TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
identification and sequence analysis of a 27-kilobase chromosomal fragment containing a salmonella pathogenicity island located at 92 minutes on the chromosome map of salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium lt2.using a genomic approach, we have identified a new salmonella pathogenicity island, spi-4, which is the fourth salmonella pathogenicity island to be identified. spi-4 was located at 92 min on the chromosome map and was flanked by the ssb and soxsr loci. the dna sequence covering the entire spi-4 and both boundaries was determined. the size of spi-4 was about 25 kb and it contains 18 putative open reading frames (orfs). three of these orfs encode proteins that have significant homology with prote ...19989632606
isolation and entomotoxic properties of the xenorhabdus nematophilus f1 lecithinase.xenorhabdus spp. and photorhabdus spp., entomopathogenic bacteria symbiotically associated with nematodes of the families steinernematidae and heterorhabditidae, respectively, were shown to produce different lipases when they were grown on suitable nutrient agar. substrate specificity studies showed that photorhabdus spp. exhibited a broad lipase activity, while most of the xenorhabdus spp. secreted a specific lecithinase. xenorhabdus spp. occur spontaneously in two variants, phase i and phase i ...19989647801
aerobic mineralization of 2,6-dichlorophenol by ralstonia sp. strain rk1.a new aerobic bacterium was isolated from the sediment of a freshwater pond close to a contaminated site at amponville (france). it was enriched in a fixed-bed reactor fed with 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-dcp)as the sole carbon and energy source at ph 7.5 and room temperature. the degradation of 2,6-dcp followed monod kinetics at low initial concentrations. at concentrations above 300 microm (50 mg.liter-1), 2,6-dcp increasingly inhibited its own degradation. the base sequence of the 16s ribosomal d ...19989647831
biodegradation of variable-chain-length alkanes at low temperatures by a psychrotrophic rhodococcus sp.the psychorotrophic rhodococcus sp. strain q15 was examined for its ability to degrade individual n-alkanes and diesel fuel at low temperatures, and its alkane catabolic pathway was investigated by biochemical and genetic techniques. at 0 and 5 degrees c, q15 mineralized the short-chain alkanes dodecane and hexadecane to a greater extent than that observed for the long-chain alkanes octacosane and dotriacontane. q15 utilized a broad range of aliphatics (c10 to c21 alkanes, branched alkanes, and ...19989647833
survival of acinetobacter baumannii on dry surfaces: comparison of outbreak and sporadic isolates.acinetobacter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens reported with increasing frequency in outbreaks of cross-infection during the past 2 decades. the majority of such outbreaks are caused by acinetobacter baumannii. to investigate whether desiccation tolerance may be involved in the ability of certain strains of a. baumannii to cause hospital outbreaks, a blind study was carried out with 39 epidemiologically well-characterized clinical isolates of a. baumannii for which survival times were det ...19989650940
reconstituted recombinant factor viii can be safely infused continuously for at least three days: it is a poor microbial growth medium.reconstituted recombinant factor viii (fviiirec) loses little biologic activity at room temperature for up to seven days and continuous infusion is convenient, effective hemostatically and requires less fviiirec concentrate than treatment by conventional bolus injections. however, the potential for bacterial contamination, with proliferation to high levels that can cause bacteremia, is a concern with continuous infusion. we studied the growth properties at 4, 25 and 35 degrees c in reconstituted ...19989663704
further studies of transferable antibiotic resistance in strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa from four clinical settings in three countries.this paper describes transferability of antibiotic resistance determinants in clinical isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to imipenem, cefotaxime and ceftazidime obtained from different clinical settings in three different countries. two strains of enterobacteriaceae (escherichia coli k-12 and proteus mirabilis p-38) and two strains of p. aeruginosa (pao and ml) were used as recipient strains. the conjugative transfer of resistance was very specific, i.e. donor strains of p. aeruginosa ...19989669646
molecular evolution of a pathogenicity island from enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7.we report the complete 43,359-bp sequence of the locus of enterocyte effacement (lee) from edl933, an enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 serovar originally isolated from contaminated hamburger implicated in an outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis. the locus was isolated from the edl933 chromosome with a homologous-recombination-driven targeting vector. recent completion of the lee sequence from enteropathogenic e. coli (epec) e2348/69 afforded the opportunity for a comparative analysis of the ...19989673266
genetic analysis of dioxin dioxygenase of sphingomonas sp. strain rw1: catabolic genes dispersed on the genome.the dioxin dioxygenase of sphingomonas sp. strain rw1 activates dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran for further metabolism by introducing two atoms of oxygen at a pair of vicinal carbon atoms, one of which is involved in one of the bridges between the two aromatic rings, i.e., an angular dioxygenation. the dxna1 and dxna2 cistrons encoding this dioxygenase have been cloned and shown to be located just upstream of a hydrolase gene which specifies an enzyme involved in the subsequent step of the dib ...19989683494
structure of carb-4 and aer-1 carbenicillin-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases.we determined the nucleotide sequences of blacarb-4 encoding carb-4 and deduced a polypeptide of 288 amino acids. the gene was characterized as a variant of group 2c carbenicillin-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases such as pse-4, pse-1, and carb-3. the level of dna homology between the bla genes for these beta-lactamases varied from 98.7 to 99.9%, while that between these genes and blacarb-4 encoding carb-4 was 86.3%. the blacarb-4 gene was acquired from some other source because it has a g+c content o ...19989687391
spatial and temporal deposition of hyphomonas strain vp-6 capsules involved in biofilm formationhyphomonas strain vp-6 is a prosthecate bacterium isolated from the guayamas vent region and is a member of a genus of primary and common colonizers of marine surfaces. it adheres to solid substrata as a first step in biofilm formation. fine-structure microscopy and the use of specific stains and lectins reveal that it synthesizes two different extracellular polymeric substances (eps). one is a temporally synthesized, polar holdfast eps, and the other is a capsular eps that is present during the ...19989687449
negative cooperativity in the steady-state kinetics of sugar oxidation by soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase from acinetobacter calcoaceticus.steady-state-kinetics investigations were carried out for the oxidation of aldose sugars by soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) from acinetobacter calcoaceticus using n-methylphenazonium methyl sulfate (pms) as artificial electron acceptor. as is not uncommon for a dye-linked dehydrogenase, the enzyme showed ping-pong behaviour and double-substrate inhibition. however, under conditions that avoided its masking by sugar-substrate inhibition as much as possible, negative kinetic coope ...19989692926
