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isolation of campylobacter spp. from pigeon feces by a combined enrichment-filtration technique.a technique combining enrichment in preston enrichment broth and direct filtration onto chocolate agar was used to isolate campylobacter species from pigeon feces. campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 106 of 200 samples tested; 105 strains were isolated by enrichment-filtration, and 84 strains were isolated by direct plating. most of the strains grew after 48 h at 37 degrees c.19873606114
atypical campylobacters associated with gastroenteritis.nine strains of campylobacter species other than campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter laridis were isolated from patients with acute diarrhea. all nine strains showed preferred growth at 37 degrees c under microaerophilic conditions. conventional microbiological tests and dna-dna dot blotting were used to identify these strains. three of the nine campylobacter strains hydrolyzed hippurate, reduced nitrate, produced catalase, were resistant to cephalothin, and were shown to ...19873611317
kinetics of anti-campylobacter jejuni monomeric and polymeric immunoglobulin a1 and a2 responses in serum during acute enteritis.the intensity and kinetics of the serum polymeric and monomeric immunoglobulin a1 (iga1) and iga2 antibody responses to campylobacter jejuni were analyzed. a rapid and marked serum iga antibody response involving both the monomeric and polymeric components of iga was observed after c. jejuni infections. iga antibodies reached a peak of activity in serum during week 2 after the first symptoms of enteritis, about 10 days before the peak of igg activity. polymeric iga accounted for most of the anti ...19873611318
utilization of monoclonal antibodies to evaluate the involvement of campylobacter jejuni in proliferative ileitis in syrian hamsters (mesocricetis auratus).the role of campylobacter jejuni in the pathogenesis of proliferative ileitis in syrian hamsters was evaluated with monoclonal antibodies of different specificities. monoclonal antibodies were produced with two different specificities: one for all members of the genus campylobacter tested (antibody 8322-2e6) and one for c. jejuni and campylobacter coli (antibodies 841-2a11, 841-4c6, and 841-5b1). heal sections from healthy hamsters, from hamsters with naturally occurring proliferative ileitis, a ...19873623701
evaluation of gamma radiation levels for reducing pathogenic bacteria and fungi in animal sewage and laboratory effluents.sewage samples collected from animal wastes and from effluents at an animal disease laboratory were inoculated with known numbers of pathogenic organisms and subjected to various doses of gamma radiation from a 60co source. surviving test organisms were quantitatively determined by selective and enrichment techniques. the experiment was modeled as a quantal assay in which probit analysis was applied to obtain d10 values. the d10 value represents the irradiating dose required to reduce the popula ...19873651881
production of a unique cytotoxin by campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is an important diarrheal pathogen worldwide; the mechanisms by which it causes disease remain unclear. because of its association with inflammatory diarrhea, we postulated that c. jejuni might produce a cytotoxin similar to that produced by shigella sp., enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157, or clostridium difficile. filtrates of 12 polymyxin-treated isolates of c. jejuni were placed on hela cells (sensitive to shiga toxin cytotoxicity) and chinese hamster ovary (cho) ce ...19873653987
naturally occurring auxotrophs of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.the nutritional requirements for 439 campylobacter jejuni isolates and 46 campylobacter coli isolates were determined by using a previously described chemically defined medium, campylobacter defined medium. with this medium, 45% of both human and nonhuman c. jejuni isolates demonstrated auxotrophic requirements. none of the 46 c. coli isolates studied demonstrated requirements for amino acids on campylobacter defined medium. the most common auxotrophic requirement among c. jejuni isolates was fo ...19873654939
prevalence and characterization of hippurate-negative campylobacter jejuni in king county, washington.a total of 593 strains of thermophilic campylobacter species were isolated either from humans with diarrhea or from poultry in king county, washington. of these strains, 98 (52 hippurate-positive strains and all 46 of the hippurate-negative strains) were selected for further phenotypic characterization and genetic classification. hippurate hydrolysis, the test typically used to differentiate campylobacter jejuni and c. coli, did not always correlate with the genetic classification. all hippurate ...19873654945
rapid and improved gas-liquid chromatography technique for detection of hippurate hydrolysis by campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.a gas-liquid chromatographic method which requires no chloroform extraction of the split products has been investigated for the detection of hippurate hydrolysis by campylobacter spp. this technique gave better reproducibility than other tests also used in this study and allows the routine use of the gas-liquid chromatographic method for identification of campylobacter isolates.19873654950
problems in identification of campylobacter jejuni associated with acquisition of resistance to nalidixic acid.in a patient with campylobacteriosis, we observed development of resistance to nalidixic acid and norfloxacin under adequate treatment with the latter antibiotic. isolates before and after treatment differed in their total protein profile but were otherwise identical with respect to enzymatic activity, serotype, crude membrane protein profiles, and other phenotypic characteristics.19873654954
[morphological changes induced by ampicillin in campylobacter].morphologic changes in campylobacter fetus ssp. jejuni were evaluated as cultivated on thioglycollute broth, containing minimum of 0.1, 1.3 and 10 ampicillin minimal inhibitory concentration (mic). during the first four hours of incubation, no changes occurred in the presence of 0.1 mic; but with the rest of the ampicillin doses, even at the first hour, a proportion larger than 5% of filament-policurved forms was found, and it increased with the incubation time. the greatest number of altered ba ...19863671809
[campylobacter fetus bursitis of the elbow]. 19873672019
