PMID(sorted ascending)
infected pseudoaneurysm of the superficial femoral artery in a patient with salmonella enteritidis bacteremia.mycotic aneurysms, defined as irreversible dilation of an artery due to destruction of the vessel wall by infection, are rare but are associated with a high risk of rupture if not treated promptly. the case of a healthy 52-year-old smoker who presented with pyrexia, rigors, night sweats and severe right leg pain with swelling is presented. he was diagnosed with a superficial femoral artery mycotic aneurysm, with salmonella enteritidis as the causative agent. he was treated with high-dose antibio ...201324421797
identification and characterization of an invasion antigen b gene from the oral pathogen campylobacter rectus.the oral bacterium, campylobacter rectus, is an etiological agent of periodontitis. the virulence genes of c. rectus are largely unknown. the aim of this study was to query c. rectus for the presence of an invasion antigen b (ciab) gene, which is needed for cell invasion by the related species campylobacter jejuni. pcr and pcr-walking identified a ciab from c. rectus. in silico analyses of c. rectus 314 ciab (cr-ciab) revealed an orf of 1,830 base pairs. the cr-ciab protein shared significant se ...201424426164
identification and characterization of an invasion antigen b gene from the oral pathogen campylobacter rectus.the oral bacterium, campylobacter rectus, is an etiological agent of periodontitis. the virulence genes of c. rectus are largely unknown. the aim of this study was to query c. rectus for the presence of an invasion antigen b (ciab) gene, which is needed for cell invasion by the related species campylobacter jejuni. pcr and pcr-walking identified a ciab from c. rectus. in silico analyses of c. rectus 314 ciab (cr-ciab) revealed an orf of 1,830 base pairs. the cr-ciab protein shared significant se ...201424426164
epithelial and stromal cells of bovine endometrium have roles in innate immunity and initiate inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopeptides in vitro via toll-like receptors tlr2, tlr1, and tlr6.bacteria often infect the endometrium of cattle to cause endometritis, uterine disease, and infertility. lipopeptides are commonly found among bacteria and are detected by the toll-like receptor (tlr) cell surface receptor tlr2 on immune cells. heterodimers of tlr2 with tlr1 or tlr6 activate mapk and nuclear factor-κb intracellular signaling pathways to stimulate inflammatory responses. in the endometrium, epithelial and stromal cells are the first to encounter invading bacteria, so the present ...201424437488
s-layers: principles and applications.monomolecular arrays of protein or glycoprotein subunits forming surface layers (s-layers) are one of the most commonly observed prokaryotic cell envelope components. s-layers are generally the most abundantly expressed proteins, have been observed in species of nearly every taxonomical group of walled bacteria, and represent an almost universal feature of archaeal envelopes. the isoporous lattices completely covering the cell surface provide organisms with various selection advantages including ...201424483139
biological roles of the o-methyl phosphoramidate capsule modification in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and the capsular polysaccharide (cps) of this organism is required for persistence and disease. c. jejuni produces over 47 different capsular structures, including a unique o-methyl phosphoramidate (meopn) modification present on most c. jejuni isolates. although the meopn structure is rare in nature it has structural similarity to some synthetic pesticides. in this study, we have demonstrated, by whole genome comparis ...201424498018
the dynamic nature of genomes across the tree of life.genomes are dynamic in lineages across the tree of life. among bacteria and archaea, for example, dna content varies throughout life cycles, and nonbinary cell division in diverse lineages indicates the need for coordination of the inheritance of genomes. these observations contrast with the textbook view that bacterial and archaeal genomes are monoploid (i.e., single copied) and fixed both within species and throughout an individual's lifetime. here, we synthesize information on three aspects o ...201424500971
first closed genome sequence of campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius.campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. intermedius is a variant of c. fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease associated with abortion and infertility in cattle. we report the first closed whole-genome sequence of this biovar.201424503995
vibrio fetus infection in sheep. 196124546570
campylobacter fetus infections in humans: exposure and disease.campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. outbreaks are infrequent but have provided insight into sources. source attribution of sporadic cases through case-control interviews has not been reported. the reservoirs for c. fetus are mainly cattle and sheep. products from these animals are ...201424550377
infective endocarditis in northeastern thailand.despite rigorous diagnostic testing, the cause of infective endocarditis was identified for just 60 (45.5%) of 132 patients admitted to hospitals in khon kaen, thailand, during january 2010-july 2012. most pathogens identified were viridans streptococci and zoonotic bacteria species, as found in other resource-limited countries where underlying rheumatic heart disease is common.201424572588
pregnancy rates of beef cattle are not affected by campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis real-time pcr-positive breeding sires in new zealand.campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis (c. fetus venerealis) is the causal agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease that is asymptomatic in bulls but responsible for reproductive wastage in female cattle. in new zealand, a commercial real-time pcr assay was introduced in 2007 to identify the dna of this pathogen in preputial scrapings; however, concerns were raised about the specificity of the test following anecdotal reports of a high number of test-positive bulls with ...201424580097
a case of bacteremia caused by campylobacter fetus: an unusual presentation in an infant.bacteremia due to campylobacter spp. is rarely reported, and campylobacter fetus is the species most commonly exhibiting vascular tropism, as occurred in this case report describing the diagnosis of c. fetus bacteremia in an infant presenting with respiratory tract infection. a 5-month-old baby, with undiagnosed failure to thrive, presented to the acute care service with a high fever and respiratory symptoms of 2 days duration. the initial clinical and laboratory diagnosis suggested bacteremia, ...201424596467