biochemical and genetic characterization of a gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase from sphingomonas sp. strain rw5.a 4,103-bp long dna fragment containing the structural gene of a gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (ec, gtda, from sphingomonas sp. strain rw5 was cloned and sequenced. the gtda gene encodes a 350-amino-acid polypeptide with a predicted size of 38.85 kda. comparison of the gtda gene product with protein sequences in databases, including those of intradiol or extradiol ring-cleaving dioxygenases, revealed no significant homology except for a low similarity (27%) to the 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate d ...19989696766
one of two osmc homologs in bacillus subtilis is part of the sigmab-dependent general stress this report we present the identification and analysis of two bacillus subtilis genes, ykla and ykza, which are homologous to the partially rpos-controlled osmc gene from escherichia coli. the ykla gene is expressed at higher levels in minimal medium than in rich medium and is driven by a putative vegetative promoter. expression of ykza is not medium dependent but increases dramatically when cells are exposed to stress and starvation. this stress-induced increase in ykza expression is absolut ...19989696771
changing bacterial ecology during a five-year period of selective intestinal decontamination.the development of bacterial resistance during selective decontamination of the digestive tract (sdd) is controversial. we studied effects on bacterial resistance one year before and during a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sdd in a surgical intensive care unit. we randomized patients within two different topical regimens (pta, pca) or placebo, administered four-times daily to both the oropharynx and gastrointestinal tract. all patients received intravenous ciprofloxacin (200 mg b.d.) fo ...19989699139
comparison of amplified ribosomal dna restriction analysis, random amplified polymorphic dna analysis, and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting for identification of acinetobacter genomic species and typing of acinetobacter baumannii.thirty-one strains of acinetobacter species, including type strains of the 18 genomic species and 13 clinical isolates, were compared by amplified ribosomal dna restriction analysis (ardra), random amplified polymorphic dna analysis (rapd), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) fingerprinting. ardra, performed with five different enzymes, showed low discriminatory power for differentiating acinetobacter at the species and strain level. the standardized commercially available rapd kit ...19989705386
resistance mechanisms in pseudomonas aeruginosa and other nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria.nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli are still a major concern in compromised individuals. by far the most important of these organisms is pseudomonas aeruginosa, although acinetobacter baumannii (previously acinetobacter calcoaceticus), stenotrophomonas maltophilia (previously pseudomonas and xanthomonas maltophilia), and burkholderia cepacia (previously pseudomonas cepacia) are also of substantative concern because of their similar high intrinsic resistances to antibiotics. the basis for the ...19989710677
a cluster of genes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis from enterococcus faecalis og1rf.our previous work identified a cosmid clone containing a 43-kb insert from enterococcus faecalis og1rf that produced a nonprotein antigen in escherichia coli. in the present work, we studied this clone in detail. periodate treatment of lysates of the clone confirmed that the antigen was carbohydrate in nature. analysis of dna sequences and transposon insertion mutants suggested that the insert contained a multicistronic gene cluster. database comparison showed that the cluster contained genes si ...19989712783
parallel and divergent genotypic evolution in experimental populations of ralstonia sp.genetic rearrangements within a population of bacteria were analyzed to understand the degree of divergence occurring after experimental evolution. we used 18 replicate populations founded from ralstonia sp. strain tfd41 that had been propagated for 1,000 generations with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) as the carbon source. genetic divergence was examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the incumbent plasmid that carries the 2,4-d catabolic genes and by amplificat ...19989721265
purification and characterization of the coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase from pseudomonas sp. strain hr199 and molecular characterization of the gene.the coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase (caldh) of pseudomonas sp. strain hr199 (dsm7063), which catalyzes the nad+-dependent oxidation of coniferyl aldehyde to ferulic acid and which is induced during growth with eugenol as the carbon source, was purified and characterized. the native protein exhibited an apparent molecular mass of 86,000 +/- 5,000 da, and the subunit mass was 49.5 +/- 2.5 kda, indicating an alpha2 structure of the native enzyme. the optimal oxidation of coniferyl aldehyde to feru ...19989721273
similarities between the antabc-encoded anthranilate dioxygenase and the benabc-encoded benzoate dioxygenase of acinetobacter sp. strain adp1.acinetobacter sp. strain adp1 can use benzoate or anthranilate as a sole carbon source. these structurally similar compounds are independently converted to catechol, allowing further degradation to proceed via the beta-ketoadipate pathway. in this study, the first step in anthranilate catabolism was characterized. a mutant unable to grow on anthranilate, acn26, was selected. the sequence of a wild-type dna fragment that restored growth revealed the antabc genes, encoding 54-, 19-, and 39-kda pro ...19989721284
substrate specificity of and product formation by muconate cycloisomerases: an analysis of wild-type enzymes and engineered variants.muconate cycloisomerases play a crucial role in the bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds by converting cis,cis-muconate, the product of catechol ring cleavage, to (4s)-muconolactone. chloromuconate cycloisomerases catalyze both the corresponding reaction and a dehalogenation reaction in the transformation of chloroaromatic compounds. this study reports the first thorough examination of the substrate specificity of the muconate cycloisomerases from pseudomonas putida prs2000 and acinetobac ...19989726873
antibiotic resistance in acinetobacter spp. isolated from sewers receiving waste effluent from a hospital and a pharmaceutical plant.the possible increase of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in sewage associated with the discharge of wastewater from a hospital and a pharmaceutical plant was investigated by using acinetobacter species as environmental bacterial indicators. the level of susceptibility to six antimicrobial agents was determined in 385 acinetobacter strains isolated from samples collected upstream and downstream from the discharge points of the hospital and the pharmaceutical plant. results indicated that while the ...19989726904
direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli in blood cultures by an electrochemical method.nonfastidious aerobic gram-negative bacilli (gnb) are commonly isolated from blood cultures. the feasibility of using an electrochemical method for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gnb in positive blood cultures was evaluated. an aliquot (10 microliter) of 1:10-diluted positive blood cultures containing gnb was inoculated into the bactometer module well (biomérieux vitek, hazelwood, mo.) containing 1 ml of mueller-hinton broth supplemented with an antibiotic. susceptibility tests w ...19989738038
