TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
epithelial and stromal cells of bovine endometrium have roles in innate immunity and initiate inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopeptides in vitro via toll-like receptors tlr2, tlr1, and tlr6.bacteria often infect the endometrium of cattle to cause endometritis, uterine disease, and infertility. lipopeptides are commonly found among bacteria and are detected by the toll-like receptor (tlr) cell surface receptor tlr2 on immune cells. heterodimers of tlr2 with tlr1 or tlr6 activate mapk and nuclear factor-κb intracellular signaling pathways to stimulate inflammatory responses. in the endometrium, epithelial and stromal cells are the first to encounter invading bacteria, so the present ...201424437488
ultrastructure and complex polar architecture of the human pathogen campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is one of the most successful food-borne human pathogens. here we use electron cryotomography to explore the ultrastructure of c. jejuni cells in logarithmically growing cultures. this provides the first look at this pathogen in a near-native state at macromolecular resolution (~5 nm). we find a surprisingly complex polar architecture that includes ribosome exclusion zones, polyphosphate storage granules, extensive collar-shaped chemoreceptor arrays, and elaborate flagellar ...201425065852
inconsistency of phenotypic and genomic characteristics of campylobacter fetus subspecies requires reevaluation of current diagnostics.classifications of the campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis were first described in 1959 and were based on the source of isolation (intestinal versus genital) and the ability of the strains to proliferate in the genital tract of cows. two phenotypic assays (1% glycine tolerance and h2s production) were described to differentiate the subspecies. multiple molecular assays have been applied to differentiate the c. fetus subspecies, but none of these tests is consistent with the pheno ...201425232170
complete genome sequence of campylobacter iguaniorum strain 1485et, isolated from a bearded dragon (pogona vitticeps).campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. this campylobacter species is genetically related to campylobacter fetus and campylobacter hyointestinalis. here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species.201425146144
novel microbiological and spatial statistical methods to improve strength of epidemiological evidence in a community-wide waterborne outbreak.failures in the drinking water distribution system cause gastrointestinal outbreaks with multiple pathogens. a water distribution pipe breakage caused a community-wide waterborne outbreak in vuorela, finland, july 2012. we investigated this outbreak with advanced epidemiological and microbiological methods. a total of 473/2931 inhabitants (16%) responded to a web-based questionnaire. water and patient samples were subjected to analysis of multiple microbial targets, molecular typing and microbia ...201425147923
campylobacter fetus bacteremia in an immunocompetent traveler.campylobacter fetus bacteremia is a rare human infection that occurs almost exclusively in the setting of advanced age, immunosuppression, human immunodeficiency virus infection, alcoholism, or recent gastrointestinal surgery. this report of c. fetus bacteremia in a 39-year-old immunocompetent traveler who ate raw beef identifies c. fetus as a potential emerging pathogen in normal hosts.201425071002
draft genome sequences of campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis strain b6 and bv. intermedius strain 642-21.campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is an important venereal pathogen. we sequenced the genomes of campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis strain b6 and bv. intermedius strain 642-21. the genetic variability of these australian strains will facilitate the study of mechanisms of geographical adaptation of these pathogens that impact livestock.201425278524
from deep-sea volcanoes to human pathogens: a conserved quorum-sensing signal in epsilonproteobacteria.chemosynthetic epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents colonize substrates exposed to steep thermal and redox gradients. in many bacteria, substrate attachment, biofilm formation, expression of virulence genes and host colonization are partly controlled via a cell density-dependent mechanism involving signal molecules, known as quorum sensing. within the epsilonproteobacteria, quorum sensing has been investigated only in human pathogens that use the luxs/autoinducer-2 (ai-2) mecha ...201425397946
from deep-sea volcanoes to human pathogens: a conserved quorum-sensing signal in epsilonproteobacteria.chemosynthetic epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents colonize substrates exposed to steep thermal and redox gradients. in many bacteria, substrate attachment, biofilm formation, expression of virulence genes and host colonization are partly controlled via a cell density-dependent mechanism involving signal molecules, known as quorum sensing. within the epsilonproteobacteria, quorum sensing has been investigated only in human pathogens that use the luxs/autoinducer-2 (ai-2) mecha ...201425397946
diagnosis and management of venereal campylobacteriosis in beef cattle.bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is caused by campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and its glycerine-tolerant variant campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovars intermedius. the disease can be economically important when present in cattle herds, causing poor reproductive performance, embryo mortality and abortion. sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are required in the diagnosis of infection and to inform and monitor disease control. current tests include bacterial culture and fluoresc ...201425428802
identification of a broad family of lipid a late acyltransferases with non-canonical substrate specificity.most gram-negative organisms produce lipopolysaccharide (lps), a complex macromolecule anchored to the bacterial membrane by the lipid a moiety. lipid a is synthesized via the raetz pathway, a conserved nine-step enzymatic process first characterized in escherichia coli. the epsilonproteobacterium helicobacter pylori uses the raetz pathway to synthesize lipid a; however, only eight of nine enzymes in the pathway have been identified in this organism. here, we identify the missing acyltransferase ...201424372821
conserved evolutionary units in the heme-copper oxidase superfamily revealed by novel homologous protein families.the heme-copper oxidase (hco) superfamily includes hcos in aerobic respiratory chains and nitric oxide reductases (nors) in the denitrification pathway. the hco/nor catalytic subunit has a core structure consisting of 12 transmembrane helices (tmhs) arranged in three-fold rotational pseudosymmetry, with six conserved histidines for heme and metal binding. using sensitive sequence similarity searches, we detected a number of novel hco/nor homologs and named them hco homology (hcoh) proteins. seve ...201424931479
