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acinetobacter calcoaceticus foot infection secondary to high-pressure injection injury: a case report.injection injuries are surgical emergencies occurring most often in the hand and frequently associated with widespread tissue necrosis and infection. this report presents a case of high-pressure injection injury of the foot associated with extensor hallucis longus laceration and infection with acinetobacter calcoaceticus variant anitratus. this injury occurred with a high-pressure "water-blaster" tool used to remove paint from pavement. similar injuries in the foot have not been reported. a. cal ...19882895055
[alpha-aminomethylketones as inhibitors of a membrane-bound alanine aminopeptidase].methyl ketone derivatives of l-amino acids are substrate analogous inhibitors of membrane bound alanine aminopeptidase (ec 3.4.11.2) from acinetobacter calcoaceticus. the type of inhibition is competitive. compounds with a branched aliphatic side chain are most effective so that valine methyl ketone was found to be the best inhibitor of the enzyme with a k-value of 5.5.10(-7) mol.l-1.19872895641
hand disinfection: a comparison of various agents in laboratory and ward studies.the efficacy of 14 handwashing or disinfectant preparations was compared in laboratory tests on staff volunteers. the test organism, escherichia coli, was applied to the fingertips and log reductions (lr) were measured following treatment with the test agent and control preparations (70% isopropanol and non-medicated bar soap). alcoholic preparations, particularly n-propanol and isopropanol were the most effective showing lrs of 3.1-3.8. chlorhexidine (lr 2.9) and povidone-iodine detergent prepa ...19882899107
endemic occurrence of acinetobacter calcoaceticus biovar anitratus in an intensive care unit. 19882905720
a study of the value of electrophoretic and other techniques for typing acinetobacter calcoaceticus.forty-four isolates of acinetobacter calcoaceticus var anitratus collected during hospital outbreaks were studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page), plasmid analysis, antibiograms and biochemical tests to determine their degree of similarity. reproducibility tests were also carried out on the page and biochemical techniques to determine their validity when used to compare bacteria of the same type isolated intermittently. page data was analysed densitometrically and isolates compar ...19882907333
epidemic bloodstream infections associated with pressure transducers: a persistent problem.twenty-four outbreaks of nosocomial bloodstream infection (bsi) were investigated by the centers for disease control from jan 1, 1977 to dec 31, 1987. intravascular pressure monitoring devices (transducers) were the most commonly identified source of bacterial and fungal bsi outbreaks and were implicated as the source of infection in eight (33%) outbreaks. these included outbreaks caused by candida parapsilosis (2), serratia marcescens (2), klebsiella oxytoca (1), pseudomonas cepacia (1), acinet ...19892926106
in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and rosoxacin compared with cinoxacin and trimethoprim.the in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, rosoxacin, cinoxacin and trimethoprim have been compared. an agar dilution method has been employed for the measurement of minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics). 426 clinical, bacterial urinary isolates mainly from hospitalised patients were included; all common urinary tract pathogens were represented. the newer quinolones were highly active against enterobacteriaceae species, pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter calcoacet ...19852934234
[evolution of acinetobacter calcoaceticus in the hospital milieu, from 1971 to 1984].during the last 10 years the authors have evaluated the increasing part played by acinetobacter calcoaceticus in nosocomial infections and the increasing resistance of this species to antibiotics. the study involved 850 clinical strains isolated from 1971 to 1984, and 24 antibiotics were tested. a progressive increase in resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides and tetracycline was observed, and to date up to 80-90% of the strains are resistant to all but major drugs such as imipen ...19852935831
ciprofloxacin therapy of infections caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa and other resistant bacteria.ciprofloxacin was administered orally to 48 patients with 24 pseudomonas aeruginosa infections and 13 other infections caused by cephalothin-resistant gram-negative bacilli. the types of infections treated included those of skin or skin structure, bone, urinary tract, and respiratory tract. in 83% of p. aeruginosa infections, a favorable clinical outcome occurred, compared with 85% for all infections. failure to achieve a cure correlated with the emergence of resistant p. aeruginosa and acinetob ...19852939795
comparative antimicrobial activity of enoxacin, ciprofloxacin, amifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin against 177 bacterial isolates.the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of five new quinolones, enoxacin (ci-919, at-2266), ciprofloxacin (bay o 9867), amifloxacin (win 49375) norfloxacin (mk 0366), and ofloxacin (orf 18489), was compared against 104 strains of enterobacteriaceae, 51 pseudomonas species, 7 acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, and 15 enterococci. in general the quinolones tested were active against most bacterial strains. ciprofloxacin was the most active with mic90 for all genera tested ranging from 0.03 to ...19862941401
[acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. iwoffi as the cause of abscess formation in han:nmri nude mice]. 19882973310
[spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by acinetobacter calcoaceticus. a rare nosocomial infection in the cirrhotic patient]. 19882974144
vectors for transposon mutagenesis of non-enteric bacteria.we have constructed a series of transposon delivery vectors derived from prk2013. since prk2013 has a broad host range transfer system and a cole1 replicon, it can be transferred to, but not replicated in, many non-enteric gram-negative bacteria. thus prk2013 provides an effective mechanism for the transient introduction of a transposon. delivery vectors containing tn7 (tmp str), tn10 (tet), tn10 hh104 (tet), or tn5-132 (tet) have been constructed. when transposition in caulobacter crescentus wa ...19852993823
acciii, a new restriction endonuclease from acinetobacter calcoaceticus.a new site-specific restriction endonuclease, acciii, was isolated from acinetobacter calcoaceticus. acciii recognizes t/ccgga and cleaves at the position shown by the arrow. acciii activity was inhibited by adenine methylation at the overlapping dam methylase recognition sequence.19853001647
