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mechanism of antiactivation at the pseudomonas sp. strain adp σn-dependent patzt promoter.patzt is an internal promoter of the atzrstuvw operon that directs the synthesis of atzt, atzu, atzv, and atzw, components of an abc-type cyanuric acid transport system. patzt is σ(n) dependent, activated by the general nitrogen control regulator ntrc with the assistance of protein integration host factor (ihf), and repressed by the lysr-type transcriptional regulator (lttr) atzr. we have used a variety of in vivo and in vitro gene expression and protein-dna interaction assays to assess the mech ...201627208099
paralogous regulators arsr1 and arsr2 of pseudomonas putida kt2440 as a basis for arsenic biosensor development.the remarkable metal resistance of many microorganisms is related to the presence of multiple metal resistance operons. pseudomonas putida kt2440 can be considered a model for these microorganisms since its arsenic resistance is due to the action of proteins encoded by the two paralogous arsenic resistance operons ars1 and ars2. both operons contain the genes encoding the transcriptional regulators arsr1 and arsr2 that control operon expression. we show here that purified arsr1 and arsr2 bind th ...201627208139
influence of 3-chloroaniline on the biofilm lifestyle of comamonas testosteroni and its implications on bioaugmentation.bioaugmentation has been frequently proposed in wastewater and soil treatment to remove toxic aromatic compounds. the performance of bioaugmentation is affected by a number of biological and environmental factors, including the interaction between the target pollutant and the augmented bacterial cells. in this study, using comamonas testosteroni and 3-chloroaniline (3-ca) as the model organism and target pollutant, we explored the influence of toxic aromatic pollutants on the biofilm lifestyle o ...201627208104
bacterial dispersal promotes biodegradation in heterogeneous systems exposed to osmotic stress.contaminant biodegradation in soils is hampered by the heterogeneous distribution of degrading communities colonizing isolated microenvironments as a result of the soil architecture. over the last years, soil salinization was recognized as an additional problem especially in arid and semiarid ecosystems as it drastically reduces the activity and motility of bacteria. here, we studied the importance of different spatial processes for benzoate biodegradation at an environmentally relevant range of ...201627536297
two distinct cardiolipin synthases operate in agrobacterium tumefaciens.cardiolipin (cl) is a universal component of energy generating membranes. in most bacteria, it is synthesized via the condensation of two molecules phosphatidylglycerol (pg) by phospholipase d-type cardiolipin synthases (pld-type cls). in the plant pathogen and natural genetic engineer agrobacterium tumefaciens cl comprises up to 15% of all phospholipids in late stationary growth phase. a. tumefaciens harbors two genes, atu1630 (cls1) and atu2486 (cls2), coding for pld-type cls. heterologous exp ...201627472399
engineering salmonella as intracellular factory for effective killing of tumour cells.salmonella have many desirable properties as antitumour-agent due to its ability to proliferate inside tumours and induce tumour regression. additionally, this bacterium can be genetically engineered to deliver therapeutic proteins intratumourally. the main limitation of this approach is the efficient release of therapeutic molecules from intratumoural bacteria. here we have developed an inducible autolysis system based in the lysis operon of the lambda phage that, in response to anhydrotetracyc ...201627464652
the importance of integrons for development and propagation of resistance in shigella: the case of latin america.in latin america, the disease burden of shigellosis is found to coexist with the rapid and rampant spread of resistance to commonly used antibiotics. the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance lies within genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, integrons, genomic islands, etc., which are found in the bacterial genome. integrons are known to acquire, exchange, and express genes within gene cassettes and it is hypothesized that they play a significant role in the transmission of multidru ...201627528086
gut microbiota profiling: metabolomics based approach to unravel compounds affecting human health.the gut microbiota is composed of a huge number of different bacteria, that produce a large amount of compounds playing a key role in microbe selection and in the construction of a metabolic signaling network. the microbial activities are affected by environmental stimuli leading to the generation of a wide number of compounds, that influence the host metabolome and human health. indeed, metabolite profiles related to the gut microbiota can offer deep insights on the impact of lifestyle and diet ...201627507964
matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) can precisely discriminate the lineages of listeria monocytogenes and species of listeria.the genetic lineages of listeria monocytogenes and other species of the genus listeria are correlated with pathogenesis in humans. although matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) has become a prevailing tool for rapid and reliable microbial identification, the precise discrimination of listeria species and lineages remains a crucial issue in clinical settings and for food safety. in this study, we constructed an accurate and reliable ms databa ...201627442502
staphylococcus aureus coordinates leukocidin expression and pathogenesis by sensing metabolic fluxes via rpirc.staphylococcus aureus is a formidable human pathogen that uses secreted cytolytic factors to injure immune cells and promote infection of its host. of these proteins, the bicomponent family of pore-forming leukocidins play critical roles in s. aureus pathogenesis. the regulatory mechanisms governing the expression of these toxins are incompletely defined. in this work, we performed a screen to identify transcriptional regulators involved in leukocidin expression in s. aureus strain usa300. we di ...201627329753
metabolic analysis of the response of pseudomonas putida dot-t1e strains to toluene using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.an exceptionally interesting stress response of pseudomonas putida strains to toxic substances is the induction of efflux pumps that remove toxic chemical substances from the bacterial cell out to the external environment. to exploit these microorganisms to their full potential a deeper understanding of the interactions between the bacteria and organic solvents is required. thus, this study focuses on investigation of metabolic changes in p. putida upon exposure to toluene.201627398079
physiological and transcriptomic analyses reveal mechanistic insight into the adaption of marine bacillus subtilis c01 to alumina nanoparticles.an increasing number of studies have investigated the effects of nanoparticles (nps) on microbial systems; however, few existing reports have focused on the defense mechanisms of bacteria against nps. whether secondary metabolism biosynthesis is a response to np stress and contributes to the adaption of bacteria to nps is unclear. here, a significant induction in the surfactin production and biofilm formation were detected by adding al2o3 nps to the b. subtilis fermentation broth. physiological ...201627440502