tweak promotes peritoneal inflammation.peritoneal dialysis (pd) is complicated by peritonitis episodes that cause loss of mesothelium and eventually sclerosing peritonitis. an improved understanding of the molecular contributors to peritoneal injury and defense may increase the therapeutic armamentarium to optimize peritoneal defenses while minimizing peritoneal injury. there is no information on the expression and function of the cytokine tweak and its receptor fn14 during peritoneal injury. fn14 expression and soluble tweak levels ...201424599047
the role of crispr-cas systems in virulence of pathogenic bacteria.clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (crispr) and crispr-associated (cas) genes are present in many bacterial and archaeal genomes. since the discovery of the typical crispr loci in the 1980s, well before their physiological role was revealed, their variable sequences have been used as a complementary typing tool in diagnostic, epidemiologic, and evolutionary analyses of prokaryotic strains. the discovery that crispr spacers are often identical to sequence fragments of mobil ...201424600041
putative mechanisms and biological role of coccoid form formation in campylobacter certain conditions campylobacter jejuni cells are capable of changing their cell shape from a typically spiral to a coccoid form (cf). by similarity to other bacteria, the latter was initially considered to be a viable but non-culturable form capable of survival in unfavourable conditions. however, subsequent studies with c. jejuni and closely related bacteria helicobacter pylori suggested that cf represents a non-viable, degenerative form. until now, the issue on whether the cf of c. jejuni ...201224611120
so close and yet so far - molecular microbiology of campylobacter fetus subspecies.campylobacter fetus comprises two subspecies, c. fetus subsp. fetus and c. fetus subsp. venerealis, which are considered emerging pathogens in humans and animals. comparisons at the genome level have revealed modest subspecies-specific variation; nevertheless, these two subspecies show distinct host and niche preferences. c. fetus subsp. fetus is a commensal and pathogen of domesticated animals that can be transmitted to humans via contaminated food. the clinical features of human infection can ...201224611123
campylobacter bacteremia: a rare and under-reported event?bacteria belonging to the species campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. the clinical phenotype associated with campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. in susceptible patients, campylobacter infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with both host factors and bacterial factors being involved in the pathogenesis of bacteremia. in the host, age, gender and immune-compromising conditi ...201224611124
campylobacter fetus infections.campylobacter fetus infections usually occur in immunodepressed patients or patients presenting with diabetes mellitus or cancer. they rarely cause diarrhea but frequently cause bacteremia or vascular diseases. the therapeutic management is not well codified and fluoroquinolone resistance is continuously increasing.201424637053
subcutaneous immunization with inactivated bacterial components and purified protein of escherichia coli, fusobacterium necrophorum and trueperella pyogenes prevents puerperal metritis in holstein dairy this study we evaluate the efficacy of five vaccine formulations containing different combinations of proteins (fimh; leukotoxin, lkt; and pyolysin, plo) and/or inactivated whole cells (escherichia coli, fusobacterium necrophorum, and trueperella pyogenes) in preventing postpartum uterine diseases. inactivated whole cells were produced using two genetically distinct strains of each bacterial species (e. coli, f. necrophorum, and t. pyogenes). fimh and plo subunits were produced using recombin ...201424638139
genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion in the united states and great britain.campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. historically, genetically diverse campylobacter fetus and campylobacter jejuni strains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant c. jejuni clone (named sa) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the united states. whether clone sa was present in earlier u.s. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the united state ...201424648552
survey of infectious etiologies of bovine abortion during mid- to late gestation in dairy herds.bovine abortion of unknown infectious etiology still remains a major economic problem. thus, we investigated whether brucella spp., listeria monocytogenes, salmonella spp., campylobacter spp. and coxiella burnetii are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in tunisian dairy cattle. using a pan-chlamydiales pcr, we also investigated the role of chlamydiaceae, waddlia chondrophila, parachlamydia acanthamoebae and other members of the chlamydiales order in this setting. veterinary samples taken ...201424662769
a multiplex pcr/ldr assay for simultaneous detection and identification of the niaid category b bacterial food and water-borne pathogens.enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis remain a major global health concern. the goal of this study was to develop a multiplex pcr/ligation detection reaction (ldr) assay for the detection of all niaid category b bacterial food and water-borne pathogens directly from stool specimens. to validate the pcr/ldr assay, clinical isolates of campylobacter spp., vibrio spp., shigella spp., salmonella spp., listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheagenic escherichia coli were tes ...201424709368
annotation of protein domains reveals remarkable conservation in the functional make up of proteomes across superkingdoms.the functional repertoire of a cell is largely embodied in its proteome, the collection of proteins encoded in the genome of an organism. the molecular functions of proteins are the direct consequence of their structure and structure can be inferred from sequence using hidden markov models of structural recognition. here we analyze the functional annotation of protein domain structures in almost a thousand sequenced genomes, exploring the functional and structural diversity of proteomes. we find ...201124710297
campylobacter fetus bacteremia with purulent pleurisy in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.a 24-year-old man presented with fever and pleural effusion predominantly containing lymphocytes. cultures of the pleural effusion and blood revealed campylobacter fetus, and laboratory studies showed a low serum level of immunoglobulin. the patient was diagnosed with c. fetus pleuritis, bacteremia and primary hypogammaglobulinemia, and subsequent treatment with meropenem and immunoglobulin improved his condition. although the underlying cause of the primary hypogammaglobulinemia remains unclear ...201424881753
campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles.a polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 campylobacter fetus-like strains from humans (n = 8) and reptiles (n = 5). the results of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (maldi-tof) ms and genomic data from sap analysis, 16s rrna gene and hsp60 sequence comparison, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, dna-dna hybridization and whole genome sequencing demonstrated that these strains are closely re ...201424899653
mycotic popliteal aneurysm rupture secondary to campylobacter fetus.mycotic aneurysms of the popliteal artery are uncommon. popliteal aneurysms rarely rupture. the authors present the second reported case of popliteal artery rupture as a result of campylobacter fetus infection. this report confirms the arterial destructive potential of c. fetus infection in a peripheral artery.201524930978
conserved evolutionary units in the heme-copper oxidase superfamily revealed by novel homologous protein families.the heme-copper oxidase (hco) superfamily includes hcos in aerobic respiratory chains and nitric oxide reductases (nors) in the denitrification pathway. the hco/nor catalytic subunit has a core structure consisting of 12 transmembrane helices (tmhs) arranged in three-fold rotational pseudosymmetry, with six conserved histidines for heme and metal binding. using sensitive sequence similarity searches, we detected a number of novel hco/nor homologs and named them hco homology (hcoh) proteins. seve ...201424931479
association between proton pump inhibitor use and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites.there are data suggesting a link between proton pump inhibitor (ppi) use and the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (sbp) in cirrhotic patients with ascites; however, these data are controversial.201424945188
occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal campylobacter, arcobacter, and helicobacter in reptiles.campylobacter, arcobacter, and helicobacter species have been isolated from many vertebrate hosts, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. multiple studies have focused on the prevalence of these epsilonproteobacteria genera in avian and mammalian species. however, little focus has been given to the presence within reptiles, and their potential zoonotic and pathogenic roles. in this study, occurrence, diversity, and host association of intestinal epsilonproteobacteria were determined for a large ...201424988130
mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by campylobacter fetus: a case report and literature review.campylobacter spp. usually cause gastrointestinal infections, but among them, campylobacter fetus is a well-known organism causing mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm (maaa), which requires proper surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy. we report a 65-year-old man who was successfully treated by an in situ operation using a rifampicin (rfp)-bonded j-graft for c. fetus-induced maaa. we performed a review of the english literature on maaa caused by c. fetus and summarized the results of the ca ...201425017776
microbial typing by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: do we need guidance for data interpretation?the integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) in clinical microbiology has revolutionized species identification of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. however, beyond straightforward identification, the method has also been suggested to have the potential for subspecies-level or even type-level epidemiological analyses. this minireview explores maldi-tof ms-based typing, which has already been performed on many clinically relevant specie ...201425056329
microbial typing by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: do we need guidance for data interpretation?the integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) in clinical microbiology has revolutionized species identification of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. however, beyond straightforward identification, the method has also been suggested to have the potential for subspecies-level or even type-level epidemiological analyses. this minireview explores maldi-tof ms-based typing, which has already been performed on many clinically relevant specie ...201425056329
detection, identification and quantification of campylobacter jejuni, coli and lari in food matrices all at once using multiplex qpcr.thermotolerant campylobacter jejuni, coli and lari are recognized as leading food-borne pathogens causing an acute bacterial enteritis worldwide. due to narrow spectrum of their biochemical activity, it is very complicated to distinguish between individual species. for reliable risk assessment, proper incidence evaluation or swift sample analysis regarding individual species, a demand for simple and rapid method for their distinguishing is reasonable. in this study, we evaluated a reliable and s ...201425057300
ultrastructure and complex polar architecture of the human pathogen campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is one of the most successful food-borne human pathogens. here we use electron cryotomography to explore the ultrastructure of c. jejuni cells in logarithmically growing cultures. this provides the first look at this pathogen in a near-native state at macromolecular resolution (~5 nm). we find a surprisingly complex polar architecture that includes ribosome exclusion zones, polyphosphate storage granules, extensive collar-shaped chemoreceptor arrays, and elaborate flagellar ...201425065852
campylobacter fetus bacteremia in an immunocompetent traveler.campylobacter fetus bacteremia is a rare human infection that occurs almost exclusively in the setting of advanced age, immunosuppression, human immunodeficiency virus infection, alcoholism, or recent gastrointestinal surgery. this report of c. fetus bacteremia in a 39-year-old immunocompetent traveler who ate raw beef identifies c. fetus as a potential emerging pathogen in normal hosts.201425071002
neurological disorders and inflammatory bowel diseases.extraintestinal manifestations occur in about one-third of patients living with inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) and may precede the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms by many years. neurologic disorders associated with ibd are not frequent, being reported in 3% of patients, but they often represent an important cause of morbidity and a relevant diagnostic issue. in addition, the increasing use of immunosuppressant and biological therapies for ibd may also play a pivotal role in the development ...201425083051