cloning and expression of acinetobacter calcoaceticus catbcde genes in pseudomonas putida and escherichia coli.this report describes the isolation and preliminary characterization of a 5.0-kilobase-pair (kbp) ecori dna restriction fragment carrying the catbcde genes from acinetobacter calcoaceticus. the respective genes encode enzymes that catalyze four consecutive reactions in the catechol branch of the beta-ketoadipate pathway: catb, muconate lactonizing enzyme (ec 5.5.1.1); catc, muconolactone isomerase (ec 5.3.3.4); catd, beta-ketoadipate enol-lactone hydrolase (ec 3.1.1.24); and cate, beta-ketoadipa ...19863003031
molecular analysis of an antibiotic resistance plasmid, pav5, and its derivative plasmids in acinetobacter calcoaceticus.the non-conjugative plasmid pav5 specifies resistance to kanamycin/neomycin (kmr) and tetracycline (tcr). physical evidence is presented to show that pav5 gives rise to two plasmids, pav51 (kmr) and pav52 (tcr), which are formed by deletion of apparently non-overlapping segments of pav5. expression of tcr has been obtained in escherichia coli and is associated with a 1.9 kb hindiii fragment found in pav5 and in pav52. expression of kmr has been obtained in e. coli and is associated with a 1.3 kb ...19853007656
acinetobacter calcoaceticus encoded mutarotase: nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene and characterization of its secretion in escherichia coli.the nucleotide sequence of the mutarotase gene from acinetobacter calcoaceticus has been determined. it reveals an open reading frame of 381 amino acids. the codon usage of a. calcoaceticus for this gene is similar to e. coli except for the amino acids leu, ala, glu, and arg where major differences exist. this did not interfere drastically with high level expression in e. coli. the regulatory sequences for the initiation of translation are similar to the ones described for e. coli. the n-termina ...19863012466
molecular cloning into tn5 and integration in the pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome: a tool for heterologous gene expression.the dna primase gene of the promiscuous incp-1 conjugative plasmid rp1, encoding two polypeptides of 118 and 80 kda, was inserted into the transposon tn5 in escherichia coli. the derivative transposon, tn2523, was then transposed to a temperature-sensitive replication mutant of the promiscuous incp-1 conjugative plasmid r68 at permissive temperature and the plasmid transferred to pseudomonas aeruginosa strain pao. the latter strain was then grown at non-permissive temperature to identify transpo ...19863016149
the oxidation of glucose by acinetobacter calcoaceticus: interaction of the quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase with the electron transport chain.the coupling of the quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase to the electron transport chain has been investigated in acinetobacter calcoaceticus. no evidence was obtained to support a previous suggestion that the soluble form of the dehydrogenase and the soluble cytochrome b associated with it are involved in the oxidation of glucose. analysis of cytochrome content, and of reduction of cytochromes in membranes by substrates, and of sensitivity to cyanide indicated that glucose, succinate and nadh are ...19863021895
polymyxin-b inhibition of lps-induced interleukin-1 secretion by human monocytes is dependent upon the lps origin.polymyxin-b (pmb) is an antibiotic known to inhibit various biological activities induced by lipopolysaccharides (lps). we have investigated the ability of pmb to inhibit lps-induced interleukin-1 (il-1) secretion by human monocytes in vitro. interleukin-1 was assayed by the conventional comitogenic assay using mice thymocytes. our data demonstrate that pmb (1-2 micrograms/assay)-mediated inhibition of lps-induced il-1 secretion depends on the origin of the lps. interleukin-1 secretions induced ...19863023974
sulbactam/ampicillin: in vitro spectrum, potency, and activity in models of acute infection.more than 90% of community hospital-isolated strains of staphylococcus (including methicillin-resistant isolates), streptococcus, haemophilus, neisseria, branhamella, bacteroides, escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter aerogenes, proteus, and acinetobacter calcoaceticus were inhibited by the sulbactam/ampicillin (1:2) combination at concentrations of 8 micrograms/16 micrograms per ml. the peak serum level from a 15-min infusion of 1 g/2 g of sulbactam/ampicillin is more than seven times this ...19863026001
cloning and genetic organization of the pca gene cluster from acinetobacter calcoaceticus.the beta-ketoadipate pathway of acinetobacter calcoaceticus comprises two parallel metabolic branches. one branch, mediated by six enzymes encoded by the cat genes, converts catechol to succinate and acetyl coenzyme a (acetyl-coa); the other branch, catalyzed by products of the pca genes, converts protocatechuate to succinate and acetyl-coa by six metabolic reactions analogous or identical to those of the catechol sequence. we used the expression plasmid puc18 to construct expression libraries o ...19873036773
outer membrane permeability of acinetobacter calcoaceticus mediates susceptibility to rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte granule contents.growth of acinetobacter calcoaceticus on specific alkanes altered the outer membrane permeability of the organism, as indicated by a change in sensitivity to the antibiotic actinomycin d. as the carbon length of the alkane energy source decreased, outer membrane permeability and susceptibility to actinomycin d increased. concomitant with the increase in outer membrane permeability, a. calcoaceticus became more susceptible to the oxygen-independent antimicrobial activity of extracted contents fro ...19873040593
bacterial nad(p)-independent quinate dehydrogenase is a quinoprotein.acinetobacter calcoaceticus lmd 79.41 produced significant amounts of pyrrolo-quinoline quinone (pqq) in its culture medium when grown on quinic acid or shikimic acid. studies with lmd 79.41 and pqq- -mutants of this strain demonstrated that this organism contains an nad(p)-independent quinate dehydrogenase (qdh) (ec 1.1.99.-), catalyzing the first degradation step of these compounds, and that the enzyme contains pqq as a cofactor, i.e. is a quinoprotein. synthesis of qdh was induced by protocat ...19883044290