total nutrient admixtures appear safer than lipid emulsion alone as regards microbial contamination: growth properties of microbial pathogens at room temperature.the extraordinary growth properties of most microorganisms in 10% and 20% lipid emulsions has led to the centers for disease control and prevention recommendation that if lipids are given through an i.v. line, the administration set should be replaced every 24 hours rather than the usual 72-hour interval used for crystalloid solutions, including those used for conventional total parenteral nutrition. for nearly 15 years, parenteral alimentation has been given as a total nutrient admixture (tna), ...19989739032
a role for a protease in morphogenic responses during yeast cell fusion.cell fusion during yeast mating provides a model for signaling-controlled changes at the cell surface. we identified the axl1 gene in a screen for genes required for cell fusion in both mating types during mating. axl1 is a pheromone-inducible gene required for axial bud site selection in haploid yeast and for proteolytic maturation of a-factor. two other bud site selection genes, rsr1, encoding a small gtpase, and bud3, were also required for efficient cell fusion. based on double mutant analys ...19989744878
dna sequencing and analysis of the low-ca2+-response plasmid pcd1 of yersinia pestis kim5.the low-ca2+-response (lcr) plasmid pcd1 of the plague agent yersinia pestis kim5 was sequenced and analyzed for its genetic structure. pcd1 (70,509 bp) has an incfiia-like replicon and a sopabc-like partition region. we have assigned 60 apparently intact open reading frames (orfs) that are not contained within transposable elements. of these, 47 are proven or possible members of the lcr, a major virulence property of human-pathogenic yersinia spp., that had been identified previously in one or ...19989746557
infective endocarditis in the premature neonate.we describe a series of 11 high-risk neonates with infective endocarditis (ie) in this retrospective review. previously ie has rarely been diagnosed in newborns and is usually fatal. the frequency was 4.3 cases per 100 patients. five patients survived. microorganisms included gram positives such as s. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus, gram negatives such as klebsiella pneumoniae, enterobacter cloacae, enterococcus faecalis, serratia marcescens, and acinetobacter calcoaceticus. echoca ...19989864649
genetic and functional analysis of the styrene catabolic cluster of pseudomonas sp. strain y2.the chromosomal region of pseudomonas sp. strain y2 involved in the conversion of styrene to phenylacetate (upper catabolic pathway) has been cloned and sequenced. four catabolic genes, styabcd, and two regulatory genes, stysr, were identified. this gene cluster when transferred to escherichia coli w confers to this phenylacetate-degrading host the ability to grow on styrene as the sole carbon and energy source. genes styabcd are homologous to those encoding the styrene upper catabolic pathway i ...19989495743
characterization of a protocatechuate catabolic gene cluster from rhodococcus opacus 1cp: evidence for a merged enzyme with 4-carboxymuconolactone-decarboxylating and 3-oxoadipate enol-lactone-hydrolyzing activity.the catechol and protocatechuate branches of the 3-oxoadipate pathway, which are important for the bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds, converge at the common intermediate 3-oxoadipate enol-lactone. a 3-oxoadipate enol-lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme, purified from benzoate-grown cells of rhodococcus opacus (erythropolis) 1cp, was found to have a larger molecular mass under denaturing conditions than the corresponding enzymes previously purified from gamma-proteobacteria. sequencing of the n ...19989495744
evolutionary relationship between chlorocatechol catabolic enzymes from rhodococcus opacus 1cp and their counterparts in proteobacteria: sequence divergence and functional convergence.biochemical investigations of the muconate and chloromuconate cycloisomerases from the chlorophenol-utilizing strain rhodococcus opacus (erythropolis) 1cp had previously indicated that the chlorocatechol catabolic pathway of this strain may have developed independently from the corresponding pathways of proteobacteria. to test this hypothesis, we cloned the chlorocatechol catabolic gene cluster of strain 1cp by using pcr with primers derived from sequences of n termini and peptides of purified c ...19989495745
enzyme specificity of 2-nitrotoluene 2,3-dioxygenase from pseudomonas sp. strain js42 is determined by the c-terminal region of the alpha subunit of the oxygenase component.biotransformations with recombinant escherichia coli expressing the genes encoding 2-nitrotoluene 2,3-dioxygenase (2ntdo) from pseudomonas sp. strain js42 demonstrated that 2ntdo catalyzes the dihydroxylation and/or monohydroxylation of a wide range of aromatic compounds. extremely high nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence identity exists between the components from 2ntdo and the corresponding components from 2,4-dinitrotoluene dioxygenase (2,4-dntdo) from burkholderia sp. strain dnt (form ...19989495758
isolation, characterization, and transfer of cryptic gene-mobilizing plasmids in the wheat rhizosphere.a set of self-transmissible plasmids with incq plasmid-mobilizing capacity was isolated by triparental exogenous isolation from the wheat rhizosphere with an escherichia coli incq plasmid host and a ralstonia eutropha recipient. three plasmids of 38 to 45 kb, denoted pipo1, pipo2, and pipo3, were selected for further study. no selectable traits (antibiotic or heavy-metal resistance) were identified in these plasmids. the plasmids were characterized by replicon typing via pcr and hybridization wi ...19989501428
transcription of ppk from acinetobacter sp. strain adp1, encoding a putative polyphosphate kinase, is induced by phosphate starvation.polyphosphate kinase (ppk) catalyzes the formation of polyphosphate from atp. we cloned the ppk gene (2,073 bp) from acinetobacter sp. strain adp1; this gene encodes a putative polypeptide of 78.6 kda with extensive homology to polyphosphate kinase from escherichia coli and other bacteria. chromosomal disruption of ppk by inserting a transcriptionally fused lacz does not affect growth under conditions of phosphate limitation or excess. beta-galactosidase activity expressed from the single-copy p ...19989501429
bacterial community dynamics during start-up of a trickle-bed bioreactor degrading aromatic compounds.this study was performed with a laboratory-scale fixed-bed bioreactor degrading a mixture of aromatic compounds (solvesso100). the starter culture for the bioreactor was prepared in a fermentor with a wastewater sample of a care painting facility as the inoculum and solvesso100 as the sole carbon source. the bacterial community dynamics in the fermentor and the bioreactor were examined by a conventional isolation procedure and in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rrna-targeted oligon ...19989501433
species-specific and ubiquitous-dna-based assays for rapid identification of staphylococcus aureus.staphylococcus aureus is the cause of serious infections in humans, including endocarditis, deep-seated abscesses, and bacteremia, which lead to toxic and septic shock syndromes. rapid and direct identification of this bacterium specifically and ubiquitously directly from clinical specimens would be useful in improving the diagnosis of s. aureus infections in the clinical microbiology laboratory. a wide variety of kits based on biochemical characteristics efficiently identify s. aureus, but the ...19989508283
[bacterial strains isolated from neutropenic patients and their resistance to antibiotics].although gram negative as well as gram positive bacteria participate in febrile episodes of neutropenic patients, in particular recently the ratio of gram positive bacteria is increasing. the objective of the present work was to investigate the incidence and antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacterial agents in neutropenic patients.19989511277
