TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
analysis of the polar flagellar gene system of vibrio parahaemolyticus.vibrio parahaemolyticus has dual flagellar systems adapted for locomotion under different circumstances. a single, sheathed polar flagellum propels the swimmer cell in liquid environments. numerous unsheathed lateral flagella move the swarmer cell over surfaces. the polar flagellum is produced continuously, whereas the synthesis of lateral flagella is induced under conditions that impede the function of the polar flagellum, e.g., in viscous environments or on surfaces. thus, the organism possess ...200010850984
heat-labile serotyping of two campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from patients with guillain-barré syndrome and belonging to serotype o19 (penner) 200010866545
bioserogroups of campylobacter species isolated from sheep in kaduna state, nigeria.sheep campylobacter isolates from kaduna state were characterized into their species and bioserogrouped. a total of 1100 samples were collected from kaduna abattoir and national animal production research institute (napri), shika. the samples were from 250 gallbladder, 250 intestinal contents, 100 fetal stomach contents all from kaduna abattoir while 250 rectal swabs and 250 vaginal swabs were from the napri small ruminant programme. of a total of 1100 samples, 39 (3.54%) yielded campylobacter o ...200010867319
roles of fe superoxide dismutase and catalase in resistance of campylobacter coli to freeze-thaw stress.we demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a role in freeze-thaw-induced killing of campylobacter coli following analysis of mutants deficient in key antioxidant functions. superoxide anions, but not h(2)o(2), were formed during the freeze-thaw process. however, a failure to detoxify superoxide anions may lead to spontaneous disproportionation of the radicals to h(2)o(2).200010877815
antibody to heat shock protein can be used for early serological monitoring of helicobacter pylori eradication treatment.infection with helicobacter pylori induces humoral immune responses against various antigens of the bacterium. heat shock proteins (hsps) are immunodominant antigens in various diseases including h. pylori infection. in the present study, we measured the anti-hsp antibody titers in 42 patients with h. pylori-infected peptic ulcers during a bacterial eradication study. the patients were treated with a proton pump inhibitor and antimicrobial agents to eradicate the organism. their sera were obtain ...200010882654
rapid detection of campylobacter jejuni in stool specimens by an enzyme immunoassay and surveillance for campylobacter upsaliensis in the greater salt lake city area.the alexon-trend, inc. (ramsey, minn.), prospect campylobacter microplate assay was compared with culture on a campy-cva plate (remel, lenexa, kans.) and blood-free campylobacter agar with cefoperazone (20 microg/ml), amphotericin b (10 microg/ml), and teicoplanin (4 microg/ml) (cat medium; oxoid limited, hampshire, england) with 631 patient stool samples. the cat medium was used to isolate campylobacter upsaliensis. the enzyme immunoassay (eia) had a sensitivity and a specificity of 89 and 99%, ...200010921981
application of the 5'-nuclease pcr assay in evaluation and development of methods for quantitative detection of campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is recognized as a leading human food-borne pathogen. traditional diagnostic testing for c. jejuni is not reliable due to special growth requirements and the possibility that this bacterium can enter a viable but nonculturable state. nucleic acid-based tests have emerged as a useful alternative to traditional enrichment testing. in this article, we present a 5'-nuclease pcr assay for quantitative detection of c. jejuni and describe its evaluation. a probe including positions ...200010966425
comparative fingerprinting analysis of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains by amplified-fragment length polymorphism genotyping.amplified-fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis with the endonucleases bglii and mfei was used to genotype 91 campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains from outbreaks and sporadic cases. aflp-generated fragments were labeled with fluorescent dye and separated by capillary electrophoresis. the software packages genescan and gelcompar ii were used to calculate aflp pattern similarities and to investigate phylogenetic relationships among the genotyped strains. the aflp method was compared w ...200010970387
rapid detection of campylobacter fetus by polymerase chain reaction combined with non-radioactive hybridization using an oligonucleotide covalently bound to microwells.campylobacter fetus is recognized as a human and animal pathogen. the isolation and differentiation of c. fetus in diagnostic laboratories is hindered by its relatively slow growth and lack of distinguishing biochemical characteristics. we cloned and sequenced a 1581-bp dna fragment, ig02, isolated from a c. fetus genomic library. this fragment was used as a probe on dnas extracted from c. fetus strains and other campylobacter species: ig02 hybridized only with dnas from c. fetus strains. a pcr- ...200010970727
campylobacter fetus sap inversion occurs in the absence of reca function.phase variation of campylobacter fetus surface layer proteins (slps) occurs by inversion of a 6.2-kb dna segment containing the unique sap promoter, permitting expression of a single slp-encoding gene. previous work has shown that the c. fetus sap inversion system is reca dependent. when we challenged a pregnant ewe with a reca mutant of wild-type c. fetus (strain 97-211) that expressed the 97-kda slp, 15 of the 16 ovine-passaged isolates expressed the 97-kda protein. however, one strain (97-209 ...200010992468
antibodies, directed towards campylobacter jejuni antigens, in sera from poultry abattoir workers.occupational exposure of susceptible humans to campylobacter jejuni appears to result in resistance to disease. this is believed to be due to acquired protective immunity. to support this hypothesis the levels of c. jejuni-specific igg and igm antibodies were determined in sera from poultry abattoir workers. such individuals are persistently exposed to c. jejuni, but apparently rarely acquire campylobacteriosis. sera from 43 short-term workers (employed < or = 1 month), 78 long-term workers and ...200011012618
evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic methods for subtyping campylobacter jejuni isolates from humans, poultry, and cattle.six methods for subtyping of campylobacter jejuni were compared and evaluated with a collection of 90 isolates from poultry, cattle, and sporadic human clinical cases as well as from a waterborne outbreak. the applied methods were penner heat-stable serotyping; automated ribotyping (riboprinting); random amplified polymorphic dna typing (rapd); pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge); restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the flagellin gene, flaa (fla-rflp); and denaturing gradient gel el ...200011015406
evaluation of the alexon-trend prospect campylobacter microplate assay.we evaluated stool specimens known to contain or be free of campylobacter by traditional culture, using the prospect campylobacter microplate assay (alexon-trend, ramsey, minn.). this rapid enzyme immunoassay for the detection of campylobacter-specific antigens demonstrated 96% sensitivity and 99% specificity and is an acceptable alternative method of campylobacter detection.200011015419
fatal prosthetic valve endocarditis due to campylobacter fetus.campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus has a predilection for vascular endothelium. this report describes a case of a prosthetic valve infective endocarditis due to this microorganism. despite adequate antibiotic combination treatment, valvular vegetations and perivalvular suppurative complications evolved, leading to valvular dysfunction, heart failure and death. only three other cases of c. fetus prosthetic valve endocarditis have been described previously. campylobacter fetus bacteraemia must b ...200011023767
detection and characterization of autoagglutination activity by campylobacter several gram-negative bacterial pathogens, autoagglutination (aag) activity is a marker for interaction with host cells and virulence. campylobacter jejuni strains also show aag, but this property varies considerably among strains. to examine the characteristics of c. jejuni aag, we developed a quantitative in vitro assay. for strain 81-176, which shows high aag, activity was optimal for cells grown for < or = 24 h, was independent of growth temperature, and was best measured for cells suspen ...200011035721
[campylobacter fetus fetus: an infection in immunosuppressed patients unknown in hemodialysis]. 200011039269
analysis of the role of reca in phenotypic switching of pseudomonas tolaasii.switching between the pathogenic smooth (1116s) and nonpathogenic rough (1116r) forms of pseudomonas tolaasii occurs due to the reversible duplication of a 661-bp element within the phen locus. disruption of the chromosomal reca locus of 1116s and 1116r produced strains 1116sreca and 1116rreca, respectively, which showed typical loss of uv resistance. switching from the smooth to the rough form was virtually eliminated in the 1116sreca strain, whereas the extent of switching from the rough to th ...200011053404
identification of ciprofloxacin-resistant campylobacter jejuni by use of a fluorogenic pcr assay.fluoroquinolones are one class of antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat severe campylobacter jejuni infection. c. jejuni strains resistant to high levels of the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (mic >/=16 microg/ml) have been predominantly characterized with a c-->t transition in codon 86 of gyra. the gyra gene encodes one subunit of dna gyrase, which is a primary target for fluoroquinolone antibiotics. this study establishes a rapid pcr-based taqman method for identifying ciprofloxacin-resis ...200011060054
sialylation of lipooligosaccharide cores affects immunogenicity and serum resistance of campylobacter jejuni.three genes involved in biosynthesis of the lipooligosaccharide (los) core of campylobacter jejuni msc57360, the type strain of the hs:1 serotype, whose structure mimics gm(2) ganglioside, have been cloned and characterized. mutation of genes encoding proteins with homology to a sialyl transferase (cstii) and a putative n-acetylmannosamine synthetase (neuc1), part of the biosynthetic pathway of n-acetylneuraminic acid (neunac), have identical phenotypes. the los cores of these mutants display id ...200011083778
recurring febrile illness in a slaughterhouse worker.a slaughterhouse worker presented with fever and a pleuropericardial effusion. conventional microbiology failed to identify the responsible organism. however, dna sequencing definitively identified campylobacter fetus ssp fetus, which is rare in immunocompetent individuals. prolonged treatment was required to eradicate the infection.200011085771
campylobacter contamination of raw meat and poultry at retail sale: identification of multiple types and comparison with isolates from human infection.campylobacter species are the major cause of acute bacterial enteritis reported in the united kingdom, nonetheless many aspects of campylobacteriosis epidemiology remain poorly understood. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in fresh bovine, ovine, and porcine liver and chicken portions from retail outlets and compare strain subtype distributions with those associated with cases of human campylobacteriosis occurring within the same ...200011131886
campylobacter fetus fetus abortions in vaccinated investigate the cause of an outbreak of ovine abortion in 1996 in a flock of 300 two-tooth (rising 2-year-old) ewes vaccinated against campylobacter fetus fetus infection and to subsequently characterise the strain of c. fetus fetus isolated from aborted foetuses.200016032144
campylobacter fetus fetus abortions in vaccinated ewes - vaccine history and ongoing development. 200016032146
[campylobacter fetus fetus and colon adenocarcinoma]. 200011188913
s-layer proteins. 200010648507
historical origins of current ibd concepts. 200111819757
polarity in action: asymmetric protein localization in bacteria. 200111344132
[aortic valve infective endocarditis due to campylobacter fetus]. 200111215462
evidence for a genetically stable strain of campylobacter jejuni.the genetic stability of selected epidemiologically linked strains of campylobacter jejuni during outbreak situations was investigated by using subtyping techniques. strains isolated from geographically related chicken flock outbreaks in 1998 and from a human outbreak in 1981 were investigated. there was little similarity in the strains obtained from the different chicken flock outbreaks; however, the strains from each of three chicken outbreaks, including strains isolated from various environme ...200111229909
campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus bacteremia associated with chorioamnionitis and intact fetal membranes.campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus was isolated from the blood of a patient with chorioamnionitis and intact fetal membranes. the mother improved after appropriate antibiotic treatment, but the infant died of neonatal infection a few minutes after delivery. this is a very unusual etiology of intra-amniotic infection.200111233847
evidence that the campylobacter fetus sap locus is an ancient genomic constituent with origins before mammals and reptiles diverged.campylobacter fetus bacteria, isolated from both mammals and reptiles, may be either subsp. fetus or subsp. venerealis and either serotype a or serotype b. surface layer proteins, expressed and secreted by genes in the sap locus, play an important role in c. fetus virulence. to assess whether the sap locus represents a pathogenicity island and to gain further insights into c. fetus evolution, we examined several c. fetus genes in 18 isolates. all of the isolates had 5 to 9 sapa or sapb homologs. ...200111254579
escherichia coli cdtb mediates cytolethal distending toxin cell cycle arrest.we previously reported that the cdtb polypeptide of escherichia coli cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) shares significant pattern-specific homology with mammalian type i dnases. in addition, the dnase-related residues of cdtb are required for cellular toxicity. here we demonstrate that purified cdtb converts supercoiled plasmid dna to relaxed and linear forms and promotes cell cycle arrest when combined with an e. coli extract containing cdta and cdtc. cdtb alone had no effect on hela cells, how ...200111292766
sequence and antigenic variability of the helicobacter mustelae surface ring protein hsr.we have identified an array of more than 500 repetitive sequences flanking the hsr gene, which encodes the major surface protein of the ferret pathogen helicobacter mustelae. the repeats show identity exclusively to the amino-terminal half of hsr. analysis of hsr from three strains indicated variability of exposed epitopes. characterization of an hsr mutant showed that hsr is not an adhesin.200111292773
survival of campylobacter jejuni during stationary phase: evidence for the absence of a phenotypic stationary-phase response.when campylobacter jejuni nctc 11351 was grown microaerobically in rich medium at 39 degrees c, entry into stationary phase was followed by a rapid decline in viable numbers to leave a residual population of 1% of the maximum number or less. loss of viability was preceded by sublethal injury, which was seen as a loss of the ability to grow on media containing 0.1% sodium deoxycholate or 1% sodium chloride. resistance of cells to mild heat stress (50 degrees c) or aeration was greatest in exponen ...200111319108
[a case of infected subdural hematoma due to campyrobacter fetus].a 20-year-old male presented fever, nausea and headache 1 week after eating uncooked liver. on admission, it was revealed he had suffered a closed head injury 3 months before without unconsciousness. on admission, computed tomography scan showed a left chronic subdural hematoma. gd-dtpa magnetic resonance images revealed unusual enhancement of the capsule and linear enhancement of the subarachnoid space. the patient underwent burr hole irrigation and drainage. the culture of the hematoma content ...200111321797
rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for subtyping of campylobacter jejuni.we developed a rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) protocol for subtyping campylobacter isolates based on the standardized protocols used by pulsenet laboratories for the subtyping of other food-borne bacterial pathogens. various combinations of buffers, reagents, reaction conditions (e.g., cell suspension concentration, lysis time, lysis temperature, and restriction enzyme concentration), and electrophoretic parameters were evaluated in an effort to devise a protocol that is simple, r ...200111326009
comparison of two methods for serotyping campylobacter spp.two serotyping schemes (penner and laboratory of enteric pathogens [lep]) based on soluble heat-stable antigens were used to analyze 3,788 campylobacter sp. isolates. a significant percentage (36.6%) was untypeable using lep serotyping; greater cross-reaction was also observed. the relative discrimination capabilities of the techniques were similar. penner serotyping fulfils more of the requisite criteria for typing methods.200111326013
[femoral aneurysm infected by campylobacter fetus]. 200111333725
intrachromosomal recombination within the vsp locus of mycoplasma bovis generates a chimeric variable surface lipoprotein antigen.a family of 13 related but divergent vsp genes was recently found in the chromosome of the bovine pathogen mycoplasma bovis. the vsp genomic locus was shown to undergo high-frequency rearrangements and to mediate phenotypic switching of variable lipoprotein antigens (vsps) on the mycoplasma cell surface. here we report that the vsp gene repertoire is subject to changes. genetic analysis of m. bovis clonal isolates displaying distinct vsp phenotypes showed that an intergenic recombination event b ...200111349034
comparative study using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, pcr genotyping, and phenotyping to differentiate campylobacter fetus strains isolated from animals.a collection of campylobacter fetus strains, including both c. fetus subsp. fetus and c. fetus subsp. venerealis, were phenotypically identified to the subspecies level and genotypically typed by pcr and amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis. phenotypic subspecies determination methods were unreliable. genotyping of the strains by pcr and aflp showed a clear discrimination between the two subspecies.200111376071
cdta, cdtb, and cdtc form a tripartite complex that is required for cytolethal distending toxin activity.campylobacter jejuni encodes a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) that causes cells to arrest in the g(2)/m transition phase of the cell cycle. highly related toxins are also produced by other important bacterial pathogens. cdt activity requires the function of three genes: cdta, cdtb, and cdtc. recent studies have established that cdtb is the active subunit of cdt, exerting its effect as a nuclease that damages the dna and triggers cell cycle arrest. microinjection of cdtb into target cells led ...200111401974
[pleural empyema and pericardial effusion due to campylobacter fetus in an immunocompetent adult]. 200111412511
