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tracing of two pseudomonas strains in the root and rhizoplane of maize, as related to their plant growth-promoting effect in contrasting soils.taqman-based quantitative pcr (qpcr) assays were developed to study the persistence of two well-characterized strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr), pseudomonas fluorescens pf153 and pseudomonas sp. dsmz 13134, in the root and rhizoplane of inoculated maize plants. this was performed in pot experiments with three contrasting field soils (buus, le caron and dok-m). potential cross-reactivity of the qpcr assays was assessed with indigenous pseudomonas and related bacterial species ...201628119675
tracing of two pseudomonas strains in the root and rhizoplane of maize, as related to their plant growth-promoting effect in contrasting soils.taqman-based quantitative pcr (qpcr) assays were developed to study the persistence of two well-characterized strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr), pseudomonas fluorescens pf153 and pseudomonas sp. dsmz 13134, in the root and rhizoplane of inoculated maize plants. this was performed in pot experiments with three contrasting field soils (buus, le caron and dok-m). potential cross-reactivity of the qpcr assays was assessed with indigenous pseudomonas and related bacterial species ...201628119675
molecular cloning and functional expression of a δ9- fatty acid desaturase from an antarctic pseudomonas sp. a3.fatty acid desaturase enzymes play an essential role in the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. pseudomonas sp. a3 was found to produce a large amount of palmitoleic and oleic acids after incubation at low temperatures. using polymerase chain reaction (pcr), a novel δ9- fatty acid desaturase gene was isolated, cloned, and successfully expressed in escherichia coli. the gene was designated as pa3fad9 and has an open reading frame of 1,185 bp which codes for 394 amino acids with a predicted mole ...201627494717
moleculo long-read sequencing facilitates assembly and genomic binning from complex soil metagenomes.soil metagenomics has been touted as the "grand challenge" for metagenomics, as the high microbial diversity and spatial heterogeneity of soils make them unamenable to current assembly platforms. here, we aimed to improve soil metagenomic sequence assembly by applying the moleculo synthetic long-read sequencing technology. in total, we obtained 267 gbp of raw sequence data from a native prairie soil; these data included 109.7 gbp of short-read data (~100 bp) from the joint genome institute (jgi) ...201627822530
isolation of bdellovibrio sp. from soil samples in mexico and their potential applications in control of pathogens.in this study, two strains of bdellovibrio were isolated from soil samples using the culture-dependent technique and two members of the family enterobacteriaceae (klebsiella sp. and salmonella sp.) as prey. the bdellovibrio strains were bacteriolytic, plaque-forming, and highly motile gram-negative bacteria. we identified and confirmed the bdellovibrio strains using microscopy, pcr amplification, and sequencing of the 16s rrna gene. they were observed to be different strains based on hit locus a ...201627297185
bacteria with phosphate solubilizing capacity alter mycorrhizal fungal growth both inside and outside the root and in the presence of native microbial communities.arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) and phosphate solubilizing pseudomonas bacteria (psb) could potentially interact synergistically because psb solubilize phosphate into a form that amf can absorb and transport to the plant. however, very little is known about the interactions between these two groups of microorganisms and how they influence the growth of each other. we tested whether different strains of bacteria, that have the capacity to solubilize phosphate, are able to grow along amf hyphae ...201627253975
antagonistic control of the turnover pathway for the global regulatory srna csrb by the csra and csrd proteins.the widely conserved protein csra (carbon storage regulator a) globally regulates bacterial gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. in many species, csra activity is governed by untranslated srnas, csrb and csrc in escherichia coli, which bind to multiple csra dimers, sequestering them from lower affinity mrna targets. both the synthesis and turnover of csrb/c are regulated. their turnover requires the housekeeping endonuclease rnase e and is activated by the presence of a preferred c ...201627235416
biosynthesis, chemical structure, and structure-activity relationship of orfamide lipopeptides produced by pseudomonas protegens and related species.orfamide-type cyclic lipopeptides (clps) are biosurfactants produced by pseudomonas and involved in lysis of oomycete zoospores, biocontrol of rhizoctonia and insecticidal activity against aphids. in this study, we compared the biosynthesis, structural diversity, in vitro and in planta activities of orfamides produced by rhizosphere-derived pseudomonas protegens and related pseudomonas species. genetic characterization together with chemical identification revealed that the main orfamide compoun ...201627065956
prevention and treatment of biofilms by hybrid- and nanotechnologies.bacteria growing as adherent biofilms are difficult to treat and frequently develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. to counter biofilms, various approaches, including prevention of bacterial surface adherence, application of device applicators, and assimilation of antimicrobials in targeted drug delivery machinery, have been utilized. these methods are also combined to achieve synergistic bacterial killing. this review discusses various multimodal technologies, presents general concepts, and ...201323946652
growth kinetics, effect of carbon substrate in biosynthesis of mcl-pha by pseudomonas putida bet001.growth associated biosynthesis of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-pha) in pseudomonas putida bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. models with substrate inhibition terms described well the kinetics of its growth. selected fatty acids (c8:0 to c18:1) and ammonium were used as carbon and nitrogen sources during growth and pha biosynthesis, resulting in pha accumulation of about 50 to 69% (w/w) and pha yields ranging from 10.12 g l(-1) to 15.45 g l(-1), respecti ...201425242925
efflux pump-deficient mutants as a platform to search for microbes that produce antibiotics.pseudomonas putida dot-t1e-18 is a strain deficient in the major antibiotic efflux pump (ttgabc) that exhibits an overall increased susceptibility to a wide range of drugs when compared with the wild-type strain. we used this strain as a platform to search for microbes able to produce antibiotics that inhibit growth. a collection of 2400 isolates from soil, sediments and water was generated and a drop assay developed to identify, via growth inhibition halos, strains that prevent the growth of do ...201526059350
coupled chemo(enzymatic) reactions in continuous flow.this review highlights the state of the art in the field of coupled chemo(enzymatic) reactions in continuous flow. three different approaches to such reaction systems are presented herein and discussed in view of their advantages and disadvantages as well as trends for their future development.201122238518