the dynamic nature of genomes across the tree of life.genomes are dynamic in lineages across the tree of life. among bacteria and archaea, for example, dna content varies throughout life cycles, and nonbinary cell division in diverse lineages indicates the need for coordination of the inheritance of genomes. these observations contrast with the textbook view that bacterial and archaeal genomes are monoploid (i.e., single copied) and fixed both within species and throughout an individual's lifetime. here, we synthesize information on three aspects o ...201424500971
a quantitative prioritisation of human and domestic animal pathogens in europe.disease or pathogen risk prioritisations aid understanding of infectious agent impact within surveillance or mitigation and biosecurity work, but take significant development. previous work has shown the h-(hirsch-)index as an alternative proxy. we present a weighted risk analysis describing infectious pathogen impact for human health (human pathogens) and well-being (domestic animal pathogens) using an objective, evidence-based, repeatable approach; the h-index. this study established the highe ...201425136810
humans and cattle: a review of bovine zoonoses.infectious disease prevention and control has been among the top public health objectives during the last century. however, controlling disease due to pathogens that move between animals and humans has been challenging. such zoonotic pathogens have been responsible for the majority of new human disease threats and a number of recent international epidemics. currently, our surveillance systems often lack the ability to monitor the human-animal interface for emergent pathogens. identifying and ult ...201424341911
extraintestinal campylobacteriosis in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).two cases of clinical disease associated with extraintestinal campylobacter infection were recently encountered in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta). the first case was that of a 3-y-old, male, rhesus macaque experimentally infected with siv, who presented with abdominal pain and a midabdominal mass and was euthanized. pathology findings included an abscess within the median liver lobe, fibrinopurulent peritonitis, and intestinal serositis with isolation of campylobacter fetus from the blood, liv ...201425527031
genomic evidence for the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences in the genus campylobacter.the genus campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. in this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species campylobacter sp ...201425193310
evolution and comparative genomics of campylobacter jejuni st-677 clonal complex.campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis in the european union with over 200,000 laboratory-confirmed cases reported annually. this is the first study to describe findings related to comparative genomics analyses of the sequence type (st)-677 clonal complex (cc), a campylobacter jejuni lineage associated with bacteremia cases in humans. we performed whole-genome sequencing, using illumina hiseq sequencing technology, on five related st-677 cc isolates from two chicken ...201425193305
detection, identification and quantification of campylobacter jejuni, coli and lari in food matrices all at once using multiplex qpcr.thermotolerant campylobacter jejuni, coli and lari are recognized as leading food-borne pathogens causing an acute bacterial enteritis worldwide. due to narrow spectrum of their biochemical activity, it is very complicated to distinguish between individual species. for reliable risk assessment, proper incidence evaluation or swift sample analysis regarding individual species, a demand for simple and rapid method for their distinguishing is reasonable. in this study, we evaluated a reliable and s ...201425057300
a multiplex pcr/ldr assay for simultaneous detection and identification of the niaid category b bacterial food and water-borne pathogens.enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis remain a major global health concern. the goal of this study was to develop a multiplex pcr/ligation detection reaction (ldr) assay for the detection of all niaid category b bacterial food and water-borne pathogens directly from stool specimens. to validate the pcr/ldr assay, clinical isolates of campylobacter spp., vibrio spp., shigella spp., salmonella spp., listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheagenic escherichia coli were tes ...201424709368
biological roles of the o-methyl phosphoramidate capsule modification in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and the capsular polysaccharide (cps) of this organism is required for persistence and disease. c. jejuni produces over 47 different capsular structures, including a unique o-methyl phosphoramidate (meopn) modification present on most c. jejuni isolates. although the meopn structure is rare in nature it has structural similarity to some synthetic pesticides. in this study, we have demonstrated, by whole genome comparis ...201424498018
comparison of characteristics of patients infected by campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter fetus.a large database of campylobacter isolates precisely identified at the species level was used to compare patients' characteristics. in a multivariate analysis, campylobacter coli was found more often in older patients and in patients having traveled abroad and less often in summertime than campylobacter jejuni. campylobacter fetus infection occurred in much older patients and in hospitalized patients with a systemic disease.201424197884
identification and characterization of an invasion antigen b gene from the oral pathogen campylobacter rectus.the oral bacterium, campylobacter rectus, is an etiological agent of periodontitis. the virulence genes of c. rectus are largely unknown. the aim of this study was to query c. rectus for the presence of an invasion antigen b (ciab) gene, which is needed for cell invasion by the related species campylobacter jejuni. pcr and pcr-walking identified a ciab from c. rectus. in silico analyses of c. rectus 314 ciab (cr-ciab) revealed an orf of 1,830 base pairs. the cr-ciab protein shared significant se ...201424426164
identification and characterization of an invasion antigen b gene from the oral pathogen campylobacter rectus.the oral bacterium, campylobacter rectus, is an etiological agent of periodontitis. the virulence genes of c. rectus are largely unknown. the aim of this study was to query c. rectus for the presence of an invasion antigen b (ciab) gene, which is needed for cell invasion by the related species campylobacter jejuni. pcr and pcr-walking identified a ciab from c. rectus. in silico analyses of c. rectus 314 ciab (cr-ciab) revealed an orf of 1,830 base pairs. the cr-ciab protein shared significant se ...201424426164