comparison of genotypes and serotypes of campylobacter jejuni isolated from danish wild mammals and birds and from broiler flocks and humans.the incidence of human infection with campylobacter jejuni is increasing in most developed countries and the reason for this is largely unknown. although poultry meat is considered to be a major source, it is evident that other reservoirs exist, possibly common to humans and poultry. environmental sources are believed to be important reservoirs of campylobacter infection in broiler chicken flocks. we investigated the potential importance of wildlife as a source of infection in commercial poultry ...200111425730
evaluation of methods for subtyping campylobacter jejuni during an outbreak involving a food october 1998, the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) assisted in an investigation of an outbreak of campylobacteriosis at a school in salina, kansas. twenty-two isolates were submitted from the kansas state public health laboratory to cdc, 9 associated with the outbreak and 13 epidemiologically unrelated sporadic isolates. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) using smai and sali was initially used to validate the epidemiologic data. we then tested the ability of other subtypi ...200111427543
helicobacter winghamensis sp. nov., a novel helicobacter sp. isolated from patients with gastroenteritis.from 1997 to 1999 seven isolates of campylobacter-like organisms from five patients that were exhibiting symptoms of gastroenteritis, including fever, stomach malaise, and diarrhea, were investigated. the organisms were isolated from stool samples and found to exhibit a diverse colony morphology; hence multiple isolates were submitted from one of the patients. all isolates were found to be identical. the organisms were catalase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, and nitrate negative but oxidase and ...200111427547
genomic heterogeneity and o-antigenic diversity of campylobacter upsaliensis and campylobacter helveticus strains isolated from dogs and cats in germany.a serotyping scheme based on heat-stable surface antigens was established for 101 campylobacter upsaliensis and 10 campylobacter helveticus strains isolated from 261 dogs and 46 cats of different ages originating from two geographically distinct regions in germany. the prevalence of c. upsaliensis varied between 27.8% in juvenile dogs (<12 months of age) and 55.4% in adult dogs (p < 0.05). of the cats, 19.6% harbored c. upsaliensis, whereas 21.7% carried c. helveticus. of the c. upsaliensis isol ...200111427567
cytolethal distending toxin demonstrates genotoxic activity in a yeast model.cytolethal distending toxins (cdts) are multisubunit proteins produced by a variety of bacterial pathogens that cause enlargement, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in mammalian cells. while their function remains uncertain, recent studies suggest that they can act as intracellular dnases in mammalian cells. here we establish a novel yeast model for understanding cdt-associated disease. expression of the cdtb subunit in yeast causes a g2/m arrest, as seen in mammalian cells. cdtb toxicity is not ...200111500452
prevalence, antigenic specificity, and bactericidal activity of poultry anti-campylobacter maternal antibodies.poultry are considered the major reservoir for campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human food-borne diarrhea. to understand the ecology of c. jejuni and develop strategies to control c. jejuni infection in the animal reservoir, we initiated studies to examine the potential role of anti-campylobacter maternal antibodies in protecting young broiler chickens from infection by c. jejuni. using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), the prevalence of anti-c. jejuni antibodies in ...200111525990
survival of clinical and poultry-derived isolates of campylobacter jejuni at a low temperature (4 degrees c).campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, and contamination of poultry has been implicated in illness. the bacteria are fastidious in terms of their temperature requirements, being unable to grow below ca. 31 degrees c, but have been found to be physiologically active at lower temperatures and to tolerate exposure to low temperatures in a strain-dependent manner. in this study, 19 field isolates of c. jejuni (10 of clinical and 9 of poultry origin) were stud ...200111526022
phenotyping of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by a quantitative antibiogram [mic] typing scheme using euclidean distances [qated].background: enteropathogenic campylobacter jejuni and c. coli are presently the most common cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. an understanding of sources and means of transmission of campylobacter is an essential factor in order to reduce the incidence of campylobacter-related gastroenteritis in man. consequently a reproducible, sensitive and well-standardised typing scheme is critical in the successful discrimination of strains and in the subsequent investigations ...200111527505
polar flagellar motility of the vibrionaceae.polar flagella of vibrio species can rotate at speeds as high as 100,000 rpm and effectively propel the bacteria in liquid as fast as 60 microm/s. the sodium motive force powers rotation of the filament, which acts as a propeller. the filament is complex, composed of multiple subunits, and sheathed by an extension of the cell outer membrane. the regulatory circuitry controlling expression of the polar flagellar genes of members of the vibrionaceae is different from the peritrichous system of ent ...200111528005
juxtaposition of an active promoter to vsp genes via site-specific dna inversions generates antigenic variation in mycoplasma bovis.mycoplasma bovis, the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmosis, undergoes extensive antigenic variation of major and highly immunogenic surface lipoprotein antigens (vsps). a family of 13 related but divergent vsp genes, which occur as single chromosomal copies, was recently found in the chromosome of m. bovis. in the present study, the molecular mechanism mediating the high-frequency phase variation of two vsps (vspa and vspc) as representatives of the vsp family was investigate ...200111544233
locus of enterocyte effacement from citrobacter rodentium: sequence analysis and evidence for horizontal transfer among attaching and effacing pathogens.the family of attaching and effacing (a/e) bacterial pathogens, which includes diarrheagenic enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) and enterohemorrhagic e. coli (ehec), remains a significant threat to human and animal health. these bacteria intimately attach to host intestinal cells, causing the effacement of brush border microvilli. the genes responsible for this phenotype are encoded in a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (lee). citrobacter rodentium is the only ...200111553577
