PMID(sorted ascending)
campylobacter fetus infection in three rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with rituximab. 201222302315
the prevalence of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis in cattle herds in the lake chad basin of nigeria.the prevalence of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis (bvc) was investigated in the lake chad basin of nigeria. preputial washings and cervico-vaginal mucus samples were obtained from 270 cattle presenting a history of abortion and lowered fertility, kept in traditional and institutional farms. all the samples investigated were cultured using standard bacteriological technique. campylobacter fetus was isolated from six bulls and four cows. in all cattle sampled, the isolation rates were 2.2% for ...201222318768
comparison of the microflex lt and vitek ms systems for routine identification of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.this study compared the performance of three matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry systems: microflex lt (bruker daltonics, bremen, germany), vitek ms ruo (axima assurance-saramis database; biomérieux, marcy l'etoile, france), and vitek ms ivd (biomérieux). a total of 1,129 isolates, including 1,003 routine isolates, 73 anaerobes, and 53 bacterial enteropathogens, were tested on the microflex lt and axima assurance devices. the spectra were analyzed using t ...201222322345
survey of nine abortifacient infectious agents in aborted bovine fetuses from dairy farms in beijing, china, by pcr.abortion in dairy cattle causes considerable economic losses to the dairy industry. aborted fetuses and samples from the corresponding aborting dams from 12 dairy herds in beijing were tested for 9 abortifacient infectious pathogens by pcr between 2008 and 2010. from a total of 80 abortion cases collected during this period, infectious agents were detected in 45 (56.3%) cases, 22 (48.9%) of which represented co-infections with two or three infectious agents. the detected pathogens included infec ...201222366134
development of a novel genus-specific real-time pcr assay for detection and differentiation of bartonella species and genotypes.the genus bartonella includes numerous species with varied host associations, including several that infect humans. development of a molecular diagnostic method capable of detecting the diverse repertoire of bartonella species while maintaining genus specificity has been a challenge. we developed a novel real-time pcr assay targeting a 301-bp region of the ssra gene of bartonella and demonstrated specific amplification in over 30 bartonella species, subspecies, and strains. subsequent analysis o ...201222378904
characterization of the structurally diverse n-linked glycans of campylobacter species.the gram-negative bacterium campylobacter jejuni encodes an extensively characterized n-linked protein glycosylation system that modifies many surface proteins with a heptasaccharide glycan. in c. jejuni, the genes that encode the enzymes required for glycan biosynthesis and transfer to protein are located at a single pgl gene locus. similar loci are also present in the genome sequences of all other campylobacter species, although variations in gene content and organization are evident. in this ...201222389484
isolation of campylobacter from feral swine (sus scrofa) on the ranch associated with the 2006 escherichia coli o157:h7 spinach outbreak investigation in california.we report the isolation of campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in san benito county, california, during the 2006 spinach-related escherichia coli o157:h7 outbreak. this is the first survey of campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the united states. campylobacter species were cultured from buccal and rectal-anal swabs, colonic faeces and tonsils using a combination of selective enrichment and antibiotic-free membrane filtration m ...201222405465
antibody-based sensors: principles, problems and potential for detection of pathogens and associated toxins.antibody-based sensors permit the rapid and sensitive analysis of a range of pathogens and associated toxins. a critical assessment of the implementation of such formats is provided, with reference to their principles, problems and potential for 'on-site' analysis. particular emphasis is placed on the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens, such as escherichia coli and listeria monocytogenes, and additional examples relating to the monitoring of fungal pathogens, viruses, mycotoxins, marine ...200922408533
identification of antigenic epitopes of the sapa protein of campylobacter fetus using a phage display peptide this study, we immunized mice with prokaryotically expressed recombinant surface layer protein, sapa, of campylobacter fetus, generated hybridomas secreting mouse monoclonal antibodies (mab) targeting sapa, and purified the mab a2d5 from mouse ascites using saturated ammonium sulfate solution. the mab a2d5, coated onto elisa plates, was used to screen the phage random 12-peptide library through three rounds of panning. following panning, 15 phage clones were randomly chosen and tested for rea ...201222424885
group b streptococcus mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta: report of a case and review of the literature.mycotic aneurysm of the aorta is an uncommon condition, and group b streptococcus (gbs) is exceedingly rare in this setting. we present the first reported case of a gbs-infected abdominal aortic aneurysm (aaa) in north america. key clinical and imaging findings and pathologic correlation are highlighted. a relevant review of the literature is discussed, which will bring the reader up to date with this specific disease entity.201222461748
forty years' experience treating septic arteritis and their natures, septic arteritis and infected grafts present a high morbidity and mortality situation for both the patient and the treating physician. in the experience of the authors, therapy frequently includes removing the previous infected graft, use of long-term antibiotics, repeat grafting and omental wraps. when possible, aortic endografting followed by future elective primary repair may be considered an option. leaving wounds open to granulate from the 'bottom up' has been successful i ...200922477474
xer recombinase and genome integrity in helicobacter pylori, a pathogen without topoisomerase the model organism e. coli, recombination mediated by the related xerc and xerd recombinases complexed with the ftsk translocase at specialized dif sites, resolves dimeric chromosomes into free monomers to allow efficient chromosome segregation at cell division. computational genome analysis of helicobacter pylori, a slow growing gastric pathogen, identified just one chromosomal xer gene (xerh) and its cognate dif site (difh). here we show that recombination between directly repeated difh sit ...201222511919