survival of thermophilic campylobacters on fingertips and their elimination by washing and disinfection.a simple impression-plate technique has been used to investigate the survival of four thermophilic campylobacter strains applied to fingertips. campylobacters suspended in 0.1% peptone water and dried on the fingertips survived for different periods of time ranging from less than 1 to greater than or equal to 4 min. however, campylobacters suspended in chicken liquor or blood survived for much longer periods. the most resilient organism was campylobacter jejuni nctc 11392 which, when suspended i ...19873678391
detection of pathogenic campylobacter species in blood culture systems.because differences in recognition of campylobacter fetus and campylobacter jejuni in systemic infections may be due partially to differences in the ability to cultivate these organisms, we studied their growth characteristics in two widely used blood culture systems. in the roche septi-chek system (hoffman-la roche, inc., nutley, n.j.), over a broad range of inocula all strains were detected in broth within 2 days and on paddles within 3 days. in the bactec 6b aerobic bottles (johnston laborato ...19863700626
the protection of infant mice from colonization with campylobacter jejuni by vaccination of the dams.intraperitoneal vaccination of female mice, before mating, with a whole cell, heat-killed (62 degrees c) vaccine of campylobacter jejuni allowed the mother to confer immunity to her young, challenged orally 4-6 days after birth with the homologous strain. there was no protection against a strain of another serotype. heating the vaccine to 100 degrees c destroyed its protective properties. a vaccine prepared from an aflagellate variant of the original strain was as protective as the original vacc ...19863701036
the cellular fatty acid composition of campylobacter species isolated from cases of enteritis in man and animals.the cellular fatty acid composition of 41 strains of suspected campylobacter jejuni, 23 from human cases of gastroenteritis and 18 from animals, was examined by gas-liquid chromatography. three of the 23 human isolates and 2 of 18 animal isolates did not contain 19:0 cyclopropane fatty acid and were identified as c. laridis. the remaining 36 strains had cellular fatty acid profiles consistent with c. jejuni but could be divided into three groups on the ratio of the concentration of 18:1 and 19:0 ...19863701040
susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni to strain-specific bactericidal activity in sera of infected patients.campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of inflammatory enteritis, which in normal hosts is usually self-limited and resolves without antibiotic therapy. c. jejuni bacteremia is very rare. we examined sera for bactericidal activity that might be important in limiting the extent of c. jejuni infection in man. we studied the ability of nonimmune sera and homologous and heterologous immune sera from infected patients to kill different fresh case isolates of c. jejuni in vitro. the reduction of the l ...19863710581
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for virulence properties of campylobacter jejuni clinical isolates.to evaluate the capacity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) to identify pathogenic strains among clinical fecal isolates of campylobacter jejuni, 40 consecutively obtained strains from 39 sick patients and 1 asymptomatic person were tested by respective elisas for enterotoxin production in culture filtrates and for the invasive virulence antigen of bacterial cells. of the 40 strains, 14 produced the enterotoxin; 15 strains, two of which were also enterotoxigenic, were invasive; and 1 ...19863711295
colonization and infection of athymic and euthymic germfree mice by campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus.human clinical strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus colonized the gastrointestinal tracts of both athymic (nu/nu) and euthymic (+/nu) germfree mice (balb/c). viable campylobacter spp. (10(9) to 10(10) cfu/g [dry weight] of cecum and colon contents) were isolated on day 3 after oral challenge, and similar large numbers of viable cells were evident at several intervals during a 10-month experiment. the stomachs and upper small intestines of nu/nu and +/nu mice that ...19863733222
monoclonal antibodies directed against the flagella of campylobacter jejuni: cross-reacting and serotypic specificity and potential use in diagnosis.nine monoclonal antibodies directed against the flagella of campylobacter jejuni strain 81116 have been investigated for serotypic and cross-reacting activity using a panel of 17 penner serotype strains of c. jejuni. four monoclonal antibodies were exclusively specific for serotype-6 strains, which was the serotype of c. jejuni strain 81116. two monoclonal antibodies cross-reacted with all the flagellated strains of c. jejuni tested. one of these cross-reacting monoclonal antibodies, cf5, was fo ...19863734423
natural campylobacter colonization in chickens raised under different environmental conditions.a cross-sectional study of 447 laying hens (age range 0-65 weeks) and a longitudinal study of 164 similar birds showed that campylobacter jejuni was not present in the faeces of newly hatched chicks, but that colonization arose after 5-9 weeks. a survey of 250 broilers obtained from four breeders showed that all were negative for c. jejuni before and after slaughter at the age of 5 weeks. once c. jejuni had appeared in a flock, it rapidly spread to virtually all birds, but at the age of 42 weeks ...19863734424
the nucleotide sequences of two trna genes from campylobacter jejuni. 19863737410
[septic arthritis caused by campylobacter fetus].the ten published cases of septic arthritis due to campylobacter fetus and two more recent cases, one of which was a delayed septic complication of a total hip replacement, are discussed. in 83% of cases, febrile monoarthritis occurred which in 7 out of the 12 cases involved an already diseased joint in a subject over 70 years of age (half of the patients), who was frequently alcoholic and presented either cancer or hepatic cirrhosis and/or diabetes. hyperleukocytosis of the blood was variable ( ...19863738380
campylobacter colitis in ranch mink in ontario.outbreaks of colitis, where campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli were the only pathogens isolated occurred in weanling mink (mustella vision) on two commercial mink ranches in ontario. lesions were restricted to the proximal colon and were characterized by multiple 1 mm focal or 1 mm linear erosions/ulcers in the region 2 cm distal to the ileal-colonic junction. histological changes included thickening of the colonic mucosa, inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria and submucosa ...19863742356
[four cases of infection by campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus]. 19863747211
[septicemia caused by campylobacter fetus ssp fetus introduced through the skin]. 19863751441