chorismate mutase:prephenate dehydratase from acinetobacter calcoaceticus. purification, properties and immunological cross-reactivity.the bifunctional p protein (chorismate mutase: prephenate dehydratase) from acinetobacter calcoaceticus has been purified. it was homogeneous in polyacrylamide gels and was more than 95% pure on the basis of the immunostaining of purified p protein with the antibodies raised against the p protein. the native enzyme is a homodimer (mr = 91,000) composed of 45-kda subunits. a twofold increase in the native molecular mass of the p protein occurred in the presence of l-phenylalanine (inhibitor of bo ...19883046943
a belgian multicentre in-vitro study of ofloxacin.in a large multicentre study, the susceptibility of 2171 bacterial isolates to ofloxacin and other antibiotics has been examined by the kirby-bauer method. susceptibility to ofloxacin (breakpoint less than or equal to 2 mg/l) was observed in 99.2% of 1104 strains enterobacteriaceae, 88.9% of 217 pseudomonas aeruginosa, 93.6% of 31 other pseudomonas spp., 96.3% of 27 acinetobacter calcoaceticus, 99.2% of 118 haemophilus influenzae, 97.4% of 423 staphylococci, 79.4% of 107 streptococcus faecalis a ...19883053578
comparison of mandelate dehydrogenases from various strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus: similarity of natural and 'evolved' forms.in previous work it had been shown that acinetobacter calcoaceticus wild-type strain ncib 8250 had only an l-mandelate deydrogenase but it could give rise to mutants that contained an evolved d-mandelate dehydrogenase; conversely, wild-type strain ebf 65/65 had only a d-mandelate dehydrogenase but gave rise to mutants that possessed an evolved l-mandelate dehydrogenase. several other wild-type strains of a. calcoaceticus have now been shown to grow on both enantiomers of mandelate. in every case ...19883053984
benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase ii from acinetobacter calcoaceticus. substrate specificities and inhibition studies.the apparent km and maximum velocity values of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase ii from acinetobacter calcoaceticus were determined for a range of alcohols and aldehydes and the corresponding turnover numbers and specificity constants were calculated. benzyl alcohol was the most effective alcohol substrate for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. perillyl alcohol was the second most effective substrate, and was the only non-aromatic alcohol oxidized. the other substrates of b ...19883060114
flow cytometric screening and isolation of escherichia coli clones which express surface antigens of the oil-degrading microorganism acinetobacter calcoaceticus rag-1.flow cytometry (fcm) in conjunction with immunocytochemical-labeling was used to analyze and screen a population of escherichia coli clones containing a genomic library from the oil-degrading microorganism acinetobacter calcoaceticus rag-1 surface antigens. reconstruction experiments using mixed populations indicated that rag-1 cells could be clearly distinguished at a ratio of one rag-1 cell to 500 escherichia coli cells. using this technique two clones, wm143 and wm191, were isolated and shown ...19883061370
acinetobacter calcoaceticus bacteremia 1984-1987. 19883068198
comparative in vitro activity of lomefloxacin and other antimicrobials against 597 microorganisms causing bacteremia.the in vitro activity of lomefloxacin, a new fluorinated quinolone antimicrobial, was compared to that of enoxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and tobramycin against 597 microorganisms isolated from bacteremic patients at a university hospital. overall, lomefloxacin had activity similar to that of enoxacin and norfloxacin but less than that of ofloxacin. lomefloxacin had excellent activity against members of the family enterobacteriaceae and haemophilus influenzae ...19883071448
cloning and expression of pca genes from pseudomonas putida in escherichia coli.beta-ketoadipate elicits expression of five structural pca genes encoding enzymes that catalyse consecutive reactions in the utilization of protocatechuate by pseudomonas putida. three derivatives of p. putida prs2000 were obtained, each carrying a single copy of tn5 dna inserted into a separate region of the genome and preventing expression of different sets of pca genes. selection of tn5 in or near the pca genes in these derivatives was used to clone four structural pca genes and to enable the ...19883076176
antibiogram, biotyping and plasmid profile analysis of acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus.antibiogram, biotyping, and plasmid profile analysis were studied on 115 isolates (40 nosocomial and 75 community strains) of acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus isolated from clinical specimens. by disk diffusion method, we found 14 antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. among them, the gentamicin-resistant patterns were recovered more frequently from nosocomial origin than from community-acquired origin. fifteen patterns of biocodes were found by using gni card of automicrobic system (v ...19883076859
separation of isoenzymes of citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase by fast protein liquid chromatography.fast protein liquid chromatography (fplc) has been shown to be a rapid and effective method of separating isoenzymes of citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in extracts of pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter calcoaceticus. the advantages of fplc over conventional methods of fractionation are discussed and it is suggested that this may be a valuable and more general technique for isoenzyme resolution.19863081366
microplate technique to determine hemolytic activity for routine typing of listeria strains.because the hemolysis produced by listeria monocytogenes and listeria seeligeri on blood agar is frequently difficult to interpret, we developed a microplate technique for the routine determination of hemolytic activity with erythrocyte suspensions. this microtechnique is a simple and reliable test for distinguishing clearly between hemolytic and nonhemolytic strains and could be used instead of the camp (christie-atkins-munch-petersen) test with staphylococcus aureus in the routine typing of li ...19863088037
in vitro activity of aztreonam against gram negative bacteria from clinical specimens and its comparison with other commonly used antibiotics.a total of 755 gram negative bacteria isolated from clinical specimens were tested against aztreonam by the disc agar diffusion test. the strains of bacteria used in this study consisted of escherichia coli (314), enterobacter aerogenes (30), e. agglomerans (7), e. cloacae, (39), citrobacter diversus (9), c. freundii (13), hafnia alvei (3), acinetobacter calcoaceticus (10), klebsiella oxytoca (6), k. ozaenae (5), k. pneumoniae (107), morganella morganii (3), moraxella sp. (10), pasteurella multo ...19863088346