etiology of inflammatory bowel disease: a unified hypothesis.inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), including both ulcerative colitis (uc) and crohn's disease (cd), emerged and dramatically increased for about a century. despite extensive research, its cause remains regarded as unknown. about a decade ago, a series of findings made me suspect that saccharin may be a key causative factor for ibd, through its inhibition on gut bacteria and the resultant impaired inactivation of digestive proteases and over digestion of the mucus layer and gut barrier (the bacter ...201222553395
cxcl13 is the major determinant for b cell recruitment to the csf during neuroinflammation.the chemokines and cytokines cxcl13, cxcl12, ccl19, ccl21, baff and april are believed to play a role in the recruitment of b cells to the central nervous system (cns) compartment during neuroinflammation. to determine which chemokines/cytokines show the strongest association with a humoral immune response in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf), we measured their concentrations in the csf and correlated them with immune cell subsets and antibody levels.201222591862
performances of the vitek ms matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system for rapid identification of bacteria in routine clinical microbiology.rapid and cost-effective matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms)-based systems will replace conventional phenotypic methods for routine identification of bacteria. we report here the first evaluation of the new maldi-tof ms-based vitek ms system in a large clinical microbiology laboratory. this system uses an original spectrum classifier algorithm and a specific database designed for the identification of clinically relevant species. we have te ...201222593596
campylobacter fetus bacteremia revealed by cellulitis without gastrointestinal symptoms in the context of acquired hypogammaglobulinemia: a report of three cases.campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. this infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. we describe three cases of severe infection due to c. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.201122606424
dprb facilitates inter- and intragenomic recombination in helicobacter pylori.for naturally competent microorganisms, such as helicobacter pylori, the steps that permit recombination of exogenous dna are not fully understood. immediately downstream of an h. pylori gene (dpra) that facilitates high-frequency natural transformation is hp0334 (dprb), annotated to be a putative holliday junction resolvase (hjr). we showed that the hp0334 (dprb) gene product facilitates high-frequency natural transformation. we determined the physiologic roles of dprb by genetic analyses. dprb ...201222609923
identification and functional analysis of the s-layer protein spla of paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of american foulbrood of honey bees.the gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of american foulbrood (afb), a globally occurring, deathly epizootic of honey bee brood. afb outbreaks are predominantly caused by two genotypes of p. larvae, eric i and eric ii, with p. larvae eric ii being the more virulent genotype on larval level. recently, comparative proteome analyses have revealed that p. larvae eric ii but not eric i might harbour a functional s-layer protein, named spla. we here det ...201222615573
a study of some infectious causes of reproductive disorders in cattle owned by resource-poor farmers in gauteng province, south africa.two hundred and thirty-nine cattle from gauteng province in south africa were tested for various pathogens causing reproductive diseases includingbovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (bvd/md) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (ibr/ipv) virus, neospora caninum and brucella abortus usingvarious tests. for bvd/md virus, 49.37% tested positive, 74.47% for ibr/ipv virus, 8.96% for neospora caninum and 3.8% for brucella abortus. the result for brucella abort ...201122616434
the bacterial surface layer provides protection against antimicrobial peptides.this report describes a previously unrecognized role for bacterial surface layers as barriers that confer protection against antimicrobial peptides. as antimicrobial peptides exist in natural environments, s-layers may provide a bacterial survival mechanism that has been selected for through evolution.201222635987
investigation of the enteric pathogenic potential of oral campylobacter concisus strains isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease.campylobacter concisus, a bacterium colonizing the human oral cavity, has been shown to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (ibd). this study investigated if patients with ibd are colonized with specific oral c. concisus strains that have potential to cause enteric diseases.201222666490
analysis of a clostridium difficile pcr ribotype 078 100 kilobase island reveals the presence of a novel transposon, tn6164.clostridium difficile is the main cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea. in the past decade, the number of c. difficile patients has increased dramatically, coinciding with the emergence of two pcr ribotypes 027 and 078. pcr ribotype 078 is also frequently found during c. difficile outbreaks in pigfarms. previously, the genome of the pcr ribotype 078 strain m120, a human isolate, was described to contain a unique insert of 100 kilobases.201222747711
bacteremia caused by antimicrobial resistant campylobacter species at a medical center in taiwan, 1998-2008.this study was intended to delineate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by campylobacter species.201222771419
campylobacter epidemiology: a descriptive study reviewing 1 million cases in england and wales between 1989 and review campylobacter cases in england and wales over 2 decades and examine the main factors/mechanisms driving the changing epidemiology.201222798256
campylobacter fetus subspecies: comparative genomics and prediction of potential virulence targets.the genus campylobacter contains pathogens causing a wide range of diseases, targeting both humans and animals. among them, the campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis deserve special attention, as they are the etiological agents of human bacterial gastroenteritis and bovine genital campylobacteriosis, respectively. we compare the whole genomes of both subspecies to get insights into genomic architecture, phylogenetic relationships, genome conservation and core virulence factors. pan ...201222890137