serotyping of campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and c. fetus subsp. venerealis by passive hemagglutination technique based on soluble autoclaved antigens.antigens for sensitization of sheep erythrocytes were released from c. fetus subsp. fetus and c. fetus subsp. venerealis suspensions by autoclaving in alkaline and neutral saline and by boiling in alkaline but not in neutral saline. serotyping with rabbit antisera showed the same two serotypes of o-antigens, a and b, as shown by tube agglutination of heated bacteria. all c. fetus subsp. venerealis strains had the a antigen. the c. fetus subsp. fetus strains tested had either the a or b antigen. ...19863751579
campylobacter infection associated with raw milk. an outbreak of gastroenteritis due to campylobacter jejuni and thermotolerant campylobacter fetus subsp fetus.raw milk is identified with increasing numbers of outbreaks of gastroenteritis and is an important vehicle for transmission of campylobacter infection. unlike campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter fetus subsp fetus has not been associated with common-source outbreaks of gastroenteritis. this report describes an outbreak of gastroenteritis involving c jejuni and a thermotolerant strain of c fetus subsp fetus associated with raw milk. fifteen (39%) of 38 persons who attended a banquet in wisconsin i ...19863753617
strain characterization and grouping of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by interaction with lectins.strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli were characterized and grouped by their distinct reaction patterns with lectins. heating of the campylobacter cultures to 100 degrees c and holding for 30 to 60 min greatly enhanced their reactivity with lectins and permitted the grouping of all but 3 of 155 cultures tested in this study without interference of autoagglutination and other nonspecific activities. the lectin reaction patterns of the heated cultures were stable and reproducible ...19863754264
the chicken embryo as a model for campylobacter invasion: comparative virulence of human isolates of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.eleven-day-old chicken embryos were used to compare the relative virulence of minimally passaged human isolates of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. graded doses of bacteria were inoculated onto the chorioallantoic membrane, and 50% lethal doses were calculated at 72 h postinfection. strains varied markedly in their ability to invade the chorioallantoic membrane and kill the embryos. the 50% lethal doses varied by about 6 logs for 25 strains of c. jejuni, and by 2 logs for 5 strains o ...19863759232
comparative efficacy of seven selective media for isolating campylobacter jejuni.diarrheal stools from 263 patients were inoculated on seven selective media: butzler selective medium, blaser medium, skirrow blood agar, preston campylobacter selective medium, preston campylobacter blood-free medium, butzler virion medium, and modified preston medium (with amphotericin b [2 mg/liter]). a similar number of campylobacter jejuni strains were isolated from all the media studied; nevertheless, the presence of competing fecal flora (ff) made the detection of suspect colonies difficu ...19863760137
viable but nonculturable stage of campylobacter jejuni and its role in survival in the natural aquatic environment.conditions influencing the survival of campylobacter jejuni in the natural aquatic environment have been determined. release of campylobacter spp. into natural waters by animal hosts is postulated to play a key role in the maintenance of viability and transmission of the organism in the environment. laboratory flask microcosms containing filter-sterilized stream water were used to test c. jejuni for the ability to remain viable in simulated natural systems. the microcosms were compared with the ...19863767358
association with hela cells of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from human feces.we developed a rapid in vitro test for determining the association of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli with hela cells. association was expressed as a weighted mean of the number of bacteria associated with one cell in an association index (ai). the reproducibility of the ai was checked by repeating the test six times, using four strains chosen at random. means and standard deviations of the means were 7.3 +/- 1.2, 6.8 +/- 0.9, 1.8 +/- 1.2, and 0.1 +/- 0.2. the experimental conditions for which ...19863770943
modified selective medium for isolation of campylobacter spp. from feces: comparison with preston medium, a blood-free medium, and a filtration system.our previously described (h. goossens, m. de boeck, and j. p. butzler, eur. j. clin. microbiol. 2:389-393, 1983) selective medium, consisting of cefoperazone (15 mg/liter), rifampin (10 mg/liter), colistin (10,000 iu/liter), and amphotericin b (2 mg/liter) (medium m1), for the isolation of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from stool specimens was modified as follows: cefoperazone (30 mg/liter), rifampin (10 mg/liter), and amphotericin b (2 mg/liter) (medium m2). a comparative study of ...19863771769
biotype and serogroup distribution of campylobacter isolates from children in nigeria.a total of 101 campylobacter isolates from nigerian children with or without gastroenteritis were biotyped and serogrouped by using the lior typing schemes (h. lior, j. clin. microbiol. 20:636-640, 1984; h. lior, d. l. woodward, j. a. edgar, l. j. laroche, and p. gill, j. clin. microbiol. 15:761-768, 1982). fifty-three (52.5%) of the isolates were campylobacter jejuni biotype i, 29 (28.7%) were c. jejuni biotype ii, 10 (9.9%) were campylobacter coli biotype i, and 9 (8.9%) were c. coli biotype i ...19863771772
rate of campylobacter spp. isolation in three regions of ontario, canada, from 1978 to 1985.isolation rates of campylobacter spp. were analyzed for an 8-year period, 1978 through 1985. three laboratories of the ontario ministry of health examined 146,842 human feces samples for bacterial pathogens, including campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. campylobacter spp. were isolated from 5,580 specimens (3.8%), with monthly isolation rates ranging from 1.1 to 7.4%. the data showed a seasonal distribution of isolations, with peaks during the summer months (june to september). most inf ...19863771774
vaccination studies for the control of campylobacteriosis in jamaican cattle.following the first diagnosis of campylobacteriosis in jamaican cattle a field study was undertaken to determine the pathogenicity of campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis jam (jamaican strain) and to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination in controlling the disease. a total of 46 nonpregnant yearling heifers and four two-year-old bulls were used in two separate experiments. the results showed that c fetus subspecies venerealis jam readily colonised the reproductive tract of susceptible h ...19863776032