intergenomic comparisons highlight modularity of the denitrification pathway and underpin the importance of community structure for n2o emissions.nitrous oxide (n2o) is a potent greenhouse gas and the predominant ozone depleting substance. the only enzyme known to reduce n2o is the nitrous oxide reductase, encoded by the nosz gene, which is present among bacteria and archaea capable of either complete denitrification or only n2o reduction to di-nitrogen gas. to determine whether the occurrence of nosz, being a proxy for the trait n2o reduction, differed among taxonomic groups, preferred habitats or organisms having either nirk or nirs nit ...201425436772
characterization of the vaginal microbiota of ewes and cows reveals a unique microbiota with low levels of lactobacilli and near-neutral ph.although a number of common reproductive disorders in livestock involve bacterial infection, very little is known about their normal vaginal microbiota. therefore, we sought to determine the species composition of sheep and cattle vaginal microbiota. twenty rambouillet ewes and twenty crossbred cows varying in age and reproductive status were sampled by ectocervicovaginal lavage. we amplified and sequenced the v3-v4 region of the 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) contents yielding a total of 907,667 high ...201426664918
dielectrophoretic monitoring and interstrain separation of intact clostridium difficile based on their s(surface)-layers.clostridium difficile (c. difficile) infection (cdi) rates have exhibited a steady rise worldwide over the last two decades and the infection poses a global threat due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains. interstrain antagonistic interactions across the host microbiome form an important strategy for controlling the emergence of cdi. the current diagnosis method for cdi, based on immunoassays for toxins produced by pathogenic c. difficile strains, is limited by false negatives due to ...201425343746
microbial typing by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: do we need guidance for data interpretation?the integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) in clinical microbiology has revolutionized species identification of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. however, beyond straightforward identification, the method has also been suggested to have the potential for subspecies-level or even type-level epidemiological analyses. this minireview explores maldi-tof ms-based typing, which has already been performed on many clinically relevant specie ...201425056329
microbial typing by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: do we need guidance for data interpretation?the integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) in clinical microbiology has revolutionized species identification of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. however, beyond straightforward identification, the method has also been suggested to have the potential for subspecies-level or even type-level epidemiological analyses. this minireview explores maldi-tof ms-based typing, which has already been performed on many clinically relevant specie ...201425056329
neurological disorders and inflammatory bowel diseases.extraintestinal manifestations occur in about one-third of patients living with inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) and may precede the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms by many years. neurologic disorders associated with ibd are not frequent, being reported in 3% of patients, but they often represent an important cause of morbidity and a relevant diagnostic issue. in addition, the increasing use of immunosuppressant and biological therapies for ibd may also play a pivotal role in the development ...201425083051
occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal campylobacter, arcobacter, and helicobacter in reptiles.campylobacter, arcobacter, and helicobacter species have been isolated from many vertebrate hosts, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. multiple studies have focused on the prevalence of these epsilonproteobacteria genera in avian and mammalian species. however, little focus has been given to the presence within reptiles, and their potential zoonotic and pathogenic roles. in this study, occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal epsilonproteobacteria were determined for a large ...201424988130
efficient routes toward the synthesis of the d-rhamno-trisaccharide related to the a-band polysaccharide of pseudomonas aeruginosa.the present work describes efficient avenues for the synthesis of the trisaccharide repeating unit [α-d-rhap-(1→3)-α-d-rhap-(1→3)-α-d-rhap] associated with the a-band polysaccharide of pseudomonas aeruginosa. one of the key steps involved 6-o-deoxygenation of either partially or fully acylated 4,6-o-benzylidene-1-thiomannopyranoside by radical-mediated redox rearrangement in high yields and regioselectivity. the d-rhamno-thioglycosides so obtained allowed efficient access to the trisaccharide ta ...201425161705
association between proton pump inhibitor use and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites.there are data suggesting a link between proton pump inhibitor (ppi) use and the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (sbp) in cirrhotic patients with ascites; however, these data are controversial.201424945188
genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion in the united states and great britain.campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. historically, genetically diverse campylobacter fetus and campylobacter jejuni strains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant c. jejuni clone (named sa) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the united states. whether clone sa was present in earlier u.s. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the united state ...201424648552
survey of infectious etiologies of bovine abortion during mid- to late gestation in dairy herds.bovine abortion of unknown infectious etiology still remains a major economic problem. thus, we investigated whether brucella spp., listeria monocytogenes, salmonella spp., campylobacter spp. and coxiella burnetii are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in tunisian dairy cattle. using a pan-chlamydiales pcr, we also investigated the role of chlamydiaceae, waddlia chondrophila, parachlamydia acanthamoebae and other members of the chlamydiales order in this setting. veterinary samples taken ...201424662769