toll-like receptor 4 mediates intrauterine growth restriction after systemic campylobacter rectus infection in mice.campylobacter rectus is associated with fetal exposure and low birthweight in humans. c. rectus also invades placental tissues and induces fetal intrauterine growth restriction (iugr) in mice, along with overexpression of toll-like receptors (tlr4), suggesting that tlr4 may mediate placental immunity and iugr in mice. to test this hypothesis we examined the effect of in vitro tlr4 neutralization on trophoblastic proinflammatory activity and studied the iugr phenotype in a congenic tlr4-mutant mo ...201222958386
characterization of the genome, proteome, and structure of yersiniophage ϕr1-37.the bacteriophage vb_yecm-ϕr1-37 (ϕr1-37) is a lytic yersiniophage that can propagate naturally in different yersinia species carrying the correct lipopolysaccharide receptor. this large-tailed phage has deoxyuridine (du) instead of thymidine in its dna. in this study, we determined the genomic sequence of phage ϕr1-37, mapped parts of the phage transcriptome, characterized the phage particle proteome, and characterized the virion structure by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction. t ...201222973030
[vascular manifestations due to campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus infection: report of two cases].campylobacter fetus is a rare gram-negative bacteria affecting especially elderly and immunocompromised patients, and that is responsible of vascular and cutaneous involvement.201222995567
identification of and screening for human helicobacter cinaedi infections and carriers via nested pcr.helicobacter cinaedi is the most frequently reported enterohepatic helicobacter species isolated from humans. earlier research suggested that certain patients with h. cinaedi infection may remain undiagnosed or incorrectly diagnosed because of difficulties in detecting the bacteria by conventional culture methods. here, we report a nested pcr assay that rapidly detects the cytolethal distending toxin gene (cdt) of h. cinaedi with high specificity and sensitivity. specificity of the assay was val ...201223015666
bacterial toxin modulation of the eukaryotic cell cycle: are all cytolethal distending toxins created equally?the cytolethal distending toxins (cdts) comprise a family of intracellular-acting bacterial protein toxins whose actions upon eukaryotic cells result in several consequences, the most characteristic of which is the induction of g(2)/m cell cycle arrest. most cdts are hetero-tripartite assemblies of cdta, cdtb, and cdtc, with cdtb required for cdt-mediated cell cycle arrest. several lines of evidence indicate that cdta and cdtc are required for the optimal intracellular activity of cdtb, although ...201223061054
zoonoses: a potential obstacle to the growing wildlife industry of namibia.zoonoses, which account for approximately 75% of emerging human infectious diseases worldwide, pose a re-emerging threat to public health. with an ever-increasing interrelationship between humans, livestock and wildlife species, the threat to human health will rise to unprecedented levels. wildlife species contribute to the majority of emerging diseases; therefore, there is an urgent need to define control systems of zoonoses of wildlife origin but very little information exists. in this review, ...201223077724
modeling the surface of campylobacter fetus: protein surface layer stability and resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides.campylobacter fetus is a gram negative bacterium recognized for its virulence in animals and humans. this bacterium possesses a paracrystalline array of high molecular weight proteins known as surface-layer proteins covering its cell surface. a mathematical model has been made of the outer membrane of this bacterium, both with its surface-layer proteins (s+) and without (s-). monte carlo computer simulation was used to understand the stability of the surface-layer protein structure as a function ...201323122778
unexpected nondenitrifier nitrous oxide reductase gene diversity and abundance in soils.agricultural and industrial practices more than doubled the intrinsic rate of terrestrial n fixation over the past century with drastic consequences, including increased atmospheric nitrous oxide (n(2)o) concentrations. n(2)o is a potent greenhouse gas and contributor to ozone layer destruction, and its release from fixed n is almost entirely controlled by microbial activities. mitigation of n(2)o emissions to the atmosphere has been attributed exclusively to denitrifiers possessing nosz, the en ...201223150571
campylobacter fetus infection presenting with bacteremia and cellulitis in a 72-year-old man with an implanted pacemaker: a case report. 201223198848
unique features of the motility and structures in the flagellate polar region of campylobacter jejuni and other species: an electron microscopic study.similarly to helicobacter pylori but unlike vibrio cholerae o1/o139, campylobacter jejuni is non-motile at 20°c but highly motile at ≥37°c. the bacterium c. jejuni has one of the highest swimming speeds reported (>100 μm/s), especially at 42°c. straight and spiral bacterial shapes share the same motility. c. jejuni has a unique structure in the flagellate polar region, which is characterized by a cup-like structure (beneath the inner membrane), a funnel shape (opening onto the polar surface) and ...201323252968
application of a multiplex pcr assay for campylobacter fetus detection and subspecies differentiation in uncultured samples of aborted bovine fetuses.campylobacter (c.) fetus (epsilonproteobacteria) is an important veterinary pathogen. this species is currently divided into c. fetus subspecies (subsp.) fetus (cff) and c. fetus subsp. venerealis (cfv). cfv is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, an infectious disease that leads to severe reproductive problems in cattle worldwide. cff is a more general pathogen that causes reproductive problems mainly in sheep although cattle can also be affected. here we describe a multipl ...201223271178
a case of pyogenic spondylodiscitis caused by campylobacter fetus for which early diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging was difficult.the purpose of this case report was to report a rare case of pyogenic spondylodiscitis caused by campylobacter fetus. a 37-year-old male presented with fever and low back pain. by lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (mri), no abnormal finding was observed at the first presentation. however, low back pain was aggravated, and fever did not improve. thus, lumbar mri was repeated on the 26 day after the onset of symptoms, showing abnormal signals at vertebrae and disc spaces, and pyogenic spondylitis ...201223275811
evaluation of a campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for direct analysis of bovine preputial samples.the detection and subspeciation of campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (cfv) from veterinary samples is important for both clinical and economic reasons. campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease that can lead to serious reproductive problems in cattle, and strict international regulations require animals and animal products to be cfv-free for trade. this study evaluated methods reported in the literature for cfv detec ...201223277694
