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bacterium anitratum bacteremia in a chronic myelogenous leukemia with blastic transformation patients. 19751060714
species, biotype, and bacteriophage type determinations compared with cell envelope protein profiles for typing acinetobacter strains.species, biotypes, and phage types were determined for 120 acinetobacter strains from clinical or environmental sources or from culture collections. these characteristics were compared with cell envelope protein profiles obtained by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in previous studies. a considerable heterogeneity of species and types was observed by use of the various methods, in particular among strains from different sources. acinetobacter baumannii was the most commo ...19902179253
treatment of experimental infections of mice with bacteriophages.bacteriophages for acinetobacter baumanii, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus were tested in experimental infections of mice to investigate their potential for the treatment of infections of man. as few as 10(2) particles of an acinetobacter phage protected mice against 5 ld50 (1 x 10(8)) of a virulent strain of a. baumanii, and phage was demonstrated to have multiplied in the mice. a pseudomonas phage protected mice against 5 ld50 of a virulent strain of p. aeruginosa, with a pd50 ...19921404324
in vitro interactions of aminoglycosides with imipenem or ciprofloxacin against aminoglycoside resistant acinetobacter baumannii.the in vitro interactions between gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmicin and amikacin with imipenem and ciprofloxacin were evaluated by the killing curve technique against 20 clinical isolates of acinetobacter baumannii highly resistant to aminoglycosides which were susceptible or moderately susceptible to imipenem and resistant or moderately susceptible to ciprofloxacin. imipenem enhanced killing by gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmicin and amikacin in tests with 9, 12, 10 and 15 strains (45-75%) whil ...19921479414
[presence of beta-lactamase with a broad spectrum in acinetobacter baumanii]. 19902139952
serotyping of clinical isolates of acinetobacter baumannii and genospecies 3: detection of additional serovars.continued serological monitoring of clinical isolates of acinetobacter baumannii and genospecies 3 permitted identification of 7 new serovars of a. baumannii and 8 additional serovars of genospecies 3.19911755922
a study of the relationships between antibiotic resistance phenotypes, phage-typing and biotyping of 117 clinical isolates of acinetobacter spp.two typing systems were used to conduct an epidemiological study of acinetobacter and to establish their relationship to antibiotic resistance phenotypes. biotyping was performed with biochemical tests according to the new definition of acinetobacter baumannii (18 biotypes). phage typing included two complementary systems: 125 phage-types and 25 subtypes. resistance phenotype analysis included 11 antibiotics. the results of the study showed that: (1) nine phage-types or subtypes (67%) and two gr ...19901974906
imipenem resistance in acinetobacter baumanii is due to altered penicillin-binding proteins.the comparison of a clinical acinetobacter baumanii isolate (strain no. 4852/88) and its selected imipenem-resistant (imr) clone exhibited a complex reorganization of the penicillin-binding proteins (pbps) with diminished labelling of all pbps except the 24-kd pbp which showed an increased binding of 14c-penicillin. this protein could not be saturated by preincubation of membranes with imipenem at 8-fold the mic of imipenem, thus indicating pbp alterations responsible for imipenem resistance. in ...19911760939
identification of an epidemic strain of acinetobacter baumannii using electrophoretic typing methods.nosocomial infections due to acinetobacter baumannii dramatically increased in a lebanese medical center following an outbreak of hostilities in lebanon in 1984. the incidence of infection caused by this organism has remained high in this institution, thus requiring the implementation of a strain typing system to aid in infection control. three methods were investigated for their utility in differentiating among a representative group of 36 nosocomial acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained ov ...19921572437
the clinical significance of acinetobacter baumannii in blood cultures.acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from blood cultures in 31 patients in 4 intensive care units at a large teaching hospital over a period of 6 months. in 23 of these patients, acinetobacter was also isolated from tracheal aspirates. catheter-related infection could be identified as the cause of bacteremia in 14 cases, whereas pneumonia was present in only 6 cases. all patients were seriously ill and 7 (24%) died of their infection.19921520980
delayed detection of an increase in resistant acinetobacter at a detroit hospital.to study an increase of antimicrobial-resistant acinetobacter baumannii and to assess reasons for the delayed detection of this increase.19921640096
the in-vitro activity of cefodizime: a review.for enterobacteriaceae, mic50s and mic90s of cefodizime (mg/l), respectively, were as follows, for naturally non-beta-lactamase-producing species: escherichia coli 0.12 and 0.5, salmonella spp. and shigella spp. 0.25 and 0.5, proteus mirabilis 0.016 and 0.03; for chromosomal penicillinase-producing species. klebsiella spp. 0.25 and 64, and for chromosomal cephalosporinase-producing species. enterobacter cloacae 1 and 64, citrobacter freundii 1 and 128, serratia marcescens 2 and 8: indole-positiv ...19902074248