unknown unknowns: essential genes in quest for function.the experimental design of a minimal synthetic genome revealed the presence of a large number of genes without ascribed function, in part because the abstract laws of life must be implemented within ad hoc material contraptions. creating a function needs recruitment of some pre-existing structure and this reveals kludges in their set-up and history. here, we show that looking for functions as an engineer would help in discovery of a significant number of those, proposed together with conceptual ...201627435445
sepsis-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy leading to torsades de pointes.background. takotsubo cardiomyopathy (tcm) is sudden and reversible myocardial dysfunction often attributable to physical or emotional triggers. case report. we describe a 51-year-old man presented to emergency department with sepsis from urinary tract infection (uti). he was placed on cefepime for uti and non-st-elevation myocardial infarction protocol given elevated troponins with chest pain. subsequently, patient was pulseless with torsades de pointes (tdp) and then converted to sinus rhythm ...201627525128
genetic dissection of the regulatory network associated with high c-di-gmp levels in pseudomonas putida kt2440.most bacteria grow in nature forming multicellular structures named biofilms. the bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-gmp) is a key player in the regulation of the transition from planktonic to sessile lifestyles and this regulation is crucial in the development of biofilms. in pseudomonas putida kt2440, rup4959, a multidomain response regulator with diguanylate cyclase activity, when overexpressed causes an increment in the intracellular levels of c-di-gmp that giv ...201627489550
methane-oxidizing enzymes: an upstream problem in biological gas-to-liquids conversion.biological conversion of natural gas to liquids (bio-gtl) represents an immense economic opportunity. in nature, aerobic methanotrophic bacteria and anaerobic archaea are able to selectively oxidize methane using methane monooxygenase (mmo) and methyl coenzyme m reductase (mcr) enzymes. although significant progress has been made toward genetically manipulating these organisms for biotechnological applications, the enzymes themselves are slow, complex, and not recombinantly tractable in traditio ...201627366961
analysis of plant growth-promoting effects of fluorescent pseudomonas strains isolated from mentha piperita rhizosphere and effects of their volatile organic compounds on essential oil composition.many species or strains of the genus pseudomonas have been characterized as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr). we used a combination of phenotypic and genotypic techniques to analyze the community of fluorescent pseudomonas strains in the rhizosphere of commercially grown mentha piperita (peppermint). biochemical techniques, amplified rdna restriction analysis (ardra), and 16s rrna gene sequence analysis revealed that the majority of the isolated native fluorescent strains were p. puti ...201627486441
development of a quadruplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for field detection of four vibrio species associated with fish disease.a quadruplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) method was developed to detect four vibrio species, including vibrio ichthyoenteri, vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio scophthalmi, and vibrio vulnificus, simultaneously. four sets of species-specific primers were designed with different restriction sites contained in the inner primers. the quadruplex lamp method could distinguish four vibrio species via the subsequent restriction enzyme analysis. the sensitivity of the quadruplex lamp meth ...201627468405
inter-sigmulon communication through topological promoter coupling.divergent transcription from within bacterial intergenic regions frequently involves promoters dependent on alternative σ-factors. this is the case for the non-overlapping σ(70)- and σ(54)-dependent promoters that control production of the substrate-responsive regulator and enzymes for (methyl)phenol catabolism. here, using an array of in vivo and in vitro assays, we identify transcription-driven supercoiling arising from the σ(54)-promoter as the mechanism underlying inter-promoter communicatio ...201627422872
engineering pseudomonas putida kt2440 for simultaneous degradation of carbofuran and chlorpyrifos.currently, chlorpyrifos (cp) and carbofuran are often applied together to control major agricultural pests in many developing countries, in most cases, they are simultaneously detected in agricultural soils. some cost-effective techniques are required for the remediation of combined pollution caused by multiple pesticides. in this work, we aim at constructing a detectable recombinant microorganism with the capacity to simultaneously degrade cp and carbofuran. to achieve this purpose, cp/carbofur ...201627418102
draft genome sequence of pseudomonas putida cbf10-2, a soil isolate with bioremediation potential in agricultural and industrial environmental settings.pseudomonas putida cbf10-2 is a microorganism isolated from farmland soil in fairchild, tx, found to degrade high-impact xenobiotics, including organophosphate insecticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, and both monocyclic and polycyclic aromatics. the versatility of cbf10-2 makes it useful for multipurpose bioremediation of contaminated sites in agricultural and industrial environments.201627417844
arabidopsis thaliana contains both ni2+ and zn2+ dependent glyoxalase i enzymes and ectopic expression of the latter contributes more towards abiotic stress tolerance in e. coli.the glyoxalase pathway is ubiquitously found in all the organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. it acts as a major pathway for detoxification of methylglyoxal (mg), which deleteriously affects the biological system in stress conditions. the first important enzyme of this system is glyoxalase i (glyi). it is a metalloenzyme which requires divalent metal ions for its activity. this divalent metal ion can be either zn2+ as found in most of eukaryotes or ni2+ as seen in prokaryotes. in the ...201627415831
structural analysis and biological toxicity of aflatoxins b1 and b2 degradation products following detoxification by ocimum basilicum and cassia fistula aqueous extracts.this study showed the comparison between ocimum basilicum and cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins b1 and b2 (afb1; 100 μg l(-1) and afb2; 50 μg l(-1)) by in vitro assays and decontamination studies. results indicated that o. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (p < 0.05) in degrading afb1 and afb2, i.e., 90.4 and 88.6%, respectively. however, o. basilicum branch, c. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be ...201627471501
crystal structure of sgcj, an ntf2-like superfamily protein involved in biosynthesis of the nine-membered enediyne antitumor antibiotic c-1027.comparative analysis of the enediyne biosynthetic gene clusters revealed sets of conserved genes serving as outstanding candidates for the enediyne core. here we report the crystal structures of sgcj and its homologue ncs-orf16, together with gene inactivation and site-directed mutagenesis studies, to gain insight into enediyne core biosynthesis. gene inactivation in vivo establishes that sgcj is required for c-1027 production in streptomyces globisporus. sgcj and ncs-orf16 share a common struct ...201627406907
