emulsan is a polyanionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by acinetobacter calcoaceticus rag-1. a mixed bacterial population was obtained by enrichment culture that was capable of degrading emulsan and using it as a carbon source. from this mixed culture, an emulsan-degrading bacterium, termed yuv-1, was isolated. strain yuv-1 is an aerobic, gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium which grows best in media containing yeast extract. when placed on preformed lawns of a. c ...19836688940
not gliding but twitching motility of acinetobacter calcoaceticus. 19846707215
in vitro activity of apalcillin compared with those of piperacillin and carbenicillin against 6,797 bacterial isolates from four separate medical centers.quantitative susceptibility tests were performed in four separate medical centers, in which apalcillin was compared with piperacillin and carbenicillin. data from tests of 6,797 isolates confirmed that apalcillin and piperacillin had nearly identical spectra of activity but that apalcillin was significantly more active against pseudomonas aeruginosa (mic required to inhibit 90% of strains, 2.0 versus 64 micrograms/ml) and acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus (mic required to inhibit 90% ...19846732234
fingerprinting acinetobacter strains from clinical sources by numerical analysis of electrophoretic protein patterns.a total of 57 strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus was fingerprinted by sds-page of cellular protein. all strains were also examined by conventional, api and n/f-tek methods, and antibiotic sensitivity patterns were determined. in general, using the api 20e and n/f-tek methods, it was possible to assign isolates of a. calcoaceticus to the two accepted "biotypes" or "varieties", a.c. anitratus and a.c. lwoffi, but these methods did not offer useful subdivision of the biotypes. gel electrophores ...19846748041
intergeneric evolutionary homology revealed by the study of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase from azotobacter vinelandii.protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (ec 1.13.1.3) was purified to homogeneity from extracts of azotobacter vinelandii. the molecular weight of the oligomeric protein was estimated to be 510 000 by gel filtration and 480 000 by ultracentrifugation. the oligomer appears to be formed by association of equal amounts of nonidentical subunits which were estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis to have respective molecular weights of 23 300 and 25 250. ten gram-atoms of iron was associated w ...19806766312
antimicrobial susceptibility of acinetobacter calcoaceticus, serratia marcescens, pseudomonas fluorescens and pseudomonas maltophilia to three novel cephalosporin-like antibiotics. 19806777362
evolutionarily homologous alpha 2 beta 2 oligomeric structures in beta-ketoadipate succinyl-coa transferases from acinetobacter calcoaceticus and pseudomonas putida.homogeneous beta-ketoadipate succinyl-coa transferase (ec 2.8.3.6) preparations were obtained from extracts of acinetobacter calcoaceticus and pseudomonas putida. gel filtration indicated that the respective transferases have similar molecular weights of 108,000 and 109,000; each transferase appears to have an alpha 2 beta 2 oligomeric structure formed by association of nonidentical subunits with a molecular weight of about 25,000. the subunits were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electr ...19816780551
evolutionary relationships among gamma-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylases.gamma-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase (ec 4.1.1.44) from azotobacter vinelandii resembled the isofunctional enzymes from acinetobacter calcoaceticus and pseudomonas putida. all three decarboxylases appeared to be hexamers formed by association of identical subunits of about 13,300 daltons. the a. vinelandii and p. putida decarboxylases cross-reacted immunologically with each other, and the nh2-terminal amino acid sequences of the enzymes differed in no more than 7 of the first 36 residues. in ...19816783616
selective nonroutine microbial surveillance of in-use hospital nebulizers by aerosol entrapment and direct sampling analyses of solutions in reservoirs.effluent aerosols and liquid reservoir samples from 255 in-use hospital nebulization devices were analyzed by aero-test samplers (olympic corp.) and direct dilution procedures (0.1-, 0.01-, and 0.001-ml plated samples). thirty-five percent (89 of 255) of the in-use hospital reservoir samples were positive by direct dilution, and 24% (61 of 255) were positive by aero- test samplers. acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus was found either alone or in association with pseudomonas spp. in 50% of ...19806785304
microbial colonization of prosthetic devices. ii. scanning electron microscopy of naturally infected intravenous catheters.forty two nonselected naturally infected intravenous catheters were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (sem) and usual bacteriological methods. in many catheter samples an amorphous deposited substance could be detected by sem investigation, mostly associated with the isolation of staphylococci, acinetobacter calcoaceticus and pseudomonas aeruginosa. the thickest layers of such a substance were found in catheters infected by coagulase-negative staphylococci. the bacteria seemed to be c ...19816792814
bb-k 122: in vitro and in vivo activity against ocular pathogens.bb-k 122 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic and an analogue of amikacin. this study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of bb-k 122 and gentamicin against important ocular pathogens. bb-k 122 and gentamicin demonstrated generally equivalent in vitro antibacterial activity, except that gentamicin was more active against streptococcus sp. bb-k 122 showed significant in vitro activity against important ophthalmic pathogens, including pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, acinetobac ...19816797791
transfer of the gonococcal penicillinase plasmid: mobilization in escherichia coli by incp plasmids and isolation as a dna-protein relaxation complex.a 4.4-megadalton penicillinase plasmid, pwd2, from neisseria gonorrhoeae was transformed into escherichia coli. pwd2 was efficiently mobilized by incp plasmids in e. coli but not by flac, r1drd-19, or r64drd-11. pwd2 could be isolated as a dna-protein relaxation complex with properties similar to the well characterized cole1 complex. the host range of pwd2 was shown to include gonococci, enterobacteriaceae, and hemophilus influenzae, but not acinetobacter calcoaceticus or pseudomonas aeruginosa. ...19826801022
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