subcutaneous immunization with inactivated bacterial components and purified protein of escherichia coli, fusobacterium necrophorum and trueperella pyogenes prevents puerperal metritis in holstein dairy this study we evaluate the efficacy of five vaccine formulations containing different combinations of proteins (fimh; leukotoxin, lkt; and pyolysin, plo) and/or inactivated whole cells (escherichia coli, fusobacterium necrophorum, and trueperella pyogenes) in preventing postpartum uterine diseases. inactivated whole cells were produced using two genetically distinct strains of each bacterial species (e. coli, f. necrophorum, and t. pyogenes). fimh and plo subunits were produced using recombin ...201424638139
tweak promotes peritoneal inflammation.peritoneal dialysis (pd) is complicated by peritonitis episodes that cause loss of mesothelium and eventually sclerosing peritonitis. an improved understanding of the molecular contributors to peritoneal injury and defense may increase the therapeutic armamentarium to optimize peritoneal defenses while minimizing peritoneal injury. there is no information on the expression and function of the cytokine tweak and its receptor fn14 during peritoneal injury. fn14 expression and soluble tweak levels ...201424599047
the role of crispr-cas systems in virulence of pathogenic bacteria.clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (crispr) and crispr-associated (cas) genes are present in many bacterial and archaeal genomes. since the discovery of the typical crispr loci in the 1980s, well before their physiological role was revealed, their variable sequences have been used as a complementary typing tool in diagnostic, epidemiologic, and evolutionary analyses of prokaryotic strains. the discovery that crispr spacers are often identical to sequence fragments of mobil ...201424600041
infective endocarditis in northeastern thailand.despite rigorous diagnostic testing, the cause of infective endocarditis was identified for just 60 (45.5%) of 132 patients admitted to hospitals in khon kaen, thailand, during january 2010-july 2012. most pathogens identified were viridans streptococci and zoonotic bacteria species, as found in other resource-limited countries where underlying rheumatic heart disease is common.201424572588
a case of bacteremia caused by campylobacter fetus: an unusual presentation in an infant.bacteremia due to campylobacter spp. is rarely reported, and campylobacter fetus is the species most commonly exhibiting vascular tropism, as occurred in this case report describing the diagnosis of c. fetus bacteremia in an infant presenting with respiratory tract infection. a 5-month-old baby, with undiagnosed failure to thrive, presented to the acute care service with a high fever and respiratory symptoms of 2 days duration. the initial clinical and laboratory diagnosis suggested bacteremia, ...201424596467
s-layers: principles and applications.monomolecular arrays of protein or glycoprotein subunits forming surface layers (s-layers) are one of the most commonly observed prokaryotic cell envelope components. s-layers are generally the most abundantly expressed proteins, have been observed in species of nearly every taxonomical group of walled bacteria, and represent an almost universal feature of archaeal envelopes. the isoporous lattices completely covering the cell surface provide organisms with various selection advantages including ...201424483139
first closed genome sequence of campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius.campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius is a variant of c. fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease associated with abortion and infertility in cattle. we report the first closed whole-genome sequence of this biovar.201424503995
comparative genome analysis of campylobacter fetus subspecies revealed horizontally acquired genetic elements important for virulence and niche specificity.campylobacter fetus are important animal and human pathogens and the two major subspecies differ strikingly in pathogenicity. c. fetus subsp. venerealis is highly niche-adapted, mainly infecting the genital tract of cattle. c. fetus subsp. fetus has a wider host-range, colonizing the genital- and intestinal-tract of animals and humans. we report the complete genomic sequence of c. fetus subsp. venerealis 84-112 and comparisons to the genome of c. fetus subsp. fetus 82-40. functional analysis of ...201424416416
molecular identification of clinical "difficult-to-identify" microbes from sequencing 16s ribosomal dna and internal transcribed spacer 2.clinical microbiology laboratories have to accurately identify clinical microbes. however, some isolates are difficult to identify by the automated biochemical text platforms, which are called "difficult-to-identify" microbes in this study. therefore, the ability of 16s ribosomal dna (16s rdna) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) sequencing to identify these "difficult-to-identify" bacteria and fungi was assessed in this study.201424383440
a new addition to the cell plan of anammox bacteria: "candidatus kuenenia stuttgartiensis" has a protein surface layer as the outermost layer of the cell.anammox bacteria perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and have a unique compartmentalized cell consisting of three membrane-bound compartments (from inside outwards): the anammoxosome, riboplasm, and paryphoplasm. the cell envelope of anammox bacteria has been proposed to deviate from typical bacterial cell envelopes by lacking both peptidoglycan and a typical outer membrane. however, the composition of the anammox cell envelope is presently unknown. here, we investigated the outermost ...201424142254
the role of environmental reservoirs in human campylobacteriosis.campylobacteriosis is infection caused by the bacteria campylobacter spp. and is considered a major public health concern. campylobacter spp. have been identified as one of the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis. they are typically considered a foodborne pathogen and have been shown to colonise the intestinal mucosa of all food-producing animals. much emphasis has been placed on controlling the foodborne pathway of exposure, particularly within the poultry industry, howeve ...201324217177
identification of extracellular surface-layer associated proteins in lactobacillus acidophilus ncfm.bacterial surface (s-) layers are crystalline arrays of self-assembling, proteinaceous subunits called s-layer proteins (slps), with molecular masses ranging from 40 to 200 kda. the s-layer-forming bacterium lactobacillus acidophilus ncfm expresses three major slps: slpa (46 kda), slpb (47 kda) and slpx (51 kda). slpa has a demonstrated role in adhesion to caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, and has been shown to modulate dendritic cell (dc) and t-cell functionalities with murine dcs. i ...201324002751