cloning and sequencing of a 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone reductive dehalogenase gene whose product is involved in degradation of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane by sphingomonas paucimobilis.sphingomonas (formerly pseudomonas) paucimobilis ut26 utilizes gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-hch), a halogenated organic insecticide, as a sole carbon and energy source. in a previous study, we showed that gamma-hch is degraded to 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone (2,5-dchq) (y. nagata, r. ohtomo, k. miyauchi, m. fukuda, k. yano, and m. takagi, j. bacteriol. 176:3117-3125, 1994). in the present study, we cloned and characterized a gene, designated lind, directly involved in the degradation of 2,5-dc ...19989515900
pcau, a transcriptional activator of genes for protocatechuate utilization in acinetobacter.the acinetobacter pcaijfbdkchg operon encodes the six enzymes that convert protocatechuate to citric acid cycle intermediates. directly downstream from the operon are qui and pob genes encoding sets of enzymes that convert quinate and p-hydroxybenzoate, respectively, to protocatechuate. prior to this investigation, the only known regulatory gene in the pca-qui-pob cluster was pobr, which encodes a transcriptional activator that responds to p-hydroxybenzoate and activates transcription of poba. t ...19989515921
identification and characterization of a novel competence gene, comc, required for dna binding and uptake in acinetobacter sp. strain bd413.a gene (comc) essential for natural transformation was identified in acinetobacter sp. strain bd413. comc has a typical leader sequence and is similar to different type iv pilus assembly factors. a comc mutant (t308) is not able to bind or take up dna but exhibits a piliation phenotype indistinguishable from the transformation wild type as revealed by electron microscopy.19989515934
in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of cs-834, a new oral carbapenem.cs-834 is a prodrug of the carbapenem r-95867, developed by sankyo co., ltd., tokyo, japan. to investigate the possibility that cs-834 may be the first carbapenem usable in an oral dosage form, its in vitro antibacterial activity (as r-95867) and in vivo antibacterial activity were compared with those of cefpodoxime proxetil, cefditoren pivoxil, cefdinir, ofloxacin, imipenem, and amoxicillin. r-95867 had high levels of activity against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and streptococci, incl ...19989517932
antimicrobial activity of novel furanonaphthoquinone analogs.analogs of furanonaphthoquinone (fnq) from tecoma ipe mart had mics ranging from 1.56 to 25 microg/ml against gram-positive bacteria. fnq showed significantly lower mics against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus than against methicillin-sensitive s. aureus. fnq inhibited helicobacter pylori with an mic of 0.1 microg/ml. fungi, including pathogenic species, were sensitive to fnq with mics similar to those of amphotericin b.19989517956
the acinetobacter calcoaceticus ncib8250 mop operon mrna is differentially degraded, resulting in a higher level of the 3' cata-encoding segment than of the 5' phenolhydroxylase-encoding portion.the 7.5-kb polycistronic mop mrna is differentially degraded in acinetobacter calcoaceticus. the 4.9-kb 5' portion of the transcript contains the genes mopklmnop, encoding the multi-component phenol hydroxylase, and its 5' end decays three times faster than the 2.3-kb 3' portion encoding catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (cata). larger amounts of the cata mrna than the mopklmnop mrna are present in the cells as a result of this processing. the site for endonucleolytic cleavage is located in the intercist ...19989520267
immunoreactivity of five monoclonal antibodies against the 37-kilodalton common cell wall protein (psaa) of streptococcus pneumoniae.five monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against the streptococcus pneumoniae pneumococcal surface adhesin a (psaa) 37-kda common cell wall protein. these antibodies were used in a dot immunoblot and western blot study of clinical isolates of s. pneumoniae to detect the presence of the protein. by both assays, the mabs reacted with clinical isolates representing the 23 type-specific serotypes present in the licensed pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. western blot analysis confirmed the ...19989521144
the rhizobium etli rpon locus: dna sequence analysis and phenotypical characterization of rpon, ptsn, and ptsa mutants.the rpon region of rhizobium etli was isolated by using the bradyrhizobium japonicum rpon1 gene as a probe. nucleotide sequence analysis of a 5,600-bp dna fragment of this region revealed the presence of four complete open reading frames (orfs), orf258, rpon, orf191, and ptsn, coding for proteins of 258, 520, 191, and 154 amino acids, respectively. the gene product of orf258 is homologous to members of the atp-binding cassette-type permeases. orf191 and ptsn are homologous to conserved orfs foun ...19989537369
occurrence of homologs of the escherichia coli lytb gene in gram-negative bacterial species.the escherichia coli lytb protein regulates the activity of guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate synthetase i (rela). a southern blot analysis of chromosomal dna with the e. coli lytb gene as a probe revealed the presence of lytb homologs in all of the gram-negative bacterial species examined but not in gram-positive species. the lytb homologs from enterobacter aerogenes and pseudomonas fluorescens complemented the e. coli lytb44 mutant allele.19989537400
alkane hydroxylase from acinetobacter sp. strain adp1 is encoded by alkm and belongs to a new family of bacterial integral-membrane hydrocarbon hydroxylases.degradation of long-chain alkanes by acinetobacter sp. strain adp1 involves rubredoxin and rubredoxin reductase. we complemented a mutant deficient in alkane utilization and sequenced four open reading frames (orfs) on the complementing dna. each of these orfs was disrupted by insertional mutagenesis on the chromosome. as determined from sequence comparisons, orf1 and orf4 seem to encode a rotamase of the ppic type and an acyl coenzyme a dehydrogenase, respectively. disruption of these orfs does ...19989546151
self-transmissible mercury resistance plasmids with gene-mobilizing capacity in soil bacterial populations: influence of wheat roots and mercury addition.a set of mercury resistance plasmids was obtained from wheat rhizosphere soil amended or not amended with mercuric chloride via exogenous plasmid isolation by using pseudomonas fluorescens r2f, pseudomonas putida uwc1, and enterobacter cloacae be1 as recipient strains. the isolation frequencies were highest from soil amended with high levels of mercury, and the isolation frequencies from unamended soil were low. with p. putida uwc1 as the recipient, the isolation frequency was significantly enha ...19989546155
transformation of acinetobacter sp. strain bd413 by transgenic sugar beet dna.the ability of acinetobacter sp. strain bd413(pfg4 delta nptii) to take up and integrate transgenic plant dna based on homologous recombination was studied under optimized laboratory conditions. restoration of nptii, resulting in kanamycin-resistant transformants, was observed with plasmid dna, plant dna, and homogenates carrying the gene nptii. molecular analysis showed that some transformants not only restored the 317-bp deletion but also obtained additional dna.19989546192