campylobacter fetus diagnosis: direct immunofluorescence comparing chicken igy and rabbit igg argentina bovine genital campylobacteriosis is routinely diagnosed by direct immunofluorescence test. generally, the hyperimmune sera used for this test are obtained from rabbits and less often from goats. in this work, a chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (igy) extract was conjugated and its ability to detect campylobacters with the regular conjugate prepared with rabbit sera was comparatively evaluated. both conjugates were independently evaluated by two laboratories, named "azul" (lab a) and ...200111565050
differentiation of campylobacter species by aflp fingerprinting.the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) fingerprinting method was tested for its ability to identify and subtype the most important campylobacter species found in veterinary infections. sixty-nine reference strains and 19 clinical isolates of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni, campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei, campylobacter upsaliensis, campylobacter coli, campylobacter lari, campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, c. fetus subsp. venerealis, campylobacter hyointestinalis subs ...200111577152
whole genome comparison of campylobacter jejuni human isolates using a low-cost microarray reveals extensive genetic diversity.campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease throughout the world, and yet is still a poorly understood pathogen. whole genome microarray comparisons of 11 c. jejuni strains of diverse origin identified genes in up to 30 nctc 11168 loci ranging from 0.7 to 18.7 kb that are either absent or highly divergent in these isolates. many of these regions are associated with the biosynthesis of surface structures including flagella, lipo-oligosaccharide, and the ne ...200111591647
a case of campylobacter fetus endocarditis of the tricuspid valve unaccompanied by fever. 200111599526
campylobacter fetus uses multiple loci for dna inversion within the 5' conserved regions of sap homologs.campylobacter fetus cells possess multiple promoterless sap homologs, each capable of expressing a surface layer protein (slp) by utilizing a unique promoter present on a 6.2-kb invertible element. each sap homolog includes a 626-bp 5' conserved region (fcr) with 74 bp upstream and 552 bp within the open reading frame. after dna inversion, the splice is seamless because the fcrs are identical. in mutant strain 23d:aca2k101, in which sapa and sapa2 flanking the invertible element in opposite orie ...200111673436
campylobacter fetus pericarditis in a patient with beta-thalassemia: case report and review of the literature.a case of pericardial effusion due to campylobacter fetus in a patient with thalassemia is presented. the patient failed to respond to ceftriaxone and clarithromycin despite in vitro susceptibility, but improved after pericardiectomy and ampicillin. pericarditis due to c. fetus has rarely been reported. a high index of suspicion is essential to recognise this organism, because of its special microbiological characteristics.200111678937
bacterial genetic fingerprint: a reliable factor in the study of the epidemiology of human campylobacter enteritis?the rate of human intestinal infections with more than a single campylobacter strain was determined and the genetic variabilities of campylobacter strains throughout an infection episode were investigated by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence pcr (eric-pcr). for 48 and 49 of 50 patients, all isolates from one sample showed identical patterns by pfge and eric-pcr, respectively. throughout an infection episode in 47 of 52 p ...200111682547
identification, characterization, and variation in expression of two serologically distinct o-antigen epitopes in lipopolysaccharides of campylobacter fetus serotype a strains.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the lipopolysaccharide (lps) o-antigens of campylobacter fetus serotype a and b strains were produced. eight mabs specific for serotype a lps were characterized on immunoblots of c. fetus serotype a lps. two immunoblot patterns were observed and were used to divide the eight mabs into two groups. mabs m1177 and m1194 were selected as representative of the two groups and were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to examine the lps o-antigen epitopes ...200111705938
an optimised recovery method for thermophilic campylobacter from liver.the past three decades have witnessed the rise of campylobacter enteritis in man from virtual obscurity to notoriety, with present isolation rates superseding those of other enteric pathogens such as salmonella spp. and shigella spp. in most developed countries. although campylobacters are not completely new to applied bacteriology, they have evaded traditional isolation techniques used for the isolation of pure cultures, apart from single isolations that were free from competing organisms. offa ...200111741507
determination of helicobacter pylori virulence by simple gene analysis of the cag pathogenicity island.nucleic acid amplification was performed for five loci in the cag pathogenicity island (pai) of helicobacter pylori (comprising caga, the caga promoter region, cage, cagt, and the left end of cagii [lec]), and gastric inflammation in patients was evaluated. of 204 h. pylori isolates from japanese patients (53 with peptic ulcer, 55 with gastric cancer, and 96 with chronic gastritis), 197 (96.6%) were positive for all five loci. two isolates (1%) were negative for all five loci, and five isolates ...200111139216
porins and lipopolysaccharide induce apoptosis in human spermatozoa.treatment of human spermatozoa with porins or lipopolysaccharide (lps) increases spontaneous apoptosis in these cells. porins and lps were extracted from salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and pasteurella multocida and were mixed with human spermatozoa for detection of levels of apoptosis.200111139223
emergence of diverse helicobacter species in the pathogenesis of gastric and enterohepatic diseases.since helicobacter pylori was first cultivated from human gastric biopsy specimens in 1982, it has become apparent that many related species can often be found colonizing the mucosal surfaces of humans and other animals. these other helicobacter species can be broadly grouped according to whether they colonize the gastric or enterohepatic niche. gastric helicobacter species are widely distributed in mammalian hosts and are often nearly universally prevalent. in many cases they cause an inflammat ...200111148003