phylogenetic relationships among group ii intron orfs.group ii introns are widely believed to have been ancestors of spliceosomal introns, yet little is known about their own evolutionary history. in order to address the evolution of mobile group ii introns, we have compiled 71 open reading frames (orfs) related to group ii intron reverse transcriptases and subjected their derived amino acid sequences to phylogenetic analysis. the phylogenetic tree was rooted with reverse transcriptases (rts) of non-long terminal repeat retroelements, and the infer ...200111222775
the metacyc database.metacyc is a metabolic-pathway database that describes 445 pathways and 1115 enzymes occurring in 158 organisms. metacyc is a review-level database in that a given entry in metacyc often integrates information from multiple literature sources. the pathways in metacyc were determined experimentally, and are labeled with the species in which they are known to occur based on literature references examined to date. metacyc contains extensive commentary and literature citations. applications of metac ...200211752254
fast quantitative determination of microbial rhamnolipids from cultivation broths by atr-ftir spectroscopy.vibrational spectroscopic techniques are becoming increasingly important and popular because they have the potential to provide rapid and convenient solutions to routine analytical problems. using these techniques, a variety of substances can be characterized, identified and also quantified rapidly.200818840269
conformational dynamics in the acyl-coa synthetases, adenylation domains of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, and firefly luciferase.the anl superfamily of adenylating enzymes contains acyl- and aryl-coa synthetases, firefly luciferase, and the adenylation domains of the modular non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (nrpss). members of this family catalyze two partial reactions: the initial adenylation of a carboxylate to form an acyl-amp intermediate, followed by a second partial reaction, most commonly the formation of a thioester. recent biochemical and structural evidence has been presented that supports the use by this enzym ...200919610673
accounting for mating pair formation in plasmid population dynamics.plasmids are important vehicles for horizontal gene transfer and rapid adaptation in bacteria, including the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. conjugative transfer of a plasmid from a plasmid-bearing to a plasmid-free bacterial cell requires contact and attachment of the cells followed by plasmid dna transfer prior to detachment. we introduce a system of differential equations for plasmid transfer in well-mixed populations that accounts for attachment, dna transfer, and detachment dynamics. ...200919835890
accounting for mating pair formation in plasmid population dynamics.plasmids are important vehicles for horizontal gene transfer and rapid adaptation in bacteria, including the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. conjugative transfer of a plasmid from a plasmid-bearing to a plasmid-free bacterial cell requires contact and attachment of the cells followed by plasmid dna transfer prior to detachment. we introduce a system of differential equations for plasmid transfer in well-mixed populations that accounts for attachment, dna transfer, and detachment dynamics. ...200919835890
evolution of efficient pathways for degradation of anthropogenic chemicals.anthropogenic compounds used as pesticides, solvents and explosives often persist in the environment and can cause toxicity to humans and wildlife. the persistence of anthropogenic compounds is due to their recent introduction into the environment; microbes in soil and water have had relatively little time to evolve efficient mechanisms for degradation of these new compounds. some anthropogenic compounds are easily degraded, whereas others are degraded very slowly or only partially, leading to a ...200919620997
degradation of h-acid by free and immobilized cells of alcaligenes latus.alcaligenes latus, isolated from industrial effluent, was able to grow in mineral salts medium with 50 ppm (0.15 mm) of h-acid as a sole source of carbon. immobilization of alcaligenes latus in ca-alginate and polyurethane foam resulted in cells embedded in the matrices. when free cells and immobilized cells were used for biodegradation studies at concentration ranging from 100 ppm (0.3 mm) to 500 ppm (1.15 mm) degradation rate was enhanced with immobilized cells. cells immobilized in polyuretha ...201024031573
a conjugative 38 kb plasmid is present in multiple subspecies of xylella fastidiosa.a ≈ 38kb plasmid (pxf-riv5) was present in the riv5 strain of xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolated from ornamental plum in southern california. the complete nucleotide sequence of pxf-riv5 is almost identical to that of pxfas01 from x. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa strain m23; the two plasmids vary at only 6 nucleotide positions. blast searches and phylogenetic analyses indicate pxf-riv5 and pxfas01 share some similarity to chromosomal and plasmid (pxf51) sequences of x. fastidiosa subsp. ...201223251694
re-evaluation of a bacterial antifreeze protein as an adhesin with ice-binding activity.a novel role for antifreeze proteins (afps) may reside in an exceptionally large 1.5-mda adhesin isolated from an antarctic gram-negative bacterium, marinomonas primoryensis. mpafp was purified from bacterial lysates by ice adsorption and gel electrophoresis. we have previously reported that two highly repetitive sequences, region ii (rii) and region iv (riv), divide mpafp into five distinct regions, all of which require mm ca(2+) levels for correct folding. also, the antifreeze activity is conf ...201223144980
biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates copolymers produced by pseudomonas putida bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent.the biosynthesis and characterization of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-pha) produced by pseudomonas putida bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. the biosynthesis of mcl-pha in this newly isolated microorganism follows a growth-associated trend. mcl-pha accumulation ranging from 49.7 to 68.9% on cell dry weight (cdw) basis were observed when fatty acids ranging from octanoic acid (c(8:0)) to oleic acid (c(18:1)) were used as sole carbon and energy source. mo ...201223028854
an ultrasensitive enzymatic method for measuring mevalonic acid in serum.we have developed a simple, precise, and ultrasensitive enzymatic method for measuring serum mevalonic acid (mva) concentration, which is thought to be a good indicator of the in vivo cholesterol biosynthesis rate. this assay is based on an enzyme cycling reaction and makes use of hmg-coa reductase (hmgr), thio-nad, nadh, and coa. mva participates in the hmgr cycling reaction, and its level is measured based on the production of thio-nadh, which is determined from the change in absorbance at 405 ...201222715156