enhanced emulsan production in mutants of acinetobacter calcoaceticus rag-1 selected for resistance to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.mutants of acinetobacter calcoaceticus rag-1 that produced elevated levels of the polymeric bioemulsifier emulsan were isolated on the basis of their resistance to the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (ctab). such mutants showed maximum enhancement in both overall yield and specific productivity of some two- to threefold over that of the wild type. in addition, the effect was also observed in a resting cell system in the presence of chloramphenicol, indicating that the mutation ...19863089157
determination of endotoxins on hypodermic needles by means of a chromogenic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. development of a test model.a test model was developed in order to describe the determination of endotoxins on hypodermic needles in a reliable and reproducible manner. as in all in-vitro experiments one has to be very careful about extrapolating data to in-vivo situations. however by choosing a hydrophilic (salmonella typhimurium atcc 14028) and a hydrophobic bacterium (acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus rr 8212/113), one could hope to obtain a quite representative idea about the extraction of contaminating gram-n ...19863101323
antibacterial properties of imipenem with special reference to the activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, cefotaxime-resistant enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonas aeruginosa.imipenem was examined with standardized agar dilution procedures against a wide range of bacteria. geometric mean mics against the genera escherichia, klebsiella, enterobacter, citrobacter and serratia were 0.1-0.4 mg/l, and proteus and providencia spp. were inhibited by 0.25-4 mg/l. acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratum strains were inhibited by concentrations ranging from 0.12-0.5 mg/l. methicillin-susceptible staphylococci were highly susceptible to the drug (mics: less than or equal to ...19863102452
emergence of resistant bacterial strains during treatment of infections in the respiratory tract.in order to investigate the frequency of the emergence of resistance during treatment, 1,403 episodes of lower respiratory infection were studied in a general hospital with three departments of chest medicine in a period of four years. in 650 episodes the pathogen was isolated and in 82 of those failure of therapy was accompanied by emergence of resistance to the agent used. factors associated with this phenomenon were: intensive care, tracheostomy, involvement of pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterob ...19863103208
combined resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams after in vitro transfer on single drugs.single and combined resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams was determined after serial transfers of 18 selected strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa (5), acinetobacter calcoaceticus (3) and beta-lactamase producing enterobacterial strains (10), in broth dilutions of 4 quinolones and 8 beta-lactams. two definitions for resistance were used: (i) 8-fold mic increase and stability of acquired resistance after five transfers in drug-free broth; and (ii) 8-fold mic increase over the breakpoint level. ...19873109816
adhesion of bacteria from mixed cell suspension to solid surfaces.the attachment of four species of bacteria to solid surfaces was investigated to determine whether the attachment of one species of bacterium could be influenced by the presence of other attaching or attached species. three types of experiment were done: attachment of bacteria from suspensions containing two species (termed "simultaneous attachment") was compared to attachment of each species in pure culture, the attachment of one species of bacterium to surfaces already colonized by a second sp ...19873115220
[epidemiologic studies of the microbial colonization of severely burned patients].bacteria isolated between 1/1/1983 and 12/31/1984 from the burns of 122 patients in a burns unit at the ruhr-universität bochum were studied. grampositive bacteria were predominant in colonizing the burn wounds (62.5% of all strains isolated). in the patients with more than 40% of total body surface area (tbsa) burn, isolation of staph aureus was most frequent. the exogenous colonization rate with staph. aureus was 86%. coagulase negative staphylococci were identified in 89.6% of all patients (7 ...19873116791
serum bactericidal activity and postantibiotic effect in serum of patients with urinary tract infection receiving high-dose amikacin.ten patients received a 30-min infusion of amikacin (30 mg/kg) on day 1 and 15 mg/kg on day 2. mean serum creatinine was 1.1 +/- 0.3 (standard deviation) mg/dl before and 1.0 +/- 0.3 mg/dl 3 days after the second infusion. mean serum amikacin concentrations before, at the end of infusion, and 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after 30 and 15 mg/kg were 0, 157, 79, 31, 16, 5, 5, 85, 51, 19, 12, and 5 mg/liter, respectively. five strains each of staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis susceptible and r ...19873116918
susceptibility of 310 nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria to aztreonam, carumonam, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and fleroxacin.the susceptibility of 310 mainly clinically isolated gram-negative nonfermenters to aztreonam, carumonam, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and fleroxacin was determined by agar dilution. all 3 quinolones were very active, with mic90 ranges (micrograms/ml) against all organisms ranging between 0.25 and 8 for ciprofloxacin, and 0.25 and 16.0 for ofloxacin and fleroxacin, respectively. aztreonam and carumonam showed less activity than the quinolones on a weight-for-weight basis, with mic90 values ranging f ...19883127127
[effect of the slime from acinetobacter calcoaceticus on the function of phagocytic cells]. 19873127500
in vitro studies of fleroxacin (ro 23-6240), a new trifluorinated quinolone derivative.the in vitro activity of fleroxacin (ro 23-6240) against 441 bacterial isolates was compared with those of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, amoxycillin, cefadroxil, cefuroxime and tobramycin. an agar dilution method was used for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics). ciprofloxacin showed the highest activity against the enterobacteriaceae, 95% of the isolates were inhibited by 0.06 mg/l, but fleroxacin and ofloxacin were also highly active (mic 90% = 0.5 and 0.25 mg/l, respectiv ...19883141116