sublethal concentrations of antibiotics cause shift to anaerobic metabolism in listeria monocytogenes and induce phenotypes linked to antibiotic tolerance.the human pathogenic bacterium listeria monocytogenes is exposed to antibiotics both during clinical treatment and in its saprophytic lifestyle. as one of the keys to successful treatment is continued antibiotic sensitivity, the purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations would affect the bacterial physiology and induce antibiotic tolerance. transcriptomic analyses demonstrated that each of the four antibiotics tested caused an antibiotic-specific ge ...201627462313
metabolic pathway involved in 6-chloro-2-benzoxazolinone degradation by pigmentiphaga sp. strain dl-8 and identification of the novel metal-dependent hydrolase cbaa.6-chloro-2-benzoxazolinone (cdhb) is a precursor of herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide synthesis and has a broad spectrum of biological activity. pigmentiphaga sp. strain dl-8 can transform cdhb into 2-amino-5-chlorophenol (2a5cp), which it then utilizes as a carbon source for growth. the cdhb hydrolase (cbaa) was purified from strain dl-8, which can also hydrolyze 2-benzoxazolinone (boa), 5-chloro-2-boa, and benzamide. the specific activity of purified cbaa was 5,900 u · mg protein(-1) for c ...201627208123
environmental factors modulating the stability and enzymatic activity of the petrotoga mobilis esterase (pmest).enzymes isolated from thermophilic organisms found in oil reservoirs can find applications in many fields, including the oleochemical, pharmaceutical, bioenergy, and food/dairy industries. in this study, in silico identification and recombinant production of an esterase from the extremophile bacteria petrotoga mobilis (designated pmest) were performed. then biochemical, bioinformatics and structural characterizations were undertaken using a combination of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism ...201627351338
characterization of genome-reduced bacillus subtilis strains and their application for the production of guanosine and thymidine.genome streamlining has emerged as an effective strategy to boost the production efficiency of bio-based products. many efforts have been made to construct desirable chassis cells by reducing the genome size of microbes. it has been reported that the genome-reduced bacillus subtilis strain mbg874 showed clear advantages for the production of several heterologous enzymes including alkaline cellulase and protease. in addition to enzymes, b. subtilis is also used for the production of chemicals. to ...201627260256
thigh abscess and necrotizing fasciitis following an inside-out transobturator tape intervention: a case report.tension-free vaginal transobturator tapes are used worldwide in the treatment of urinary incontinence in women. very few severe complications have been described following this procedure, with no standard treatment yet established.201627256334
muts regulates access of the error-prone dna polymerase pol iv to replication sites: a novel mechanism for maintaining replication fidelity.translesion dna polymerases (pol) function in the bypass of template lesions to relieve stalled replication forks but also display potentially deleterious mutagenic phenotypes that contribute to antibiotic resistance in bacteria and lead to human disease. effective activity of these enzymes requires association with ring-shaped processivity factors, which dictate their access to sites of dna synthesis. here, we show for the first time that the mismatch repair protein muts plays a role in regulat ...201627257069
biological control of rice bakanae by an endophytic bacillus oryzicola yc7007.in our previous study, we reported that a novel endophytic bacterium bacillus oryzicola yc7007 has suppressed bacterial diseases of rice via induced systemic resistance and antibiotic production. this endophytic strain, b. oryzicola yc7007 was used as a biological control agent against bakanae disease of rice caused by fusarium fujikuroi, and its mechanism of interaction with the pathogen and the rice was further elucidated. root drenching with b. oryzicola yc7007 suspension reduced the disease ...201627298598
disk carbapenemase test for the rapid detection of kpc-, ndm-, and other metallo-β-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacilli.rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacilli (gnb) is required for optimal treatment of infected patients. we developed and assessed a new disk carbapenemase test (dct).201627374708
plants rather than mineral fertilization shape microbial community structure and functional potential in legacy contaminated soil.plant-microbe interactions are of particular importance in polluted soils. this study sought to determine how selected plants (horseradish, black nightshade and tobacco) and npk mineral fertilization shape the structure of soil microbial communities in legacy contaminated soil and the resultant impact of treatment on the soil microbial community functional potential. to explore these objectives, we combined shotgun metagenomics and 16s rrna gene amplicon high throughput sequencing with data anal ...201627446035
acidobacteria strains from subdivision 1 act as plant growth-promoting bacteria.acidobacteria is one of the most abundant phyla in soils and has been detected in rhizosphere mainly based on cultivation-independent approaches such as 16s rrna gene survey. although putative interaction of acidobacteria with plants was suggested, so far no plant-bacterial interactions were shown. therefore, we performed several in vitro tests to evaluate acidobacteria-plant interactions and the possible mechanisms involved in such interaction. we observed that arabidopsis thaliana inoculated w ...201627339258
draft genome sequence of comamonas thiooxydans strain phe2-6 (nbrc 110656), a chlorinated-ethene-degrading bacterium.comamonas thiooxydans strain phe2-6 (nbrc 110656), which was isolated from a trichloroethene-contaminated site in japan, utilizes phenol as a sole source of carbon and cometabolizes cis- and trans-dichloroethenes. we report here the draft genome sequence of this strain, containing 5,309,680 bp, with 60.6% g+c content.201627340052
engineering of baeyer-villiger monooxygenase-based escherichia coli biocatalyst for large scale biotransformation of ricinoleic acid into (z)-11-(heptanoyloxy)undec-9-enoic acid.baeyer-villiger monooxygenases (bvmos) are able to catalyze regiospecific baeyer-villiger oxygenation of a variety of cyclic and linear ketones to generate the corresponding lactones and esters, respectively. however, the enzymes are usually difficult to express in a functional form in microbial cells and are rather unstable under process conditions hindering their large-scale applications. thereby, we investigated engineering of the bvmo from pseudomonas putida kt2440 and the gene expression sy ...201627311560
current technological improvements in enzymes toward their biotechnological applications.enzymes from extremophiles are creating interest among researchers due to their unique properties and the enormous power of catalysis at extreme conditions. since community demands are getting more intensified, therefore, researchers are applying various approaches viz. metagenomics to increase the database of extremophilic species. furthermore, the innovations are being made in the naturally occurring enzymes utilizing various tools of recombinant dna technology and protein engineering, which a ...201627379087
crystal structures of the global regulator dasr from streptomyces coelicolor: implications for the allosteric regulation of gntr/hutc repressors.small molecule effectors regulate gene transcription in bacteria by altering the dna-binding affinities of specific repressor proteins. although the gntr proteins represent a large family of bacterial repressors, only little is known about the allosteric mechanism that enables their function. dasr from streptomyces coelicolor belongs to the gntr/hutc subfamily and specifically recognises operators termed dasr-responsive elements (dre-sites). its dna-binding properties are modulated by phosphoryl ...201627337024