a quantitative prioritisation of human and domestic animal pathogens in europe.disease or pathogen risk prioritisations aid understanding of infectious agent impact within surveillance or mitigation and biosecurity work, but take significant development. previous work has shown the h-(hirsch-)index as an alternative proxy. we present a weighted risk analysis describing infectious pathogen impact for human health (human pathogens) and well-being (domestic animal pathogens) using an objective, evidence-based, repeatable approach; the h-index. this study established the highe ...201425136810
complete genome sequence of campylobacter iguaniorum strain 1485et, isolated from a bearded dragon (pogona vitticeps).campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. this campylobacter species is genetically related to campylobacter fetus and campylobacter hyointestinalis. here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species.201425146144
novel microbiological and spatial statistical methods to improve strength of epidemiological evidence in a community-wide waterborne outbreak.failures in the drinking water distribution system cause gastrointestinal outbreaks with multiple pathogens. a water distribution pipe breakage caused a community-wide waterborne outbreak in vuorela, finland, july 2012. we investigated this outbreak with advanced epidemiological and microbiological methods. a total of 473/2931 inhabitants (16%) responded to a web-based questionnaire. water and patient samples were subjected to analysis of multiple microbial targets, molecular typing and microbia ...201425147923
clinical sensitivity and specificity of a real-time pcr assay for campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis in preputial samples from determine clinical sensitivity and specificity of a quantitative real-time pcr (qrt-pcr) assay for campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis (cfv) in preputial samples of bulls.201425157889
efficient routes toward the synthesis of the d-rhamno-trisaccharide related to the a-band polysaccharide of pseudomonas aeruginosa.the present work describes efficient avenues for the synthesis of the trisaccharide repeating unit [α-d-rhap-(1→3)-α-d-rhap-(1→3)-α-d-rhap] associated with the a-band polysaccharide of pseudomonas aeruginosa. one of the key steps involved 6-o-deoxygenation of either partially or fully acylated 4,6-o-benzylidene-1-thiomannopyranoside by radical-mediated redox rearrangement in high yields and regioselectivity. the d-rhamno-thioglycosides so obtained allowed efficient access to the trisaccharide ta ...201425161705
evolution and comparative genomics of campylobacter jejuni st-677 clonal complex.campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis in the european union with over 200,000 laboratory-confirmed cases reported annually. this is the first study to describe findings related to comparative genomics analyses of the sequence type (st)-677 clonal complex (cc), a campylobacter jejuni lineage associated with bacteremia cases in humans. we performed whole-genome sequencing, using illumina hiseq sequencing technology, on five related st-677 cc isolates from two chicken ...201425193305
genomic evidence for the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences in the genus campylobacter.the genus campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. in this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species campylobacter sp ...201425193310
inconsistency of phenotypic and genomic characteristics of campylobacter fetus subspecies requires reevaluation of current diagnostics.classifications of the campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis were first described in 1959 and were based on the source of isolation (intestinal versus genital) and the ability of the strains to proliferate in the genital tract of cows. two phenotypic assays (1% glycine tolerance and h2s production) were described to differentiate the subspecies. multiple molecular assays have been applied to differentiate the c. fetus subspecies, but none of these tests is consistent with the pheno ...201425232170
draft genome sequences of campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis strain b6 and bv. intermedius strain 642-21.campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is an important venereal pathogen. we sequenced the genomes of campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis strain b6 and bv. intermedius strain 642-21. the genetic variability of these australian strains will facilitate the study of mechanisms of geographical adaptation of these pathogens that impact livestock.201425278524
dielectrophoretic monitoring and interstrain separation of intact clostridium difficile based on their s(surface)-layers.clostridium difficile (c. difficile) infection (cdi) rates have exhibited a steady rise worldwide over the last two decades and the infection poses a global threat due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains. interstrain antagonistic interactions across the host microbiome form an important strategy for controlling the emergence of cdi. the current diagnosis method for cdi, based on immunoassays for toxins produced by pathogenic c. difficile strains, is limited by false negatives due to ...201425343746
from deep-sea volcanoes to human pathogens: a conserved quorum-sensing signal in epsilonproteobacteria.chemosynthetic epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents colonize substrates exposed to steep thermal and redox gradients. in many bacteria, substrate attachment, biofilm formation, expression of virulence genes and host colonization are partly controlled via a cell density-dependent mechanism involving signal molecules, known as quorum sensing. within the epsilonproteobacteria, quorum sensing has been investigated only in human pathogens that use the luxs/autoinducer-2 (ai-2) mecha ...201425397946
from deep-sea volcanoes to human pathogens: a conserved quorum-sensing signal in epsilonproteobacteria.chemosynthetic epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents colonize substrates exposed to steep thermal and redox gradients. in many bacteria, substrate attachment, biofilm formation, expression of virulence genes and host colonization are partly controlled via a cell density-dependent mechanism involving signal molecules, known as quorum sensing. within the epsilonproteobacteria, quorum sensing has been investigated only in human pathogens that use the luxs/autoinducer-2 (ai-2) mecha ...201425397946
diagnosis and management of venereal campylobacteriosis in beef cattle.bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is caused by campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and its glycerine-tolerant variant campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovars intermedius. the disease can be economically important when present in cattle herds, causing poor reproductive performance, embryo mortality and abortion. sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are required in the diagnosis of infection and to inform and monitor disease control. current tests include bacterial culture and fluoresc ...201425428802