endocarditis due to rare and fastidious bacteria.the etiologic diagnosis of infective endocarditis is easily made in the presence of continuous bacteremia with gram-positive cocci. however, the blood culture may contain a bacterium rarely associated with endocarditis, such as lactobacillus spp., klebsiella spp., or nontoxigenic corynebacterium, salmonella, gemella, campylobacter, aeromonas, yersinia, nocardia, pasteurella, listeria, or erysipelothrix spp., that requires further investigation to establish the relationship with endocarditis, or ...200111148009
competitive exclusion of heterologous campylobacter spp. in chicks.chicken and human isolates of campylobacter jejuni were used to provide oral challenge of day-old broiler chicks. the isolation ratio of the competing challenge strains was monitored and varied, depending upon the isolates used. a pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay of the flagellin gene (flaa) was used to discriminate between the chick-colonizing isolates. our observations indicated that the selected c. jejuni colonizers dominated the niche provided by the chicken ceca. chicken i ...200111157253
s-layer variation in bacillus stearothermophilus pv72 is based on dna rearrangements between the chromosome and the naturally occurring megaplasmids.bacillus stearothermophilus pv72 expresses different s-layer genes (sbsa and sbsb) under different growth conditions. no stretches of significant sequence identity between sbsa and sbsb were detected. in order to investigate s-layer gene regulation in b. stearothermophilus pv72, we characterized the upstream regulatory region of sbsa and sbsb by sequencing and primer extension analysis. both genes are transcribed from unique but different promoters, independently of the growth phase. localizatio ...200111160098
n-acyl-l-homoserine lactone-mediated regulation of the lip secretion system in serratia liquefaciens mg1.the analysis of serratia liquefaciens mg1 'luxab insertion mutants that are responsive to n-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone revealed that expression of lipb is controlled by the swr quorum-sensing system. lipb is part of the lip exporter, a type i secretion system, which is responsible for the secretion of extracellular lipase, metalloprotease, and s-layer protein.200111160117
evaluation of numerical analysis of pfge-dna profiles for differentiating campylobacter fetus subspecies by comparison with phenotypic, pcr and 16s rdna sequencing assess the efficacy of numerical analysis of pfge-dna profiles for identification and differentiation of campylobacter fetus subspecies.200111168732
thermophilic multidrug-resistant campylobacter fetus infection with hypersplenism and histiocytic phagocytosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.we present a case report of a patient who had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and campylobacter fetus infection with a number of unusual clinical and microbiological features. the patient had prominent gastrointestinal symptoms, splenic infarction, splenomegaly with hypersplenism, and hemophagocytic histiocytosis in the spleen and lymph nodes; the organism displayed growth on campy-selective blood agar, thermotolerance, and resistance to quinolones, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime ...200111170921
characterization of culture-derived spiral bacteria by 16s ribosomal rna gene sequence analysis.broad range amplification and sequence analysis of the 16s ribosomal rna gene was used to identify three spiral-form organisms. the agents were identified as campylobacter fetus, "flexispira rappini", and borrelia burgdorferi, respectively, using either proprietary or public sequence databases. in each case, the rdna sequence showed 99-100% homology with known sequence data. sequence-based analysis for each isolate required only 2-3 days, whereas traditional means of identification took 8-12 day ...200111173192
characterization of an autotrophic sulfide-oxidizing marine arcobacter sp. that produces filamentous sulfur.a coastal marine sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic bacterium produces hydrophilic filamentous sulfur as a novel metabolic end product. phylogenetic analysis placed the organism in the genus arcobacter in the epsilon subdivision of the proteobacteria. this motile vibrioid organism can be considered difficult to grow, preferring to grow under microaerophilic conditions in flowing systems in which a sulfide-oxygen gradient has been established. purified cell cultures were maintained by using this appro ...200211772641
evaluation of a novel heminested pcr assay based on the phosphoglucosamine mutase gene for detection of helicobacter pylori in saliva and dental plaque.a novel heminested pcr protocol was developed for the specific detection of helicobacter pylori at low copy numbers. a set of primers specific for the phosphoglucosamine mutase gene (glmm) of h. pylori produced a 765-bp fragment that was used as template for the heminested primer pair delineating a 496-bp fragment. by using agarose gel electrophoresis for detection of the heminested pcr-amplified products, amplification of h. pylori genomic dna was achieved at concentrations as low as 0.1 pg, eq ...200211773117
succinate:quinone oxidoreductases from epsilon-proteobacteria.the epsilon-proteobacteria form a subdivision of the proteobacteria including the genera wolinella, campylobacter, helicobacter, sulfurospirillum, arcobacter and dehalospirillum. the majority of these bacteria are oxidase-positive microaerophiles indicating an electron transport chain with molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor. however, numerous members of the epsilon-proteobacteria also grow in the absence of oxygen. the common presence of menaquinone and fumarate reduction activity su ...200211803019
efficient isolation of campylobacters from stools: what are we missing? 200211896083
campylobacter fetus bacteraemia in a renal graft recipient. 200211917074
development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantification of the humoral response of cattle vaccinated against campylobacter develop a reliable elisa by use of a unique antigen preparation for serum igg quantification after vaccination against campylobacter fetus in cattle.200211939324