community-acquired acinetobacter pneumonia in the northern territory of australia.eleven cases of blood culture-positive, community-acquired pneumonia due to the human commensal acinetobacter baumannii were studied in darwin in the northern territory of australia during the 10-year period from march 1981 through february 1991. demographic risk factors included male gender, age of greater than 45 years, and aboriginal ethnic background. multiple clinical risk factors, including cigarette smoking, alcoholism, chronic obstructive airway disease, and diabetes mellitus, were noted ...19921571467
use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for investigation of hospital outbreaks of acinetobacter baumannii.genomic dnas from taxonomically and epidemiologically well-defined strains of acinetobacter baumannii were digested with restriction endonucleases that cleave with low frequency, and the fragments were separated by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. restriction fragment length polymorphisms were observed. restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis can be used as an epidemiological tool to delineate outbreaks of nosocomial infections caused by a. baumannii.19921352519
hydroxylamine as a possible intermediate in nitrate reduction by bacterium anitratum (b5w). 19664289536
bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin upon escherichia coli and acinetobacter baumanni.the mechanisms of bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin (mechanisms a and b) upon cells of a strain of escherichia coli and one strain of acinetobacter baumannii were investigated under different conditions. the killing of e. coli cells by ciprofloxacin was significantly reduced by chloramphenicol, but this antibiotic showed almost no activity upon killing of a. baumannii cells by this quinolone. similar results were obtained when rifampicin was added to ciprofloxacin. bactericidal activity of ...19921345113
[occurrence of species from acinetobacter genus in clinical material and other sources].the analysis regarded 304 strains of acinetobacter genus isolated from various diagnostic materials, objects from hospital environment and from non-hospital sources (soil, water, various animals). applying api zone system, five species were isolated: acinetobacter juni, (18.42%), acinetobacter baumanii (70.39%), acinetobacter haemolyticus (5.59%), acinetobacter lwoffii (4.6%) and acinetobacter johnsonii (0.99%). most frequently isolated species were present in purulent materials and in samples f ...19921297033
pyogenic meningitis due to bacterium anitratum. case report. 19751175495
[presence of various acinetobacter species in urinary tract infections].species classification of 39 strains of acinetobacter isolated from urinary tract infections (uti) was performed by api 20ne tests. on the whole 24 biotypes were differentiated which formed 4 species and one biotype had no defined species classification. acinetobacter baumani was most numerously represented. seventy seven percent of strains were isolated from urine samples from women. about 90% of acinetobacter strains were isolated as single pathogens. sensitivity of these strains to 23 antibio ...19911823373
serotyping of clinical isolates of acinetobacter: serovars of genospecies 3.a total of 156 clinical isolates of genospecies 3, the second most commonly encountered member of the genus acinetobacter at our institution, were identified with carbon source utilization tests among 400 acinetobacter isolates. checkerboard tube agglutination tests and reciprocal cross-absorption studies with polyclonal rabbit immune sera against heated (100 degrees c, 1 h) cells of serovar candidate strains of genospecies 3 permitted identification of 13 serovars. minor one-way crossreactions ...19902363794
[nosocomial infections in an urological department. incidence and etiological factors].the authors report a prospective study with active request of data for nosocomial infections (ni) in an urological department during six months. from 453 patients, 43 developed an ni (incidence = 9.5%): urinary tract infections (53.5%), bloodstream infections (16.3%), lower respiratory tract infections (7%), surgical wound infections (2.3%) and sepsis syndrome (20.9%). for microorganisms, most often pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.5%) and e. coli (20%) were encountered. other microorganisms were the ...19911909021
[evaluation of a new semi-automatic method of identifying enterobacteriaceae, m.i.s.-enterobacteriaceae].m.i.s.-enterobacteriaceae is a new kit for identifying enterobacteriaceae using a microplate consisting of 21 biochemical characters with automated reading and interpretation. the validity of this method was studied by the identification of 350 strains of enterobacteria belonging to 44 species and comparison with the classical method of identification in test-tubes. results showed a diagnosis accuracy of 96 p. cent at the species level and 97.7 p. cent at the genus level. diagnosis accuracy reac ...19892665580
enteral hyperalimentation as a source of nosocomial infection.microbial growth in enteral nutrition solutions (ens) has frequently been documented. to determine the relation of this contamination to nosocomial infection, we prospectively studied 24 intensive care unit patients who received enteral feeding. cultures of solutions were obtained while refrigerated and during administration as well as pharyngeal and rectal cultures from patients at the start of enteral nutrition and serially during administration. most patients (10/16, 62.5%) receiving solution ...19901971627