intergenomic comparisons highlight modularity of the denitrification pathway and underpin the importance of community structure for n2o emissions.nitrous oxide (n2o) is a potent greenhouse gas and the predominant ozone depleting substance. the only enzyme known to reduce n2o is the nitrous oxide reductase, encoded by the nosz gene, which is present among bacteria and archaea capable of either complete denitrification or only n2o reduction to di-nitrogen gas. to determine whether the occurrence of nosz, being a proxy for the trait n2o reduction, differed among taxonomic groups, preferred habitats or organisms having either nirk or nirs nit ...201425436772
campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis adhesion to mdbk cells. 201425444136
extraintestinal campylobacteriosis in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).two cases of clinical disease associated with extraintestinal campylobacter infection were recently encountered in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta). the first case was that of a 3-y-old, male, rhesus macaque experimentally infected with siv, who presented with abdominal pain and a midabdominal mass and was euthanized. pathology findings included an abscess within the median liver lobe, fibrinopurulent peritonitis, and intestinal serositis with isolation of campylobacter fetus from the blood, liv ...201425527031
laboratory diagnosis of bacterial gastroenteritis.bacterial gastroenteritis is a disease that is pervasive in both the developing and developed worlds. while for the most part bacterial gastroenteritis is self-limiting, identification of an etiological agent by bacterial stool culture is required for the management of patients with severe or prolonged diarrhea, symptoms consistent with invasive disease, or a history that may predict a complicated course of disease. importantly, characterization of bacterial enteropathogens from stool cultures i ...201525567220
the rebirth of culture in microbiology through the example of culturomics to study human gut microbiota.bacterial culture was the first method used to describe the human microbiota, but this method is considered outdated by many researchers. metagenomics studies have since been applied to clinical microbiology; however, a "dark matter" of prokaryotes, which corresponds to a hole in our knowledge and includes minority bacterial populations, is not elucidated by these studies. by replicating the natural environment, environmental microbiologists were the first to reduce the "great plate count anomal ...201525567229
pcr detection of campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis in smegma samples collected from dairy cattle in fars, iran.bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (cfv), is regarded as one of the major threats to the cattle industry around the world. abortion and infertility are two important reproductive problems in cows infected with c. fetus subsp. venerealis. reports on the presence of cfv are scarce in the cattle, in iran. therefore, the present study was designed to examine the presence of cfv in the reproductive tract of dairy cattle either slaughtered in shiraz aba ...201325568676
campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.during sampling of reptiles for members of the class epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, pcr and 16s rrna sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to campylobacter fetus and campylobacter hyointestinalis. a polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. ...201525574036
evaluation and histological examination of a campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis small animal infection model.bovine genital campylobacteriosis (bgc), caused by campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, is associated with production losses in cattle worldwide. this study aimed to develop a reliable bgc guinea pig model to facilitate future studies of pathogenicity, abortion mechanisms and vaccine efficacy. seven groups of five pregnant guinea pigs (1 control per group) were inoculated with one of three strains via intra-peritoneal (ip) or intra-vaginal routes. samples were examined using culture, pcr and h ...201525599935
brucellosis, genital campylobacteriosis and other factors affecting calving rate of cattle in three states of northern nigeria.reproductive diseases limit the productivity of cattle worldwide and represent an important obstacle to profitable cattle enterprise. in this study, herd brucellosis and bovine genital campylobacteriosis (bgc) status, and demographic and management variables were determined and related to predicted calving rate (prcr) of cattle herds in adamawa, kaduna and kano states, nigeria. serum samples, preputial scrapings, questionnaire data, trans-rectal palpation and farm records were used from 271 herd ...201525601264
retraction for dinant et al., aortic homograft endocarditis caused by campylobacter jejuni. 201525617446
the susceptibility of campylobacter concisus to the bactericidal effects of normal human serum.campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract that has been associated with barrett's oesophagus, enteritis and inflammatory bowel disease. despite having invasive potential in intestinal epithelial cells in-vitro, bacteraemic cases with c. concisus are extremely scarce, having only been reported once. therefore, we conducted a serum resistance assay to investigate the bactericidal effects of human complement on c. concisus in comparison to some other campylobacter ...201525627875
prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine genital campylobacteriosis and bovine trichomonosis in the state of pernambuco, brazil.the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and tritrichomonas foetus infection in cows from dairy herds in the state of pernambuco, brazil. in total, 383 samples of cervico-vaginal mucus were collected from cows on 21 herds in 19 districts. genomic dna was extracted from the samples and submitted for polymerase chain reaction analysis. an investigative questionnaire was used to analyze the risk factors, usin ...201525633914
prospective comparison of infective endocarditis in khon kaen, thailand and rennes, france.prospectively collected, contemporary data are lacking on how the features of infective endocarditis (ie) vary according to region. we, therefore, compared ie in rennes, france and khon kaen, thailand. fifty-eight patients with confirmed ie were enrolled at each site during 2011 and 2012 using a common protocol. compared with french patients, thais had a lower median age (47 versus 70 years old; p < 0.001) and reported more animal contact (86% versus 21%; p < 0.001). there were more zoonotic inf ...201525646262