reduction of the abortion rate due to toxoplasma in 3 goat herds following administration of sulfadimidine.the efficacy of sulfadimidine (4 doses of 33 mg/kg body weight, im, q48h) against toxoplasma abortion was assessed in 3 dairy goat herds suffering from toxoplasma abortions during the 4th month of gestation. this protocol was very effective for the control of toxoplasma abortions (p < 0.01).201324179245
management strategies in the treatment of neonatal and pediatric gastroenteritis.acute gastroenteritis, characterized by the onset of diarrhea with or without vomiting, continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in mostly resource-constrained nations. although generally a mild and self-limiting disease, gastroenteritis is one of the most common causes of hospitalization and is associated with a substantial disease burden. worldwide, up to 40% of children aged less than 5 years with diarrhea are hospitalized with rotavirus. also, some microorganisms ...201324194646
human infections with new subspecies of campylobacter fetus.campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. is a newly proposed subspecies of c. fetus with markers of reptile origin. we summarize epidemiologic information for 9 humans infected with this bacterium. all cases were in men, most of whom were of asian origin. infection might have been related to exposure to asian foods or reptiles.201324050521
conferring the ability to utilize inorganic polyphosphate on atp-specific nad kinase.nad kinase (nadk) is a crucial enzyme for production of nadp⁺. atp-specific nadk prefers atp to inorganic polyphosphate [poly(p)] as a phosphoryl donor, whereas poly(p)/atp-nadk utilizes both atp and poly(p), and is employed in industrial mass production of nadp⁺. poly(p)/atp-nadks are distributed throughout gram-positive bacteria and archaea, whereas atp-specific nadks are found in gram-negative α- and γ-proteobacteria and eukaryotes. in this study, we succeeded in conferring the ability to uti ...201324022322
deamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine in menaquinone biosynthesis by distantly related enzymes.proteins of unknown function belonging to cog1816 and cog0402 were characterized. sav2595 from steptomyces avermitilis ma-4680, acel0264 from acidothermus cellulolyticus 11b, nis0429 from nitratiruptor sp. sb155-2 and dr0824 from deinococcus radiodurans r1 were cloned, purified, and their substrate profiles determined. these enzymes were previously incorrectly annotated as adenosine deaminases or chlorohydrolases. it was shown here that these enzymes actually deaminate 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine. th ...201323972005
pcr detection of campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in fars, iran.bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with c. fetus subsp. venerealis. reports on the presence of cfv are scarce in the cattle, in iran. therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in shiraz aba ...201325568676
enteric pathogens and reactive arthritis: a systematic review of campylobacter, salmonella and shigella-associated reactive arthritis.reactive arthritis (rea) is a spondyloarthropathic disorder characterized by inflammation of the joints and tissues occurring after gastrointestinal or genitourinary infections. diagnostic criteria for rea do not exist and, therefore, it is subject to clinical opinion resulting in cases with a wide range of symptoms and definitions. using standardized diagnostic criteria, we conducted a systematic literature review to establish the global incidence of rea for each of the three most commonly-asso ...201324288942
evaluation of luminex xtag gastrointestinal pathogen analyte-specific reagents for high-throughput, simultaneous detection of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of clinical and public health importance.acute diarrheal disease (add) can be caused by a range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, microscopy, biochemical assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), are laborious and time-consuming and lack sensitivity. combined, the array of tests performed on a single specimen can increase the turnaround time (tat) significantly. we validated a 19plex laboratory-developed gastrointestinal pathogen panel (gpp) using l ...201323850948
meningitis and endocarditis caused by campylobacter fetus after raw-liver ingestion.we report campylobacter fetus meningitis associated with endocarditis in a 75-year-old diabetic man after he consumed raw liver. c. fetus was isolated from blood samples and cerebrospinal fluid. cure was obtained with combined intravenous imipenem-gentamicin for 4 weeks; no relapse occurred after 6 months of follow-up.201323824770
comparative genomics of campylobacter concisus isolates reveals genetic diversity and provides insights into disease spite of its association with gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel diseases, the isolation of campylobacter concisus from both diseased and healthy individuals has led to controversy regarding its role as an intestinal pathogen. one proposed reason for this is the presence of high genetic diversity among the genomes of c. concisus strains.201323984967
prevalence of bovine genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis of bulls in northern nigeria.a survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis, and their concurrence with brucellosis, in cattle in three states of northern nigeria.201323927676
comprehensive genomic characterization of campylobacter genus reveals some underlying mechanisms for its genomic diversification.campylobacter species.are phenotypically diverse in many aspects including host habitats and pathogenicities, which demands comprehensive characterization of the entire campylobacter genus to study their underlying genetic diversification. up to now, 34 campylobacter strains have been sequenced and published in public databases, providing good opportunity to systemically analyze their genomic diversities. in this study, we first conducted genomic characterization, which includes genome-wide alig ...201323940551
complete genome sequence of campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius, isolated from the prepuce of a bull.campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. we report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce.201323908278
accurate identification of fastidious gram-negative rods: integration of both conventional phenotypic methods and 16s rrna gene analysis.accurate identification of fastidious gram-negative rods (gnr) by conventional phenotypic characteristics is a challenge for diagnostic microbiology. the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of molecular methods, e.g., 16s rrna gene sequence analysis for identification of fastidious gnr in the clinical microbiology laboratory.201323855986