[in vitro effect of antibiotics against hospital strains of acinetobacter baumanii].a total of 142 acinetobacter baumanii strains isolated from hospital patients were biotyped according to the scheme of bouvet and grimont. most of the strains belonged to biotype 9 and were highly resistant to antibiotics including cephalosporins and amikacin. imipenem and ticarcillin were the only drugs having a bactericidal activity against a. baumanii. the combination imipenem-netilmicin and ticarcillin-netilmicin were more rapidly bactericidal than imipenem or ticarcillin alone. no resistant ...19892797884
hospital-acquired acinetobacter baumanii pneumonitis. 19872882202
in vitro activity of sulbactam in combination with various beta-lactam antibiotics.forty-three strains (beta-lactamase positive and negative) from the species of haemophilus influenzae, neisseria gonorrhoeae, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, serratia marcescens, enterobacter cloacae, acinetobacter baumanii, and pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied for synergy between sulbactam and several beta-lactam antibiotics. using a checkerboard method, synergy was observed with 10 to 55% of the beta-lactamase negative strains. synergy was more frequent with the strains producing b ...19892591176
acinetobacter baumannii serotyping for delineation of outbreaks of nosocomial cross-infection.a total of 152 clinical isolates of acinetobacter baumannii from 152 patients were identified by carbon source utilization tests and examined serologically. polyclonal rabbit immune sera against a. baumannii strains were used in checkerboard tube agglutination tests, and 20 serovars were identified. one (serovar 19) cross-reacted with genospecies 3 (serovar 3), a closely related member of the genus acinetobacter. several outbreaks of nosocomial cross-infection caused by serovars 4 and 10 were de ...19892592536
esterase electrophoresis compared with biotyping for epidemiological typing of acinetobacter baumannii strains.forty-nine acinetobacter baumannii strains belonging to three biotypes and isolated from four hospitals were differentiated by electrophoretic typing of their esterases. six main kinds of esterases were distinguished by their spectra of hydrolytic activity toward seven synthetic substrates. the electrophoretic variations of these enzymes were used to define ten zymotypes among the three biotypes. esterase electrophoresis appeared to be more sensitive than biotyping, and could represent an additi ...19921398027
characterization of a high-affinity iron transport system in acinetobacter baumannii.analysis of a clinical isolate of acinetobacter baumannii showed that this bacterium was able to grow under iron-limiting conditions, using chemically defined growth media containing different iron chelators such as human transferrin, ethylenediaminedi-(o-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, and 2,2'-bipyridyl. this iron uptake-proficient phenotype was due to the synthesis and secretion of a catechol-type siderophore compound. utilization bioassays using the salmonella typhimurium i ...19921447137
ru 29 246, the active compound of the cephalosporin-prodrug-ester hr 916. i. antibacterial activity in vitro.the aminothiazolyl-cephalosporin ru 29 246 is the active metabolite of the prodrug-pivaloyl-oxyethyl-ester hr 916. ru 29 246 in vitro activity includes a wide range of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. against methicillin-sensitive staphylococci ru 29 246 (mic90 of 0.25 approximately 2 micrograms/ml) was clearly more active than cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, cefixime and ceftibuten, but slightly less active than cefdinir. ru 29 246 inhibited hemolytic streptococci of the serogroups a ...19921592683
identification of an acinetobacter baumannii gene region with sequence and organizational similarity to tn2670.a chloramphenicol resistance gene was cloned from chromosomal dna prepared from a clinical acinetobacter baumannii isolate. sequence analysis of this gene (cat) and the flanking dna regions shows that this gene is linked to tn21 and to is1 in a manner similar to that found in tn2670.19911650008
freeze-fracture investigation of the red pulp of human spleen.this study concerns the morphology of the human spleen in freeze-fracture replicas and compares this with the findings in ultrathin sections. the material investigated consisted of two spleens resected at gastrectomy and one resected because of splenomegaly in a case of hairy cell leukaemia. the current concepts concerning the ultrastructure of the spleen were generally confirmed with the freeze-fracture technique. the sinus walls were found, as expected, to consist of closely fitting endothelia ...19892574514
epidemic bacteremia due to acinetobacter baumannii in five intensive care units.from march 5, 1986 to september 4, 1987, acinetobacter baumannii (ab) was isolated from blood or vascular catheter-tip cultures of 75 patients in five intensive care units at a hospital in new jersey. to identify risk factors for ab bacteremia in the intensive care units, a case-control study was conducted. characteristics of 72 case-patients were compared with those of 37 controls. case-patients were more likely than controls to have had peripheral arterial catheters (odds ratio (or) = 7.0, p l ...19902403113
cell surface hydrophobicity of 88 clinical strains of acinetobacter baumannii.we studied the surface hydrophobicity of 88 acinetobacter baumannii strains of clinical origin, using both salt aggregation and adherence to paraxylene tests. strains were divided into 2 groups: the first included 65 strains isolated from various clinical samples (infected catheters, tracheal and bladder devices); the second included 23 strains isolated from skin obtained from healthy controls. high surface hydrophobicity was observed in 92% of the first group of strains and in only 5% of the se ...19902399369