comparative characterization of the virulence gene clusters (lipooligosaccharide [los] and capsular polysaccharide [cps]) for campylobacter coli, campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and related campylobacter species.campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and campylobacter coli are leading causes of gastroenteritis, with virulence linked to cell surface carbohydrate diversity. although the associated gene clusters are well studied for c. jejuni subsp. jejuni, c. coli has been largely neglected. here we provide comparative analysis of the lipooligosaccharide (los) and capsular polysaccharide (cps) gene clusters, using genome and cluster sequence data for 36 c. coli strains, 67 c. jejuni subsp. jejuni strains and ...201223279811
comparative characterization of the virulence gene clusters (lipooligosaccharide [los] and capsular polysaccharide [cps]) for campylobacter coli, campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and related campylobacter species.campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and campylobacter coli are leading causes of gastroenteritis, with virulence linked to cell surface carbohydrate diversity. although the associated gene clusters are well studied for c. jejuni subsp. jejuni, c. coli has been largely neglected. here we provide comparative analysis of the lipooligosaccharide (los) and capsular polysaccharide (cps) gene clusters, using genome and cluster sequence data for 36 c. coli strains, 67 c. jejuni subsp. jejuni strains and ...201223279811
rectal swabs are suitable for quantifying the carriage load of kpc-producing carbapenem-resistant is more convenient and practical to collect rectal swabs than stool specimens to study carriage of colon pathogens. in this study, we examined the ability to use rectal swabs rather than stool specimens to quantify klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (kpc)-producing carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (cre). we used a quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) assay to determine the concentration of the bla(kpc) gene relative to the concentration of 16s rrna genes and a quantitative culture-based ...201323295937
a fatal case of klebsiella pneumoniae mycotic aneurysm.mycotic aneurysm is a serious clinical condition with significant morbidity and mortality. staphylococcus aureus and salmonella species are the most common causative pathogens. klebsiella pneumoniae was rarely reported as a possible pathogen causing mycotic aneurysm; therefore, we describe a k. pneumoniae-related fatal bacteremia mycotic aneurysm in a patient in spite of appropriate antimicrobial agents and surgical management.201123326694
bacterial protein n-glycosylation: new perspectives and applications.protein glycosylation is widespread throughout all three domains of life. bacterial protein n-glycosylation and its application to engineering recombinant glycoproteins continue to be actively studied. here, we focus on advances made in the last 2 years, including the characterization of novel bacterial n-glycosylation pathways, examination of pathway enzymes and evolution, biological roles of protein modification in the native host, and exploitation of the n-glycosylation pathways to create nov ...201323329827
the surface layer of tannerella forsythia contributes to serum resistance and oral bacterial coaggregation.tannerella forsythia is an anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium involved in the so-called "red complex," which is associated with severe and chronic periodontitis. the surface layer (s-layer) of t. forsythia is composed of cell surface glycoproteins, such as tfsa and tfsb, and is known to play a role in adhesion/invasion and suppression of proinflammatory cytokine expression. here we investigated the association of this s-layer with serum resistance and coaggregation with other oral bacteria. the ...201323357386
an unusual cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to campylobacter fetus with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.a 40-year-old man with severe alcoholic liver cirrhosis with a 2-day history of fatigue and abdominal pain was admitted. he reported eating sushi and sliced raw chicken a few days previously. his abdomen was distended, with shifting dullness. based on the patient's history, physical examination and the results of abdominocentesis, he was diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; blood and ascitic fluid cultures were positive for campylobacter fetus. the patient was started on treatm ...201323417384
presence of campylobacter and arcobacter species in in-line milk filters of farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk and of a water buffalo dairy farm in italy.the objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of campylobacter spp. and arcobacter spp. in dairy herds authorized for the production and sale of raw milk and in a water buffalo dairy farm, and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. a total of 196 in-line milk filters were collected from 14 dairy farms (13 bovine and 1 water buffalo) for detection of campylobacter spp. and arcobacter spp. by microbiological culture. for each farm investigated, 1 isolate for each ...201323453517
occurrence and molecular characterization of reptilian campylobacter fetus strains isolated in taiwan.the number of people who raise reptiles as pets has increased, but information about zoonotic campylobacter carried by reptiles is limited. a survey of zoonotic campylobacter species isolated from reptiles was undertaken to understand the possibility of this zoonotic bacterial pathogen causing human infection. a total of 179 fresh reptile fecal samples were collected from human-raised, pet shop and wild reptiles to survey the campylobacter species. basic biochemical reactions and 16s rrna gene s ...201323466328
occurrence and characteristics of fastidious campylobacteraceae species in porcine samples.this study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of campylobacteraceae including a range of fastidious species in porcine samples. over a thirteen month period caecal contents (n=402) and pork carcass swabs (n=401) were collected from three pork abattoirs and pork products (n=399) were purchased at point of sale in the republic of ireland. campylobacteraceae isolates were recovered by enrichment, membrane filtration and incubation in antibiotic free media under a modified atmosphere (3 ...201323474652