identification of the para-nitrophenol catabolic pathway, and characterization of three enzymes involved in the hydroquinone pathway, in peudomonas sp. 1-7.para-nitrophenol (pnp), a priority environmental pollutant, is hazardous to humans and animals. however, the information relating to the pnp degradation pathways and their enzymes remain limited.201222380602
reduction of chromium-vi by chromium resistant lactobacilli: a prospective bacterium for bioremediation.chromium is a toxic heavy metal, which primarily exists in two inorganic forms, cr (vi) and cr (iii). highly soluble hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic due to its oxidizing nature. it is well established that the intestinal bacteria including lactobacilli have regulatory effect on intestinal homeostasis and a breakdown in the relationship between intestinal cells and bacteria results in the manifestation of gastrointestinal (gi) disorders. in this study cr (vi) resistance was developed in lacto ...201222736899
bioaugmentation with petroleum-degrading consortia has a selective growth-promoting impact on crop plants germinated in diesel oil-contaminated soil.rhizoremediation is a complex type of green clean-up technology that involves both plants and the rhizosphere-associated microorganisms to decompose hazardous compounds. the success of the strategy strongly depends on plant tolerance towards the pollutant, as well as plant's interactions with the rhizospheric microbes. the microorganisms may be stimulated by the secreted root exudates, which results in an increased breakdown of contaminants in the rhizosphere. the main goal of this study was to ...201324078757
structural and kinetic characterization of two 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerases in methylibium petroleiphilum strain pm1.methylibium petroleiphilum strain pm1 uses various petroleum products including the fuel additive methyl tert-butyl ether and straight chain and aromatic hydrocarbons as sole carbon and energy sources. it has two operons, dmpi and dmpii, that code for the enzymes in a pair of parallel meta-fission pathways. in order to understand the roles of the pathways, the 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-ot) isozyme from each pathway was characterized. tautomerase i and tautomerase ii have the lowest pairwis ...201323831510
purification and identification of trichloroethylene induced proteins from stenotrophomonas maltophilia pm102 by immuno-affinity-chromatography and maldi-tof mass spectrometry.a novel bacterial isolate capable of growth on trichloroethylene as the sole carbon source was identified as stenotrophomonas maltophilia pm102 by 16s rdna sequencing (genbank acc.no. jq797560). serum was obtained from a rabbit immunized with the total protein extracted from the pm102 isolate grown in 0.2% tce with 0.2% peptone. antibodies to the common antigens were removed by preadsorbing the serum antibody on total protein extracted from the pm102 strain grown in 0.2% peptone. western blot wi ...201323741645
isolation and identification of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria from ennore creek.the widespread problem caused due to petroleum products, is their discharge and accidental spillage in marine environment proving to be hazardous to the surroundings as well as life forms. thus remediation of these hydrocarbons by natural decontamination process is of utmost importance. bioremediation is a non-invasive and cost effective technique for the clean-up of these petroleum hydrocarbons. in this study we have investigated the ability of microorganisms present in the sediment sample to d ...201323424279
relationship of femtosecond-picosecond dynamics to enzyme-catalyzed h-transfer.at physiological temperatures, enzymes exhibit a broad spectrum of conformations, which interchange via thermally activated dynamics. these conformations are sampled differently in different complexes of the protein and its ligands, and the dynamics of exchange between these conformers depends on the mass of the group that is moving and the length scale of the motion, as well as restrictions imposed by the globular fold of the enzymatic complex. many of these motions have been examined and their ...201323539379
novel assay to measure the plasmid mobilizing potential of mixed microbial communities.mobilizable plasmids lack necessary genes for complete conjugation and are therefore non-self-transmissible. instead, they rely on the conjugation system of conjugal plasmids to be horizontally transferred to new recipients. while community permissiveness, the fraction of a mixed microbial community that can receive self-transmissible conjugal plasmids, has been studied, the intrinsic ability of a community to mobilize plasmids that lack conjugation systems is unexplored. here, we present a nove ...201425566238
draft genome sequence analysis of a pseudomonas putida w15oct28 strain with antagonistic activity to gram-positive and pseudomonas sp. pathogens.pseudomonas putida is a member of the fluorescent pseudomonads known to produce the yellow-green fluorescent pyoverdine siderophore. p. putida w15oct28, isolated from a stream in brussels, was found to produce compound(s) with antimicrobial activity against the opportunistic pathogens staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the plant pathogen pseudomonas syringae, an unusual characteristic for p. putida. the active compound production only occurred in media with low iron content and w ...201425369289
interactions of non-natural halogenated substrates with d-specific dehalogenase (dehd) mutants using in silico studies.the d-2-haloacid dehalogenase of d-specific dehalogenase (dehd) from rhizobium sp. rc1 catalyses the hydrolytic dehalogenation of d-haloalkanoic acids, inverting the substrate-product configuration and thereby forming the corresponding l-hydroxyalkanoic acids. our investigations were focused on dehd mutants: r134a and y135a. we examined the possible interactions between these mutants with haloalkanoic acids and characterized the key catalytic residues in the wild-type dehalogenase, to design deh ...201426019583
chromobacterium csp_p reduces malaria and dengue infection in vector mosquitoes and has entomopathogenic and in vitro anti-pathogen activities.plasmodium and dengue virus, the causative agents of the two most devastating vector-borne diseases, malaria and dengue, are transmitted by the two most important mosquito vectors, anopheles gambiae and aedes aegypti, respectively. insect-bacteria associations have been shown to influence vector competence for human pathogens through multi-faceted actions that include the elicitation of the insect immune system, pathogen sequestration by microbes, and bacteria-produced anti-pathogenic factors. t ...201425340821
bacterial communities in semen from men of infertile couples: metagenomic sequencing reveals relationships of seminal microbiota to semen quality.some previous studies have identified bacteria in semen as being a potential factor in male infertility. however, only few types of bacteria were taken into consideration while using pcr-based or culturing methods. here we present an analysis approach using next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the associations between bacterial communities and semen quality. ninety-six semen samples collected were examined for bacterial communities, measuring seven cli ...201425340531