ribotyping of the acinetobacter calcoaceticus-acinetobacter baumannii complex.the acinetobacter calcoaceticus-acinetobacter baumannii complex consists of four genotypically distinct but phenotypically very similar bacterial species or dna groups: a. calcoaceticus (dna group 1), a. baumannii (dna group 2), unnamed dna group 3 (p. j. m. bouvet and p. a. d. grimont, int. j. syst. bacteriol. 36:228-240, 1986), and unnamed dna group 13 (i. tjernberg and j. ursing, apmis 97:595-605, 1989). because strains in this complex cause nosocomial outbreaks, it is important to be able to ...19921383266
[bacterium anitratum septicemia]. 19705454018
comparative antimicrobial spectrum and activity of ceftibuten against clinical isolates from west germany.the in vitro activity of a new oral cephalosporin, ceftibuten, was determined against 837 clinical isolates by agar dilution technique and compared with that of the oral cephalosporins, cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefixime, cefpodoxime, and cefprozil. against enterobacteriaceae, ceftibuten was the most active of the compounds. ceftibuten mic90s were less than or equal to 0.25 micrograms/ml for most members of the family enterobacteriaceae, 0.13 microgram/ml for haemophilus influenzae, 4 micrograms/ml ...19912013211
bacterium anitratum meningitis. a case report. 19705498161
transferable amikacin resistance in acinetobacter spp. due to a new type of 3'-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase.acinetobacter baumannii bm2580 resistant to kanamycin and structurally related antibiotics, including amikacin, was isolated from a clinical specimen. a phosphocellulose paper-binding assay and dna annealing studies indicated that resistance to aminoglycosides in bm2580 was due to synthesis of a new type of 3'-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase. the gene conferring resistance to kanamycin-amikacin in this strain was carried by a 63-kilobase plasmid, pip1841, self-transferable to a. baumannii, a. ...19882831812
[study of a phage of bacterium anitratum (group b5w)]. 19705470344
[the intracellular urease activity of moraxella iwoffi (bacterium anitratum) group]. 19675633600
nucleic acid homologies among oxidase-negative moraxella species.the deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) base composition and dna homologies of more than 40 strains of oxidase-negative moraxella species were determined. these bacteria have also been identified as belonging to the mima-herellea-acinetobacter group and the bacterium anitratum group, as well as to several other genera including achromobacter and alcaligenes. the dna base content of these strains ranged from 40 to 46% guanine plus cytosine. dna-dna competition experiments distinguished five groups whose ...19705413826
[ultrastructural characteristics of bacterium anitratum (schaub et hauber 1948) and its antigenic affinity with neorickettsia and enterobacteria]. 19705526121
nucleotide sequence of acinetobacter baumannii apha-6 gene: evolutionary and functional implications of sequence homologies with nucleotide-binding proteins, kinases and other aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes.a new kanamycin-resistance gene, detected in acinetobacter baumannii and designated apha-6, was sequenced. it specifies a 30319 dalton 3'-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (aph(3'] that mediates resistance to kanamycin and structurally related aminoglycosides, including amikacin. pairwise comparisons of the six types of aph(3') so far detected in human pathogens (types i, ii, iii and vi) and in amino-glycoside-producing microorganisms (types iv and v), confirm that aph(3') enzymes have diverged ...19882846986
in vitro studies on the antibacterial activities of ym-13115, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin.the in vitro antibacterial activities of ym-13115, a new parenteral cephalosporin, were compared with those of ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefsulodin. the compound was highly active against the common members of the enterobacteriaceae and 2 to 256 times more active than cefoperazone. ym-13115 was as active as ceftazidime against citrobacter freundii, proteus vulgaris, and morganella morganii and two to four times more active than ceftazidime against escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, en ...19853890729
gram-negative bacilli in burns.in a period of two years, 865 strains of gram-negative bacilli other than pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burns were identified by a range of tests. the commonest species were proteus mirabilis, escherichia coli, and enterobacter cloacae. many strains of klebsiella aerogenes, enterobacter aerogenes, and bacterium anitratum were also found.a large proportion of the strains were tested for sensitivity to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and carbenicillin, ...19694312399
production of staphylococcal enterotoxin in mixed cultures.two staphylococcus aureus strains were grown in brain-heart infusion (bhi) broth and a meat medium with bacillus cereus, streptococcus faecalis, escherichia coli, and pseudomonas aeruginosa. both s. aureus strains grew well and produced enterotoxin in the presence of s. faecalis in bhi broth; however, enterotoxin production was observable in the meat medium only when the s. aureus inoculum was greater than the s. faecalis inoculum. s. aureus fri-100 grown with b. cereus produced enterotoxin in b ...19873122653
[pleuro-pneumonia due to "bacterium anitratum"]. 19675618208