the tfdk gene product facilitates uptake of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate by ralstonia eutropha jmp134(pjp4).uptake of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-d) by ralstonia eutropha jmp134(pjp4) was studied and shown to be an energy-dependent process. the uptake system was inducible with 2,4-d and followed saturation kinetics in a concentration range of up to 60 microm, implying the involvement of a protein in the transport process. we identified an open reading frame on plasmid pjp4, which was designated tfdk, whose translation product tfdk was highly hydrophobic and showed resemblance to transport proteins ...19989555911
oxidation of methyl-substituted naphthalenes: pathways in a versatile sphingomonas paucimobilis strainaromatic compounds with alkyl substituents are abundant in fossil fuels. these compounds become important environmental sources of soluble toxic products, developmental inhibitors, etc. principally through biological activities. to assess the effect of methyl substitution on the completeness of mineralization and accumulation of pathway products, an isolate from a phenanthrene enrichment culture, sphingomonas paucimobilis 2322, was used. washed cell suspensions containing cells grown on 2,6-dime ...19989572967
identification and characterization of a new organic hydroperoxide resistance (ohr) gene with a novel pattern of oxidative stress regulation from xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli.we have isolated a new organic hydroperoxide resistance (ohr) gene from xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. this was done by complementation of an escherichia coli alkyl hydroperoxide reductase mutant with an organic hydroperoxide-hypersensitive phenotype. ohr encodes a 14.5-kda protein. its amino acid sequence shows high homology with several proteins of unknown function. an ohr mutant was subsequently constructed, and it showed increased sensitivity to both growth-inhibitory and killing conce ...19989573147
regulation of benzoate degradation in acinetobacter sp. strain adp1 by benm, a lysr-type transcriptional acinetobacter sp. strain adp1, benzoate degradation requires the ben genes for converting benzoate to catechol and the cat genes for degrading catechol. here we describe a novel transcriptional activator, benm, that regulates the chromosomal ben and cat genes. benm is homologous to catm, a lysr-type transcriptional activator of the cat genes. unusual regulatory features of this system include the abilities of both benm and catm to recognize the same inducer, cis,cis-muconate, and to regulate ...19989573203
a gene cluster encoding steps in conversion of naphthalene to gentisate in pseudomonas sp. strain u2.pseudomonas sp. strain u2 was isolated from oil-contaminated soil in venezuela by selective enrichment on naphthalene as the sole carbon source. the genes for naphthalene dioxygenase were cloned from the plasmid dna of strain u2 on an 8.3-kb bamhi fragment. the genes for the naphthalene dioxygenase genes nagaa (for ferredoxin reductase), nagab (for ferredoxin), and nagac and nagad (for the large and small subunits of dioxygenase, respectively) were located by southern hybridizations and by nucle ...19989573207
specificity of rabbit antisera against lipopolysaccharide of acinetobacter.acinetobacter has been reported to be involved in hospital-acquired infections with increasing frequency. however, clinical laboratories still lack simple methods that allow the accurate identification of acinetobacter strains at the species level. for this study, proteinase k-digested whole-cell lysates from 44 clinical and environmental isolates were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with hyperimmune rabbit sera to examine the possibil ...19989574685
identification of acinetobacters on blood agar in presence of d-glucose by unique browning effect.a positive phenotypic characteristic of glucose-oxidizing acinetobacters was demonstrated with blood agar containing d-glucose. glucose-oxidizing acinetobacter baumannii, acinetobacter genospecies 3, acinetobacter lwoffii, and acinetobacter genospecies 13 sensu tjernberg and ursing caused a unique brown discoloration of media supplemented with 5% blood (of horse, sheep, or human origin) and an aldose sugar (0.22 m d-glucose, d-galactose, d-mannose, d-xylose, or lactose). the browning effect was ...19989574714
lys42 and ser42 variants of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from pseudomonas fluorescens reveal that arg42 is essential for nadph binding.the conserved arg42 of the flavoprotein p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase is located at the entrance of the active site in a loop between helix h2 and sheet e1 of the fad-binding domain. replacement of arg42 by lys or ser decreases the turnover rate of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from pseudomonas fluorescens by more than two orders of magnitude. rapid reaction kinetics show that the low activity of the arg42 variants results from impaired binding of nadph. in contrast to an earlier conclusion draw ...19989578477
reconstitution of membrane-integrated quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase apoenzyme with pqq and the holoenzyme's mechanism of action.membrane-integrated quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase from acinetobacter calcoaceticus was produced by heterologous expression of the gene for it in an escherichia coli recombinant strain. the apoenzyme (lacking the cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone, pqq) was solubilized with triton x-100 and purified to homogeneity. reconstitution of the apoenzyme to full activity in the assay was achieved with a stoichiometric amount of pqq in the presence of mg2+. just as for other pqq-containing dehydrogena ...19989578566
characterization of bradyrhizobium japonicum pcabdc genes involved in 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation.the pca structural genes encode enzymes that participate in the conversion of protocatechuate to succinate and acetylcoenzyme a. a 3. 05-kb region of the bradyrhizobium japonicum strain usda110 genome has been characterized, which contains the pcab, pcad and pcac genes. the predicted protein sequences of the three genes have extensive homologies with beta-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase (pcab), beta-ketodiapate enol-lactone hydrolase (pcad), and gamma-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase ( ...19989582432
interactions of beta-lactamases with sanfetrinem (gv 104326) compared to those with imipenem and with oral beta-lactams.sanfetrinem is a trinem beta-lactam which can be administered orally as a hexatil ester. we examined whether its beta-lactamase interactions resembled those of the available carbapenems, i.e., stable to ampc and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases but labile to class b and functional group 2f enzymes. the comparator drugs were imipenem, oral cephalosporins, and amoxicillin. mics were determined for beta-lactamase expression variants, and hydrolysis was examined directly with representative enzymes ...19989593145
characterization of a gene cluster from ralstonia eutropha jmp134 encoding metabolism of 4-methylmuconolactone.a 2,585 bp chromosomal dna segment of ralstonia eutropha jmp134 (formerly: alcaligenes eutrophus jmp134) which contains a gene cluster encoding part of the modified ortho-cleavage pathway encodes a putative transport protein for 4-methylmuconolactone, a novel 4-methylmuconolactone methylisomerase and methylmuconolactone isomerase. the putative 4-methylmuconolactone transporter, a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 45.8 kda, exhibits sequence homology to other members of the major superf ...19989461415
a cold-adapted lipase of an alaskan psychrotroph, pseudomonas sp. strain b11-1: gene cloning and enzyme purification and characterization.a psychrotrophic bacterium producing a cold-adapted lipase upon growth at low temperatures was isolated from alaskan soil and identified as a pseudomonas strain. the lipase gene (lipp) was cloned from the strain and sequenced. the amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene (924 bp) corresponded to a protein of 308 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 33,714. lipp also has consensus motifs conserved in other cold-adapted lipases, i.e., lipase 2 from antarctic m ...19989464382