characterization of the medium- and long-chain n-alkanes degrading pseudomonas aeruginosa strain sjtd-1 and its alkane hydroxylase genes.a gram-negative aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium sjtd-1 isolated from oil-contaminated soil was identified as pseudomonas aeruginosa by comparative analyses of the 16s rrna sequence, phenotype, and physiological features. sjtd-1 could efficiently mineralize medium- and long-chain n-alkanes (c12-c30) as its sole carbon source within seven days, showing the most optimal growth on n-hexadecane, followed by n-octadecane, and n-eicosane. in 36 h, 500 mg/l of tetradecane, hexadecane, and octa ...201425165808
isolation and characterization of broad spectrum coaggregating bacteria from different water systems for potential use in bioaugmentation.the bridging bacteria with broad-spectrum coaggregation ability play an important role during multispecies-biofilm development. in this study, through a visual and semi-quantitative assay, twenty-two bacterial strains with aggregation ability were obtained from 8 different water environments, and these strains were assigned to 7 genera according to their 16s rdna and they were aeromonas, bacillus, comamonas, exiguobacterium, pseudomonas, shewanella and comamonas. furthermore, all possible 231 pa ...201424736645
antibiotic resistance determinants in a pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a hospital.environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. we have established a collection of p. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in france. one of the isolated strains (hb3267) kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the an ...201424465371
metabolic engineering of pseudomonas sp. strain vlb120 as platform biocatalyst for the production of isobutyric acid and other secondary metabolites.over the recent years the production of ehrlich pathway derived chemicals was shown in a variety of hosts such as escherichia coli, corynebacterium glutamicum, and yeast. exemplarily the production of isobutyric acid was demonstrated in escherichia coli with remarkable titers and yields. however, these examples suffer from byproduct formation due to the fermentative growth mode of the respective organism. we aim at establishing a new aerobic, chassis for the synthesis of isobutyric acid and othe ...201424397404
metabolic degradation of 1,4-dichloronaphthalene by pseudomonas sp. hy.there is increasing concern regarding the adverse health effects of polychlorinated naphthalenes (pcns). the metabolic degradation of 1,4-dichloronaphthalene (1,4-dcn) as a model pcn, was studied using a strain of pseudomonas sp. hy. the metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). a series of metabolites including dihydroxy-dichloro-naphthalene, epoxy-dichlorinated naphthalene, dichlorinated naphthol, and dichlorinated salicylic acid were identified. the time-conce ...201526308037
the crystal structure of d-threonine aldolase from alcaligenes xylosoxidans provides insight into a metal ion assisted plp-dependent mechanism.threonine aldolases catalyze the pyridoxal phosphate (plp) dependent cleavage of threonine into glycine and acetaldehyde and play a major role in the degradation of this amino acid. in nature, l- as well as d-specific enzymes have been identified, but the exact physiological function of d-threonine aldolases (dtas) is still largely unknown. both types of enantio-complementary enzymes have a considerable potential in biocatalysis for the stereospecific synthesis of various β-hydroxy amino acids, ...201525884707
bioaugmentation of mesorhizobium cicer, pseudomonas spp. and piriformospora indica for sustainable chickpea production.chickpea establishes symbiotic association with mesorhizobium to fulfill its nitrogen (n) requirement. integrating chickpea rhizosphere with potential native mesorhizobia and other plant growth promoting microorganisms can contribute multiple benefits to plants. the present investigation was undertaken to study interactions among piriformospora indica (pi) with potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) viz. pseudomonas argentinensis (lpgpr1), pseudomonas sp. (lpgpr2) along with natio ...201526261403
plant-microbe cross-talk in the rhizosphere: insight and biotechnological potential.rhizosphere, the interface between soil and plant roots, is a chemically complex environment which supports the development and growth of diverse microbial communities. the composition of the rhizosphere microbiome is dynamic and controlled by multiple biotic and abiotic factors that include environmental parameters, physiochemical properties of the soil, biological activities of the plants and chemical signals from the plants and bacteria which inhabit the soil adherent to root-system. recent a ...201525926899
insights into functional and evolutionary analysis of carbaryl metabolic pathway from pseudomonas sp. strain c5pp.carbaryl (1-naphthyl n-methylcarbamate) is a most widely used carbamate pesticide in the agriculture field. soil isolate, pseudomonas sp. strain c5pp mineralizes carbaryl via 1-naphthol, salicylate and gentisate, however the genetic organization and evolutionary events of acquisition and assembly of pathway have not yet been studied. the draft genome analysis of strain c5pp reveals that the carbaryl catabolic genes are organized into three putative operons, 'upper', 'middle' and 'lower'. the seq ...201627924916
flagellin flic phosphorylation affects type 2 protease secretion and biofilm dispersal in pseudomonas aeruginosa pao1.protein phosphorylation has a major role in controlling the life-cycle and infection stages of bacteria. proteome-wide occurrence of s/t/y phosphorylation has been reported for many prokaryotic systems. previously, we reported the phosphoproteome of pseudomonas aeruginosa and pseudomonas putida. in this study, we show the role of s/t phosphorylation of one motility protein, flic, in regulating multiple surface-associated phenomena of p. aeruginosa pao1. this is the first report of occurrence of ...201627701473
analysis of plant growth-promoting effects of fluorescent pseudomonas strains isolated from mentha piperita rhizosphere and effects of their volatile organic compounds on essential oil composition.many species or strains of the genus pseudomonas have been characterized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr). we used a combination of phenotypic and genotypic techniques to analyze the community of fluorescent pseudomonas strains in the rhizosphere of commercially grown mentha piperita (peppermint). biochemical techniques, amplified rdna restriction analysis (ardra), and 16s rrna gene sequence analysis revealed that the majority of the isolated native fluorescent strains were p. puti ...201627486441
metabolic pathway for a new strain pseudomonas synxantha lsh-7': from chemotaxis to uptake of n-hexadecane.bacteria can use n-hexadecane as a carbon source, but it remains incompletely understood whether n-hexadecane is transformed into metabolic intermediates prior to cellular uptake or not. we newly isolated a strain identified as pseudomonas synxantha lsh-7' and conducted chemotaxis experiment of this bacterial strain towards n-hexadecane, hexadecanol and hexadecanoic acid with qualitative assays respectively. furthermore, we described the identification of extracellular alkane hydroxylase and alc ...201728051099