campylobacter fetus ss. jejuni: a cause of solitary cecal ulcer. 19863782763
cytotoxic and enterotoxic activities of campylobacter jejuni are not specified by tetracycline resistance plasmids pmak175 and pua466.the 45-kilobase tetracycline resistance plasmids pmak175 and pua466 from campylobacter jejuni were examined using curing and mating experiments. however, these plasmids encoded neither cytotoxin production, as determined in vero cells, nor enterotoxin activity, as determined in chinese hamster ovary cells.19873793867
evaluation of four enrichment media for isolation of campylobacter jejuni.diarrheal stool specimens were inoculated into the following media: alkaline peptone water (apw), bruce-zochowsky medium (bz), campylobacter enrichment broth (ceb), campy-thio broth (ct), and skirrow blood-agar (sk) plate. all media were incubated at 42 degrees c in microaerophilic conditions for 24 h. afterwards, a new sk plate was inoculated from every liquid medium. campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 43 of the 259 specimens when ct was used, from 45 when apw was used, from 46 when bz was ...19873793873
low incidence of campylobacter enteritis in northern ireland.in a prospective survey carried out over 9 months in 1984 in the department of bacteriology, belfast city hospital, campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 24 out of 1200 faecal specimens (2%) from patients with acute diarrhoea. this isolation rate is much lower than that from other parts of mainland britain which report an isolation rate of between 8 and 15%. it is difficult to explain this large discrepancy but the limited availability of unpasteurized milk and the generally worse summer here ( ...19863794324
treatment of campylobacter gastroenteritis.twin boys suffered from recurrent diarrhoea due to campylobacter jejuni after entering a day nursery. stool sampling of all 17 children at the nursery revealed c. jejuni in 12. simultaneous treatment with antibiotics of all children with positive cultures successfully eradicated the infection.19873813645
demonstration of a flagellar antigen shared by a diverse group of spiral-shaped bacteria that colonize intestinal mucus.western blot analysis showed that there is little immunological cross-reactivity of the human pathogens campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli with campylobacter pyloridis, except for a very strong cross-reaction between the flagellins. this same antigenic cross-reaction was found with two isolates of gram-negative spiral microaerophilic bacteria that are known to colonize the intestinal mucosa of rodents, but not with the flagellins of a number of other motile bacteria. it is proposed that ...19873818099
pathogenesis of campylobacter fetus infections: serum resistance associated with high-molecular-weight surface proteins.campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus causes both systemic and diarrheal illnesses. we studied 38 strains of c. fetus isolated from 34 patients; underlying illness was present in eight (89%) of nine patients with only systemic isolates compared with three (20%) of 15 patients with only fecal isolates (p = .002). in a standardized assay of susceptibility to normal human serum, 27 (71%) strains were resistant, six (16%) had intermediate susceptibility, and five (13%) were serum sensitive. major pro ...19873819475
[septicemia caused by enteritis due to campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus].in a 55 year old man with renal insufficiency requiring hemodialysis after bilateral nephrectomy who had been hospitalized with febrile illness and enteritis, campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus could be isolated from the blood and feces. antibodies against the homologous strain (isolated from the blood) could be detected in the serum by means of the widal test and the indirect immunofluorescence test. culturing of campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (especially from blood cultures) may be dif ...19873829936
in vitro susceptibilities of campylobacter-like organisms to twenty antimicrobial agents.we determined mics of 20 antimicrobial agents for 50 representative strains of four subgroups of campylobacter-like organisms (clos) by agar dilution. ampicillin, gentamicin, doxycycline, tetracycline, ceftriaxone, rifampin, spectinomycin, nalidixic acid, and chloramphenicol were active against all strains of clos. most clo strains (83%) were inhibited by 4 micrograms of sulfamethoxazole per ml and by 8 micrograms of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole per ml. of type 1 strains, 28% were resistant to ...19853834828
whole milk extender with antibiotics to eliminate campylobacter fetus from frozen bovine semen.fresh bovine semen was contaminated with five strains of campylobacter fetus at 10(5) to 10(6) organisms per ml of semen. the contaminated semen was processed to contain 500 units of polymyxin b, 500 units of penicillin g, and 1000 micrograms of streptomycin sulfate per ml, incubated at 35 degrees c for 10 min, and added then to whole milk extender with like units of antibiotics for further processing. both a low and high initial sperm count requiring extension rates 1:7 and 1:39 were studied. s ...19853842867
[campylobacter fetus enteritis]. 19853855622
comparative in vitro activities of twelve antimicrobial agents against campylobacter species.the in vitro susceptibility of 27 campylobacter jejuni, 31 campylobacter coli, and 30 campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus strains to 12 antimicrobial agents was determined. ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline derivative, was the most active agent tested. antimicrobial susceptibility differed among the three species tested.19853873216
campylobacter enteritis and bloody stools in the neonate.within 72 hours of birth three babies had loose stools containing fresh blood, mucus, and campylobacter jejuni/coli. campylobacter enteritis should be considered in newborn babies passing blood per rectum.19853874603
isolation, characterization, and serotyping of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from slaughter cattle.a total of 525 specimens from 100 slaughter beef cattle were examined for the presence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by direct plating and enrichment techniques. isolates were identified by cultural, biochemical, antibiotic sensitivity, and immunofluorescence tests and further characterized with the aid of recently developed biotyping and serotyping methods. fifty animals were positive for c. jejuni; only one was positive for c. coli. the distribution pattern of c. jejuni-positi ...19853888109
