PMID(sorted ascending)
detection of small numbers of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli cells in environmental water, sewage, and food samples by a seminested pcr assay.a rapid and sensitive assay was developed for detection of small numbers of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli cells in environmental water, sewage, and food samples. water and sewage samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched overnight in a nonselective medium. the enrichment cultures were prepared for pcr by a rapid and simple procedure consisting of centrifugation, proteinase k treatment, and boiling. a seminested pcr based on specific amplification of the intergenic sequen ...199910103261
[campylobacter fetus sepsis, pulmonary thromboembolism and an occult neoplasm]. 199910193005
cloning and characterization of two bistructural s-layer-rtx proteins from campylobacter rectus.campylobacter rectus is an important periodontal pathogen in humans. a surface-layer (s-layer) protein and a cytotoxic activity have been characterized and are thought to be its major virulence factors. the cytotoxic activity was suggested to be due to a pore-forming protein toxin belonging to the rtx (repeats in the structural toxins) family. in the present work, two closely related genes, csxa and csxb (for c. rectus s-layer and rtx protein) were cloned from c. rectus and characterized. the cs ...199910198015
recurrent "flexispira rappini" bacteremia in an adult patient undergoing hemodialysis: case report.a blood culture from a 65-year-old febrile man undergoing hemodialysis revealed, 5 days after inoculation, an unusual gram-negative fusiform rod with darting motility. during another episode of fever 21 days later, this campylobacter-like organism was again recovered from three blood cultures and subcultured under an h2-enriched microaerobic atmosphere. the organism was catalase negative and oxidase positive and hydrolyzed urea rapidly. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis a ...199910203478
sequence analysis of the gyra and parc homologues of a wild-type strain of vibrio parahaemolyticus and its fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants.vibrio parahaemolyticus causes seafood-borne gastroenteritis in humans. it is particularly important in japan, where raw seafood is frequently consumed. fluoroquinolone is one of the current drugs of choice for treating patients infected by v. parahaemolyticus because resistant strains are rarely found. to study a possible fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism in this organism, nucleotide sequences that are homologous to known gyra and parc genes have been cloned from v. parahaemolyticus aq3815 a ...199910223929
generation of a superoxide dismutase (sod)-deficient mutant of campylobacter coli: evidence for the significance of sod in campylobacter survival and colonization.the microaerophilic nature of campylobacter species implies an inherent sensitivity towards oxygen and its reduction products, particularly the superoxide anion. the deleterious effects of exposure to superoxide radicals are counteracted by the activity of superoxide dismutase (sod). we have shown previously that campylobacter coli possesses an iron cofactored sod. the sodb gene of c. coli ua585 was insertionally inactivated by the site-specific insertion of a teto cassette. organisms harboring ...199910347040
subtyping of haemophilus influenzae strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.a total of 200 isolates of haemophilus influenzae were analyzed by serotyping, biotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). a total of 178 epidemiologically unrelated strains of h. influenzae demonstrated a variety of genome patterns by pfge, and 165 genotypes were thus obtained in this study. pfge typing proved to have a much stronger discriminatory power than either serotyping or biotyping. six serotype b strains were all classified into discrete genotypes. a pfge analysis of 18 str ...199910364576
evaluation of the anaeropack campylo system for growth of microaerophilic bacteria.growth of microaerophilic bacteria in the anaeropack campylo (mitsubishi gas chemical america, inc., new york, n.y.) atmosphere generation system was compared to growth in the campypak plus jar and campypak pouch (becton-dickinson microbiology systems [bdms], cockeysville, md.). growth in the anaeropack campylo system was considered equivalent to or better than growth obtained in the campypak plus and campypak pouch systems for 48 of the 50 helicobacter pylori strains and for all 28 campylobacte ...199910364622
fused and overlapping rpob and rpoc genes in helicobacters, campylobacters, and related bacteria.the genes coding for the beta (rpob) and beta' (rpoc) subunits of rna polymerase are fused in the gastric pathogen helicobacter pylori but separate in other taxonomic groups. to better understand how the unique fused structure evolved, we determined dna sequences at and around the rpob-rpoc junction in 10 gastric and nongastric species of helicobacter and in members of the related genera wolinella, arcobacter, sulfurospirillum, and campylobacter. we found the fusion to be specific to helicobacte ...199910368167
campylobacter fetus infection of a previously excluded popliteal aneurysm. 199910388646
an uncommon helicobacter isolate from blood: evidence of a group of helicobacter spp. pathogenic in aids unusual helicobacter sp. was isolated from the blood of a human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patient. this organism had spiral morphology, with single amphitrichous flagella, and was negative for hippurate hydrolysis, production of urease, and reduction of nitrate. 16s rrna gene sequence analysis verified that the isolate was a species of helicobacter, most closely related to an undescribed helicobacter-like isolate from vancouver, british columbia, canada, and to helicobacter westme ...199910405434