endemic acinetobacter anitratus in a surgical intensive care unit: mechanical ventilators as reservoir.colonization and infection with an endemic multiresistant strain of acinetobacter calcoaceticus variety anitratus had been observed in the surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital since 1982. an outbreak of infection with this endemic, multiresistant acinetobacter anitratus strain occurred between january and september, 1984. after initial attempts at identification of environmental reservoirs had been unsuccessful, risk factors for the acquisition of acinetobacter anitratus were in ...19883141154
[in vitro antibacterial activity of cefpirome in combination with 4 aminoglycosides and 2 fluoroquinolones].combinations of cefpirome with aminoglycosides (gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmicin, amikacin) and of cefpirome with fluorinated quinolones (pefloxacin, ofloxacin) were tested against 20 enterobacteriaceae, 6 pseudomonas aeruginosa, 6 acinetobacter calcoaceticus, 6 group d streptococci and 6 staphylococcus aureus strains, susceptible, intermediate or resistant with a low level to these different compounds. activity of combinations was evaluated using a broth microdilution checkerboard method and ...19883141888
[serological typing of acinetobacter calcoaceticus subspecies anitratus strains by soft-agar technique]. 19883146608
leukopenic and lethal effects of slime from acinetobacter calcoaceticus. 19883150412
comparative activity in vitro of ticarcillin and ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid against enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter calcoaceticus. 19873151358
comparative in-vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against non-fermenters.the in-vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of carbenicillin, azlocillin, cefsulodin, ceftazidime, tobramycin and amikacin against 187 non-fermenters. only one of the 131 strains of pseudomonas spp. was not inhibited by 1 mg/l of ciprofloxacin, while these isolates appeared highly resistant to carbenicillin, azlocillin and cefsulodin. ciprofloxacin was also the best agent against flavobacterium, alcaligenes faecalis and acinetobacter ca ...19853159710
[comparative in vitro study of the activity of 5 quinolones against acinetobacter calcoaceticus].the authors compared the in vitro activity of ofloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid against 143 clinical isolates of acinetobacter calcoaceticus. minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) were determined by the agar dilution method. minimal bactericidal concentrations (mbcs) were measured using microplates. ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and pefloxacin were substantially active in vitro. mics 50 were respectively 0.72, 0.69 and 1.05 micrograms/ml. geometric means were 0.9 ...19853162142
[susceptibilities of clinical isolates to antibacterial agents. focusing mainly on ofloxacin (first report). reported by the research group for testing ofloxacin susceptibility of clinical isolates].susceptibility tests were carried out on a variety of clinically isolated pathogens using the susceptibility disc method at 197 hospitals in japan between may, 1985 through march, 1986. these tests were organized by the research group for testing ofloxacin susceptibility on clinical isolates, and the results were statistically analyzed. this paper describes a comparison of susceptibilities of clinical isolates including staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, enterococcus faecalis, st ...19883163383
dna sequence of the acinetobacter calcoaceticus catechol 1,2-dioxygenase i structural gene cata: evidence for evolutionary divergence of intradiol dioxygenases by acquisition of dna sequence repetitions.the dna sequence of a 1.6-kilobase-pair sali-kpni acinetobacter calcoaceticus restriction fragment carrying cata, the structural gene for catechol 1,2-dioxygenase i, was determined. the 933-nucleotide gene encodes a protein product with a deduced molecular weight of 34,351. the similarly sized pseudomonas clca gene encodes catechol 1,2-dioxygenase ii, an enzyme with relatively broad substrate specificity and relatively low catalytic efficiency. comparison of the cata and clca sequences demonstra ...19883170486
[susceptibility of gram-negative bacterial isolates to six beta-lactam and two aminoglycoside antibiotics at our university hospital].susceptibilities of gram-negative bacterial strains isolated at the university hospital in 1987 to six beta-lactam antibiotics (azthreonam cefmetazole, ceftizoxime, latamoxef, aminobenzyl-penicillin and piperacillin) and two aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin) were examined by agar dilution and the agar diffusion method. results obtained from both methods correlated well in most of the strains. most of the strains belonging to escherichia coli, klebsiella oxytoca, klebsiella pne ...19883175388
cytochrome b-562 from acinetobacter calcoaceticus l.m.d. 79.41. its characteristics and role as electron acceptor for quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase.a soluble cytochrome b was purified from acinetobacter calcoaceticus l.m.d. 79.41. on the basis of the alpha-band maximum of a reduced preparation, measured at 25 degrees c, it is designated as cytochrome b-562. this cytochrome is a basic monomeric protein (pi 10.2; mr 18,000), containing one protohaem group per molecule. the reduced form, at 25 degrees c, showed absorption bands at 428, 532 and 562 nm. at 77 k the alpha-band shifted to 560 nm (with a shoulder at 558 nm). the reduced cytochrome ...19883178744
synergistic interactions of ciprofloxacin and extended spectrum beta-lactams or aminoglycosides against acinetobacter calcoaceticus ss. anitratus.the susceptibility of 54 clinical isolates of acinetobacter calcoaceticus ss. anitratus to 16 antimicrobial agents was determined in vitro with inoculum of 10(4) and 10(6) cfu by a standard agar dilution method. the most active agents were imipenem, sch 34343, ciprofloxacin, difloxacin (a-56619), and a-56620. only imipenem and abbott quinolones (a-56619 and a-56620) remained active when tested with the heavier inoculum. except for ticarcillin and ceftazidime, which showed only moderate activity, ...19883180706
in-vitro and in-vivo activities of t-3262, a new pyridone carboxylic acid.t-3262[p-toluenesulfonic acid salt of dl-7-(3-amino-1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-6-fluoro-1, 4-dihydro-4-oxo-1, 8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid monohydrate] is a new pyridone carboxylic acid with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. the activity of t-3262 against most enterobacteriaceae was comparable with that of ciprofloxacin except proteus spp. and providencia rettgeri and exceeded that of ofloxacin and norfloxacin. the activ ...19883182417