campylobacter fetus in artificial insemination unit and slaughterhouse bulls in ontario.preputial fluid samples were collected from 90 bulls in two ontario artificial insemination units using a penial glove swab technique previously developed by one of us for use in donor bulls. no campylobacter fetus organisms were identified from the prepuce or from samples of semen collected at the same time from these bulls. the distal genitalia of 200 bulls were collected at a slaughter house. one isolation of a campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis was obtained on a culture from the forni ...19853893662
occurrence of campylobacter jejuni and giardia species in muskrat (ondatra zibethica).a total of 189 muskrat fecal samples were surveyed for campylobacter and giardia species. campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 47.5% of these samples, and giardia species were detected in 82.5%. these findings indicate that muskrat may be of importance to the health both of humans and of domestic animals.19853896141
pathogenic properties of campylobacter jejuni: assay and correlation with clinical manifestations.the pathogenic properties of 20 strains of campylobacter jejuni isolated from persons with clearly defined clinical manifestations were determined. cell-free broth filtrates were examined for (i) enterotoxin production by chinese hamster tissue culture assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) employing gm1 ganglioside and affinity-purified antiserum to escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, (ii) cytotoxin production by vero and hela cell tissue culture lines, and (iii) their ability t ...19853899937
[campylobacter fetus ssp. jejuni, aeromonas hydrophila, helicoidal bacteria and coronavirus in the murine intestine].intestinal contents of 28 laboratory-bred white mice and 6 wild-caught rats were extracted and observed with phase-contrast and transmission electron microscopy; cultures were made in butzler agar and aeromonas, incubated in microaerobiosis, at 37 degrees c for 5 days. in three mice and two rats, helicoidal bacteria were observed, with 8 to 11 periplasmic fibers and terminal branches of 8 to 11 structures, similar to flagella. in one of the rats, coronavirus-like particles were observed. campylo ...19853916393
immunological relationship of the b subunits of campylobacter jejuni and escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins.the application of dissociation techniques, involving gel filtration in the presence of guanidine, to a semipurified preparation of campylobacter jejuni heat-labile enterotoxin yielded a material whose functional and immunological properties resemble those of the b subunits of cholera toxin and escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (lt). the c. jejuni toxin b subunit reacted with gm1 ganglioside in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but lacked the holotoxin's cytotonic activity in the chinese ha ...19853922890
campylobacter jejuni infection in colorado: unexplained excess of cases in males.between january 1, 1981, and december 31, 1982, the colorado department of health received reports of 1,185 culture-confirmed cases of campylobacter jejuni infection. incidence rates were highest among infants less than 1 year old and among persons aged 20-29 years. the distribution of cases by sex showed a predominance among males at all ages except 40-59 years, the most marked predominance occurring in infants under 1 year. the higher rates for males were also significant for all ages combined ...19853923544
morphologic observations of experimental campylobacter jejuni infection in the hamster intestinal tract.the authors have developed a model for the diarrhea and intestinal lesions seen in campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis by colonizing the hamster ileum and cecum with c jejuni. erythematous inflammation of the ileum and cecum and distention of the cecum with fluid were observed at autopsy. the cecal mucosa appeared edematous. epithelial abnormalities observed by light microscopy included focal edema, occasional hyperplasia, diffuse hyperemia, and infiltration of the lamina propria with leukocytes. ...19863942198
campylobacter fetus as a cause of acute cholecystitis. 19863947876
lectin agglutination for the differentiation of campylobacter fetus serotypes. 19863952971
epidemic campylobacteriosis associated with a community water supply.in may 1983, an estimated 865 cases of epidemic gastrointestinal disease occurred in greenville, florida. surveillance of pharmacy sales of antidiarrheal medicines suggested that the outbreak was confined to greenville and its immediate vicinity. surveys demonstrated that the gastrointestinal illness attack rates inside and outside the city limits were 56 per cent (72/128) and 9 per cent (7/77), respectively (relative risk (rr) = 6.2); consumption of city water was associated with illness (rr = ...19863953920
abortion in sheep caused by a nonclassified, anaerobic, flagellated bacterium.twenty-eight pregnant ewes were inoculated iv with approximately 6 x 10(8) nonclassified, anaerobic, flagellated bacteria (nafb) that had been isolated from an aborted lamb. abortion occurred in 3 of the ewes and 1 ewe gave birth to a weak lamb. the remaining 24 ewes and 3 other ewes inoculated orally with nafb did not develop clinical signs of illness. suppuration and vasculitis were seen in the placentas of the 3 aborted lambs, 1 of which had necropurulent hepatitis indistinguishable from that ...19863954201
evaluation of a blood-free, charcoal-based, selective medium for the isolation of campylobacter organisms from feces.a blood-free, charcoal-based selective medium (csm) consisting of a columbia agar base, activated charcoal (4 g/liter), hematin (0.032 g/liter), sodium pyruvate (0.1 g/liter), cefoperazone (32 mg/liter), vancomycin (20 mg/liter), and cycloheximide (100 mg/liter) supported the growth of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli with colony counts equivalent to those obtained on antibiotic-free horse blood agar. csm was compared to skirrow medium (skm) for the recovery of c. jejuni and c. coli from stools ...19863958143
distribution and serotypes of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in enteric campylobacter strains isolated from children in the central african republic.one hundred eighty-five enteric campylobacter strains isolated from diarrheic or healthy children in bangui (central african republic) were studied to determine their species and serotypes. c. coli was identified in 38.9% of all strains and in 43.9% of strains from diarrheic children. by the hemagglutination technique for heat-stable antigens, 73.5% of the strains could be serotyped. of the typeable strains, 75% were distributed among 13 more frequent serotypes. c. coli serotype pen 37,56 was th ...19863958146