development and application of a new scheme for typing campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by pcr-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.a molecular typing approach for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli was developed with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a 9.6-kb pcr-amplified portion of the lipopolysaccharide gene cluster. sixty-one penner serotype reference strains were analyzed with this new genotyping scheme, and 32 genogroups were found. eleven additional genogroups were obtained from 87 clinical c. jejuni strains tested. this molecular typing method shows a correlation with the penner heat-stab ...200211980961
thymoma associated with hypogammaglobulinemia (good's syndrome): report of a case.a 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia with thymoma (good's syndrome). tests for immunological function showed an abnormality in humoral immunity with decreases in the proportion of cells bearing b-cell markers in the peripheral blood and bone marrow. the patient was found to have campylobacter fetus sepsis caused by the hypogammaglobulinemia due to humoral immunodeficiency, and he was given gamma-globulin supplement. thymectomy was performed due to ...200211991514
effect of chlortetracycline in a trace mineral salt mix on fertility traits in beef cattle females in florida.the study objective was to determine the effect of chlortetracycline in an ad libitum trace-mineralized salt mix given to heifers before and(or) during bull exposure on the proportion pregnant and the time to conception in a fixed breeding period. heifers (n = 768), 13 to 15 mo of age, were individually identified, immunized (leptospira, campylobacter fetus), examined (body condition score, vaginal lesion score, bw), and randomly allocated within 2 x 2 factorial blocks of treatments where trace ...200212002324
detection of campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera by a dot-elisa using acid extracts from c. fetus ssp. fetus and c. jejuni strains and comparison with a complement fixation this study, a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-elisa) was evaluated in comparison with a complement fixation test (cft) for the detection of campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera. acid glycine extracts (age) of both campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus and campylobacter jejuni strains that had been isolated from the gall-bladder of slaughtered sheep was used as antigen in both tests. a total of 153 sheep sera from aborted (74) and slaughtered (79) sheep were examined by both dot-elisa an ...200212019946
walkerton, 2 years later: "memory fades very quickly". 200212041857
campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis surface array protein from bovine isolates in brazil.the electrophoretic patterns of 31 campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis capsular surface array protein (sap) isolated from bovines in reproduction from different regions of brazil were analyzed. the persistence of the bacteria in the reproductive tract of naturally infected bovines and the dynamic of sap expression were also evaluated. cervical mucous and prepucial aspirates from five animals naturally infected were cultured for isolation of campylobacter fetus and the saps extracted from t ...200212070688
monoclonal antibodies specific for campylobacter fetus lipopolysaccharides.four monoclonal antibodies (mabs) (m1357, m1360, m1823 and m1825) which reacted with campylobacter fetus lipopolysaccharide (lps) core region epitopes were produced and characterized. reactivity of these mabs with c. fetus core lps epitopes was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with whole cell proteinase k digests and phenol-water extracted lps, and by immunoblotting with proteinase k digests. the specificities of the four mabs were evaluated using an indirect elisa. one of ...200212079745
patterns of sequence conservation in the s-layer proteins and related sequences in clostridium difficile.clostridium difficile is the etiological agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. among the factors that may play a role in infection are s-layer proteins (slps). previous work has shown these to consist mainly of two components, resulting from the cleavage of a precursor encoded by the slpa gene. the high-molecular-weight (mw) subunit is related both to amidases from b. subtilis and to at least another 28 gene products in c. difficile strain 630. to gain insight into the functions of the slps a ...200212081960
clostridium difficile genotyping based on slpa variable region in s-layer gene sequence: an alternative to serotyping.recent investigations of clostridium difficile cell wall components have revealed the presence of an s-layer encoded by the slpa gene. the aim of this study was to determine whether slpa genotyping can be used as an alternative to serotyping. the variable regions of slpa were amplified by pcr from serogroup reference strains and various clinical isolates chosen randomly. amplified products were analyzed after restriction enzyme digestion and dna sequencing. the sequences of the variable region o ...200212089261
growth of campylobacter jejuni supported by respiration of fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, trimethylamine-n-oxide, or dimethyl sulfoxide requires oxygen.the human gastrointestinal pathogen campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic bacterium with a respiratory metabolism. the genome sequence of c. jejuni strain 11168 reveals the presence of genes that encode terminal reductases that are predicted to allow the use of a wide range of alternative electron acceptors to oxygen, including fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, and n- or s-oxides. all of these reductase activities were present in cells of strain 11168, and the molybdoenzyme encoded by cj0264c was ...200212107136
recurrent septicemia due to campylobacter fetus and campylobacter lari in an immunocompetent patient.we describe a severe and recurrent septicemia due to campylobacter in a 75-year-old immunocompetent patient. two campylobacter strains were detected in several blood cultures. campylobacter fetus and campylobacter lari were identified with pcr tests based on species-specific nucleotide sequences for the 16s rrna gene.200212120946
homologs of the rml enzymes from salmonella enterica are responsible for dtdp-beta-l-rhamnose biosynthesis in the gram-positive thermophile aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus dsm 10155.the glycan chains of the surface layer (s-layer) glycoprotein from the gram-positive, thermophilic bacterium aneurinibacillus (formerly bacillus) thermoaerophilus strain dsm 10155 are composed of l-rhamnose- and d-glycero-d-manno-heptose-containing disaccharide repeating units which are linked to the s-layer polypeptide via core structures that have variable lengths and novel o-glycosidic linkages. in this work we investigated the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of thymidine diphospho-l-rha ...200212147463