development and application of a real-time polymerase chain reaction method for campylobacter jejuni develop a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method to detect and quantify campylobacter jejuni (c. jejuni) from stool specimens.201323716989
nif-type iron-sulfur cluster assembly system is duplicated and distributed in the mitochondria and cytosol of mastigamoeba most eukaryotes, the mitochondrion is the main organelle for the formation of iron-sulfur (fes) clusters. this function is mediated through the iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery, which was inherited from the α-proteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria. in archamoebae, including pathogenic entamoeba histolytica and free-living mastigamoeba balamuthi, the complex iron-sulfur cluster machinery has been replaced by an ε-proteobacterial nitrogen fixation (nif) system consisting of two componen ...201323589868
pelvic inflammatory disease. 201323547062
antimicrobial resistance and virulence: a successful or deleterious association in the bacterial world?hosts and bacteria have coevolved over millions of years, during which pathogenic bacteria have modified their virulence mechanisms to adapt to host defense systems. although the spread of pathogens has been hindered by the discovery and widespread use of antimicrobial agents, antimicrobial resistance has increased globally. the emergence of resistant bacteria has accelerated in recent years, mainly as a result of increased selective pressure. however, although antimicrobial resistance and bacte ...201323554414
application of a new diagnostic approach to a bovine genital campylobacteriosis outbreak in a saskatchewan beef herd.a new real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) test was used to diagnose campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis infection associated with dramatic reproductive losses in a commercial cow-calf herd. the results were verified with repeated culture, phenotypic characterization of the organism and dna sequencing. this case demonstrates the need for a practical field test for c. fetus subsp. venerealis and the importance of considering this organism as a potential cause of pregnancy fai ...201324082165
campylobacter fetus sepsis in an immunocompetent patient with haematological complication.campylobacter fetus sepsis is rare, especially among young, immunocompetent patients. we present the case of a 43-year-old man with a history of ulcerative colitis who was diagnosed with c fetus bacteraemia with endovascular manifestation. the patient was found to have a low vitamin k level and a high international normalised ratio, and developed deep vein thrombosis. the patient was fully recovered with oral antibiotic treatment, anticoagulation and supportive therapy. clinicians should be awar ...201323536648
infected pseudoaneurysm of the superficial femoral artery in a patient with salmonella enteritidis bacteremia.mycotic aneurysms, defined as irreversible dilation of an artery due to destruction of the vessel wall by infection, are rare but are associated with a high risk of rupture if not treated promptly. the case of a healthy 52-year-old smoker who presented with pyrexia, rigors, night sweats and severe right leg pain with swelling is presented. he was diagnosed with a superficial femoral artery mycotic aneurysm, with salmonella enteritidis as the causative agent. he was treated with high-dose antibio ...201324421797
rectal swabs are suitable for quantifying the carriage load of kpc-producing carbapenem-resistant is more convenient and practical to collect rectal swabs than stool specimens to study carriage of colon pathogens. in this study, we examined the ability to use rectal swabs rather than stool specimens to quantify klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc)-producing carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre). we used a quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) assay to determine the concentration of the bla(kpc) gene relative to the concentration of 16s rrna genes and a quantitative culture-based ...201323295937
an unusual cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to campylobacter fetus with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.a 40-year-old man with severe alcoholic liver cirrhosis with a 2-day history of fatigue and abdominal pain was admitted. he reported eating sushi and sliced raw chicken a few days previously. his abdomen was distended, with shifting dullness. based on the patient's history, physical examination and the results of abdominocentesis, he was diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; blood and ascitic fluid cultures were positive for campylobacter fetus. the patient was started on treatm ...201323417384
bacterial protein n-glycosylation: new perspectives and applications.protein glycosylation is widespread throughout all three domains of life. bacterial protein n-glycosylation and its application to engineering recombinant glycoproteins continue to be actively studied. here, we focus on advances made in the last 2 years, including the characterization of novel bacterial n-glycosylation pathways, examination of pathway enzymes and evolution, biological roles of protein modification in the native host, and exploitation of the n-glycosylation pathways to create nov ...201323329827
the surface layer of tannerella forsythia contributes to serum resistance and oral bacterial coaggregation.tannerella forsythia is an anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium involved in the so-called "red complex," which is associated with severe and chronic periodontitis. the surface layer (s-layer) of t. forsythia is composed of cell surface glycoproteins, such as tfsa and tfsb, and is known to play a role in adhesion/invasion and suppression of proinflammatory cytokine expression. here we investigated the association of this s-layer with serum resistance and coaggregation with other oral bacteria. the ...201323357386
cell extract-containing medium for culture of intracellular fastidious bacteria.the culture of fastidious microorganisms is a critical step in infectious disease studies. as a proof-of-concept experiment, we evaluated an empirical medium containing eukaryotic cell extracts for its ability to support the growth of coxiella burnetii. here, we demonstrate the exponential growth of several bacterial strains, including the c. burnetii nine mile phase i and phase ii strains, and c. burnetii isolates from humans and animals. low-oxygen-tension conditions and the presence of small ...201323740722
bacterial cell-envelope glycoconjugates.prokaryotic glycosylation fulfills an important role in maintaining and protecting the structural integrity and function of the bacterial cell wall, as well as serving as a flexible adaption mechanism to evade environmental and host-induced pressure. the scope of bacterial and archaeal protein glycosylation has considerably expanded over the past decade(s), with numerous examples covering the glycosylation of flagella, pili, glycosylated enzymes, as well as surface-layer proteins. this article a ...201324274370