campylobacter jejuni septicemia--epidemiology, clinical features and outcome.in 33 cases of campylobacter jejuni septicemia, the disease was more common at the extremes of age: infants made up a third of the reported cases while 24% of patients were older than 50 years. fever was noted in more than 80% of patients and chills in about a fourth. enteritis was present in 70% of cases, and the gastrointestinal tract was the principal source of septicemia. half of the patients did not have significant underlying disease but were at extremes of age, which may reflect relative ...19863962297
lipopolysaccharide characteristics of pathogenic campylobacters.most campylobacter jejuni strains are sensitive and most campylobacter fetus strains are resistant to the bactericidal activity in normal human serum. we purified lipopolysaccharides from campylobacter strains to determine whether their composition and structure relate to serum susceptibility. the lipopolysaccharide of two serum-sensitive strains was best isolated by the galanos procedure, but for two serum-resistant strains a cold-ethanol extraction was optimal. for each lipopolysaccharide prep ...19853967920
in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid analysis, and serotyping of epidemic-associated campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni strains from 11 outbreaks were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid profile, and serotyping by the methods of lior et al. and penner and hennessy. all 31 strains were susceptible to erythromycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, tobramycin, streptomycin, and gentamicin. a total of 21 strains from nine outbreaks were resistant to one or more of the following antimicrobial agents: tetracycline, metronidazole, ampicillin, or carbenicillin. of the 31 st ...19853968203
susceptibility of campylobacter isolates to the bactericidal activity of human serum.although campylobacter jejuni and related thermophilic organisms are more common human pathogens than are campylobacter fetus, most bloodstream or systemic isolates are c. fetus. to understand the pathophysiology related to this observation, the authors studied susceptibility to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum of campylobacter coli, c. jejuni, and c. fetus isolates from feces and blood. in standardized assays, 10 of 15 c. jejuni and related isolates showed 90% kill (mean, 90.6% + ...19853968449
campylobacter jejuni-specific serum antibodies are elevated in healthy bangladeshi children.in bangladesh and other developing countries, isolation of campylobacter jejuni is common in healthy children, and the illness/infection ratio falls with age. to determine whether specific serum antibodies correlate with this phenomenon, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we studied sera from 93 healthy bangladeshi children and 121 healthy u.s. children under 15 years of age. for each age group (less than 1, 2 to 4, and 5 to 14 years) studied, specific serum antibody levels were signifi ...19853972984
comparison of basal media for culturing campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.four strains of campylobacter jejuni and four strains of campylobacter coli were used to compare the quantitative growth of campylobacter cells on blood agar base no. 2 (oxoid), brucella agar (bbl microbiology systems and difco laboratories), campylobacter agar base (difco), columbia blood agar base (difco and oxoid), and mueller-hinton agar (difco and oxoid). columbia blood agar base and blood agar base no. 2 were inhibitory to most of the strains tested, as evidenced by reduced (10- to 1,000-f ...19853972990
isolation of campylobacter fetus from a pet turtle.during the course of a salmonella agona case investigation, campylobacter fetus was isolated from a pet turtle. this is the first reported isolation of c. fetus from a turtle and suggests that turtles, in addition to being reservoirs for salmonella species, may also be reservoirs for c. fetus.19853972996
the virulence of clinical and environmental isolates of campylobacter jejuni.the virulence of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli isolated from various water sources was compared with that of clinical strains by in vitro assays of adhesion, invasion and cytotoxicity to hela cells. variation in degree of attachment was observed, but this did not appear to be related to strain source, however, water strains were less invasive and less cytotoxic to hela cells than clinical strains as shown by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. these differences were particularly evide ...19853973380
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to campylobacter fetus in bovine vaginal mucus.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to detect antibodies to campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in bovine vaginal mucus. the results of testing 168 samples from experimentally infected, field cases and control cows showed that the elisa was more sensitive than the vaginal mucus agglutination test and also detected antibodies in earlier stages of infection.19853975480
campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus bacteremia.eight patients with campylobacter fetus bacteremia, six of them with serious underlying diseases, were seen in a two-year period. besides fever, which was observed in all cases, the most frequent clinical manifestation was lower extremity phlebitis and cellulitis (four patients). in one of these patients, it had the peculiar aspect of bilateral pretibial cellulitis. one patient had vertebral osteomyelitis, a complication, to our knowledge, not yet described. two patients, both with advanced unde ...19853977489
use of auxotyping for epidemiological studies of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli infections.a chemically defined medium developed for neisseria gonorrhoeae was modified to support the growth of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. a total of 76 isolates of c. jejuni and 14 isolates of c. coli were tested on this medium, which was designated campylobacter defined medium (cdm), over a 3-month period. although none of the c. coli isolates appeared to require amino acids, 51% of the c. jejuni tested required one and 7% required multiple amino acids for growth. an analysis of isolat ...19853988340
phagocytosis of campylobacter jejuni and its intracellular survival in mononuclear phagocytes.in vitro phagocytosis and intracellular survival of campylobacter jejuni strain 2964 in mononuclear phagocytes were studied. the following three types of mononuclear phagocytes were used: a j774g8 peritoneal macrophage line derived from balb/c mice, resident balb/c peritoneal macrophages, and human peripheral blood monocytes. when c. jejuni and mononuclear phagocytes were combined at a ratio of 75:1, light microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, and electron microscopy all indicated that c. jejuni c ...19853988342