prevalence of broad-host-range lytic bacteriophages of sphaerotilus natans, escherichia coli, and pseudomonas aeruginosa.two bacteriophage collections were examined with regard to their ability to form plaques on multiple bacterial host species. nine of 10 phages studied were found to be broad-host-range bacteriophages. these phages fell into two groups. group 1, the sn series, was isolated from sewage treatment plant samples with sphaerotilus natans atcc 13338 as a host. the dnas of these bacteriophages contained modified bases and were insensitive to cleavage by type i and ii restriction endonucleases. the effic ...19989464396
engineering of quasi-natural pseudomonas putida strains for toluene metabolism through an ortho-cleavage degradation construct a bacterial catalyst for bioconversion of toluene and several alkyl and chloro- and nitro-substituted derivatives into the corresponding benzoates, the upper tol operon of plasmid pww0 of pseudomonas putida was fully reassembled as a single gene cassette along with its cognate regulatory gene, xylr. the corresponding dna segment was then targeted to the chromosome of a p. putida strain by using a genetic technique that allows deletion of all recombinant tags inherited from previous ...19989464417
expression of genes from rahnella aquatilis that are necessary for mineral phosphate solubilization in escherichia coli.rahnella aquatilis is a gram-negative bacterium that can fix atmospheric nitrogen and also has the ability to solubilize mineral phosphate. we have cloned the genes that confer the mineral phosphate solubilizing (mps) trait from this organism by mobilizing a cosmid library of r. aquatilis into escherichia coli hb101. a 7.0-kb ecori fragment from a cosmid, when transferred into e. coli strains hb101 and dh5 alpha, conferred the ability to solubilize hydroxyapatite and the production of gluconic a ...19989485602
morpholine degradation pathway of mycobacterium aurum mo1: direct evidence of intermediates by in situ 1h nuclear magnetic resonance.resting mycobacterium aurum mo1 cells were incubated with morpholine, a waste from the chemical industry. the kinetics of biodegradation was monitored by using in situ nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr). the incubation medium was directly analyzed by 1h nmr. this technique allowed the unambiguous identification of two intermediates of the metabolic pathway involved in the biodegradation process, glycolate and 2-(2-aminoethoxy)acetate. the latter compound, which was not commercially available, was ...19989435073
molecular characterization of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase ii of acinetobacter calcoaceticus.the nucleotide sequences of xylb and xylc from acinetobacter calcoaceticus, the genes encoding benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase ii, were determined. the complete nucleotide sequence indicates that these two genes form part of an operon and this was supported by heterologous expression and physiological studies. benzaldehyde dehydrogenase ii is a 51654 da protein with 484 amino acids per subunit and it is typical of other prokaryotic and eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenas ...19989494109
mutation analysis of pobr and pcau, closely related transcriptional activators in acinetobacter.acinetobacter pobr and pcau are transcriptional activators that closely resemble each other in primary structure, dna-binding sites, metabolic modulators, and physiological function. pobr responds to the inducer-metabolite p-hydroxybenzoate and activates transcription of poba, the structural gene for the enzyme that converts p-hydroxybenzoate to protocatechuate. this compound, differing from p-hydroxybenzoate only in that it contains an additional oxygen atom, binds to pcau and thereby specifica ...19989748437
formation of single-stranded dna during dna transformation of neisseria gonorrhoeae.neisseria gonorrhoeae is naturally competent for dna transformation. in contrast to other natural prokaryotic dna transformation systems, single-stranded donor dna (ssdna) has not previously been detected during transformation of n. gonorrhoeae. we have reassessed the physical nature of gonococcal transforming dna by using a sensitive nondenaturing native blotting technique that detects ssdna. consistent with previous analyses, we found that the majority of donor dna remained in the double-stran ...19989748444
characterization of is18, an element capable of activating the silent aac(6')-ij gene of acinetobacter sp. 13 strain bm2716 by transposition.insertion sequence is18 was detected by analysis of the spontaneous aminoglycoside resistant mutant acinetobacter sp. 13 strain bm2716-1. insertion of the element upstream from the silent acetyltransferase gene aac(6')-ij created a hybrid promoter that putatively accounts for the expression of the aminoglycoside resistance gene. the 1, 074-bp is18 element contained partially matched (20 out of 26 bases) terminal inverted repeats, one of which overlapped the 3' end of a 935-bp open reading frame ...19989756793
analysis of the gene cluster encoding toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from pseudomonas stutzeri ox1.the toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase cloned from pseudomonas stutzeri ox1 displays a very broad range of substrates and a very peculiar regioselectivity, because it is able to hydroxylate more than one position on the aromatic ring of several hydrocarbons and phenols. the nucleotide sequence of the gene cluster coding for this enzymatic system has been determined. the sequence analysis revealed the presence of six open reading frames (orfs) homologous to other genes clustered in operons coding for ...19989758777
enhanced utilization of phosphonate and phosphite by klebsiella aerogenes.klebsiella aerogenes atcc 9621 was able to utilize phosphonates (pn), including aminoethylphosphonate, ethylphosphonate, methylphosphonate (mpn), and phosphonoacetate, and inorganic phosphite (pt) as sole sources of phosphorus (p). the products of the phn gene cluster were absolutely required for pn breakdown and pt oxidation to inorganic phosphate (pi) in this organism. to determine if k. aerogenes atcc 9621 could be engineered to enhance the utilization of pn and pt, a multicopy plasmid, pbi05 ...19989758795
characterization of genes involved in biosynthesis of a novel antibiotic from burkholderia cepacia bc11 and their role in biological control of rhizoctonia solani.genetic manipulation of fluorescent pseudomonads has provided major insight into their production of antifungal molecules and their role in biological control of plant disease. burkholderia cepacia also produces antifungal activities, but its biological control activity is much less well characterized, in part due to difficulties in applying genetic tools. here we report genetic and biochemical characterization of a soil isolate of b. cepacia relating to its production of an unusual antibiotic t ...19989758823
intermediates of salicylic acid biosynthesis in tobaccosalicylic acid (sa) is an important component of systemic-acquired resistance in plants. it is synthesized from benzoic acid (ba) as part of the phenylpropanoid pathway. benzaldehyde (bd), a potential intermediate of this pathway, was found in healthy and tobacco mosaic virus (tmv)-inoculated tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l. cv xanthi-nc) leaf tissue at 100 ng/g fresh weight concentrations as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. bd was also emitted as a volatile organic compound from t ...19989765542