multiple intensive care unit outbreak of acinetobacter calcoaceticus subspecies anitratus respiratory infection and colonization associated with contaminated, reusable ventilator circuits and resuscitation bags.acinetobacter calcoaceticus subspecies anitratus (a. anitratus) can cause nosocomially and community acquired pneumonia. source identification of the organism is often difficult. an outbreak of respiratory infection and colonization with a. anitratus affecting 93 ventilated patients in all six of a hospital's intensive care units (icus) over 10 months is described.19883189366
isolation of acinetobacter calcoaceticus from septicaemic hens. 19883195030
taxonomic studies of acinetobacter species based on the electrophoretic analysis of enzymes.thirty six strains of acinetobacter, 22 strains from the culture collections and 14 isolates from soil and cotton samples, were examined for the presence of twelve enzymes using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. a numerical analysis was carried out on the basis of similarity values obtained from the electrophoretic mobilities of the enzymes. the strains used were divided into four clusters (z-1, z-2, z-3 and z-4), and cluster z-1 was further divided into three subclusters (z-1a, z-1b and z-1c) ...19883210151
[characteristics of acinetobacter sp. strains isolated from a hospital environment. iii. anitracinogenic properties of acinetobacter calcoaceticus isolated from clinical specimens and other sources]. 19883210835
[utilization of 3-chlorobenzoic acid by a mixed culture of microorganisms].a mixed microbial culture (acinetobacter calcoaceticus inmi-kz-3 and alcaligenes faecalis inmi-kz-5) completely utilises 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3-cba), and the liberation of chlorine atoms is 100% of the theoretically possible one. a. faecalis growth in the mixed culture at the account of 2-chloro-cis,cis-muconic acid which is accumulated in the course of 3-cba metabolism by a. calcoaceticus inmi-kz-3.19883211007
community-acquired bacteremic acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus pneumonia. 19883215692
[acinetobacter calcoaceticus: epidemiologic aspects and distribution in the natural and hospital environment]. 19883226936
[antibiotic sensitivity of nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria].antibiotic resistance of 132 strains of nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria (ngnb) was studied. 43, 20, 17, 14 and 12 of them belonged to acinetobacter calcoaceticus (anitratus and lwoffi), pseudomonas cepacia, alcaligenes faecalis, p. stutzeri and p. maltophilia, respectively. with rare exceptions all the strains were resistant to benzylpenicillin, oxacillin, lincomycin, ampicillin and cephaloridine. sensitivity to the other antibiotics varied within wide ranges. amikacin (94.3 per cent) and t ...19883228322
antimicrobial activity of mdl 19,592: an oral cephalosporin.mdl 19,592, a semisynthetic oral cephalosporin, has an antimicrobial spectrum principally directed against gram-positive cocci (mic50, 0.25-4 micrograms/ml), branhamella catarrhalis (mic50, 1-2 micrograms/ml), and pathogenic neisseria spp. such as meningococci (mic50, 4 micrograms/ml). enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, pseudomonas spp., corynebacterium jeikeium, and acinetobacter calcoaceticus strains had mdl 19,592 mic50 of greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml. although mdl 19,592 generally ...19883246143
effect of hexadecane-induced vesiculation on the outer membrane of acinetobacter calcoaceticus.lipopolysaccharide-rich vesicles were released from acinetobacter calcoaceticus 69v during growth on hexadecane. vesicle formation occurred over the whole surface of the cell as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. in contrast, the surface of acetate-grown cells, for which little lipopolysaccharide was found in the growth medium, appeared smooth. the overall chemical composition as well as the protein and phospholipid composition of the outer membranes of both cell types was very simila ...19883246592
[hemolytic properties of acinetobacter calcoaceticus strains]. 19883246922
[the synthesis of group b vitamins under various conditions for the cultivation of acinetobacter calcoaceticus on ethanol media]. 19883249582
occurrence, transfer and mobilization in epilithic strains of acinetobacter of mercury-resistance plasmids capable of transformation.a 7.8 kb plasmid (pqm17) encoding mercury resistance was isolated from two epilithic strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus. the plasmid had a broad host range when mobilized by rp1, transferring into pseudomonas aeruginosa, p. putida, p. fluorescens, escherichia coli, proteus vulgaris and chromobacterium sp. with frequencies ranging from 5.3 x 10(-9) to 4.6 x 10(-4) per recipient. the plasmid could be transferred into a. calcoaceticus bd413 using intact cells of donor and recipient bacteria (i. ...19883254940
distribution of beta-lactamases and phenotype analysis in clinical strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus.one hundred clinical strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus isolated from 1981 to 1986 were screened for enzymatic resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. fourteen beta-lactam antibiotics were tested and four phenotypes were defined on the basis of enzymatic resistance and of susceptibility to the following beta-lactams: ticarcillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. the resistance of a. calcoaceticus to beta-lactam antibiotics was predominantly due to beta-lactamases, which were produce ...19883264830
benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase ii from acinetobacter calcoaceticus. purification and preliminary characterization.a quick, reliable, purification procedure was developed for purifying both benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase ii from a single batch of acinetobacter calcoaceticus n.c.i.b. 8250. the procedure involved disruption of the bacteria in the french pressure cell and preparation of a high-speed supernatant, followed by chromatography on deae-sephacel, affinity chromatography on blue sepharose cl-6b and matrex gel red a, and finally gel filtration through a superose 12 fast-prot ...19883291854
production of a phosphatidylglycerol-like substance by genital flora bacteria.bacteria contaminating amniotic fluid have anecdotally been shown to produce a phosphatidylglycerol-like substance, thus giving false positive tests for phosphatidylglycerol in vaginal pool fluid from patients with premature rupture of the membranes. isolates of escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis, acinetobacter calcoaceticus, klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococcus, streptococcus faecalis, and streptococcus agalactiae (group b streptococcus) were grown in ...19883293449