occurrence and characteristics of fastidious campylobacteraceae species in porcine samples.this study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of campylobacteraceae including a range of fastidious species in porcine samples. over a thirteen month period caecal contents (n=402) and pork carcass swabs (n=401) were collected from three pork abattoirs and pork products (n=399) were purchased at point of sale in the republic of ireland. campylobacteraceae isolates were recovered by enrichment, membrane filtration and incubation in antibiotic free media under a modified atmosphere (3 ...201323474652
presence of campylobacter and arcobacter species in in-line milk filters of farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk and of a water buffalo dairy farm in italy.the objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of campylobacter spp. and arcobacter spp. in dairy herds authorized for the production and sale of raw milk and in a water buffalo dairy farm, and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. a total of 196 in-line milk filters were collected from 14 dairy farms (13 bovine and 1 water buffalo) for detection of campylobacter spp. and arcobacter spp. by microbiological culture. for each farm investigated, 1 isolate for each ...201323453517
complete genome sequence of campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum strain 03-427t.campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum has been isolated from reptiles and humans. this campylobacter subspecies is genetically distinct from other c. fetus subspecies. here, we present the first whole-genome sequence for this c. fetus subspecies.201324336365
the gut microbiotassay: a high-throughput qpcr approach combinable with next generation sequencing to study gut microbial diversity.the intestinal microbiota is a complex and diverse ecosystem that plays a significant role in maintaining the health and well-being of the mammalian host. during the last decade focus has increased on the importance of intestinal bacteria. several molecular methods can be applied to describe the composition of the microbiota. this study used a new approach, the gut microbiotassay: an assembly of 24 primer sets targeting the main phyla and taxonomically related subgroups of the intestinal microbi ...201324225361
updates on the web-based violin vaccine database and analysis system.the integrative vaccine investigation and online information network (violin) vaccine research database and analysis system ( curates, stores, analyses and integrates various vaccine-associated research data. since its first publication in nar in 2008, significant updates have been made. starting from 211 vaccines annotated at the end of 2007, violin now includes over 3240 vaccines for 192 infectious diseases and eight noninfectious diseases (e.g. cancers and allergies). ...201324259431
updates on the web-based violin vaccine database and analysis system.the integrative vaccine investigation and online information network (violin) vaccine research database and analysis system ( curates, stores, analyses and integrates various vaccine-associated research data. since its first publication in nar in 2008, significant updates have been made. starting from 211 vaccines annotated at the end of 2007, violin now includes over 3240 vaccines for 192 infectious diseases and eight noninfectious diseases (e.g. cancers and allergies). ...201324259431
aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with c3-monocarboxylates and c4-dicarboxylates.experiments were conducted to examine aerobic growth of campylobacter spp. in basal media supplemented with c4-dicarboxylates (fumarate, succinate, or malate) and c3-monocarboxylates (pyruvate or lactate). basal medium was supplemented with 30 mm fumarate, succinate, or malate and 0 to 100 mm lactate or pyruvate; inoculated with 10(6) cfu/ml of campylobacter coli, campylobacter fetus, or campylobacter jejuni; then incubated aerobically at 37 °c for 72 h. optical density (od) of cultures was meas ...201323575134
occurrence and molecular characterization of reptilian campylobacter fetus strains isolated in taiwan.the number of people who raise reptiles as pets has increased, but information about zoonotic campylobacter carried by reptiles is limited. a survey of zoonotic campylobacter species isolated from reptiles was undertaken to understand the possibility of this zoonotic bacterial pathogen causing human infection. a total of 179 fresh reptile fecal samples were collected from human-raised, pet shop and wild reptiles to survey the campylobacter species. basic biochemical reactions and 16s rrna gene s ...201323466328
unique features of the motility and structures in the flagellate polar region of campylobacter jejuni and other species: an electron microscopic study.similarly to helicobacter pylori but unlike vibrio cholerae o1/o139, campylobacter jejuni is non-motile at 20°c but highly motile at ≥37°c. the bacterium c. jejuni has one of the highest swimming speeds reported (>100 μm/s), especially at 42°c. straight and spiral bacterial shapes share the same motility. c. jejuni has a unique structure in the flagellate polar region, which is characterized by a cup-like structure (beneath the inner membrane), a funnel shape (opening onto the polar surface) and ...201323252968
[campylobacter fetus bacteremia complicating a dysenteric syndrome in a young epileptic].campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in elderly and immunosuppressed patients. we report an original observation of c. fetus bacteremia complicating acute mucoid diarrhea in a young epileptic with no known risk factors. our observation suggests that antiepileptic treatment could increase the risk of blood-borne of c. fetus infection.201324113445
herd-level risk factors for campylobacter fetus infection, brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern nigeria.brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in nigeria. a questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in adamawa, kaduna and kano states of northern nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for brucella antibodies using the rose-bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. preputial scrap ...201323830113
real time pcr to detect and differentiate campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis.bovine venereal campylobacter infection, caused by campylobacter fetus venerealis, is of significant economic importance to the livestock industry. unfortunately, the successful detection and discrimination of c. fetus venerealis from c. fetus fetus continue to be a limitation throughout the world. there are several publications warning of the problem with biotyping methods as well as with recent molecular based assays. in this study, assessed on 1071 isolates, we report on the successful develo ...201323811208