evidence of udder excretion of campylobacter jejuni as the cause of milk-borne campylobacter outbreak.we describe a community outbreak of campylobacter enteritis associated with the consumption of untreated milk, apparently contaminated by two cows with campylobacter mastitis. the outbreak occurred in two phases. strains of campylobacter jejuni of the penner serogroup complex 4, 13, 16, 50 and preston biotype code 6100 were isolated from patients in both episodes and from the faeces of the cattle, milk filters, bulk milk and retail milk. milk samples from two of 40 milking cows were found to con ...19853989284
[isolation of campylobacter spp. from calves in bulgaria].studied were a total of 58 samples, containing intestinal content of calves that had died of enteritis as well as fecal samples and samples from clinically normal calves. campylobacter spp. were isolated in 8.8 per cent of the cases. the isolated 5 strains was determined as campylobacter fetus subsp. intestinalis. this is the first communication on the isolation of campylobacter spp. in this country.19853992922
typing of heat-stable and heat-labile antigens of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by coagglutination.a coagglutination system has been devised for typing heat-stable and heat-labile antigens of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli. the use of protein a-positive staphylococcus aureus cells carrying campylobacter sp. serotype antibody and the treatment of campylobacter sp. cells with dnase in the antigen suspension permitted rapid and specific coagglutination of rough (autoagglutinable) as well as smooth cultures. cells of s. aureus were sensitized with campylobacter sp. serotype antisera. four to fi ...19853998098
campylobacter jejuni infections on college campuses: a national survey.we surveyed 303 colleges and universities to determine the frequency of isolations of campylobacter jejuni and other enteric bacterial pathogens. campylobacter cultures could be obtained at 74 per cent; 10 per cent of stool cultures yielded campylobacter, which was isolated 10 and 46 times more frequently than salmonella and shigella, respectively. the incidence of diagnosed campylobacter infections was 1.3 per 10,000 enrolled students per month. intercollegiate variation was not explained by di ...19854003634
[digestive complications of campylobacter enteritis].fifty children with acute diarrhoea, in which the only germ found in stools was campylobacter fetus jejuni, are studied. digestive complications occurred are discussed. nine (18%) had lactose malabsorption, associated in two (4%) with saccharose malabsorption and in one (2%) with cow's milk protein intolerance. all complications were temporary, and carbohydrate malabsorption disappeared between one and three months.19854003954
biochemical and genetic characteristics of atypical campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus strains isolated from humans in the united states.during a 2-year period, 14 biochemically atypical campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus-like strains were received by the campylobacter reference laboratory at the centers for disease control. sources of the isolates were blood, nine strains; stools, two strains; amniotic fluid, one strain; and abscesses, two strains. atypical phenotypic characteristics exhibited by one or more strains were growth at 42 degrees c, 10 strains; no h2s by lead acetate paper, 3 strains; resistance to a 30-micrograms ceph ...19854008624
laboratory infection of chicken eggs with campylobacter jejuni by using temperature or pressure differentials.fertile chicken eggs were infected in our laboratory with campylobacter jejuni suspensions by using temperature or pressure differential methods of inoculation. after 2 days of incubation, over 90% of the eggs carried c. jejuni when iron was present in the inoculum. this percentage declined rapidly until by day 8, less than 10% of the eggs were detectably infected. however, up to 11% of hatched, healthy chicks carried c. jejuni in their intestinal tracts. the isolated organisms were of the same ...19854015086
serotyping of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter laridis from domestic and wild animals.by using 50 unabsorbed antisera, we were able to serotype 272 (65.7%) of 414 thermotolerant campylobacters from wild and domestic animals, on the basis of heat-stable antigens identified by means of passive hemagglutination. forty-two serotypes were recognized. the pattern of serotypes detected in the various animal species was compared to human clinical isolates by using the czekanowski index (proportional similarity index). the highest degree of similarity to the clinical isolates was observed ...19854015088
development of a bacteriophage typing system for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.a bacteriophage typing system for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli was developed with phages isolated from poultry feces. data for phage selection were generated from a set of isolates of c. jejuni and c. coli from humans in illinois. selection of 14 phages from the 47 phages available was assisted by determination of the sneath-jaccard similarity coefficients and subsequent unweighted pair-group arithmetic averaging cluster analysis. the typing set was reproducible and stable in the ...19854019737
biotypes and serotypes of thermophilic campylobacters isolated from cattle, sheep and pig offal and other red meats.in this study we examined 730 faecal samples of offal (mainly liver), mince-meat and sausage meat collected from abattoirs and retail butchers' shops for campylobacters. campylobacter jejuni or c. coli were isolated from 30.6, 10.5 and 6% of sheep, cattle and pig offal samples respectively. specimens collected from abattoirs were, in general, more often contaminated than material obtained from retail butchers' shops. only 1.4% of minced meats and sausage meats contained campylobacters. most isol ...19854020105
enrichment medium for isolation of campylobacter jejuni-campylobacter coli.a broth enrichment medium for the improvement of isolation of campylobacter jejuni-campylobacter coli from stool samples and other specimens is presented. of 1,228 samples examined in parallel, positive results were obtained from 81 by direct inoculation of selective media and from 112 after enrichment. thus, an increase of 27.7% in the isolation rate was obtained by using the enrichment medium. the same medium without antibiotics allows the preservation of isolates of c. jejuni-c. coli for at l ...19854026287