campylobacter-induced fetal death in a rhesus monkey.a pregnant 4-year-old rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta) was presented with a history of acute vaginal bleeding. physical examination revealed an open cervix. an ultrasound scan demonstrated a viable early third-trimester fetus, approximately 16 weeks of gestational age. hematology results showed that the monkey was anemic, with a normal leukogram and döhle bodies. a subsequent cervical culture was positive for campylobacter fetus. the fetus died 3 days later, and a necropsy of the fetus and placent ...200212243477
campylobacter-associated guillain-barré syndrome after orthotopic liver transplantation for hepatitis c cirrhosis: a case report.guillain-barré syndrome is characterized by acute paralysis and ascending neuropathy due to an inflammatory attack on the myelin of peripheral nerves. about 2/3 of patients with guillain-barré syndrome have an infection 1-3 weeks before the onset of the symptoms. guillain-barré syndrome has rarely been reported after solid organ transplantation (18 cases with three cases after liver transplantation), and these cases are mostly related to a cmv infection. we describe a 64-year-old male patient wh ...200212270750
long-term antibody responses following human infection with campylobacter jejuni.epidemiological evidence suggests prior infection of humans by campylobacter jejuni leads to protection against disease following further exposure. it is known that infections elicit strong antibody responses following the onset of disease and that antibody levels are elevated in putatively immune populations. to determine if systemic and mucosal antibodies induced by a confirmed infection remain at elevated levels for prolonged periods, repeat serum, saliva and urine samples were taken from cam ...200212296859
detection of helicobacter colonization of the murine lower bowel by genus-specific pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.helicobacter genus-specific pcr and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis can detect and speciate the helicobacters that colonize the lower bowel of laboratory mice. the method's sensitivity is comparable to that of species-specific pcr and may detect unnamed helicobacter species. this approach should prove useful for commercial and research murine facilities.200212324369
[a case of meningoencephalitis and spondylodiscitis caused by campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus infection].campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (c. fetus) is a gram-negative, curved, rod-shaped microaerophile, occasionally may cause meningitis or meningoencephalitis in humans. this report documents the case of 49-year-old man with lumbar spondylodiscitis and meningoencephalitis caused by c. fetus infection. on admission, the patient was delirious and severe inflammatory reactions were seen in his serum. cerebrospinal fluid (cfs) revealed normal glucose concentration and moderate mononuclear leukocytosis. ...200212355851
thermo-tolerant campylobacter fetus bacteraemia identified by 16s ribosomal rna gene sequencing: an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients.eight campylobacter isolates that were able to grow at 25 degrees c and 42 degrees c and had the same biochemical profile were isolated from the blood of eight immunocompromised patients. conventional biochemical tests were unable to determine whether they were isolates of thermo-tolerant c. fetus, h2s-negative c hyointestinalis, or a new campylobacter species. sequencing of the 16s ribosomal rna genes showed that all eight isolates had the same nucleotide sequence and this was identical to that ...200212358064
structural analysis and evidence for dynamic emergence of bacillus anthracis s-layer networks.surface layers (s-layers), which form the outermost layers of many bacteria and archaea, consist of protein molecules arranged in two-dimensional crystalline arrays. bacillus anthracis, a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, responsible for anthrax, synthesizes two abundant surface proteins: sap and ea1. regulatory studies showed that ea1 and sap appear sequentially at the surface of the parental strain. sap and ea1 can form arrays. the structural parameters of s-layers from mutant strains (e ...200212426331
isolation of three new surface layer protein genes (slp) from lactobacillus brevis atcc 14869 and characterization of the change in their expression under aerated and anaerobic conditions.two new surface layer (s-layer) proteins (slpb and slpd) were characterized, and three slp genes (slpb, slpc, and slpd) were isolated, sequenced, and studied for their expression in lactobacillus brevis neotype strain atcc 14869. under different growth conditions, l. brevis strain 14869 was found to form two colony types, smooth (s) and rough (r), and to express the s-layer proteins differently. under aerobic conditions r-colony type cells produced slpb and slpd proteins, whereas under anaerobic ...200212446628
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter lari, and campylobacter coli in different ecological guilds and taxa of migrating birds.a total of 1,794 migrating birds trapped at a coastal site in southern sweden were sampled for detection of campylobacter spp. all isolates phenotypically identified as campylobacter jejuni and a subset of those identified as non-c. jejuni were identified to the species level by pcr-based techniques. c. jejuni was found in 5.0% of the birds, campylobacter lari was found in 5.6%, and campylobacter coli was found in 0.9%. an additional 10.7% of the tested birds were infected with hippurate hydroly ...200212450810
isolation of campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus from a patient with cellulitis.campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus is a gram-negative, slender, spirally curved bacterial pathogen. it has been isolated from human blood, spinal fluid, and abscesses, but cellulitis associated with bacteremia is rare. we report its isolation from a blood culture of a human patient with cellulitis as well as difficulties encountered in determining the identity of the subspecies of c. fetus.200212454199
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