comparative in vitro activity of amoxycillin/clavulanate (augmentin), ceftazidime and ceftriaxone against hospital strains of gram-negative and -positive bacteria.the in vitro antibacterial activities of amoxycillin/clavulanate (augmentin), ceftazidime and ceftriaxone were compared against 330 gram-negative and gram-positive strains isolated from clinical specimens received at the king abdulaziz university hospital (kauh) in saudi arabia. the antibacterial susceptibility was determinated by stokes method and by the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) using an agar dilution method. ceftazidime and ceftriaxone were the most active antibiotics, inhibiting ...19883293818
[selection of mutants of microorganisms utilizing ethanol].mutants of the bacteria acinetobacter calcoaceticus 34 and acinetobacter sp. 172 as well as of the yeast candida requinyii 316 resistant to acetaldehyde grow better in a medium with ethanol than their parent cultures. in their specific growth rate and alcohol dehydrogenase activity, 28.7-66.7% of such mutants are superior to any clone isolated in a non-selective medium. a medium containing ethanol and acetaldehyde (0.5 to 1.0% by volume) is proposed to select and isolate highly productive mutant ...19873295493
detection of the cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone.in order to demonstrate the presence or absence of a pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq) synthesizing capacity in microorganisms, we have found that media and equipment must be treated to remove contaminating pqq. procedures are described which appear to be effective for that purpose. these have been used with acinetobacter calcoaceticus pqq- strains to develop a sensitive and reliable assay for pqq. they also have been used to show that under our conditions of growth escherichia coli does not synthe ...19873300411
[evaluation of the atb system and the 32 gn tests for the identification and determination of the antibiotic sensitivity of acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratum. comparison with the reference dilution method in a gel medium].the authors determined the susceptibility to 24 antibiotics of 95 strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus variety anitratum with the automated api atb system in comparison with the agar dilution method for mic measurement. the strains have been identified with api 32 gn (automated system) and api ne. there was a good agreement between the two sets of identification results. in susceptibility tests the discrepancies ranged from 0.86% to 3% with a mean value of 1.8%. the overall agreement was 95% b ...19873302861
[proteases in different membrane fractions of acinetobacter calcoaceticus].distinct protease activities were found in membrane fractions from acinetobacter calcoaceticus grown on acetate-nh4+ medium until early stationary phase. mechanical or enzymatic cell disintegration followed by membrane fractionation through sucrose gradient revealed higher activities in the outer membrane than in the cytoplasmic membrane. using azocasein and synthetic p-nitroanilides as substrates we found very low proteinase activities in intracytoplasmic membrane fractions. however, these frac ...19873309254
purification and properties of l-mandelate dehydrogenase and comparison with other membrane-bound dehydrogenases from acinetobacter calcoaceticus.l-mandelate dehydrogenase was purified from acinetobacter calcoaceticus by triton x-100 extraction from a 'wall + membrane' fraction, ion-exchange chromatography on deae-sephacel, (nh4)2so4 fractionation and gel filtration followed by further ion-exchange chromatography. the purified enzyme was partially characterized with respect to its subunit mr (44,000), ph optimum (7.5), pi value (4.2), substrate specificity and susceptibility to various potential inhibitors including thiol-blocking reagent ...19873325042
criteria for disk susceptibility tests and quality control guidelines for the cefoperazone-sulbactam combination.for in vitro susceptibility tests with cefoperazone and sulbactam (a beta-lactamase inhibitor), 75/30-micrograms disks may be used with the interpretive zone size breakpoints that are currently used for 75-micrograms cefoperazone disks. for dilution tests, a 2:1 ratio of cefoperazone to sulbactam is recommended. for quality control purposes, mic limits that are used to monitor cefoperazone tests were also applied to tests with the combination of drugs. for gram-negative control strains, zone siz ...19883343304
community-acquired acinetobacter pneumonia in adults in papua new guinea.acinetobacter calcoaceticus, an aerobic gram-negative coccobacillus, is a rare cause of community-acquired pneumonia. it most commonly causes nosocomial infections, particularly in elderly debilitated patients who have undergone surgery, instrumentation, and antibiotic therapy. in a study of acute pneumonia in adults, five cases of community-acquired acinetobacter pneumonia were observed over an 11-month period. other than chronic pulmonary disease (two patients), no serious underlying diseases ...19883393786
nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase from acinetobacter calcoaceticus. 19883399393
nosocomial respiratory tract colonization and infection with aminoglycoside-resistant acinetobacter calcoaceticus var anitratus: epidemiologic characteristics and clinical significance.during the period july 1983 through december 1984, aminoglycoside-resistant acinetobacter calcoaceticus var anitratus (aca) were isolated from 98 patients in a university hospital. eighty-seven percent of patients (85/98) acquired aminoglycoside-resistant aca in the intensive care unit (icu) and 92% (90/98) of all initial isolates were from sputum. icu patients with respiratory colonization/infection with aminoglycoside-resistant aca were compared with matched icu controls with other gram-negati ...19883403939
effect of plasmid rp1 on phase changes in inner and outer membranes and lipopolysaccharide from acinetobacter calcoaceticus: a fourier transform infrared study.the successful transfer of the resistance plasmid rp1 into the gram-negative bacterium acinetobacter calcoaceticus resulted in increased resistance of this microorganism to the antibiotics kanamycin and tetracycline. microorganisms harboring the rp1 plasmid showed altered fatty acid composition in the lipopolysaccharide fraction and increased outer membrane permeability compared to organisms without the plasmid. thermotropic gel to liquid crystal lipid phase changes were detected in both inner a ...19873427032