comparison of cross-staining reactions by pseudomonas spp. and fluorescein-labeled polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies directed against legionella pneumophila.commercially prepared polyclonal antisera to legionella pneumophila are known to cross-react with organisms of the genus pseudomonas. to determine whether a commercially available monoclonal antibody reagent specific for l. pneumophila would also cross-react with pseudomonads, a two-laboratory study was undertaken to test both monoclonal and polyclonal reagents against 33 isolates of pseudomonas spp., including 25 pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 p. putida, 2 p. maltophilia, 1 p. fluorescens, and 1 p. ...19863958153
[augmentation of the bacteriocidal effect of heat in polylysogenic strains of staphylococcus aureus and bacterium anitratum]. 19744277133
molecular evolution, species distribution, and clinical consequences of an endemic aminoglycoside resistance plasmid.during the first 6 years after appearing in one hospital, a 92-kilobase conjugative plasmid, pbwh1, which encoded resistance to chloramphenicol and sulfonamides and determined tem-1 beta-lactamase and 2''-aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase, underwent a variety of molecular changes. it was most prevalent initially in isolates of klebsiella pneumoniae, then in isolates of serratia marcescens, and finally, after nearly disappearing, in isolates of enterobacter cloacae. evolutionary changes in th ...19863010849
combined effect of the ph of the growth medium and the incubation temperature on the morphology of bacterium anitratum. 19734146000
synonymy of herellea vaginicola and bacterium anitratum. 19695379834
bacterium anitratum meningitis. 19695798958
skin and mucous membrane as reservoirs of bacterium anitratum and mima polymorpha in patients. 19724658783
pathogenicity of bacterium anitratum for experimental animals. 19714400739
growth of bacterium anitratum (b5w) with nitrate or nitrite as nitrogen source. 19655855587
regulation of the nitrogen assimilation from nitrate and nitrite in bacterium anitratum (b5w). 19655855588
bacterium anitratum. i. mouse virulence of strains from midwestern soils. 19665973988
[frequency of clinical isolation of glucose non-fermentative gram-negative rods and their susceptibilities to antibacterial agents].a comparison was made for frequencies of isolation o glucose non-fermentative gram-negative rods ((g)nf-gnr) from clinical specimens during a period from july, 1986 to june, 1987 (the first period) and that from january, 1994 to december, 1994 (the second period). also, minimum inhibitory concentrations of principal drugs were determined against these isolates. the obtained results are summarized as follows: 1. thirty four (34) species of (g)nf-gnr were found from 35,200 clinical specimens in th ...19957474336
bacterium anitratum. ii. biological activities of non-viable fractions. 19665973989
unusual cell form of bacterium anitratum produced by sulfonamides. 19665959919
isolation and characterization of transducing bacteriophage bp1 for bacterium anitratum (achromobacter sp.).a small transducing phage has been isolated against a strain of bacterium anitratum. the particle has a head dimension of 450 a and a tail approximately 200 a long. the latent period is 16 min and the average burst size is 98. the intact particle has an absorption maximum and minimum at 260 and 237 mmu, respectively. the sedimentation coefficient (s(20)) is 460. the phage contains double-stranded dna with an s degrees (20,w) of 32.8. molecular weight estimates of the deoxyribonucleic acid ranged ...19685723528
strain-specific action of division-inhibiting agents in bacterium anitratum. 19676076337
automated laser fluorescence analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic dna: a rapid method for investigating nosocomial transmission of acinetobacter baumannii.a rapid method for genotyping acinetobacter baumannii based on pcr-fingerprinting with fluorescent primers was evaluated. automated laser fluorescence analysis (alfa) enabled on-line generation of high resolution dna-fingerprints during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) products. the results were in concordance with macro-restriction fragment patterns produced by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) of apai digests of chromosomal dna. rapd-alfa was ...19957473679
[bacterium anitratum infection in surgically treated open thoracic cavities and their significance]. 19655899139
corneal ulcer due to bacterium anitratum. 19685642910
[bacterium anitratum infections in our patients]. 19665983615
clinical and epidemiological investigations of acinetobacter genomospecies 3 in a neonatal intensive care unit.a prospective study of acinetobacter isolates from a neonatal intensive care unit was performed for 24 months. fifty-six isolates were obtained from 21 patients, and another eight were obtained from environmental specimens. infection due to acinetobacter organisms was established for 16 patients, 6 with septicemia, 9 with pneumonia, and 1 with a wound infection. further investigations were performed with 38 representative isolates. twenty-nine isolates were identified as unnamed dna-dna hybridiz ...19957650188
exposure of clinical isolates of acinetobacter baumannii and genospecies 3 to defibrinated human blood with and without added human 'natural' or (patient) immune antibodies.fresh defibrinated blood (65% v/v) from 2 human donors failed to completely kill strains of acinetobacter baumannii and genospecies 3, representing four serovars each. although colony counts were reduced > or = 90%, there invariably occurred rebound growth following extended incubation. neither selected serovar-specific or isolate-homologous (following experimental bacteremia) rabbit immune sera nor three intravenously applicable igg preparations augmented the bactericidal activity of human bloo ...19957758361