complete genome sequence of campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum strain pet-3, isolated from a lizard (hydrosaurus pustulatus).the whole-genome sequence for campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum, a pathogen isolated from humans and turtles, has been reported recently. we present another completed genome sequence of the c. fetus subsp. testudinum strain pet-3, which was isolated from a lizard in taiwan, for further genomic comparison study.201525700400
identification of novel vaccine candidates against acinetobacter baumannii using reverse vaccinology.acinetobacter baumannii (ab) is a global emerging bacterium causing nosocomial infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia and soft tissue infections especially in intensive care units. since ab is resistant to almost all conventional antibiotics, it is now one of the 6 top-priorities of the dangerous microorganisms listed by the infectious disease society of america. the development of vaccine is one of the most promising and cost-effective strategies to prevent infections. in this stu ...201525751377
chronic subdural hematoma infected by propionibacterium acnes: a case report.we present a very rare case of a patient with an infected subdural hematoma due to propionibacterium acnes. a 63-year-old male complained of dizziness and was admitted to our hospital. he had a history of left chronic subdural hematoma due to a traffic accident, which had been conservatively treated. physical, neurological and laboratory examinations revealed no definite abnormality. plain ct scan demonstrated a hypodense crescentic fluid collection over the surface of the left cerebral hemisphe ...201525759659
improving survival and storage stability of bacteria recalcitrant to freeze-drying: a coordinated study by european culture collections.the objective of this study is to improve the viability after freeze-drying and during storage of delicate or recalcitrant strains safeguarded at biological resource centers. to achieve this objective, a joint experimental strategy was established among the different involved partner collections of the embarc project ( ). five bacterial strains considered as recalcitrant to freeze-drying were subjected to a standardized freeze-drying protocol and to seven agreed protocol variants. ...201525773973
a rural worker infected with a bovine-prevalent genotype of campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus supports zoonotic transmission and inconsistency of mlst and whole-genome typing.whole-genome characterisation in clinical microbiology enables to detect trends in infection dynamics and disease transmission. here, we report a case of bacteraemia due to campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in a rural worker under cancer treatment that was diagnosed with cellulitis; the patient was treated with antibiotics and recovered. the routine typing methods were not able to identify the microorganism causing the infection, so it was further analysed by molecular methods and whole-genome se ...201525920493
targeting surface-layer proteins with single-domain antibodies: a potential therapeutic approach against clostridium difficile-associated disease.clostridium difficile is a leading cause of death from gastrointestinal infections in north america. antibiotic therapy is effective, but the high incidence of relapse and the rise in hypervirulent strains warrant the search for novel treatments. surface layer proteins (slps) cover the entire c. difficile bacterial surface, are composed of high-molecular-weight (hmw) and low-molecular-weight (lmw) subunits, and mediate adherence to host cells. passive and active immunization against slps has enh ...201525936376
a novel microbial source tracking microarray for pathogen detection and fecal source identification in environmental systems.pathogen detection and the identification of fecal contamination sources are challenging in environmental waters. factors including pathogen diversity and ubiquity of fecal indicator bacteria hamper risk assessment and remediation of contamination sources. a custom microarray targeting pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa), microbial source tracking (mst) markers, and antibiotic resistance genes was tested against dna obtained from whole genome amplification (wga) of rna and dna from sewage an ...201525970344
re: mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by campylobacter fetus: a case report and literature review. 201526009476
phylogenetic analysis of bacterial communities in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of agkistrodon piscivorus, the cottonmouth snake.vertebrates are metagenomic organisms in that they are composed not only of their own genes but also those of their associated microbial cells. the majority of these associated microorganisms are found in the gastrointestinal tract (git) and presumably assist in processes such as energy and nutrient acquisition. few studies have investigated the associated gut bacterial communities of non-mammalian vertebrates, and most rely on captive animals and/or fecal samples only. here we investigate the g ...201526039313
global epidemiology of campylobacter infection.campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. the incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. the dramatic increase in north america, europe, and australia is alarming, and data from parts of africa, asia, and the middle east indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. in addition to c. jejuni, there is increasing rec ...201526062576
low serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin level as a marker of malnutrition in maintenance hemodialysis patients.neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (ngal or lcn2) is an iron-transporting factor which possesses various activities such as amelioration of kidney injury and host defense against pathogens. its circulating concentrations are elevated in acute and chronic kidney diseases and show a positive correlation with poor renal outcome and mortality, but its clinical significance in maintenance hemodialysis (hd) patients remains elusive.201526161663
[efficiency of bacteriological culture and the immunofluorescent assay to detect campylobacter fetus in bovine genital fluids].bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a reproductive disease that affects cattle production. it is caused by campylobacter fetus subspecies, c. fetus fetus (cff) and c. fetus venerealis (cfv). the aim of this study was to identify the presence of c. fetus in genital fluids by bacteriological culture and direct immunofluorescence (dif) and to compare the results. two groups of 6 heifers and 5 bulls, one infected with cff (cff group) and the other with cfv (cfv group) were formed. two heifers and 2 ...201526187267