identification of chlorobenzene dioxygenase sequence elements involved in dechlorination of 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene.the teca chlorobenzene dioxygenase and the todcba toluene dioxygenase exhibit substantial sequence similarity yet have different substrate specificities. escherichia coli cells producing recombinant teca enzyme dioxygenate and simultaneously eliminate a halogen substituent from 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene but show no activity toward benzene, whereas those producing todcba dioxygenate benzene but not tetrachlorobenzene. a hybrid teca dioxygenase variant containing the large alpha-subunit of the to ...19989791099
oxygen-insensitive nitroreductases: analysis of the roles of nfsa and nfsb in development of resistance to 5-nitrofuran derivatives in escherichia coli.nitroheterocyclic and nitroaromatic compounds constitute an enormous range of chemicals whose potent biological activity has significant human health and environmental implications. the biological activity of nitro-substituted compounds is derived from reductive metabolism of the nitro moiety, a process catalyzed by a variety of nitroreductase activities. resistance of bacteria to nitro-substituted compounds is believed to result primarily from mutations in genes encoding oxygen-insensitive nitr ...19989791100
pqq as redox shuttle for quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase.the role of pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq) as a redox shuttle between an electrode and the active site of soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (sgdh) from acinetobacter calcoaceticus has been investigated using both electrochemical and spectrophotometric methods. reversible redox behavior of pqq was observed at cystamine-modified gold electrodes. sgdh is able to reduce free pqq, i.e. pqq that is not bound to the enzyme and therefore could act as a mediator between the enzyme and the cystam ...19989792456
an automated fluorescent pcr method for detection of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli in automated fluorescence-based pcr system (a model ag-9600 amplisensor analyzer) was investigated to determine whether it could detect shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec). the amplisensor pcr assay involves amplification-mediated disruption of a fluorogenic dna signal duplex (amplisensor) that is homologous to conserved target sequences in a 323-bp amplified fragment of shiga toxin genes stx1, stx2, and stxe. using the amplisensor assay, we detected 113 strains of stec belonging to 50 ...19989797267
molecular detection, isolation, and physiological characterization of functionally dominant phenol-degrading bacteria in activated sludge.dna was isolated from phenol-digesting activated sludge, and partial fragments of the 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) and the gene encoding the largest subunit of multicomponent phenol hydroxylase (lmph) were amplified by pcr. an analysis of the amplified fragments by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (tgge) demonstrated that two major 16s rdna bands (bands r2 and r3) and two major lmph gene bands (bands p2 and p3) appeared after the activated sludge became acclimated to phenol. the nucleotide s ...19989797297
expression of alkane hydroxylase from acinetobacter sp. strain adp1 is induced by a broad range of n-alkanes and requires the transcriptional activator acinetobacter sp. strain adp1, alkane degradation depends on at least five essential genes. rubab and xcpr are constitutively transcribed. here we describe inducible transcription of alkm, which strictly depends on the presence of the transcriptional activator alkr. alkr itself is expressed at a low level, while a chromosomally located alkm::lacz fusion is inducible by middle-chain-length alkanes from heptane to undecane, which do not support growth of adp1, and by long-chain-length alkanes f ...19989811637
involvement of the terminal oxygenase beta subunit in the biphenyl dioxygenase reactivity pattern toward chlorobiphenyls.biphenyl dioxygenase (bph dox) oxidizes biphenyl on adjacent carbons to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl in comamonas testosteroni b-356 and in pseudomonas sp. strain lb400. the enzyme comprises a two-subunit (alpha and beta) iron sulfur protein (ispbph), a ferredoxin (ferbph), and a ferredoxin reductase (redbph). b-356 bph dox preferentially catalyzes the oxidation of the double-meta-substituted congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl over the double-para-substituted congener 4,4'-dichlorobiph ...19989811638
comparison of phenotypic and genotypic techniques for identification of unusual aerobic pathogenic gram-negative bacilli.rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology, but one that is difficult or impossible for many slow-growing and fastidious organisms. we used identification systems based on cellular fatty acid profiles (sherlock; midi, inc., newark, del.), carbon source utilization (microlog; biolog, inc., hayward, calif.), and 16s rrna gene sequence (microseq; perkin-elmer applied biosystems division, foster city, calif.) to evaluate 72 unusual aerobic ...19989817894
identification of conserved, rpos-dependent stationary-phase genes of escherichia coli.during entry into stationary phase, many free-living, gram-negative bacteria express genes that impart cellular resistance to environmental stresses, such as oxidative stress and osmotic stress. many genes that are required for stationary-phase adaptation are controlled by rpos, a conserved alternative sigma factor, whose expression is, in turn, controlled by many factors. to better understand the numbers and types of genes dependent upon rpos, we employed a genetic screen to isolate more than 1 ...19989829938
combined physical and genetic map of the pseudomonas putida kt2440 chromosome.a combined physical and genetic map of the pseudomonas putida kt2440 genome was constructed from data obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques (pfge) and southern hybridization. circular genome size was estimated at 6.0 mb by adding the sizes of 19 swai, 9 pmei, 6 paci, and 6 i-ceui fragments. a complete physical map was achieved by combining the results of (i) analysis of pfge of the dna fragments resulting from digestion of the whole genome with pmei, swai, i-ceui, and paci as w ...19989829947
molecular analysis of a gene encoding a cell-bound esterase from streptomyces chrysomallus.a gene (esta) encoding a 42-kda cell-bound esterase, esta, was found to be located 75 bp upstream of the cyclophilin a gene (cypa) of streptomyces chrysomallus. western blot analysis revealed the presence of esta (42 kda) in cell extracts of s. chrysomallus x2 and streptomyces lividans. esta specifically hydrolyzes short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters. esta formation starts at the end of growth phase, and its activity level remains constant throughout stationary phase. expression of esta from the me ...19989829953
flow cytometric analysis of the in situ accessibility of escherichia coli 16s rrna for fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide situ identification of whole fixed bacterial cells by hybridization with fluorescently labeled, rrna-targeted oligonucleotide probes is often limited by low signal intensities. in addition to an impermeability of the cell periphery and a low cellular rrna content, the three-dimensional structure of the ribosome may hinder the access of oligonucleotides to their target sites. until now, a systematic study on the accessibility of 16s rrna target sites had not been done. here, we report fluoresc ...19989835591