thrombophlebitis and cellulitis due to campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus. report of four cases and a review of the literature.four cases of acute thrombophlebitis and cellulitis due to c. fetus ssp. fetus are reported, with a review of 18 previously reported cases. vascular infection with thrombophlebitis due to c. fetus ssp. fetus occurred predominantly in adult male patients with underlying debilitating, immunocompromising illnesses resulting in a mortality rate of 32%. although approximately one-third of the patients had exposure to known reservoirs of c. fetus ssp. fetus, none of the patients presented with diarrhe ...19853892221
infected aortic aneurysms.salmonella organisms have been responsible for half of the reported cases of infected aortic aneurysms, although other bacteria have been incriminated. this is the second reported case in which campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus apparently infected an inflammatory aortic aneurysm. in this 70-year-old man the organism was isolated and treated prior to resection of the aneurysm and inline grafting. specific antibiotic therapy was continued for 8 weeks postoperatively. examination and ct scans ob ...19854009843
[ultrastructural study of campylobacter fetus ssp. jejuni]. 19854012096
campylobacter and endovascular lesions.because of the gaps in our knowledge of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of campylobacter infections, particularly the propensity of campylobacter fetus ssp fetus to infect vascular endothelium, the authors describe the case of a 56-year-old woman with c. fetus ssp fetus infection of an aortic aneurysm. she recovered after a one-stage surgical repair and antibiotic therapy with erythromycin. the organism was cultured from samples of the stool and tissue obtained at operation. it was identified ...19854027795
campylobacter colitis: histological immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings.the colonic biopsy specimens of 22 patients with colitis and positive stool cultures for campylobacter jejuni were studied in order to obtain histological and immunohistochemical criteria to differentiate campylobacter colitis from chronic inflammatory bowel disease. in addition we tried to identify campylobacter inclusions by means of immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy as evidence for invasion of the colonic mucosa. the results show that the majority of patients with campylobacter col ...19854029720
biotyping schemes for campylobacter jejuni. 19854031047
campylobacter fetus peritonitis followed by septicaemia in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.a 62-year-old man being treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (capd) developed peritonitis due to campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (intestinalis), an organism seldom isolated in such circumstances. after appropriate and apparently effective antibiotic therapy, the patient relapsed 6 weeks later with septicaemia. blood cultures yielded a similar organism, thereby suggesting a clinically silent metastatic infection during the episode of peritonitis, probably at an old arterioven ...19854031516
occurrence of plasmids and antibiotic resistance among campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from healthy and diarrheic animals.serologically defined strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from healthy and diarrheic animals were examined for the occurrence of plasmid dna in association with the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacterial host and the health status of the animal host. of all campylobacter organisms surveyed, 53% (116 of 200) contained plasmid dna. a plasmid occurrence rate of 73.8% was obtained for c. coli from healthy pigs, contrasted by lower plasmid occurrence rates for c. coli from diar ...19854044793
comparison of methods for isolating campylobacter jejuni from raw milk.the method of doyle and roman (appl. environ. microbiol. 43:1343-1353, 1982) was compared with that of lovett et al. (appl. environ. microbiol. 46:459-462, 1983) for the ability to recover campylobacter jejuni strains inoculated into raw milk at a concentration of less than 1 cell per g. the method of lovett et al. gave significantly greater recovery proportions.19854051491
reversible expression of flagella in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni 81116 and a3249 undergo a bidirectional transition between flagellated (fla+) and aflagellated (fla-) phenotypes. when measured in culture medium, the fla+----fla- transition occurred at a rate of 3.1 x 10(-3) to 5.9 x 10(-3) per cell per generation, and the fla- to fla+ transition occurred at a rate of 4.0 x 10(-7) to 8.0 x 10(-7) per cell per generation. however, passage through a rabbit intestine markedly favored the fla+ phenotype.19854066041
investigations on the role of flagella in the colonization of infant mice with campylobacter jejuni and attachment of campylobacter jejuni to human epithelial cell lines.the biochemical and biological properties of the flagella of campylobacter jejuni have been investigated using two variants selected from a flagellate, motile clinical isolate (strain 81116): a flagellate, non-motile variant (sf-1) and an aflagellate variant (sf-2). phenotypic and biochemical analysis of the strains and amino acid analysis of the isolated flagella suggest that the variants differed from the wild-type strain only in the absence of flagella and/or motility. the aflagellate variant ...19854067286
comparison of gauze swabs and membrane filters for isolation of campylobacter spp. from surface water.the epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni indicates that waterborne transmission is important; the organism has been isolated from seawater, fresh water, and estuarine sites. membrane filtration, with and without use of an enrichment broth, has been the most common method for isolating c. jejuni from water. we evaluated two methods for isolating c. jejuni from water: membrane filtration and gauze filtration. the membrane filters evaluated included 0.22- and 0.45-micron-pore millipore filters (mil ...19854073894
inhibition of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni by antibiotics used in selective growth media.the ability of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni to grow in the presence of antibiotics used in selective growth media was compared. mic data for c. coli indicated that some strains were more susceptible to the antibiotics than were the c. jejuni strains tested. a reduction of greater than 1 log cycle in the numbers of cells growing on plates containing antibiotics was considered to be a marked level of inhibition. only one of nine of the antibiotic combinations studied did not markedl ...19854077962
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