clinical and bacteriological features of relapsing shunt-associated meningitis due to acinetobacter baumannii.a case is reported of a patient who developed acinetobacter baumannii meningitis ten days after a ventriculoperitoneal shunt had been placed for control of elevated intracranial pressure. intravenous antimicrobial therapy was instituted with imipenem and tobramycin after shunt removal and insertion of a ventriculostomy tube. following the placement of a ventriculoatrial shunt, clinical and microbiological relapse occurred that was eventually cured after complete removal of the ventricular draina ...19957758479
[phenotypes of resistance to antibiotics of acinetobacter baumannii. impact on therapeutic orientation].by studying the sensitivity to antibiotics of 74 acinetobacter baumannii strains, four phenotype groups were distinguished. the resistance of one of them (11% of the strains) to imipenem, argues against the therapeutic attitudes that now prevail. from studies on the kinetics of bactericidal activity of antibiotics and there association we propose what should be done in the laboratory to provide help to the physician for the antibiotic choice.19883283688
comparative in-vitro activities of the new quinolone, bay y 3118, and ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, tosufloxacin, ci-960 and ci-990.the in-vitro activity of the new quinolone, bay y 3118, was compared with that of ciprofloxacin, tosufloxacin, sparfloxacin, ci-960 and ci-990 against 1640 isolates belonging to 117 bacterial species. against members of the enterobacteriaceae, bay y 3118 was as active as ci-960 and ci-990, up to four-fold more active than ciprofloxacin and tosufloxacin and up to 16-fold more active than sparfloxacin. the majority of enterobacteriaceae which were resistant to ciprofloxacin (mics > or = 2 mg/l) we ...19937605398
opportunistic nosocomial multiply resistant bacterial infections--their treatment and prevention.one of the most difficult problems confronting the clinician who deals with nosocomial infections is that of microbial resistance. the predominant nosocomial infections (urinary tract infections, pneumonia, septicaemia, surgical wound infections) involve increasing numbers of gram-positive bacteria, staphylococcus epidermidis, corynebacterium jeikeium or resistant enterococci as well as new multiresistant gram-negative bacilli such as xanthomonas maltophilia, acinetobacter baumannii and alcalige ...19937755661
synergistic interaction between ofloxacin and cefotaxime against common clinical pathogens.antimicrobial synergy resulting from combined antibiotic therapy is often important in the treatment of serious bacterial infections. to investigate the interactions between cefotaxime (ctx), desacetylcefotaxime (des), and ofloxacin (ofl), 247 recent clinical isolates were tested for in vitro susceptibility to each antibiotic alone by an agar dilution technique and retested with the various antibiotic combinations using a checkerboard protocol. fractional inhibitory concentrations were calculate ...19957499004
mutation in the gyra gene of quinolone-resistant clinical isolates of acinetobacter baumannii.the gyra gene mutations associated with quinolone resistance were determined in 21 epidemiologically unrelated clinical isolates of acinetobacter baumannii. our studies highlight the conserved sequences in the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyra gene from a. baumannii and other bacteria. all 15 isolates for which the mic of ciprofloxacin is > or = 4 micrograms/ml showed a change at ser-83 to leu. six strains for which the mic of ciprofloxacin is 1 microgram/ml did not show any ch ...19957625818
genomic fingerprinting acinetobacter baumannii: amplification of multiple inter-repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences.acinetobacter species are important nosocomial pathogens. a rapid and sensitive identification system, capable of providing strain identity at the genetic level, is required to identify outbreak strains and facilitate the early implementation of infection control procedures. repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep) elements, have been identified in numerous bacteria and these genomic sequences provide useful targets for dna amplification. a method for amplifying inter-rep dna sequences, rep-multi ...19957499819
outbreak caused by two multi-resistant acinetobacter baumannii clones in a burns unit: emergence of resistance to imipenem.since early 1992 an increased number of tobramycin- and imipenem-resistant acinetobacter spp. were observed causing colonization, wound infections, and bacteraemias in a burns and plastic surgery unit. this raised the question of whether this outbreak was caused by a single or by multiple acinetobacter spp. clones. to study this, 97 acinetobacter spp. isolates from clinical samples from different hospital units as well as isolates from the environment and the hands of the staff were characterize ...19957499820
identification and biotyping of acinetobacter spp. isolated in chilean hospitals.two hundred and eighty-one isolates of acinetobacter spp. obtained from clinical specimens in hospitals from five chilean cities were identified to species level and biotyped. respiratory tract and wound secretions were the main sources of the isolates. acinetobacter baumannii was the most frequent species (96.8%), followed by acinetobacter genospecies 3 (2.8%). twelve different biotypes of a. baumannii strains were found of which biotypes 9, 8 and 6 were the most frequent. isolates of other bio ...19957499807