evaluation of molecular assays for identification campylobacter fetus species and subspecies and development of a c. fetus specific real-time pcr assay.phenotypic differentiation between campylobacter fetus (c. fetus) subspecies fetus and c. fetus subspecies venerealis is hampered by poor reliability and reproducibility of biochemical assays. aflp (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and mlst (multilocus sequence typing) are the molecular standards for c. fetus subspecies identification, but these methods are laborious and expensive. several pcr assays for c. fetus subspecies identification have been described, but a reliable comparison of ...201323810970
spatial and temporal epidemiology of bovine trichomoniasis and bovine genital campylobacteriosis in la pampa province (argentina).the venereal diseases bovine trichomoniasis (bt) and bovine genital campylobacteriosis (bcg) cause economic losses in endemic areas like la pampa province in argentina, where beef cattle are usually managed extensively. this study used data compiled under a provincial programme for the control and eradication of bt and bgc (pce) to determine the spatio-temporal distribution of these diseases and identify spatial clusters. the study population comprised 29,178 non-virgin bulls drawn from 3766 her ...201323518247
changes in rumen bacterial community composition in steers in response to dietary nitrate.the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on rumen bacterial community composition was examined in beef steers fed either a nitrate-n diet or urea-n diet. an automated method of ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis was applied to solid and liquid fractions of ruminal contents to allow comparison of bacterial communities. supplemental n source affected relative population size of four amplicon lengths (als) in the liquid fraction and three als in the solid fraction. five als were more prevale ...201323955503
chronic subdural hematoma infected by campylobacter fetus. 201323930907
[campylobacter fetus endocarditis: a case report].campylobacter are known to be a cause of enteritidic infections but campylobacter fetus is more often a cause of systemic infections, mainly in fragilized patients. we report a c. fetus endocarditis. the prognosis seemstobe improved by a prolonged betalactam antibiotic treatment.201323906576
isolation rates of campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis from bovine preputial samples via passive filtration on nonselective medium versus selective medium, with and without transport compare the recovery rates of campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis (cfv) from preputial scrapings of infected bulls with passive filtration on selective medium versus nonselective medium, with and without transport medium.201323879843
modeling the surface of campylobacter fetus: protein surface layer stability and resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides.campylobacter fetus is a gram negative bacterium recognized for its virulence in animals and humans. this bacterium possesses a paracrystalline array of high molecular weight proteins known as surface-layer proteins covering its cell surface. a mathematical model has been made of the outer membrane of this bacterium, both with its surface-layer proteins (s+) and without (s-). monte carlo computer simulation was used to understand the stability of the surface-layer protein structure as a function ...201323122778
[vascular manifestations due to campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus infection: report of two cases].campylobacter fetus is a rare gram-negative bacteria affecting especially elderly and immunocompromised patients, and that is responsible of vascular and cutaneous involvement.201222995567
campylobacter fetus subspecies: comparative genomics and prediction of potential virulence targets.the genus campylobacter contains pathogens causing a wide range of diseases, targeting both humans and animals. among them, the campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis deserve special attention, as they are the etiological agents of human bacterial gastroenteritis and bovine genital campylobacteriosis, respectively. we compare the whole genomes of both subspecies to get insights into genomic architecture, phylogenetic relationships, genome conservation and core virulence factors. pan ...201222890137
identification of antigenic epitopes of the sapa protein of campylobacter fetus using a phage display peptide this study, we immunized mice with prokaryotically expressed recombinant surface layer protein, sapa, of campylobacter fetus, generated hybridomas secreting mouse monoclonal antibodies (mab) targeting sapa, and purified the mab a2d5 from mouse ascites using saturated ammonium sulfate solution. the mab a2d5, coated onto elisa plates, was used to screen the phage random 12-peptide library through three rounds of panning. following panning, 15 phage clones were randomly chosen and tested for rea ...201222424885
the prevalence of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis in cattle herds in the lake chad basin of nigeria.the prevalence of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis (bvc) was investigated in the lake chad basin of nigeria. preputial washings and cervico-vaginal mucus samples were obtained from 270 cattle presenting a history of abortion and lowered fertility, kept in traditional and institutional farms. all the samples investigated were cultured using standard bacteriological technique. campylobacter fetus was isolated from six bulls and four cows. in all cattle sampled, the isolation rates were 2.2% for ...201222318768
campylobacter fetus infection in three rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with rituximab. 201222302315
pheochromocytoma crisis caused by campylobacter fetus.pheochromocytoma crisis is a life-threatening endocrine emergency associated with symptoms of excess release of catecholamines. it might present spontaneously or be unmasked by triggers including trauma, surgery and certain medications that provoke catecholamine release by tumors. here we report a case of pheochromocytoma crisis associated with abscess formation in the tumor and bacteremia of campylobacter fetus, which was successfully treated with antibiotics and a surgical resection. this case ...201222221008
bacteremia caused by antimicrobial resistant campylobacter species at a medical center in taiwan, 1998-2008.this study was intended to delineate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by campylobacter species.201222771419
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