metabolomics analysis reveals the participation of efflux pumps and ornithine in the response of pseudomonas putida dot-t1e cells to challenge with propranolol.efflux pumps are critically important membrane components that play a crucial role in strain tolerance in pseudomonas putida to antibiotics and aromatic hydrocarbons that result in these toxicants being expelled from the bacteria. here, the effect of propranolol on p. putida was examined by sudden addition of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg ml-1 of this β-blocker to several strains of p. putida, including the wild type dot-t1e and the efflux pump knockout mutants dot-t1e-ps28 and dot-t1e-18. bacterial viabi ...201627331395
genomic potential of stenotrophomonas maltophilia in bioremediation with an assessment of its multifaceted role in our environment.the gram negative bacterium stenotrophomonas is rapidly evolving as a nosocomial pathogen in immuno-compromised patients. treatment of stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections is problematic because of their increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. this article aims to review the multi-disciplinary role of stenotrophomonas in our environment with special focus on their metabolic and genetic potential in relation to bioremediation and phytoremediation. current and emerging treatments and dia ...201627446008
the induction and identification of novel colistin resistance mutations in acinetobacter baumannii and their implications.acinetobacter baumannii is a significant cause of opportunistic hospital acquired infection and has been identified as an important emerging infection due to its high levels of antimicrobial resistance. multidrug resistant a. baumannii has risen rapidly in vietnam, where colistin is becoming the drug of last resort for many infections. in this study we generated spontaneous colistin resistant progeny (up to >256 μg/μl) from four colistin susceptible vietnamese isolates and one susceptible refere ...201627329501
clinical efficacy of polymyxin monotherapy versus nonvalidated polymyxin combination therapy versus validated polymyxin combination therapy in extensively drug-resistant gram-negative bacillus infections.polymyxins have emerged as a last-resort treatment of extensively drug-resistant (xdr) gram-negative bacillus (gnb) infections, which present a growing threat. individualized polymyxin-based antibiotic combinations selected on the basis of the results of in vitro combination testing may be required to optimize therapy. a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients receiving polymyxins for xdr gnb infections from 2009 to 2014 was conducted to compare the treatment outcomes between patient ...201627090177
a wide spectrum of fastidious and ampicillin-susceptible bacteria dominate in animal-caused wounds.the main purpose of this study was to assess the actual occurrence of gram-negative oxidase-positive bacteria (gnop) in human wounds caused by animals, mostly cat and dog bites and scratches, and with signs of infection. we report a prospective series of 92 wound samples. routine culturing was combined with a procedure optimised for fastidious gnop. all gnop isolates were identified by 16s rdna sequencing to the species level. we observed a more prominent role of gnop, including at least 30 spec ...201627197725
industrial production of acetone and butanol by fermentation-100 years later.microbial production of acetone and butanol was one of the first large-scale industrial fermentation processes of global importance. during the first part of the 20th century, it was indeed the second largest fermentation process, superseded in importance only by the ethanol fermentation. after a rapid decline after the 1950s, acetone-butanol-ethanol (abe) fermentation has recently gained renewed interest in the context of biorefinery approaches for the production of fuels and chemicals from ren ...201627199350
genomics of high molecular weight plasmids isolated from an on-farm biopurification system.the use of biopurification systems (bps) constitutes an efficient strategy to eliminate pesticides from polluted wastewaters from farm activities. bps environments contain a high microbial density and diversity facilitating the exchange of information among bacteria, mediated by mobile genetic elements (mges), which play a key role in bacterial adaptation and evolution in such environments. here we sequenced and characterized high-molecular-weight plasmids from a bacterial collection of an on-fa ...201627321040
relationships between the regulatory systems of quorum sensing and multidrug resistance.cell-cell communications, known as quorum sensing (qs) in bacteria, involve the signal molecules as chemical languages and the corresponding receptors as transcriptional regulators. in gram-negative bacteria, orphan luxr receptors recognize signals more than just acylhomoserine lactones, and modulate interspecies and interkingdom communications. whereas, in the gram-positive streptomyces, pseudo gamma-butyrolactones (gbls) receptors bind antibiotics other than gbl signals, and coordinate antibio ...201627379084
poly-β-hydroxybutyrate metabolism is unrelated to the sporulation and parasporal crystal protein formation in bacillus thuringiensis.poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (phb) is a natural polymer synthesized by many bacteria as a carbon-energy storage material. it was accumulated maximally prior to the spore formation but was degraded during the process of sporulation in bacillus thuringiensis. intriguingly, b. thuringiensis also accumulates large amounts of insecticidal crystal proteins (icps) during sporulation, which requires considerable input of carbon and energy sources. how phb accumulation affects sporulation and icp formation rem ...201627379025
identification of a third mn(ii) oxidase enzyme in pseudomonas putida gb-1.the oxidation of soluble mn(ii) to insoluble mn(iv) is a widespread bacterial activity found in a diverse array of microbes. in the mn(ii)-oxidizing bacterium pseudomonas putida gb-1, two mn(ii) oxidase genes, named mnxg and mcoa, were previously identified; each encodes a multicopper oxidase (mco)-type enzyme. expression of these two genes is positively regulated by the response regulator mnxr. preliminary investigation into putative additional regulatory pathways suggested that the flagellar r ...201627084014
symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the challenges to its extension to nonlegumes.access to fixed or available forms of nitrogen limits the productivity of crop plants and thus food production. nitrogenous fertilizer production currently represents a significant expense for the efficient growth of various crops in the developed world. there are significant potential gains to be had from reducing dependence on nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture in the developed world and in developing countries, and there is significant interest in research on biological nitrogen fixation ...201627084023
proof of concept for the simplified breakdown of cellulose by combining pseudomonas putida strains with surface displayed thermophilic endocellulase, exocellulase and β-glucosidase.the production and employment of cellulases still represents an economic bottleneck in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and other biocommodities. this process could be simplified by displaying the necessary enzymes on a microbial cell surface. such an approach, however, requires an appropriate host organism which on the one hand can withstand the rough environment coming along with lignocellulose hydrolysis, and on the other hand does not consume the generated glucose so tha ...201627287198