characterization of the chromosomal aac(6')-ij gene of acinetobacter sp. 13 and the aac(6')-ih plasmid gene of acinetobacter baumannii.the amikacin resistance genes aac(6')-ih of acinetobacter baumannii bm2686 and aac(6')-ij of acinetobacter sp. 13 bm2689 encoding aminoglycoside 6'-n-acetyltransferases were characterized. the 441-bp coding sequences predict proteins with calculated masses of 16,698 and 16,677 da, respectively. analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences indicated that the proteins belonged to a subfamily of 6'-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase type i enzymes from gram-negative bacteria. the aac(6')-ih gene of b ...19947810994
in vitro activity of beta-lactamase inhibitors against clinical isolates of acinetobacter species.acinetobacter is an important cause of nosocomial infections, and it is often resistant to many antibiotics. in a search for alternative agents, three beta-lactamase inhibitors (sulbactam, clavulanate, and tazobactam) and five beta-lactam antibiotics (imipenem, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and piperacillin) were tested against 68 unique clinical isolates of acinetobacter species. minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by a broth microdilution method. using temperature sensiti ...19957628190
comparison of ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for molecular typing of acinetobacter isolates.seventy-three isolates of the acinetobacter calcoaceticus-acinetobacter baumannii complex, including 26 isolates from 10 hospital outbreaks, were typed by ribotyping with ecori and clai and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) of genomic dna after digestion with apai. ribotyping with ecori distinguished 31 ribopatterns. digestion with clai generated another eight ribotypes. pfge, in contrast, identified 49 distinct patterns with seven variants. both methods detected all outbreak-related is ...19957542274
the isolation of bacterium anitratum (acinetobacter anitratus) and mima polymorpha (acinetobacter iwoffi) from animals in uganda. 19685748949
a comparative study of ribotyping and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction for investigation of hospital outbreaks of acinetobacter baumannii infection.arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-pcr) and ribotyping were compared in an investigation of an outbreak of acinetobacter baumannii infections. twenty-five clinical isolates shown previously by other criteria to belong to two different groups, and nine randomly selected a. baumannii clinical isolates from other hospitals were investigated. among the strains analysed, nine different ecori rrna gene restriction pattern fingerprints were observed. while similarity was detected between ...19947523678
lipopolysaccharide profile typing as a technique for comparative typing of gram-negative bacteria.we have applied the technique of lipopolysaccharide (lps) profiling in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to the typing of 124 isolates of 12 gram-negative species from suspected outbreaks of infection. lps was prepared by proteinase k digestion or micro-phenol-water extraction. a total of 11 of the 12 species gave clear ladder band profiles, the exception being acinetobacter baumannii. when compared with conventional typing for enterobacter cloacae, pseudomonas aeruginosa ...19937684751
antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical isolates of acinetobacter baumannii from singapore.the in vitro activities of 17 antimicrobial agents alone or in combination against 70 clinical isolates of acinetobacter baumannii from singapore were determined by broth microdilution. the mics of amoxicillin, ampicillin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and piperacillin for 90% of the strains were > or = 128 micrograms/ml. addition of sulbactam to ampicillin produced improved activity, whereas adding tazobactam to piperacillin did not. the mics of amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem for ...19947840598
structure of the putative o10 antigen from acinetobacter baumannii.a polysaccharide containing l-rhamnose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucose, and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-mannose was obtained from an aqueous phenol extract of isolated cell walls from the reference strain for acinetobacter baumannii serogroup o10. by means of nmr studies and chemical degradations, the repeating unit of the polymer (the putative o10 antigen) was identified as a branched pentasaccharide of the structure shown.19947528093
transformation of acinetobacter calco-aceticus (bacterium anitratum).a highly efficient transformation system has been demonstrated in a strain of acinetobacter calco-aceticus (bacterium anitratrum). during mixed growth of various stable, unencapsulated, mutant strains, deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) is liberated and fully encapuslated transformants can be isolated. purified dna preparations have been used to transform suitable recipient mutant strains for ability to synthesize capsules, ability to dispense with a growth factor requirement, and resistance to strepto ...19695781579
identification of salmonella spp. with rambach agar in conjunction with the 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (mucap) fluorescence test.the utility of rambach agar to identify salmonella spp. was examined relative to its usefulness in clinical microbiology. forty-four of 54 (82%) salmonella organisms isolated from faecal cultures and 66 of 82 (84%) salmonella stock cultures produced bright red colour colonies after 24 h incubation at 37 degrees c, whereas 48 of 54 (89%) salmonellae isolated from faecal cultures, and 74 of 82 (90%) salmonella stock cultures, yielded the bright red colour when the incubation time was extended to 4 ...19947841836