characterization of the galu gene of streptococcus pneumoniae encoding a uridine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase: a gene essential for capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis.the galu gene of streptococcus pneumoniae has been cloned and sequenced. escherichia coli cells harboring the recombinant plasmid pmmg2 (galu) overproduced a protein that has been shown to correspond to a uridine 5'-triphosphate:glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (uridine diphosphoglucose [udp-glc] pyrophosphorylase) responsible for the synthesis of udp-glc, a key compound in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides. a gene very similar to the s. pneumoniae galu has been found in a partial nucle ...19989841918
novel organization of the genes for phthalate degradation from burkholderia cepacia dbo1.burkholderia cepacia dbo1 is able to utilize phthalate as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth. two overlapping cosmid clones containing the genes for phthalate degradation were isolated from this strain. subcloning and activity analysis localized the genes for phthalate degradation to two separate regions on the cosmid clones. analysis of the nucleotide sequence of these two regions showed that the genes for phthalate degradation are arranged in at least three transcriptional units. ...19989851995
the yvyd gene of bacillus subtilis is under dual control of sigmab and sigmah.during a search by computer-aided inspection of two-dimensional (2d) protein gels for sigmab-dependent general stress proteins exhibiting atypical induction profiles, a protein initially called hst23 was identified as a product of the yvyd gene of bacillus subtilis. in addition to the typical sigmab-dependent, stress- and starvation-inducible pattern, yvyd is also induced in response to amino acid depletion. by primer extension of rna isolated from the wild-type strain and appropriate mutants ca ...19989852014
lipase activity and gene cloning of acinetobacter calcoaceticus lp009.the production of lipase from acinetobacter calcoaceticus lp009, a bacterium isolated from raw milk, was found to be best induced by tween-80 at 1.0% concentration. it was efficiently secreted, and only a minute amount of activity was detected at the cell surface and intracellularly. a. calcoaceticus lp009 lipase exhibited maximum activity at ph 7.0 and 50 degrees c, and was relatively stable upon storage at ph 5.0 to 7.0 and at 4, 30, or 37 degrees c. the enzyme was found to be inactivated by e ...199812501281
a fluorescent gram stain for flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy.the fluorescent nucleic acid binding dyes hexidium iodide (hi) and syto 13 were used in combination as a gram stain for unfixed organisms in suspension. hi penetrated gram-positive but not gram-negative organisms, whereas syto 13 penetrated both. when the dyes were used together, gram-negative organisms were rendered green fluorescent by syto 13; conversely, gram-positive organisms were rendered red-orange fluorescent by hi, which simultaneously quenched syto 13 green fluorescence. the technique ...19989647848
high levels of endemicity of 3-chlorobenzoate-degrading soil bacteria.soils samples were obtained from pristine ecosystems in six regions on five continents. two of the regions were boreal forests, and the other four were mediterranean ecosystems. twenty-four soil samples from each of four or five sites in each of the regions were enriched by using 3-chlorobenzoate (3cba), and 3cba mineralizers were isolated from most samples. these isolates were analyzed for the ability to mineralize 3cba, and genotypes were determined with repetitive extragenic palindromic pcr g ...19989572926
pharmacodynamic evaluation of factors associated with the development of bacterial resistance in acutely ill patients during therapy.the selection of bacterial resistance was examined in relationship to antibiotic pharmacokinetics (pk) and organism mics in the patients from four nosocomial lower respiratory tract infection clinical trials. the evaluable database included 107 acutely ill patients, 128 pathogens, and five antimicrobial regimens. antimicrobial pharmacokinetics were characterized by using serum concentrations, and culture and sensitivity tests were performed daily on tracheal aspirates to examine resistance. phar ...19989517926
earlier positivity of central-venous- versus peripheral-blood cultures is highly predictive of catheter-related diagnose catheter-related sepsis without removing the catheter, we evaluated the differential positivity times of cultures of blood drawn simultaneously from central venous catheter and peripheral sites. in a 450-bed cancer reference center, simultaneous central- and peripheral-blood cultures were prospectively performed for patients with suspicion of catheter-related sepsis over an 18-month period. data for 64 patients for whom the same microorganisms were found when central- and peripheral- ...19989431930
major facilitator superfamily.the major facilitator superfamily (mfs) is one of the two largest families of membrane transporters found on earth. it is present ubiquitously in bacteria, archaea, and eukarya and includes members that can function by solute uniport, solute/cation symport, solute/cation antiport and/or solute/solute antiport with inwardly and/or outwardly directed polarity. all homologous mfs protein sequences in the public databases as of january 1997 were identified on the basis of sequence similarity and sho ...19989529885
design and evaluation of useful bacterium-specific pcr primers that amplify genes coding for bacterial 16s rrna.we report the design and evaluation of pcr primers 63f and 1387r for amplification of 16s rrna genes from bacteria. their specificity and efficacy were tested systematically with a bacterial species and environmental samples. they were found to be more useful for 16s rrna gene amplification in ecological and systematic studies than pcr amplimers that are currently more generally used.19989464425
insertion sequences.insertion sequences (iss) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. over 500 individual iss have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. the last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic e ...19989729608
phylogenetic affiliation of soil bacteria that degrade aliphatic polyesters available commercially as biodegradable plastics.thirty-nine morphologically different soil bacteria capable of degrading poly(beta-hydroxyalkanoate), poly(epsilon-caprolactone), poly(hexamethylene carbonate), or poly(tetramethylene succinate) were isolated. their phylogenetic positions were determined by 16s ribosomal dna sequencing, and all of them fell into the classes firmicutes and proteobacteria. determinations of substrate utilization revealed characteristic patterns of substrate specificities.19989835597
quinone profiling of bacterial communities in natural and synthetic sewage activated sludge for enhanced phosphate removal.respiratory quinones were used as biomarkers to study bacterial community structures in activated sludge reactors used for enhanced biological phosphate removal (ebpr). we compared the quinone profiles of ebpr sludges and standard sludges, of natural sewage and synthetic sewage, and of plant scale and laboratory scale systems. ubiquinone (q) and menaquinone (mk) components were detected in all sludges tested at molar mk/q ratios of 0.455 to 0.981. the differences in mk/q ratios were much larger ...199816349532
acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex bacteremia: analysis of 82 cases.eighty-two cases of acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex bacteremia were identified during a 33-month period, from november 1993 to july 1996, at the veterans general hospital, taipei. all cases were due to hospital-acquired infections, with 28 cases of polymicrobial bacteremia. most patients had severe debilitating conditions: 26 had malignancies, 40 required stay in intensive care unit and 17 had undergone major operations. the main predisposing factors included central venous cathete ...199810596990
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