chalcone-based selective inhibitors of a c4 plant key enzyme as novel potential herbicides.weeds are a challenge for global food production due to their rapidly evolving resistance against herbicides. we have identified chalcones as selective inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc), a key enzyme for carbon fixation and biomass increase in the c4 photosynthetic pathway of many of the world's most damaging weeds. in contrast, many of the most important crop plants use c3 photosynthesis. here, we show that 2',3',4',3,4-pentahydroxychalcone (ic50 = 600 nm) and 2',3',4'-trihyd ...201627263468
application of alkbgt and alkl from pseudomonas putida gpo1 for selective alkyl ester ω-oxyfunctionalization in escherichia coli.the enzyme system alkbgt from pseudomonas putida gpo1 can efficiently ω-functionalize fatty acid methyl esters. outer membrane protein alkl boosts this ω-functionalization. in this report, it is shown that whole cells of escherichia coli expressing the alkbgt system can also ω-oxidize ethyl nonanoate (naee). coexpression of alkbgt and alkl resulted in 1.7-fold-higher ω-oxidation activity on naee. with this strain, initial activity on naee was 70 u/g (dry weight) of cells (gcdw), 67% of the initi ...201627084021
a β-alanine catabolism pathway containing a highly promiscuous ω-transaminase in the 12-aminododecanate-degrading pseudomonas sp. strain aac.we previously isolated the transaminase kes23458 from pseudomonas sp. strain aac as a promising biocatalyst for the production of 12-aminododecanoic acid, a constituent building block of nylon-12. here, we report the subsequent characterization of this transaminase. it exhibits activity with a broad substrate range which includes α-, β-, and ω-amino acids, as well as α,ω-diamines and a number of other industrially relevant compounds. it is therefore a prospective candidate for the biosynthesis o ...201627107110
stenosis triggers spread of helical pseudomonas biofilms in cylindrical flow systems.biofilms are multicellular bacterial structures that adhere to surfaces and often endow the bacterial population with tolerance to antibiotics and other environmental insults. biofilms frequently colonize the tubing of medical devices through mechanisms that are poorly understood. here we studied the helicoidal spread of pseudomonas putida biofilms through cylindrical conduits of varied diameters in slow laminar flow regimes. numerical simulations of such flows reveal vortical motion at stenoses ...201627272623
the effect of using blood culture bottle of bronchoalveolar larvage fluid in pneumonia.pneumonia is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in infectious disease, and increasing antimicrobial resistance has raised concerns of treatment failure. therefore, we evaluated the value of a blood culture bottle for bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) samples on pathogen identification and on treatment modification in patients with pneumonia.201627266871
phosphorus mobilizing consortium mammoth p(™) enhances plant growth.phosphorus (p) is a critical nutrient used to maximize plant growth and yield. current agriculture management practices commonly experience low plant p use efficiency due to natural chemical sorption and transformations when p fertilizer is applied to soils. a perplexing challenge facing agriculture production is finding sustainable solutions to deliver p more efficiently to plants. using prescribed applications of specific soil microbial assemblages to mobilize soil bound-p to improve crop nutr ...201627326379
highly regio- and enantioselective multiple oxy- and amino-functionalizations of alkenes by modular cascade biocatalysis.new types of asymmetric functionalizations of alkenes are highly desirable for chemical synthesis. here, we develop three novel types of regio- and enantioselective multiple oxy- and amino-functionalizations of terminal alkenes via cascade biocatalysis to produce chiral α-hydroxy acids, 1,2-amino alcohols and α-amino acids, respectively. basic enzyme modules 1-4 are developed to convert alkenes to (s)-1,2-diols, (s)-1,2-diols to (s)-α-hydroxyacids, (s)-1,2-diols to (s)-aminoalcohols and (s)-α-hy ...201627297777
editorial: wired for life. 201627242692
regulatory activities of four arsr proteins in agrobacterium tumefaciens 5a.arsr is a well-studied transcriptional repressor that regulates microbe-arsenic interactions. most microorganisms have an arsr gene, but in cases where multiple copies exist, the respective roles or potential functional overlap have not been explored. we examined the repressors encoded by arsr1 and arsr2 (ars1 operon) and by arsr3 and arsr4 (ars2 operon) in agrobacterium tumefaciens 5a. arsr1 and arsr4 are very similar in their primary sequences and diverge phylogenetically from arsr2 and arsr3, ...201627037117
highly variable individual donor cell fates characterize robust horizontal gene transfer of an integrative and conjugative element.horizontal gene transfer is an important evolutionary mechanism for bacterial adaptation. however, given the typical low transfer frequencies in a bacterial population, little is known about the fate and interplay of donor cells and the mobilized dna during transfer. here we study transfer of an integrative and conjugative element (ice) among individual live bacterial cells. ices are widely distributed mobile dna elements that are different than plasmids because they reside silent in the host ch ...201627247406
cultural, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses of water-stressed cells of actinobacterial strains isolated from compost: ecological implications in the fed-batch composting process.this study was undertaken to examine the effects of water activity (aw) on the viability of actinobacterial isolates from a fed-batch composting (fbc) process by comparing culturability and stainability with 5-cyano-2,3-ditoryl tetrazolium chloride (ctc). the fbc reactor as the source of these bacteria was operated with the daily loading of household biowaste for 70 d. during this period of composting, aw in the reactor decreased linearly with time and reached approximately 0.95 at the end of op ...201627246805
high production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid in klebsiella pneumoniae by systematic optimization of glycerol metabolism.3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-hp) is an important platform chemical proposed by the united states department of energy. 3-hp can be converted to a series of bulk chemicals. biological production of 3-hp has made great progress in recent years. however, low yield of 3-hp restricts its commercialization. in this study, systematic optimization was conducted towards high-yield production of 3-hp in klebsiella pneumoniae. we first investigated appropriate promoters for the key enzyme (aldehyde dehydroge ...201627230116
rapid classification and identification of microcystis aeruginosa strains using maldi-tof ms and polygenetic analysis.matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) was used to establish a rapid, simple, and accurate method to differentiate among strains of microcystis aeruginosa, one of the most prevalent types of bloom-forming cyanobacteria. m. aeruginosa nies-843, for which a complete genome has been sequenced, was used to characterize ribosomal proteins as biomarkers and to optimize conditions for observing ribosomal proteins as major peaks in a given mass spectr ...201627227555
polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) granules have no phospholipids.polyhydroxybutyrate (phb) granules, also designated as carbonosomes, are supra-molecular complexes in prokaryotes consisting of a phb polymer core and a surface layer of structural and functional proteins. the presence of suspected phospholipids in the surface layer is based on in vitro data of isolated phb granules and is often shown in cartoons of the phb granule structure in reviews on phb metabolism. however, the in vivo presence of a phospholipid layer has never been demonstrated. we addres ...201627222167
potentiation of aminoglycoside activity in pseudomonas aeruginosa by targeting the amgrs envelope stress-responsive two-component system.a screen for agents that potentiated the activity of paromomycin (par), a 4,5-linked aminoglycoside (ag), against wild-type pseudomonas aeruginosa identified the rna polymerase inhibitor rifampin (rif). rif potentiated additional 4,5-linked ags, such as neomycin and ribostamycin, but not the clinically important 4,6-linked ags amikacin and gentamicin. potentiation was absent in a mutant lacking the amgrs envelope stress response two-component system (tcs), which protects the organism from ag-gen ...201627021319
identification, characterization and molecular adaptation of class i redox systems for the production of hydroxylated diterpenoids.de novo production of multi-hydroxylated diterpenoids is challenging due to the lack of efficient redox systems.201627216162
interrupting peptidoglycan deacetylation during bdellovibrio predator-prey interaction prevents ultimate destruction of prey wall, liberating bacterial-ghosts.the peptidoglycan wall, located in the periplasm between the inner and outer membranes of the cell envelope in gram-negative bacteria, maintains cell shape and endows osmotic robustness. predatory bdellovibrio bacteria invade the periplasm of other bacterial prey cells, usually crossing the peptidoglycan layer, forming transient structures called bdelloplasts within which the predators replicate. prey peptidoglycan remains intact for several hours, but is modified and then degraded by escaping p ...201627211869
the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation in pseudomonas putida dll-e4.pseudomonas putida dll-e4 can efficiently degrade para-nitrophenol and its intermediate metabolite hydroquinone. the regulation of para-nitrophenol degradation was studied, and pnp induced a global change in the transcriptome of p. putida dll-e4. when grown on pnp, the wild-type strain exhibited significant downregulation of 2912 genes and upregulation of 845 genes, whereas 2927 genes were downregulated and 891 genes upregulated in a pnpr-deleted strain. genes related to two non-coding rnas (ins ...201627191401
evaluation of heavy metal removal from wastewater in a modified packed bed biofilm reactor.for the effective application of a modified packed bed biofilm reactor (pbbr) in wastewater industrial practice, it is essential to distinguish the tolerance of the system for heavy metals removal. the industrial contamination of wastewater from various sources (e.g. zn, cu, cd and ni) was studied to assess the impacts on a pbbr. this biological system was examined by evaluating the tolerance of different strengths of composite heavy metals at the optimum hydraulic retention time (hrt) of 2 hour ...201627186636
when genome-based approach meets the "old but good": revealing genes involved in the antibacterial activity of pseudomonas sp. p482 against soft rot pathogens.dickeya solani and pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense are recently established species of bacterial plant pathogens causing black leg and soft rot of many vegetables and ornamental plants. pseudomonas sp. strain p482 inhibits the growth of these pathogens, a desired trait considering the limited measures to combat these diseases. in this study, we determined the genetic background of the antibacterial activity of p482, and established the phylogenetic position of this strain. pseudomo ...201627303376
crystal structure of cytochrome p450 (cyp105p2) from streptomyces peucetius and its conformational changes in response to substrate binding.cytochrome p450 monooxygenases (cyp, ec 1.14.14.1) belong to a large family of enzymes that catalyze the hydroxylation of various substrates. here, we present the crystal structure of cyp105p2 isolated from streptomyces peucetius atcc27952 at a 2.1 å resolution. the structure shows the presence of a pseudo-ligand molecule in the active site, which was co-purified fortuitously and is presumed to be a biphenyl derivative. comparison with previously determined substrate-bound cyp structures showed ...201627231902
global changes in the proteome of cupriavidus necator h16 during poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis from various biodiesel by-product substrates.synthesis of poly-[3-hydroxybutyrate] (phb) by cupriavidus necator h16 in batch cultures was evaluated using three biodiesel-derived by-products as the sole carbon sources: waste glycerol (reg-80, refined to 80 % purity with negligible free fatty acids); glycerol bottom (reg-gb, with up to 65 % glycerol and 35 % free fatty acids), and free fatty acids (reg-ffa, with up to 75 % ffa and no glycerol). all the three substrates supported growth and phb production by c. necator, with polymer accumulat ...201627184362
effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures on degradation, gene expression, and metabolite production in four mycobacterium species.polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) are widespread environmental contaminants that are hazardous to human health. it has been demonstrated that members of the mycobacterium genus are among the most effective degraders of pahs, but few studies have focused on the degradation of pah mixtures. in this study, single and mixed pah metabolism was investigated in four phylogenetically distinct mycobacterium species with respect to (i) parent compound degradation, (ii) bacterial growth, (iii) catabo ...201627037123
metabolic fingerprinting of pseudomonas putida dot-t1e strains: understanding the influence of divalent cations in adaptation mechanisms following exposure to toluene.pseudomonas putida strains can adapt and overcome the activity of toxic organic solvents by the employment of several resistant mechanisms including efflux pumps and modification to lipopolysaccharides (lps) in their membranes. divalent cations such as magnesium and calcium play a crucial role in the development of solvent tolerance in bacterial cells. here, we have used fourier transform infrared (ft-ir) spectroscopy directly on cells (metabolic fingerprinting) to monitor bacterial response to ...201627128955
bioprospecting of plant growth promoting bacilli and related genera prevalent in soils of pristine sacred groves: biochemical and molecular approach.bacillus spp. and related genera native to soils of the pristine sacred groves from meghalaya, india were characterized using biochemical and 16s rrna gene analysis which revealed dominance of bacillus, paenibacillus, lysinibacillus and viridibacillus in the groves. biochemical estimation was carried out for in vitro testing of plant growth promoting traits present in these isolates. pcr screening were performed for plant growth-promoting related genes involved in the biosynthesis of acid phosph ...201627111883