wide screening of phage-displayed libraries identifies immune targets in planta.microbe-associated molecular patterns and virulence effectors are recognized by plants as a first step to mount a defence response against potential pathogens. this recognition involves a large family of extracellular membrane receptors and other immune proteins located in different sub-cellular compartments. we have used phage-display technology to express and select for arabidopsis proteins able to bind bacterial pathogens. to rapidly identify microbe-bound phage, we developed a monitoring met ...201323372747
the induction of ethylene response factor 3 (erf3) in potato as a result of co-inoculation with pseudomonas sp. r41805 and rhizophagus irregularis mucl 41833 - a possible role in plant defense.colonization of plant rhizosphere/roots by beneficial microorganisms (e.g. plant growth promoting rhizobacteria - pgpr, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - amf) confers broad-spectrum resistance to virulent pathogens and is known as induced systemic resistance (isr) and mycorrhizal-induced resistance (mir). isr or mir, an indirect mechanism for biocontrol, involves complex signaling networks that are regulated by several plant hormones, the most important of which are salicylic acid (sa), jasmonic ac ...201525723847
temperature and redox effect on mineral colonization in juan de fuca ridge flank subsurface crustal fluids.to examine microbe-mineral interactions in subsurface oceanic crust, we evaluated microbial colonization on crustal minerals that were incubated in borehole fluids for 1 year at the seafloor wellhead of a crustal borehole observatory (iodp hole u1301a, juan de fuca ridge flank) as compared to an experiment that was not exposed to subsurface crustal fluids (at nearby iodp hole u1301b). in comparison to previous studies at these same sites, this approach allowed assessment of the effects of temper ...201627064928
the method of contact angle measurements and estimation of work of adhesion in bioleaching of metals.in this paper, we present our method for the measurement of contact angles on the surface of minerals during the bioleaching process because the standard deviation obtained in our measurements achieved unexpectedly low error. construction of a goniometer connected with a specially prepared computer program allowed us to repeat measurements several times over a short time course, yielding excellent results.after defining points on the outline of the image of a drop and its baseline as well of the ...199812734596
the method of contact angle measurements and estimation of work of adhesion in bioleaching of metals.in this paper, we present our method for the measurement of contact angles on the surface of minerals during the bioleaching process because the standard deviation obtained in our measurements achieved unexpectedly low error. construction of a goniometer connected with a specially prepared computer program allowed us to repeat measurements several times over a short time course, yielding excellent results.after defining points on the outline of the image of a drop and its baseline as well of the ...199812734596
neutrophil apoptosis: a marker of disease severity in sepsis and sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.apoptosis of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophils [pmns]) may limit inflammatory injury in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ards), but the relationship between the severity of sepsis and extent of pmn apoptosis and the effect of superimposed ards is unknown. the objective of this study was to correlate neutrophil apoptosis with the severity of sepsis and sepsis-induced ards.200617092345
questions about the use of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis.the use of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis despite recent clinical trials remains controversial. the aim of this study is to review the latest clinical trials and guidelines about antibiotics in acute pancreatitis and determine its proper use.200616820058
peritonitis - the eastern experience.peritonitis is a common emergency encountered by surgeons the world over. this paper aims to provide an overview of the spectrum of peritonitis seen in the east. studies dealing with the overall spectrum of secondary peritonitis in various countries of this region were identified using pubmed and google. these were analyzed for the site and cause of perforation and the mortality. it was observed that perforation of duodenal ulcers was the most the commonly encountered perforations. these are fol ...200616759427
conformationally constrained analogues of 2-arachidonoylglycerol.novel monocyclic analogues of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-ag) were designed in order to explore the pharmacophoric conformations of this endocannabinoid ligand at the key cannabinergic proteins. all 2-arachidonoyl esters of 1,2,3-cyclohexanetriol [meso-7 (am5504), (+/-)-8 (am5503), and meso-9 (am5505)] were synthesized by regioselective acylation of 2,3-dihydroxycyclohexanone followed by selective reductions. the optically active isomers (+)-8 (am4434) and (-)-8 (am4435) were synthesized from (2s, ...200717826996
outcome of life-threatening malaria in african children requiring endotracheal intubation.little is known about children undergoing critical care for malaria. the purpose of this survey was to evaluate the outcome in african children requiring endotracheal intubation for life-threatening malaria.200717470294
lumbar periradicular abscess mimicking a fragmented lumbar disc herniation : an unusual case.we herein describe the case of a focal spontaneous spinal epidural abscess who was initially diagnosed to have a free fragment of a lumbar disc. a 71-year-old woman presented with history of low back and right leg pain. magnetic resonance imaging suggested a peripherally enhancing free fragment extending down from s1 nerve root axilla. preoperative laboratory investigation showed elevation of c-reactive protein (crp), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (esr) levels. she was taken for surgery and a f ...200819137084
isolation and preliminary characterization of a o-nitrobenzaldehyde-degrading alcaligenes sp. nd1.this paper reports the isolation and characterization of a new o-nitrobenzaldehyde (onba)-degrading bacterium, alcaligenes sp. nd1. nd1 degraded almost all onba (100 mg l(-1)) in m9 medium within 36 hours. the key enzyme(s) involved in the initial biodegradation was a constitutively intracellular enzyme(s). this bacterium has great potential utility for bioremediation.200824031306
unconventional serine proteases: variations on the catalytic ser/his/asp triad configuration.serine proteases comprise nearly one-third of all known proteases identified to date and play crucial roles in a wide variety of cellular as well as extracellular functions, including the process of blood clotting, protein digestion, cell signaling, inflammation, and protein processing. their hallmark is that they contain the so-called "classical" catalytic ser/his/asp triad. although the classical serine proteases are the most widespread in nature, there exist a variety of "nonclassical" serine ...200818824507