spatial and temporal epidemiology of bovine trichomoniasis and bovine genital campylobacteriosis in la pampa province (argentina).the venereal diseases bovine trichomoniasis (bt) and bovine genital campylobacteriosis (bcg) cause economic losses in endemic areas like la pampa province in argentina, where beef cattle are usually managed extensively. this study used data compiled under a provincial programme for the control and eradication of bt and bgc (pce) to determine the spatio-temporal distribution of these diseases and identify spatial clusters. the study population comprised 29,178 non-virgin bulls drawn from 3766 her ...201323518247
campylobacter fetus sepsis in an immunocompetent patient with haematological complication.campylobacter fetus sepsis is rare, especially among young, immunocompetent patients. we present the case of a 43-year-old man with a history of ulcerative colitis who was diagnosed with c fetus bacteraemia with endovascular manifestation. the patient was found to have a low vitamin k level and a high international normalised ratio, and developed deep vein thrombosis. the patient was fully recovered with oral antibiotic treatment, anticoagulation and supportive therapy. clinicians should be awar ...201323536648
pelvic inflammatory disease. 201323547062
antimicrobial resistance and virulence: a successful or deleterious association in the bacterial world?hosts and bacteria have coevolved over millions of years, during which pathogenic bacteria have modified their virulence mechanisms to adapt to host defense systems. although the spread of pathogens has been hindered by the discovery and widespread use of antimicrobial agents, antimicrobial resistance has increased globally. the emergence of resistant bacteria has accelerated in recent years, mainly as a result of increased selective pressure. however, although antimicrobial resistance and bacte ...201323554414
mycotic abdominal aneurysm caused by campylobacter fetus: a case report for surgical management.we report a rare case of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with campylobacter fetus. a 72-year-old male admitted to the hospital because of pain in the right lower quadrant with pyrexia. the enhanced abdominal computed tomography (ct) examination showed abdominal aortic aneurysm (aaa) measuring 50 mm in maximum diameter and a high-density area of soft tissue density from the right lateral wall to the anterior wall of the aorta. however, since the patient showed no significant signs of ...201123555431
aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with c3-monocarboxylates and c4-dicarboxylates.experiments were conducted to examine aerobic growth of campylobacter spp. in basal media supplemented with c4-dicarboxylates (fumarate, succinate, or malate) and c3-monocarboxylates (pyruvate or lactate). basal medium was supplemented with 30 mm fumarate, succinate, or malate and 0 to 100 mm lactate or pyruvate; inoculated with 10(6) cfu/ml of campylobacter coli, campylobacter fetus, or campylobacter jejuni; then incubated aerobically at 37 °c for 72 h. optical density (od) of cultures was meas ...201323575134
nif-type iron-sulfur cluster assembly system is duplicated and distributed in the mitochondria and cytosol of mastigamoeba most eukaryotes, the mitochondrion is the main organelle for the formation of iron-sulfur (fes) clusters. this function is mediated through the iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery, which was inherited from the α-proteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria. in archamoebae, including pathogenic entamoeba histolytica and free-living mastigamoeba balamuthi, the complex iron-sulfur cluster machinery has been replaced by an ε-proteobacterial nitrogen fixation (nif) system consisting of two componen ...201323589868
development and application of a real-time polymerase chain reaction method for campylobacter jejuni develop a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method to detect and quantify campylobacter jejuni (c. jejuni) from stool specimens.201323716989
bacterial spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bloodstream infections in children with febrile neutropenia: experience of single center in southeast of turkey.empirical antimicrobial therapy is usually started in febrile neutropenic patients without having culture results. the aim of this study was to help determine the policies of empirical antibiotic usage in febrile neutropenic children by detecting the antimicrobial susceptibility profile in this group of patients. in this study 811 blood cultures taken from neutropenic children hospitalized at the department of oncology of gaziantep children hospital november 2007 and february 2010 were retrospec ...201123729883
bacterial spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bloodstream infections in children with febrile neutropenia: experience of single center in southeast of turkey.empirical antimicrobial therapy is usually started in febrile neutropenic patients without having culture results. the aim of this study was to help determine the policies of empirical antibiotic usage in febrile neutropenic children by detecting the antimicrobial susceptibility profile in this group of patients. in this study 811 blood cultures taken from neutropenic children hospitalized at the department of oncology of gaziantep children hospital november 2007 and february 2010 were retrospec ...201123729883
cell extract-containing medium for culture of intracellular fastidious bacteria.the culture of fastidious microorganisms is a critical step in infectious disease studies. as a proof-of-concept experiment, we evaluated an empirical medium containing eukaryotic cell extracts for its ability to support the growth of coxiella burnetii. here, we demonstrate the exponential growth of several bacterial strains, including the c. burnetii nine mile phase i and phase ii strains, and c. burnetii isolates from humans and animals. low-oxygen-tension conditions and the presence of small ...201323740722
evaluation of molecular assays for identification campylobacter fetus species and subspecies and development of a c. fetus specific real-time pcr assay.phenotypic differentiation between campylobacter fetus (c. fetus) subspecies fetus and c. fetus subspecies venerealis is hampered by poor reliability and reproducibility of biochemical assays. aflp (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and mlst (multilocus sequence typing) are the molecular standards for c. fetus subspecies identification, but these methods are laborious and expensive. several pcr assays for c. fetus subspecies identification have been described, but a reliable comparison of ...201323810970