integrated analysis of gene expression and metabolic fluxes in pha-producing pseudomonas putida grown on glycerol.given its high surplus and low cost, glycerol has emerged as interesting carbon substrate for the synthesis of value-added chemicals. the soil bacterium pseudomonas putida kt2440 can use glycerol to synthesize medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-pha), a class of biopolymers of industrial interest. here, glycerol metabolism in p. putida kt2440 was studied on the level of gene expression (transcriptome) and metabolic fluxes (fluxome), using precisely adjusted chemostat cultures, gro ...201627142075
mycelium-like networks increase bacterial dispersal, growth, and biodegradation in a model ecosystem at various water potentials.fungal mycelia serve as effective dispersal networks for bacteria in water-unsaturated environments, thereby allowing bacteria to maintain important functions, such as biodegradation. however, poor knowledge exists on the effects of dispersal networks at various osmotic (ψo) and matric (ψm) potentials, which contribute to the water potential mainly in terrestrial soil environments. here we studied the effects of artificial mycelium-like dispersal networks on bacterial dispersal dynamics and subs ...201626944849
a new mercury-accumulating mucor hiemalis strain eh8 from cold sulfidic spring water biofilms.here, we report about a unique aquatic fungus mucor hiemaliseh8 that can remove toxic ionic mercury from water by intracellular accumulation and reduction into elemental mercury (hg(0) ). eh8 was isolated from a microbial biofilm grown in sulfidic-reducing spring water sourced at a marching's site located downhill from hop cultivation areas with a history of mercury use. a thorough biodiversity survey and mercury-removal function analyses were undertaken in an area of about 200 km(2) in bavaria ...201627177603
different inocula produce distinctive microbial consortia with similar lignocellulose degradation capacity.despite multiple research efforts, the current strategies for exploitation of lignocellulosic plant matter are still far from optimal, being hampered mostly by the difficulty of degrading the recalcitrant parts. an interesting approach is to use lignocellulose-degrading microbial communities by using different environmental sources of microbial inocula. however, it remains unclear whether the inoculum source matters for the degradation process. here, we addressed this question by verifying the l ...201627170322
singly flagellated pseudomonas aeruginosa chemotaxes efficiently by unbiased motor regulation.pseudomonas aeruginosais an opportunistic human pathogen that has long been known to chemotax. more recently, it has been established that chemotaxis is an important factor in the ability ofp. aeruginosato make biofilms. genes that allowp. aeruginosato chemotax are homologous with genes in the paradigmatic model organism for chemotaxis,escherichia coli however,p. aeruginosais singly flagellated ande. colihas multiple flagella. therefore, the regulation of counterclockwise/clockwise flagellar mot ...201627048795
clinical usefulness of arbekacin.arbekacin is a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside used to treat methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa). arbekacin has antibacterial activities against high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococci, multidrug-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa, and acinetobacter baumannii et al. here, we reviewed in vitro data on arbekacin in staphylococci and gram-negative microorganisms. we also reviewed clinical studies for clinical efficacy and microbiologic efficacy data in patients with identified mrsa a ...201627104010
structural elucidation and toxicity assessment of degraded products of aflatoxin b1 and b2 by aqueous extracts of trachyspermum ammi.in this study aqueous extract of seeds and leaves of trachyspermum ammi were evaluated for their ability to detoxify aflatoxin b1 and b2 (afb1; 100 μg l(-1) and afb2; 50 μg l(-1)) by in vitro and in vivo assays. results indicated that t. ammi seeds extract was found to be significant (p < 0.05) in degrading afb1 and afb2 i.e., 92.8 and 91.9% respectively. however, t. ammi leaves extract proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., ph 8, temperature ...201627064492
the frurba operon is necessary for group a streptococcal growth in fructose and for resistance to neutrophil killing during growth in whole human blood.bacterial pathogens rely on the availability of nutrients for survival in the host environment. the phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system (pts) is a global regulatory network connecting sugar uptake with signal transduction. since the fructose pts has been shown to impact virulence in several streptococci, including the human pathogen streptococcus pyogenes(the group a streptococcus[gas]), we characterized its role in carbon metabolism and pathogenesis in the m1t1 strain 5448. growth in ...201626787724
the preprotein translocase yidc controls respiratory metabolism in mycobacterium tuberculosis.the yidc-oxa1-alb3 preprotein translocases play a vital role in membrane insertion of proteins in eukaryotes and bacteria. in a recent study we observed that rv3921c, which encodes putative yidc translocase in mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb), is essential for in vitro growth of bacteria. however, the exact function of this particular protein remains to identify in mycobacterial pathogens. by performing a systematic study here we show that yidc of mtb is an envelope protein, which is required fo ...201627166092
in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of combined therapy of silver nanoparticles and visible blue light against pseudomonas aeruginosa.silver nanoparticles (agnps) have been used as potential antimicrobial agents against resistant pathogens. we investigated the possible therapeutic use of agnps in combination with visible blue light against a multidrug resistant clinical isolate of pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo. the antibacterial activity of agnps against p. aeruginosa (1×10(5) colony forming unit/ml) was investigated at its minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) and sub-mic, alone and in combination with blue lig ...201627175075
effects of bloom-forming cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances on the adsorption of cadmium onto kaolinite: behaviors and possible mechanisms.cyanobacterial blooms result in high level of cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances (eps) in water. the effects of bloom-forming cyanobacterial eps on the distribution of cd(ii) in the interface between sediment and water is unknown. clay is a main component in sediment. the effects of eps, originated from a typical bloom-forming cyanobacterium microcystis aeruginosa, on the adsorption and desorption characteristics of cd(ii) by kaolinite were investigated in this study. results of x ...201627186506
degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of pseudomonas.the goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at mcdoel switchyard in bloomington, indiana. using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains pb1 and pb2. applying the ribotyping technique using the 16s rrna gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus pseudomonas (pseudomonas plecogl ...201627245129
evaluation of bacterial diversity recovered from petroleum samples using different physical matrices.unraveling the microbial diversity and its complexity in petroleum reservoir environments has been a challenge throughout the years. despite the techniques developed in order to improve methodologies involving dna extraction from crude oil, microbial enrichments using different culture conditions can be applied as a way to increase the recovery of dna from environments with low cellular density for further microbiological analyses. this work aimed at the evaluation of different matrices (arenite ...201627282730