effects of nitrate addition on rumen fermentation, bacterial biodiversity and abundance.this study examined changes of rumen fermentation, ruminal bacteria biodiversity and abundance caused by nitrate addition with ion torrent sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction. three rumen-fistulated steers were fed diets supplemented with 0%, 1%, and 2% nitrate (dry matter %) in succession. nitrate supplementation linearly increased total volatile fatty acids and acetate concentration obviously (p = 0.02; p = 0.02; p<0.01), butyrate and isovalerate concentration numerically (p = 0 ...201526194220
infective internal iliac artery aneurysm caused by campylobacter fetus.a 67-year-old man with a persistent high fever was diagnosed to have an infective aneurysm in his left internal iliac artery. a blood culture detected a gram-negative spiral rod that was first identified as campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis based on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) analysis. however, the strain was finally confirmed to be campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus based on a genetic analysis. the infection was successfully t ...201526278295
evolution of the selenoproteome in helicobacter pylori and competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. although the h. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (sela, hp1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (plp)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. we analyzed the evol ...201526342139
infectious reproductive disease pathogens in dairy herd bulls.investigate the presence of infectious reproductive disease pathogens in dairy herd bulls in south-west victoria, australia, using a cross-sectional study.201526412115
a phase-variable surface layer from the gut symbiont bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.the capsule from bacteroides, a common gut symbiont, has long been a model system for studying the molecular mechanisms of host-symbiont interactions. the bacteroides capsule is thought to consist of an array of phase-variable polysaccharides that give rise to subpopulations with distinct cell surface structures. here, we report the serendipitous discovery of a previously unknown surface structure in bacteroides thetaiotaomicron: a surface layer composed of a protein of unknown function, bt1927. ...201526419879
[bloodstream infection due to campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and skin involvement: a case series of three patients].among the species of campylobacter, c. fetus subspecies fetus is characterized by extra-intestinal manifestations, including bloodstream and cardiovascular infections, occurring preferentially in the context of immunosuppression. the cutaneous lesions are rarely described but may be underestimated.201626427559
draft genome sequence of campylobacter fetus mmm01, isolated from a chronic kidney disease patient with sepsis.campylobacter fetus is a gram-negative bacterium that has caused several cases of human and animal disease. here, we report the draft genome sequence of c. fetus mmm01, isolated from the blood of a 60-year-old patient with type ii diabetes and chronic kidney disease. the sequence has a total length of 1,740,393 bp and an average g+c content of 33.1%. the availability of the draft genome sequence of c. fetus mmm01 isolated from a case of chronic kidney disease will contribute to a better understa ...201526450717
milk modulates campylobacter invasion into caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells.raw milk is a recognized source of campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of campylobacteriosis. whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. however, in relation to campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of campylob ...201526495128
eucast recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing applied to the three main campylobacter species isolated in humans.antimicrobial susceptibility testing of campylobacter isolates is of great importance for treatment options especially in systemic diseases. the european committee for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (eucast) recently proposed epidemiological cut-offs (ecoffs) for a limited number of antimicrobial compounds and for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli only. in the present study, the eucast method was used after minor modifications to define antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for, ...201526519770
structural brain lesions in inflammatory bowel disease.central nervous system (cns) complications or manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease deserve particular attention because symptomatic conditions can require early diagnosis and treatment, whereas unexplained manifestations might be linked with pathogenic mechanisms. this review focuses on both symptomatic and asymptomatic brain lesions detectable on imaging studies, as well as their frequency and potential mechanisms. a direct causal relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) an ...201526600970
characterization of the vaginal microbiota of ewes and cows reveals a unique microbiota with low levels of lactobacilli and near-neutral ph.although a number of common reproductive disorders in livestock involve bacterial infection, very little is known about their normal vaginal microbiota. therefore, we sought to determine the species composition of sheep and cattle vaginal microbiota. twenty rambouillet ewes and twenty crossbred cows varying in age and reproductive status were sampled by ectocervicovaginal lavage. we amplified and sequenced the v3-v4 region of the 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) contents yielding a total of 907,667 high ...201426664918
a review of sexually transmitted bovine trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis affecting cattle reproductive health.the objective is to discuss sexually transmitted diseases caused by tritrichomonas foetus (t foetus) and campylobacter fetus (c fetus) subsp. venerealis, with a focus on prevalence, pathogenesis, and diagnosis in cows and bulls. diagnosis and control are problematic because these diseases cause severe reproductive losses in cows, but in bulls are clinically asymptomatic, which allows the disease to flourish, especially in the absence of legislated control programs. we review research regarding p ...201626679515
ultrafiltration and microarray for detection of microbial source tracking marker and pathogen genes in riverine and marine systems.pathogen identification and microbial source tracking (mst) to identify sources of fecal pollution improve evaluation of water quality. they contribute to improved assessment of human health risks and remediation of pollution sources. an mst microarray was used to simultaneously detect genes for multiple pathogens and indicators of fecal pollution in freshwater, marine water, sewage-contaminated freshwater and marine water, and treated wastewater. dead-end ultrafiltration (deuf) was used to conc ...201626729716