real time pcr to detect and differentiate campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis.bovine venereal campylobacter infection, caused by campylobacter fetus venerealis, is of significant economic importance to the livestock industry. unfortunately, the successful detection and discrimination of c. fetus venerealis from c. fetus fetus continue to be a limitation throughout the world. there are several publications warning of the problem with biotyping methods as well as with recent molecular based assays. in this study, assessed on 1071 isolates, we report on the successful develo ...201323811208
meningitis and endocarditis caused by campylobacter fetus after raw-liver ingestion.we report campylobacter fetus meningitis associated with endocarditis in a 75-year-old diabetic man after he consumed raw liver. c. fetus was isolated from blood samples and cerebrospinal fluid. cure was obtained with combined intravenous imipenem-gentamicin for 4 weeks; no relapse occurred after 6 months of follow-up.201323824770
herd-level risk factors for campylobacter fetus infection, brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern nigeria.brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in nigeria. a questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in adamawa, kaduna and kano states of northern nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for brucella antibodies using the rose-bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. preputial scrap ...201323830113
evaluation of luminex xtag gastrointestinal pathogen analyte-specific reagents for high-throughput, simultaneous detection of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of clinical and public health importance.acute diarrheal disease (add) can be caused by a range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, microscopy, biochemical assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa), are laborious and time-consuming and lack sensitivity. combined, the array of tests performed on a single specimen can increase the turnaround time (tat) significantly. we validated a 19plex laboratory-developed gastrointestinal pathogen panel (gpp) using l ...201323850948
accurate identification of fastidious gram-negative rods: integration of both conventional phenotypic methods and 16s rrna gene analysis.accurate identification of fastidious gram-negative rods (gnr) by conventional phenotypic characteristics is a challenge for diagnostic microbiology. the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of molecular methods, e.g., 16s rrna gene sequence analysis for identification of fastidious gnr in the clinical microbiology laboratory.201323855986
isolation rates of campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis from bovine preputial samples via passive filtration on nonselective medium versus selective medium, with and without transport compare the recovery rates of campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis (cfv) from preputial scrapings of infected bulls with passive filtration on selective medium versus nonselective medium, with and without transport medium.201323879843
[campylobacter fetus endocarditis: a case report].campylobacter are known to be a cause of enteritidic infections but campylobacter fetus is more often a cause of systemic infections, mainly in fragilized patients. we report a c. fetus endocarditis. the prognosis seemstobe improved by a prolonged betalactam antibiotic treatment.201323906576
complete genome sequence of campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius, isolated from the prepuce of a bull.campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. we report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce.201323908278
prevalence of bovine genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis of bulls in northern nigeria.a survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis, and their concurrence with brucellosis, in cattle in three states of northern nigeria.201323927676
chronic subdural hematoma infected by campylobacter fetus. 201323930907
comprehensive genomic characterization of campylobacter genus reveals some underlying mechanisms for its genomic diversification.campylobacter species.are phenotypically diverse in many aspects including host habitats and pathogenicities, which demands comprehensive characterization of the entire campylobacter genus to study their underlying genetic diversification. up to now, 34 campylobacter strains have been sequenced and published in public databases, providing good opportunity to systemically analyze their genomic diversities. in this study, we first conducted genomic characterization, which includes genome-wide alig ...201323940551
changes in rumen bacterial community composition in steers in response to dietary nitrate.the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on rumen bacterial community composition was examined in beef steers fed either a nitrate-n diet or urea-n diet. an automated method of ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis was applied to solid and liquid fractions of ruminal contents to allow comparison of bacterial communities. supplemental n source affected relative population size of four amplicon lengths (als) in the liquid fraction and three als in the solid fraction. five als were more prevale ...201323955503
deamination of 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine in menaquinone biosynthesis by distantly related enzymes.proteins of unknown function belonging to cog1816 and cog0402 were characterized. sav2595 from steptomyces avermitilis ma-4680, acel0264 from acidothermus cellulolyticus 11b, nis0429 from nitratiruptor sp. sb155-2 and dr0824 from deinococcus radiodurans r1 were cloned, purified, and their substrate profiles determined. these enzymes were previously incorrectly annotated as adenosine deaminases or chlorohydrolases. it was shown here that these enzymes actually deaminate 6-aminodeoxyfutalosine. th ...201323972005
comparative genomics of campylobacter concisus isolates reveals genetic diversity and provides insights into disease spite of its association with gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel diseases, the isolation of campylobacter concisus from both diseased and healthy individuals has led to controversy regarding its role as an intestinal pathogen. one proposed reason for this is the presence of high genetic diversity among the genomes of c. concisus strains.201323984967
identification of extracellular surface-layer associated proteins in lactobacillus acidophilus ncfm.bacterial surface (s-) layers are crystalline arrays of self-assembling, proteinaceous subunits called s-layer proteins (slps), with molecular masses ranging from 40 to 200 kda. the s-layer-forming bacterium lactobacillus acidophilus ncfm expresses three major slps: slpa (46 kda), slpb (47 kda) and slpx (51 kda). slpa has a demonstrated role in adhesion to caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, and has been shown to modulate dendritic cell (dc) and t-cell functionalities with murine dcs. i ...201324002751