whole-genome identification, phylogeny, and evolution of the cytochrome p450 family 2 (cyp2) subfamilies in birds.the cytochrome p450 (cyp) superfamily defends organisms from endogenous and noxious environmental compounds, and thus is crucial for survival. however, beyond mammals the molecular evolution of cyp2 subfamilies is poorly understood. here, we characterized the cyp2 family across 48 avian whole genomes representing all major extant bird clades. overall, 12 cyp2 subfamilies were identified, including the first description of the cyp2f, cyp2g, and several cyp2af genes in avian genomes. some of the c ...201626979796
matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of mold and yeast cultures of penicillium marneffei.penicillium marneffei is the most important thermal dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in hiv-infected and other immunocompromised patients in southeast asia. however, laboratory diagnosis of penicilliosis, which relies on microscopic morphology and mycelial-to-yeast conversion, is time-consuming and expertise-dependent, thus delaying diagnosis and treatment. although matrix -assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) is useful for identification ...201626965891
the bark-beetle-associated fungus, endoconidiophora polonica, utilizes the phenolic defense compounds of its host as a carbon source.norway spruce (picea abies) is periodically attacked by the bark beetle ips typographus and its fungal associate, endoconidiophora polonica, whose infection is thought to be required for successful beetle attack. norway spruce produces terpenoid resins and phenolics in response to fungal and bark beetle invasion. however, how the fungal associate copes with these chemical defenses is still unclear. in this study, we investigated changes in the phenolic content of norway spruce bark upon e. polon ...201627208235
a phopq-regulated abc transporter system exports tetracycline in pseudomonas aeruginosa.pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human pathogen whose infections are difficult to treat due to its high intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. here, we show that the disruption of pa4456, encoding the atp binding component of a putative atp-binding cassette (abc) transporter, increased the bacterium's susceptible to tetracycline and other antibiotics or toxic chemicals. fluorescence spectroscopy and antibiotic accumulation tests showed that the interruption of the abc transporter caused ...201626953208
waste workers' exposure to airborne fungal and bacterial species in the truck cab and during waste collection.a large number of people work with garbage collection, and exposure to microorganisms is considered an occupational health problem. however, knowledge on microbial exposure at species level is limited. the aim of the study was to achieve knowledge on waste collectors' exposure to airborne inhalable fungal and bacterial species during waste collection with focus on the transport of airborne microorganisms into the truck cab. airborne microorganisms were collected with samplers mounted in the truc ...201627098185
an enantio- and diastereoselective chemoenzymatic synthesis of α-fluoro β-hydroxy carboxylic esters.the trans-o-hydroxybenzylidene pyruvate aldolase-catalysed reactions between fluoropyruvate and many (hetero)aromatic aldehydes yield aldol adducts without subsequent dehydration. treatment of the reaction products with hydrogen peroxide yields the corresponding syn-configured α-fluoro β-hydroxy carboxylic acids which have >98 % ee. the overall chemoenzymatic approach, in which fluoropyruvate serves as a fluoroacetate equivalent, may be exploited in the synthesis of polar building blocks and fra ...201627090612
impact of the chromatin remodeling factor chd1 on gut microbiome composition of drosophila melanogaster.the composition of the intestinal microbiota of drosophila has been studied in some detail in recent years. environmental, developmental and host-specific genetic factors influence microbiome composition in the fly. our previous work has indicated that intestinal bacterial load can be affected by chromatin-targeted regulatory mechanisms. here we studied a potential role of the conserved chromatin assembly and remodeling factor chd1 in the shaping of the gut microbiome in drosophila melanogaster. ...201627093431
phenylacetic acid is isr determinant produced by bacillus fortis iags162, which involves extensive re-modulation in metabolomics of tomato to protect against fusarium wilt.bacillus fortis iags162 has been previously shown to induce systemic resistance in tomato plants against fusarium wilt disease. in the first phase of current study, the isr determinant was isolated from extracellular metabolites of this bacterium. isr bioassays combined with solvent extraction, column chromatography and gc/ms analysis proved that phenylacetic acid (paa) was the potential isr determinant that significantly ameliorated fusarium wilt disease of tomato at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 ...201627148321
mechanisms of bacterial (serratia marcescens) attachment to, migration along, and killing of fungal hyphae.we have found a remarkable capacity for the ubiquitous gram-negative rod bacterium serratia marcescens to migrate along and kill the mycelia of zygomycete molds. this migration was restricted to zygomycete molds and several basidiomycete species. no migration was seen on any molds of the phylum ascomycota. s. marcescens migration did not require fungal viability or surrounding growth medium, as bacteria migrated along aerial hyphae as well.s. marcescens did not exhibit growth tropism toward zygo ...201626896140
engineering a predatory bacterium as a proficient killer agent for intracellular bio-products recovery: the case of the polyhydroxyalkanoates.this work examines the potential of the predatory bacterium bdellovibrio bacteriovorus hd100, an obligate predator of other gram-negative bacteria, as an external cell-lytic agent for recovering valuable intracellular bio-products produced by prey cultures. the bio-product targets to be recovered were polyhydroxyalkanoates (phas) produced naturally by pseudomonas putida and cupriavidus necator, or by recombinant escherichia coli strains. b. bacteriovorus with a mutated pha depolymerase gene to p ...201627087466
the lona protease regulates biofilm formation, motility, virulence, and the type vi secretion system in vibrio cholerae.the presence of the lon protease in all three domains of life hints at its biological importance. the prokaryotic lon protease is responsible not only for degrading abnormal proteins but also for carrying out the proteolytic regulation of specific protein targets. posttranslational regulation by lon is known to affect a variety of physiological traits in many bacteria, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. here, we identify the regulatory roles of lona in the human pathogen vibri ...201626755629
biotechnological production of limonene in microorganisms.this mini review describes novel, biotechnology-based, ways of producing the monoterpene limonene. limonene is applied in relatively highly priced products, such as fragrances, and also has applications with lower value but large production volume, such as biomaterials. limonene is currently produced as a side product from the citrus juice industry, but the availability and quality are fluctuating and may be insufficient for novel bulk applications. therefore, complementary microbial production ...201626915992
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