typing of acinetobacter calcoaceticus strains isolated from hospital patients by cell envelope protein profiles.the usefulness of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of cell envelope proteins for classifying strains of acinetobacter calcoaceticus was studied using 129 isolates from 16 in-patients in a teaching hospital. in 11 patients, all of the isolates from each patient exhibited the same pattern irrespective of the body site or time of isolation. the patterns of the isolates from four other patients were indistinguishable, with the exception of one isolate per patient. ...19873428372
protein fingerprinting for the determination of relatedness in acinetobacter calcoaceticus subspecies anitratus isolated from patients in a surgical intensive care unit.the use of protein fingerprinting for the establishment of relatedness among isolates of acinetobacter calcoaceticus subspecies anitratus, isolated from patients in a surgical intensive care unit was examined. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the cellular proteins from whole cell lysates of 14 intensive care unit a calcoaceticus subspecies anitratus isolates and 11 control strains. antimicrobial susceptibilities and plasmid profiles were also determined for all isolates. al ...19873429162
[antibacterial activity of species of the genus allium].garlic, onion and shallot were tested for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. the mic of aqueous and petroleum ether extracts were determined. garlic showed the greater activity; the combination garlic-antibiotic is synergistic against acinetobacter calcoaceticus and leads to indifference against anaerobic bacteria. the active constituent is not probably allicin alone.19873438321
enzymatic resistance to beta-lactams and aminoglycosides in acinetobacter calcoaceticus. 19873440769
bacterial flora in bottled uncarbonated mineral drinking water.a quantitative study of bacterial populations in mineral water was carried out. samples were stored at 6 and 20 degrees c, and the colony counts were determined on tryptone agar plates incubated at 22 and 37 degrees c. samples were collected from the spring source in sterile glass flasks and from the bottling factory in conventional plastic and glass containers. in both cases, the initial population (10(1)-10(2) cfu/ml water) increased to 10(5)-10(6) cfu/ml after 3 days storage as determined fro ...19873446349
[cytochrome p-450 and the respiratory activity of acinetobacter calcoaceticus growing on n-nonane]. 19873448466
pww174: a large plasmid from acinetobacter calcoaceticus encoding benzene catabolism by the beta-ketoadipate pathway.acinetobacter calcoaceticus rje74 contains a large transmissible catabolic plasmid, pww174, of about 200 kb, which encodes its ability to grow on benzene (bzn+). pww174 was unstable in acinetobacter hosts and was lost at high frequency in the absence of selection for bzn+. the catabolic pathway appeared to be via benzene cis-glycol, catechol and the beta-ketoadipate (ortho) pathway. pww174 encodes a catechol 1,2-oxygenase which is significantly more thermolabile than the chromosomally determined ...19873449741
isolation and characterization of the extracellular lipase of acinetobacter calcoaceticus 69 v.the extracellular lipase of acinetobacter calcoaceticus 69 v was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography to homogeneity as suggested by gel electrophoretic analysis. the lipase existed as a high molecular complex of about 300 kda, with a subunit molecular weight of 30.5 kda being obtained by sds-page. the hydrodynamic molecular radius obtained by gel electrophoresis was 3.27 nm. the lipase had an isoelectric point of 5.5 and was stimulated by additions of deoxycholate. the activation ...19873453402
quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase and its application in an amperometric glucose sensor.glucose dehydrogenase (gdh), one of the recently discovered nad(p)+-independent 'quinoprotein' class of oxidoreductase enzymes, was purified from acinetobacter calcoaceticus lmd 79.41 and immobilised on a 1,1'-dimethylferrocene-modified graphite foil electrode. the second-order rate constant (ks) for the transfer of electrons between gdh and ferrocenemonocarboxylic acid (fmca) in a homogeneous system, determined using direct current (dc) cyclic voltammetry, was found to be 9.4 x 10(6) litres mol ...19863454651
acinetobacter calcoaceticus sepsis in children with malignancies.the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of 29 episodes of sepsis caused by acinetobacter calcoaceticus were reviewed in 25 children with underlying malignancies. of the 29 episodes of sepsis with this organism 28 occurred from 1980 through 1984, compared with 1 episode from 1973 to 1979. risk of infection was associated with the presence of intravascular cannulae, osteosarcoma and recent administration of antitumor chemotherapy. there was no association with neutropenia, malnutrition or f ...19863463939
antimicrobial activity of imipenem against 1386 clinical isolates.1386 isolates from clinical specimens were tested against imipenem by disc agar diffusion. the bacteria used in this study consisted of escherichia coli, enterobacter aerogenes, e. agglomerans, e. cloacae, klebsiella pneumoniae, k. oxytoca, k. ozanae, proteus mirabilis, p. vulgaris, providencia stuartii, p. rettgeri, acinetobacter calcoaceticus, citrobacter diversus, c. freundii, morganella morganii, serratia liquefaciens, s. marcescens, hafnia alvei, aeromonas hydrophila, pseudomonas aeruginosa ...19863468319
susceptibility of non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, amifloxacin, pefloxacin and cefpirome.susceptibility of 340 mainly clinically isolated gram-negative non-fermenters to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, amifloxacin, pefloxacin and cefpirome was determined by agar dilution. ciprofloxacin was most active, with mic90s against all organisms ranging between less than 0.125 and 4 mg/l. norfloxacin, amifloxacin and pefloxacin were active against most strains, with mic90 ranges (mg/l) of 0.5 - 32, 0.25 - 32 and less than 0.125 - 16, respectively. cefpirome showed less activity than the quinolone ...19863469178
in-vitro antibacterial activity of imipenem compared with four other beta-lactam antibiotics (ceftazidime, cefotaxime, piperacillin and azlocillin) against 828 separate clinical isolates from a portuguese hospital.an agar dilution technique was used to determine the mic50 and mic90 of imipenem in comparison with ceftazidime, cefotaxime, piperacillin and azlocillin. eight hundred and eighteen of the 828 (98.8%) unselected gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli were inhibited by imipenem at a concentration of 8 mg/l or less. imipenem was shown to be superior to the other four beta-lactam antibiotics against acinetobacter calcoaceticus (40 strains), all the staphylococcus aureus (80 strains, 10 of the ...19863469195
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