conferring the ability to utilize inorganic polyphosphate on atp-specific nad kinase.nad kinase (nadk) is a crucial enzyme for production of nadp⁺. atp-specific nadk prefers atp to inorganic polyphosphate [poly(p)] as a phosphoryl donor, whereas poly(p)/atp-nadk utilizes both atp and poly(p), and is employed in industrial mass production of nadp⁺. poly(p)/atp-nadks are distributed throughout gram-positive bacteria and archaea, whereas atp-specific nadks are found in gram-negative α- and γ-proteobacteria and eukaryotes. in this study, we succeeded in conferring the ability to uti ...201324022322
human infections with new subspecies of campylobacter fetus.campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. is a newly proposed subspecies of c. fetus with markers of reptile origin. we summarize epidemiologic information for 9 humans infected with this bacterium. all cases were in men, most of whom were of asian origin. infection might have been related to exposure to asian foods or reptiles.201324050521
temporal and farm-management-associated variation in faecal-pat prevalence of campylobacter fetus in sheep and cattle.the faecal-pat prevalence (as estimated by culture) of campylobacter fetus from cattle and sheep on 19 farms in rural lancashire was investigated using standard campylobacter culture techniques and pcr during a 2-year longitudinal study. c. fetus was isolated from 9·48% [95% confidence interval (ci) 8·48-10·48] of cattle faecal pats and 7·29% (95% ci 6·21-9·62) of sheep faecal pats. there was evidence of significant differences in shedding prevalence between geographical regions; cows in geograp ...201424067441
application of a new diagnostic approach to a bovine genital campylobacteriosis outbreak in a saskatchewan beef herd.a new real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) test was used to diagnose campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis infection associated with dramatic reproductive losses in a commercial cow-calf herd. the results were verified with repeated culture, phenotypic characterization of the organism and dna sequencing. this case demonstrates the need for a practical field test for c. fetus subsp. venerealis and the importance of considering this organism as a potential cause of pregnancy fai ...201324082165
[mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta caused by campylobacter fetus]. 201524094929
lipooligosaccharide locus class of campylobacter jejuni: sialylation is not needed for invasive infection.campylobacter jejuni is a highly diverse enteropathogen that is commonly detected worldwide. it can sometimes cause bacteraemia, but the bacterial characteristics facilitating bloodstream infection are not known. a total of 73 c. jejuni isolates, consecutively collected from blood-borne infections during a 10-year period all over finland and for which detailed clinical information of the patients were available, were included. we screened the isolates by pcr for the lipooligosaccharide (los) loc ...201424102802
lipooligosaccharide locus class of campylobacter jejuni: sialylation is not needed for invasive infection.campylobacter jejuni is a highly diverse enteropathogen that is commonly detected worldwide. it can sometimes cause bacteraemia, but the bacterial characteristics facilitating bloodstream infection are not known. a total of 73 c. jejuni isolates, consecutively collected from blood-borne infections during a 10-year period all over finland and for which detailed clinical information of the patients were available, were included. we screened the isolates by pcr for the lipooligosaccharide (los) loc ...201424102802
[campylobacter fetus bacteremia complicating a dysenteric syndrome in a young epileptic].campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in elderly and immunosuppressed patients. we report an original observation of c. fetus bacteremia complicating acute mucoid diarrhea in a young epileptic with no known risk factors. our observation suggests that antiepileptic treatment could increase the risk of blood-borne of c. fetus infection.201324113445
a new addition to the cell plan of anammox bacteria: "candidatus kuenenia stuttgartiensis" has a protein surface layer as the outermost layer of the cell.anammox bacteria perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and have a unique compartmentalized cell consisting of three membrane-bound compartments (from inside outwards): the anammoxosome, riboplasm, and paryphoplasm. the cell envelope of anammox bacteria has been proposed to deviate from typical bacterial cell envelopes by lacking both peptidoglycan and a typical outer membrane. however, the composition of the anammox cell envelope is presently unknown. here, we investigated the outermost ...201424142254
a perspective on the impact of reproductive technologies on food production in for the largest part is still regarded as part of the developing world and has a history of political instability, natural disasters, floods and droughts that all had an effect on the development of livestock production systems and the potential application of biotechnologies. it is expected that the human population in sub saharan africa will experience a growth of 1.2 % per year over the next 30 years. there is therefore pressure to increase sustainable productivity of livestock. reprod ...201424170361
reduction of the abortion rate due to toxoplasma in 3 goat herds following administration of sulfadimidine.the efficacy of sulfadimidine (4 doses of 33 mg/kg body weight, im, q48h) against toxoplasma abortion was assessed in 3 dairy goat herds suffering from toxoplasma abortions during the 4th month of gestation. this protocol was very effective for the control of toxoplasma abortions (p < 0.01).201324179245
management strategies in the treatment of neonatal and pediatric gastroenteritis.acute gastroenteritis, characterized by the onset of diarrhea with or without vomiting, continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in mostly resource-constrained nations. although generally a mild and self-limiting disease, gastroenteritis is one of the most common causes of hospitalization and is associated with a substantial disease burden. worldwide, up to 40% of children aged less than 5 years with diarrhea are hospitalized with rotavirus. also, some microorganisms ...201324194646
comparison of characteristics of patients infected by campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter fetus.a large database of campylobacter isolates precisely identified at the species level was used to compare patients' characteristics. in a multivariate analysis, campylobacter coli was found more often in older patients and in patients having traveled abroad and less often in summertime than campylobacter jejuni. campylobacter fetus infection occurred in much older patients and in hospitalized patients with a systemic disease.201424197884