isolation and structure elucidation of acinetobactin, a novel siderophore from acinetobacter baumannii.a novel siderophore, called acinetobactin, with both catecholate and hydroxamate functional groups was isolated from low-iron cultures of acinetobacter baumannii atcc 19606. the structure was elucidated by chemical degradation, fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry and 1h and 13c nmr spectroscopy. acinetobactin was composed of omega-n-hydroxyhistamine, threonine and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, the last two components forming an oxazoline ring. acinetobactin was structurally related to anguibact ...19947802543
detection of aac(6')-i genes in amikacin-resistant acinetobacter spp. by pcr.the distribution of aac(6')-i genes in 62 strains of acinetobacter spp. resistant to amikacin, netilmicin, and tobramycin and susceptible to gentamicin, a phenotype compatible with synthesis of an aac(6')-i enzyme, was studied by pcr and by dna hybridization. both methods gave similar results. among the 51 acinetobacter baumannii strains, aac(6')-ib was found in 19 isolates and aac(6')-ih was found in the remaining strains. the aac(6')-ig gene was present in all 10 a. haemolyticus strains studie ...19947695286
correlation of six methods for typing nosocomial isolates of acinetobacter baumannii.a comparative study of biotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility, whole-cell protein analysis, plasmid analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal dna and polymerase chain reaction with arbitrary primers of acinetobacter baumannii isolates from three large hospitals was performed to determine the best markers for epidemiological purposes. ninety-two isolates were included: 38 belonged to a previously described outbreak and 54 were randomly selected from sporadic cases of infection. b ...19957752211
nosocomial outbreak caused by a multiresistant clone of acinetobacter baumannii: results of the case-control and molecular epidemiologic investigations.to describe a nosocomial outbreak caused by multiresistant acinetobacter baumannii.19957759825
nosocomial bacteremia due to acinetobacter baumannii. clinical features, epidemiology, and predictors of mortality.to study the possible predisposing factors, clinical features, molecular epidemiology, and factors affecting mortality associated with bacteremia due to acinetobacter baumannii, we reviewed 87 episodes of a. baumannii bacteremia occurring in 79 patients hospitalized at 2 university tertiary care centers and 4 community-based hospitals during a recent 18-month period. plasmid dna analysis and analysis of genomic dna with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to investigate possible epide ...19957500897
disseminated cutaneous botryomycosis--an unexpected diagnosis after 20-years' duration.a 35-year-old man presented with nodular suppurative lesions of the buttocks and the neck evolving over 20 years. a diagnosis of botryomycosis was established. staphylococcus aureus, acinetobacter baumanii and coagulase negative staphylococcus were isolated from the biopsy specimen. surgical excision was performed with success on the buttock.19948033393
plasmid dna profiles of acinetobacter baumannii: clinical application in a complex endemic setting.to study the epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical features of infections due to acinetobacter baumannii in a complex endemic situation over an 18-month period and to determine the clinical usefulness of plasmid dna analysis of a baumannii in epidemiological investigations.19947983345
bacteremia due to acinetobacter species other than acinetobacter baumannii.the objective of this study was to describe the clinical features, possible predisposing factors and treatment outcomes associated with bacteremia du to acinetobacter species other than acinetobacter baumannii. a review of laboratory and medical charts over a period of 18 months revealed 61 cases of bacteremia due to acinetobacter species other than a. baumannii occurring in 59 patients. six of these were considered not significant. fifty cases represented catheter-related bacteremia, one case w ...19947698833
epidemiological markers of acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from a spinal cord injury unit.during a period of 28 months, 114 isolates of acinetobacter baumannii obtained from urine samples of 57 patients, were recovered in a spinal cord unit; an unusual increase in the number of a. baumannii isolates was observed between february 1991 and january 1992. six different typing methods [biotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility, whole cell and cell-envelope protein analysis, plasmid analysis and chromosomal dna analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge)] were used to study the isola ...19947806867
plasmid mediated silver resistance in acinetobacter baumannii.acinetobacter baumannii bl88, an environmental isolate, was resistant to 13 metals and 10 antibiotics. plumbagin cured resistance to silver, cadmium, antimony, streptomycin and ampicillin at varying frequencies. however, only silver resistance transferred (1 x 10(-6) recepient-1) to escherichia coli k12 during conjugation. correspondingly there was transfer of a 54 kb plasmid (pupi199) from a. baumannii bl88. the plasmid transformed e. coli dh5 alpha cells at a frequency of 1 x 10(-8) recepient- ...19948118173
structure of a surface polysaccharide from acinetobacter baumannii strain 214.a polysaccharide containing d-galactose, d-glucose, and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galactose was obtained from an aqueous phenol extract of isolated cell walls from acinetobacter baumannii strain 214. by means of nmr studies and chemical degradations, the repeating unit of the polymer was identified as a branched trisaccharide of the structure shown. [formula: see text]19948039176
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