mechanism of extradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases.the extradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases activate molecular oxygen by binding both o(2) and the catecholic substrate to a reduced active site metal, generally fe(ii). progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of this reaction through the combined use of kinetic, computational, biomimetic, structural, and diagnostic chemical approaches. it appears that o(2) is activated by accepting an electron transferred from the substrate through the metal, thereby simultaneously activatin ...200819007887
pruning nature: biodiversity-derived discovery of novel sodium channel blocking conotoxins from conus bullatus.described herein is a general approach to identify novel compounds using the biodiversity of a megadiverse group of animals; specifically, the phylogenetic lineage of the venomous gastropods that belong to the genus conus ("cone snails"). cone snail biodiversity was exploited to identify three new mu-conotoxins, buiiia, buiiib and buiiic, encoded by the fish-hunting species conus bullatus. buiiia, buiiib and buiiic are strikingly divergent in their amino acid composition compared to previous mu- ...200818950653
pruning nature: biodiversity-derived discovery of novel sodium channel blocking conotoxins from conus bullatus.described herein is a general approach to identify novel compounds using the biodiversity of a megadiverse group of animals; specifically, the phylogenetic lineage of the venomous gastropods that belong to the genus conus ("cone snails"). cone snail biodiversity was exploited to identify three new mu-conotoxins, buiiia, buiiib and buiiic, encoded by the fish-hunting species conus bullatus. buiiia, buiiib and buiiic are strikingly divergent in their amino acid composition compared to previous mu- ...200818950653
intermediate in the o-o bond cleavage reaction of an extradiol dioxygenase.the reactive oxy intermediate of the catalytic cycle of extradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases is formed by binding the catecholic substrate and o2 in adjacent ligand positions of the active site metal [usually fe(ii)]. this intermediate and the following fe(ii)-alkylperoxo intermediate resulting from oxygen attack on the substrate have been previously characterized in a crystal of homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (hpcd). here a subsequent intermediate in which the o-o bond is broken t ...200818826259
neonatal conjunctivitis - a review.ophthalmia neonatorum remains a significant cause of ocular morbidity, blindness and even death in underdeveloped countries. the organisms causing ophthalmia neonatorum are acquired mainly from the mother's birth canal during delivery and a small percentage of cases are acquired by other ways. chlamydia and neisseria are the most common pathogens responsible for the perinatal infection. fortunately in most cases, laboratory studies can identify the causative organism and unlike other form of con ...200825606121
first total synthesis of the potent anticancer natural product dideoxypetrosynol a: preparation of the "skipped" (z)-enediyne moiety by oxidative coupling of homopropargyl phosphonium ylide.dideoxypetrosynol a is a c30 polyacetylenic alcohol with c2 symmetry. the first total synthesis of both enantiomers of the potent anti-cancer natural product (+)- and (-)-dideoxypetrosynol a is reported. the key step is an oxidative coupling of a homopropargyl phosphonium ylide to prepare the "skipped" (z)-enediyne moiety. the natural dideoxypetrosynol a was isolated as a racemic mixture as shown in structure 1. the absolute configurations of the chiral centers are established for the (+)- and ( ...200823519828
microbial biodiversity and in situ bioremediation of endosulfan contaminated soil.molecular characterization based on 16s rdna gene sequence analysis of bacterial colonies isolated from endosulfan contaminated soil showed the presence of ochrobacterum sp, burkholderia sp, pseudomonas alcaligenes, pseudomonas sp and arthrobacter sp which degraded 57-90% of α-endosulfan and 74-94% of β-endosulfan after 7days. whole cells of pseudomonas sp and pseudomonas alcaligenes showed 94 and 89% uptake of α-isomer and 86 and 89% of β-endosulfan respectively in 120 min. in pseudomonas sp, e ...200823100706
an in vitro spectroscopic analysis to determine whether para-chloroaniline is produced from mixing sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine.the purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether para-chloroaniline (pca) is formed through the reaction of mixing sodium hypochlorite (naocl) and chlorhexidine (chx).200920113799
an in vitro spectroscopic analysis to determine whether para-chloroaniline is produced from mixing sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine.the purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether para-chloroaniline (pca) is formed through the reaction of mixing sodium hypochlorite (naocl) and chlorhexidine (chx).200920113799
taking a corneal scrape and making a diagnosis. 200920212927
managing corneal disease: focus on suppurative keratitis. 200920212926
atomic resolution crystal structure of nad(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase from bacterium moraxella sp. c-1.the crystal structure of the ternary complex of nad+-dependent formate dehydrogenase from the methylotrophic bacterium moraxella sp. c-1 with the cofactor (nad+) and the inhibitor (azide ion) was established at 1.1 a resolution. the complex mimics the structure of the transition state of the enzymatic reaction. the structure was refined with anisotropic displacitalicents parameters for non-hydrogen atoms to a r factor of 13.4%. most of the nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon atoms were distinguished ba ...200922649619
fabrication and modeling of dynamic multipolymer nanofibrous scaffolds.aligned nanofibrous scaffolds hold tremendous potential for the engineering of dense connective tissues. these biomimetic micropatterns direct organized cell-mediated matrix deposition and can be tuned to possess nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical properties. for these scaffolds to function in vivo, however, they must either recapitulate the full dynamic mechanical range of the native tissue upon implantation or must foster cell infiltration and matrix deposition so as to enable construct matu ...200919831482
examination of enzymatic h-tunneling through kinetics and dynamics.in recent years, kinetic measurements of isotope effects of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and their temperature dependence led to the development of theoretical models that were used to rationalize the findings. these models suggested that motions at the femto- to picosecond (fs to ps) time scale modulate the environment of the catalyzed reaction. due to the fast nature of motions that directly affect the cleavage of a covalent bond, it is challenging to correlate the enzyme kinetics and dynamics r ...200919621965
the preparation of 2-o-[1'-c]arachidonoyl-1-o-stearoyl-sn-glycerol.2-o-arachidonoyl-1-o-stearoyl-sn-glycerol is the most abundant molecular species of the 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol signaling lipids in neural tissue. the facile preparation of 2-o-[1'-(14)c]arachidonoyl-1-o-stearoyl-sn-glycerol from 2-o-[1'-(14)c]arachidonoyl-1-o-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine at a hexane and phosphate buffer interface with phospholipase c was demonstrated on a 20 µci scale in 83% radiochemical yield. the specific activity of the product 2-o-[1'-(14)c]arachidonoyl-1-o-stearoyl ...200921423828