the role of environmental reservoirs in human campylobacteriosis.campylobacteriosis is infection caused by the bacteria campylobacter spp. and is considered a major public health concern. campylobacter spp. have been identified as one of the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis. they are typically considered a foodborne pathogen and have been shown to colonise the intestinal mucosa of all food-producing animals. much emphasis has been placed on controlling the foodborne pathway of exposure, particularly within the poultry industry, howeve ...201324217177
the gut microbiotassay: a high-throughput qpcr approach combinable with next generation sequencing to study gut microbial diversity.the intestinal microbiota is a complex and diverse ecosystem that plays a significant role in maintaining the health and well-being of the mammalian host. during the last decade focus has increased on the importance of intestinal bacteria. several molecular methods can be applied to describe the composition of the microbiota. this study used a new approach, the gut microbiotassay: an assembly of 24 primer sets targeting the main phyla and taxonomically related subgroups of the intestinal microbi ...201324225361
updates on the web-based violin vaccine database and analysis system.the integrative vaccine investigation and online information network (violin) vaccine research database and analysis system ( curates, stores, analyses and integrates various vaccine-associated research data. since its first publication in nar in 2008, significant updates have been made. starting from 211 vaccines annotated at the end of 2007, violin now includes over 3240 vaccines for 192 infectious diseases and eight noninfectious diseases (e.g. cancers and allergies). ...201324259431
updates on the web-based violin vaccine database and analysis system.the integrative vaccine investigation and online information network (violin) vaccine research database and analysis system ( curates, stores, analyses and integrates various vaccine-associated research data. since its first publication in nar in 2008, significant updates have been made. starting from 211 vaccines annotated at the end of 2007, violin now includes over 3240 vaccines for 192 infectious diseases and eight noninfectious diseases (e.g. cancers and allergies). ...201324259431
bacterial cell-envelope glycoconjugates.prokaryotic glycosylation fulfills an important role in maintaining and protecting the structural integrity and function of the bacterial cell wall, as well as serving as a flexible adaption mechanism to evade environmental and host-induced pressure. the scope of bacterial and archaeal protein glycosylation has considerably expanded over the past decade(s), with numerous examples covering the glycosylation of flagella, pili, glycosylated enzymes, as well as surface-layer proteins. this article a ...201324274370
enteric pathogens and reactive arthritis: a systematic review of campylobacter, salmonella and shigella-associated reactive arthritis.reactive arthritis (rea) is a spondyloarthropathic disorder characterized by inflammation of the joints and tissues occurring after gastrointestinal or genitourinary infections. diagnostic criteria for rea do not exist and, therefore, it is subject to clinical opinion resulting in cases with a wide range of symptoms and definitions. using standardized diagnostic criteria, we conducted a systematic literature review to establish the global incidence of rea for each of the three most commonly-asso ...201324288942
characterization of a campylobacter fetus-like strain isolated from the faeces of a sick leopard tortoise (stigmochelys pardalis) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight as an alternative to bacterial 16s rdna phylogeny.this article describes the isolation and characterization of a campylobacter-like isolate originating from the faeces of a sick leopard tortoise. molecular as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (maldi-tof) characterization suggests that it could correspond to a new campylobacter species.201424313345
complete genome sequence of campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum strain 03-427t.campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum has been isolated from reptiles and humans. this campylobacter subspecies is genetically distinct from other c. fetus subspecies. here, we present the first whole-genome sequence for this c. fetus subspecies.201324336365
humans and cattle: a review of bovine zoonoses.infectious disease prevention and control has been among the top public health objectives during the last century. however, controlling disease due to pathogens that move between animals and humans has been challenging. such zoonotic pathogens have been responsible for the majority of new human disease threats and a number of recent international epidemics. currently, our surveillance systems often lack the ability to monitor the human-animal interface for emergent pathogens. identifying and ult ...201424341911
identification of a broad family of lipid a late acyltransferases with non-canonical substrate specificity.most gram-negative organisms produce lipopolysaccharide (lps), a complex macromolecule anchored to the bacterial membrane by the lipid a moiety. lipid a is synthesized via the raetz pathway, a conserved nine-step enzymatic process first characterized in escherichia coli. the epsilonproteobacterium helicobacter pylori uses the raetz pathway to synthesize lipid a; however, only eight of nine enzymes in the pathway have been identified in this organism. here, we identify the missing acyltransferase ...201424372821
molecular identification of clinical "difficult-to-identify" microbes from sequencing 16s ribosomal dna and internal transcribed spacer 2.clinical microbiology laboratories have to accurately identify clinical microbes. however, some isolates are difficult to identify by the automated biochemical text platforms, which are called "difficult-to-identify" microbes in this study. therefore, the ability of 16s ribosomal dna (16s rdna) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) sequencing to identify these "difficult-to-identify" bacteria and fungi was assessed in this study.201424383440
comparative genome analysis of campylobacter fetus subspecies revealed horizontally acquired genetic elements important for virulence and niche specificity.campylobacter fetus are important animal and human pathogens and the two major subspecies differ strikingly in pathogenicity. c. fetus subsp. venerealis is highly niche-adapted, mainly infecting the genital tract of cattle. c. fetus subsp. fetus has a wider host-range, colonizing the genital- and intestinal-tract of animals and humans. we report the complete genomic sequence of c. fetus subsp. venerealis 84-112 and comparisons to the genome of c. fetus subsp. fetus 82-40. functional analysis of ...201424416416
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