[the identification and multilocus sequence typing of nine campylobacter fetus isolates from specimens of patients from 2012 to 2013]. 201526733037
effect of sample pooling and transport conditions on the clinical sensitivity of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in preputial samples from bulls.the diagnosis of bovine genital campylobacteriosis (bgc) presents significant challenges, as traditional methods lack sensitivity when prolonged transport of samples is required. assays of preputial samples by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) provide good sensitivity and high throughput capabilities. however, there is limited information on the acceptable duration of transport and temperature during transport of samples. in addition, the use of pooled samples has proven to be a ...201626733730
reptile toll-like receptor 5 unveils adaptive evolution of bacterial flagellin recognition.toll-like receptors (tlr) are ancient innate immune receptors crucial for immune homeostasis and protection against infection. tlrs are present in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish but have not been functionally characterized in reptiles despite the central position of this animal class in vertebrate evolution. here we report the cloning, characterization, and function of tlr5 of the reptile anolis carolinensis (green anole lizard). the receptor (actlr5) displays the typical tlr protein archit ...201626738735
infectious spondylitis in a patient with chronic kidney disease: identification of campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum by 16s ribosomal rna sequencing.we report the first case of spondylitis with bacteremia caused by campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum identified by 16s ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rrna) gene sequencing. an 81-year-old man presented with fever and general weakness. his medical history included end-stage renal disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. despite empirical antibiotic treatment, his fever and back pain persisted. magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement showed a low-signal-intensity lesion in t1-wei ...201626743148
comparative detection and quantification of arcobacter butzleri in stools from diarrheic and nondiarrheic people in southwestern alberta, canada.arcobacter butzleri has been linked to enteric disease in humans, but its pathogenicity and epidemiology remain poorly understood. the lack of suitable detection methods is a major limitation. using comparative genome analysis, we developed pcr primers for direct detection and quantification ofa. butzleri dna in microbiologically complex matrices. these primers, along with existing molecular and culture-based methods, were used to detecta. butzleri and enteric pathogens in stools of diarrheic an ...201626865686
nitrate and inhibition of ruminal methanogenesis: microbial ecology, obstacles, and opportunities for lowering methane emissions from ruminant livestock.ruminal methane production is among the main targets for greenhouse gas (ghg) mitigation for the animal agriculture industry. many compounds have been evaluated for their efficacy to suppress enteric methane production by ruminal microorganisms. of these, nitrate as an alternative hydrogen sink has been among the most promising, but it suffers from variability in efficacy for reasons that are not understood. the accumulation of nitrite, which is poisonous when absorbed into the animal's circulat ...201626904008
steak tartare endocarditis.this report describes a case of campylobacter fetus prosthetic valve infective endocarditis and discusses the subsequent management. although c. fetus has a tropism for vascular endothelium, infective endocarditis has rarely been reported. in this patient, despite initial optimal antimicrobial therapy, valve replacement was ultimately required due to ongoing infectious emboli to the brain in the setting of evidence of vegetation enlargement on echocardiogram. the prosthetic valve was replaced, t ...201626917729
campylobacter fetus meningitis in adults: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.the zoonotic pathogen campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of c fetus meningitis in adults.we report cases of c fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the netherlands and performed a review of the literature.two patients with c fetus meningitis were identified from january 2006 through may 2015. the calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per ...201626937916
insights on alterations to the rumen ecosystem by nitrate and nitrocompounds.nitrate and certain short chain nitrocompounds and nitro-oxy compounds are being investigated as dietary supplements to reduce economic and environmental costs associated with ruminal methane emissions. thermodynamically, nitrate is a preferred electron acceptor in the rumen that consumes electrons at the expense of methanogenesis during dissimilatory reduction to an intermediate, nitrite, which is primarily reduced to ammonia although small quantities of nitrous oxide may also be produced. shor ...201626973609
crystal-induced arthritis after arthroplasty: 7 describe the occurrence in prosthetic joints of crystal-induced arthritis (cia) defined as the deposition within the synovial membrane and/or joint cavity of calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (cppd) (chondrocalcinosis), sodium urate (gout), or hydroxyapatite.201627020953
the bacteriophage carrier state of campylobacter jejuni features changes in host non-coding rnas and the acquisition of new host-derived crispr spacer sequences.incorporation of self-derived crispr dna protospacers in campylobacter jejuni pt14 occurs in the presence of bacteriophages encoding a crispr-like cas4 protein. this phenomenon was evident in carrier state infections where both bacteriophages and host are maintained for seemingly indefinite periods as stable populations following serial passage. carrier state cultures of c. jejuni pt14 have greater aerotolerance in nutrient limited conditions, and may have arisen as an evolutionary response to s ...201627047470
campylobacter fetus subspecies contain conserved type iv secretion systems on multiple genomic islands and plasmids.the features contributing to differences in pathogenicity of the campylobacter fetus subspecies are unknown. putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode a type iv secretion system (t4ss) and fic domain (filamentation induced by cyclic amp) proteins, which may disrupt host cell processes. in the genomes of 27 c. fetus strains, three phylogenetically-different t4ss-encoding regions (t4sss) were identified: one was located in both the chromosome and in extra ...201627049518
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