redox-linked conformational dynamics in apoptosis-inducing factor.apoptosis-inducing factor (aif) is a bifunctional mitochondrial flavoprotein critical for energy metabolism and induction of caspase-independent apoptosis, whose exact role in normal mitochondria remains unknown. upon reduction with nadh, aif undergoes dimerization and forms tight, long-lived fadh(2)-nad charge-transfer complexes (ctc) that are proposed to be functionally important. to obtain a deeper insight into structure/function relations and redox mechanism of this vitally important protein ...200919447115
16s rrna gene-based analysis of fecal microbiota from preterm infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis.neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) is an inflammatory intestinal disorder affecting preterm infants. intestinal bacteria have an important function; however no causative pathogen has been identified. the purpose of this study was to determine if there are differences in microbial patterns that may be critical to the development of this disease. fecal samples from 20 preterm infants, 10 with nec and 10 matched controls (including 4 twin pairs) were obtained from patients in a single site le ...200919369970
aerobic bacterial microflora of broad-snouted caiman (caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque zoológico arruda câmara, paraíba, brazil.the objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from broad-snouted caiman (caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at parque zoológico arruda câmara, joão pessoa, paraíba, brazil. the most common bacteria were staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), escherichia coli (13.68%) and shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were citrobacter sp. (1.05%), klebsiella pneumonia ...200924031343
investigation of atomic level patterns in protein--small ligand interactions.shape complementarity and non-covalent interactions are believed to drive protein-ligand interaction. to date protein-protein, protein-dna, and protein-rna interactions were systematically investigated, which is in contrast to interactions with small ligands. we investigate the role of covalent and non-covalent bonds in protein-small ligand interactions using a comprehensive dataset of 2,320 complexes.200919221587
x-ray structure of ill2, an auxin-conjugate amidohydrolase from arabidopsis thaliana.the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) is the most abundant natural auxin involved in many aspects of plant development and growth. the iaa levels in plants are modulated by a specific group of amidohydrolases from the peptidase m20d family that release the active hormone from its conjugated storage forms. here, we describe the x-ray crystal structure of iaa-amino acid hydrolase iaa-leucine resistantlike gene 2 (ill2) from arabidopsis thaliana at 2.0 a resolution. ill2 preferentially hydro ...200918543330
screen-printed carbon electrodes modified by rhodium dioxide and glucose dehydrogenase.the described glucose biosensor is based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (spce) modified by rhodium dioxide, which functions as a mediator. the electrode is further modified by the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase, which is immobilized on the electrode's surface through electropolymerization with m-phenylenediamine. the enzyme biosensor was optimized and tested in model glucose samples. the biosensor showed a linear range of 500-5000 mg l(-1) of glucose with a detection limit of 210 mg l(-1) (e ...201021528113
screen-printed carbon electrodes modified by rhodium dioxide and glucose dehydrogenase.the described glucose biosensor is based on a screen-printed carbon electrode (spce) modified by rhodium dioxide, which functions as a mediator. the electrode is further modified by the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase, which is immobilized on the electrode's surface through electropolymerization with m-phenylenediamine. the enzyme biosensor was optimized and tested in model glucose samples. the biosensor showed a linear range of 500-5000 mg l(-1) of glucose with a detection limit of 210 mg l(-1) (e ...201021528113
single turnover kinetics of tryptophan hydroxylase: evidence for a new intermediate in the reaction of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases.tryptophan hydroxylase (trph) uses a non-heme mononuclear iron center to catalyze the tetrahydropterin-dependent hydroxylation of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan. the reactions of the trph.fe(ii), trph.fe(ii).tryptophan, trph.fe(ii).6meph(4).tryptophan, and trph.fe(ii).6meph(4).phenylalanine complexes with o(2) were monitored by stopped-flow absorbance spectroscopy and rapid quench methods. the second-order rate constant for the oxidation of trph.fe(ii) has a value of 104 m(-1) s(-1) irrespect ...201020687613
favored and disfavored pathways of protein crosslinking by glucose: glucose lysine dimer (glucold) and crossline versus glucosepane.we describe the isolation and molecular characterization of a novel glucose-lysine dimer crosslink 1,3-bis-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-4-(1',2',3',4'-tetrahydroxybutyl)-3h-imidazolium salt, named glucold. glucold was easily formed from the amadori product (fructose-lysine). however, when bsa was incubated with 100 mm glucose for 25 days, the levels of the lysine-lysine glucose crosslinks glucold and crossline were only 21 and <1 pmol/mg, respectively, compared to 611 pmol/mg protein for the lysine ...201020607325
favored and disfavored pathways of protein crosslinking by glucose: glucose lysine dimer (glucold) and crossline versus glucosepane.we describe the isolation and molecular characterization of a novel glucose-lysine dimer crosslink 1,3-bis-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-4-(1',2',3',4'-tetrahydroxybutyl)-3h-imidazolium salt, named glucold. glucold was easily formed from the amadori product (fructose-lysine). however, when bsa was incubated with 100 mm glucose for 25 days, the levels of the lysine-lysine glucose crosslinks glucold and crossline were only 21 and <1 pmol/mg, respectively, compared to 611 pmol/mg protein for the lysine ...201020607325
enzymatic determination of diglyceride using an iridium nano-particle based single use, disposable biosensor.a single use, disposable iridium-nano particle contained biosensor had been developed for the determination of diglyceride (dg). in this study hydrogen peroxide, formed through the enzymatic breakdown of dg via lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerol 3-phosphate oxidase, was electrochemically oxidized at an applied potential of +0.5 v versus the ag/agcl reference electrode. the oxidation current was then used to quantify the diglyceride concentration. optimum enzyme concentrations and the surfactan ...201022219685
hydroxylated metabolites of 4-monochlorobiphenyl and its metabolic pathway in whole poplar plants.4-monochlorobiphenyl (cb3), mainly an airborne pollutant, undergoes rapid biotransformation to produce hydroxylated metabolites (oh-cb3s). however, up to now, hydroxylation of cb3 has not been studied in living organisms. in order to explore the formation of hydroxylated metabolites of cb3 in whole plants, poplars (populus deltoides x nigra, dn34) were exposed to cb3 for 10 days. poplars are a model plant with complete genomic sequence, and they are widely used in phytoremediation. results showe ...201020402517
risk factors and prevention of late-onset sepsis in premature infants.late-onset sepsis in premature infants is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased medical costs. risk factors include low birth weight, low gestational age, previous antimicrobial exposure, poor hand hygiene, and central venous catheters. methods studied to prevent late-onset sepsis include early feedings, immune globulin administration, prophylactic antimicrobial administration, and improved hand hygiene. in this review, we will outline the risk factors for development of late-onse ...201020116186
macrocyclic histone deacetylase inhibitors.histone deacetylase inhibitors (hdaci) are an emerging class of novel anti-cancer drugs that cause growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis of tumor cells. in addition, they have shown promise as anti-parasitic, anti-neurodegenerative, anti-rheumatologic and immunosuppressant agents. to date, several structurally distinct small molecule hdaci have been reported including aryl hydroxamates, benzamides, short-chain fatty acids, electrophilic ketones, and macrocyclic peptides. macrocyclic hdac ...201020536416
postoperative endophthalmitis following cataract surgery in asia.postoperative endophthalmitis is a rare clinical occurrence. however, it remains one of the most serious complications following cataract surgery because of its poor prognosis. we investigated the epidemiologic trends in postoperative endophthalmitis following cataract surgery, particularly in asian populations. the incidence of postcataract endophthalmitis was generally consistent with epidemiologic data reported from caucasian populations. the most frequently occurring causative organism was c ...201124555121
neuro-intensive care of patients with acute cns infections.infections in the central nervous system (cns) are caused by a wide range of microorganisms resulting in distinct clinical syndromes including meningitis, encephalitis, and pyogenic infections, such as empyema and brain abscess. bacterial and viral infections in the cns can be rapidly fatal and can result in severe disability in survivors. appropriate identification and acute management of these infections often occurs in a critical care setting and is vital to improving outcomes in this group o ...201122102180
neuro-intensive care of patients with acute cns infections.infections in the central nervous system (cns) are caused by a wide range of microorganisms resulting in distinct clinical syndromes including meningitis, encephalitis, and pyogenic infections, such as empyema and brain abscess. bacterial and viral infections in the cns can be rapidly fatal and can result in severe disability in survivors. appropriate identification and acute management of these infections often occurs in a critical care setting and is vital to improving outcomes in this group o ...201122102180
antiviral activity of natural products extracted from marine organisms.many epidemics have broken out over the centuries. hundreds and thousands of humans have died over a disease. available treatments for infectious diseases have always been limited. some infections are more deadly than the others, especially viral pathogens. these pathogens have continuously resisted all kinds of medical treatment, due to a need for new treatments to be developed. drugs are present in nature and are also synthesized in vitro and they help in combating diseases and restoring healt ...201123678429
oxidative stress-mediated brain dehydroepiandrosterone (dhea) formation in alzheimer's disease diagnosis.neurosteroids are steroids made by brain cells independently of peripheral steroidogenic sources. the biosynthesis of most neurosteroids is mediated by proteins and enzymes similar to those identified in the steroidogenic pathway of adrenal and gonadal cells. dehydroepiandrosterone (dhea) is a major neurosteroid identified in the brain. over the years we have reported that, unlike other neurosteroids, dhea biosynthesis in rat, bovine, and human brain is mediated by an oxidative stress-mediated m ...201122654823
escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections of lebanese patients between 2000 and 2009: epidemiology and profiles of resistance.the purpose of this study was to investigate the bacterial etiology of urinary tract infections in one of the busiest hospitals of lebanon and to examine the epidemiologic and microbiologic properties of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections of lebanese patients over a 10-year period. methods. this retrospective study analyzed the data generated between 2000 and 2009 (10,013 gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria). bacterial identification was based on standard culture and bi ...201122295204
nad (+) -dependent formate dehydrogenase from plants.nad(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase (fdh, ec 1.2.1.2) widely occurs in nature. fdh consists of two identical subunits and contains neither prosthetic groups nor metal ions. this type of fdh was found in different microorganisms (including pathogenic ones), such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants. as opposed to microbiological fdhs functioning in cytoplasm, plant fdhs localize in mitochondria. formate dehydrogenase activity was first discovered as early as in 1921 in plant; however, until ...201122649703
new stability indicating rp-hplc method for the estimation of cefpirome sulphate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.a simple stability indicating reversed-phase hplc method was developed and subsequently validated for estimation of cefpirome sulphate (cps) present in pharmaceutical dosage forms. the proposed rp-hplc method utilizes a lichrocart-lichrosphere100, c18 rp column (250 mm × 4mm × 5 μm) in an isocratic separation mode with mobile phase consisting of methanol and water in the proportion of 50:50 % (v/v), at a flow rate 1ml/min, and the effluent was monitored at 270 nm. the retention time of cps was 2 ...201122145113
radiosynthesis of antitumor spliceosome modulators.a set of novel antitumor agents (the sudemycins) has recently been described that are analogs of the natural product fr901464. we report the radiosynthesis of two of these antitumor drug lead compounds, using a three step procedure: (1) ester hydrolysis, (2) lindlar's catalyst/tritium gas to give a (s,z)-4-acetoxypent-2-enoic acid derivative, and finally (3) amide bond formation. these labeled analogs are useful in developing a better understanding of the pharmacological properties of this new c ...201121531567
donor site morbidity following harvest of split-thickness skin grafts in south eastern nigeria.split-thickness skin grafting is a very common procedure. few documentation of its complications exist in the literatures especially in our sub-region where excessive scarring is a major issue.201127182501
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