health status of bulls used for natural breeding on farms in south west hundred and nine breeding bulls were examined during the period november 1992 to june 1993 on farms in south west scotland for evidence of infectious diseases associated with breeding. preputial washings were collected to screen for campylobacter fetus venerialis, together with serial blood samples to assess their seroprevalence to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv), bovine herpes virus-1 (bhv-1), leptospira hardjo and bovine herpes virus-4 (bhv-4). the possible impact of natural mating on ...199910416365
characterization of a haemophilus ducreyi mutant deficient in expression of cytolethal distending toxin.haemophilus ducreyi expresses a soluble cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) that kills hela, hep-2, and other human epithelial cells in vitro. h. ducreyi cdt activity is encoded by a three-gene cluster (cdtabc), and antibody to the cdtc gene product can neutralize cdt activity in vitro (l. d. cope, s. r. lumbley, j. l. latimer, j. klesney-tait, m. k. stevens, l. s. johnson, m. purven, r. s. munson, jr., t. lagergard, j. d. radolf, and e. j. hansen, proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 94:4056-4061, 1997). c ...199910417154
direct analysis and identification of helicobacter and campylobacter species by maldi-tof mass spectrometry.campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter fetus, and campylobacter coli were compared with helicobacter pylori and helicobacter mustelae by direct analysis of individual cultured colonies in 50% methanol-water with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (maldi-tof ms). h. pylori and campylobacter species from blood agar culture produced unique, complex spectra with over 25 different ions in mass/charge (m/z) range from 2,000 to 62,000. a biomarker for h. pylori ...199910464475
comparative studies of mutations in animal isolates and experimental in vitro- and in vivo-selected mutants of salmonella spp. suggest a counterselection of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant strains in the field.the occurrence of mutations in the genes coding for gyrase (gyra and gyrb) and topoisomerase iv (pare and parc) of salmonella typhimurium experimental mutants selected in vitro and in vivo and of 138 nalidixic acid-resistant salmonella field isolates was investigated. the sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining region of these genes in highly fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants (mics of 4 to 16 microg/ml) revealed the presence of gyra mutations at codons corresponding to gly-81 or ser-8 ...199910471553
genetics of o-antigen biosynthesis in pseudomonas aeruginosa.pathogenic bacteria produce an elaborate assortment of extracellular and cell-associated bacterial products that enable colonization and establishment of infection within a host. lipopolysaccharide (lps) molecules are cell surface factors that are typically known for their protective role against serum-mediated lysis and their endotoxic properties. the most heterogeneous portion of lps is the o antigen or o polysaccharide, and it is this region which confers serum resistance to the organism. pse ...199910477307
campylobacter bacteremia and pneumonia in two splenectomized patients.two patients with beta thalassemia who had undergone splenectomy for hypersplenism were admitted to the hospital with high fever and lobar pneumonia. neither patient had gastrointestinal symptoms. campylobacter bacteremia was diagnosed in both patients. campylobacter jejuni was identified in the first patient and campylobacter fetus in the second. both patients were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and recovered fully.199910482027
evaluation of a truncated recombinant flagellin subunit vaccine against campylobacter jejuni.a recombinant protein comprising the maltose-binding protein (mbp) of escherichia coli fused to amino acids 5 to 337 of the flaa flagellin of campylobacter coli vc167 was evaluated for immunogenicity and protective efficacy against challenge by a heterologous strain of campylobacter, campylobacter jejuni 81-176, in two murine models. the sequence of the flaa gene of strain 81-176 revealed a predicted protein which was 98.1% similar to that of vc167 flaa over the region expressed in the fusion pr ...199910531231
rapid identification of campylobacter, arcobacter, and helicobacter isolates by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16s rrna gene.a rapid two-step identification scheme based on pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) analysis of the 16s rrna gene was developed in order to differentiate isolates belonging to the campylobacter, arcobacter, and helicobacter genera. for 158 isolates (26 reference cultures and 132 clinical isolates), specific rflp patterns were obtained and species were successfully identified by this assay.199910565952
prevalence of campylobacter, arcobacter, helicobacter, and sutterella spp. in human fecal samples as estimated by a reevaluation of isolation methods for campylobacters.the aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of campylobacteria including campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (c. jejuni) and campylobacter coli in human clinical samples and in samples from healthy individuals and to reevaluate the efficacies of conventional selective methods for isolation of campylobacter spp. two charcoal-based selective media, modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mccda) and cefoperazone-amphotericin-teicoplanin (cat) agar, were compared with skirrow' ...200010618103
genotyping of campylobacter spp. 200010618195
isolation and characterization of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni from macaroni penguins (eudyptes chrysolophus) in the subantarctic region.on bird island, south georgia, albatrosses (n = 140), penguins (n = 100), and fur seals (n = 206) were sampled for campylobacter jejuni. c. jejuni subsp. jejuni was recovered from three macaroni penguins (eudyptes chrysolophus). these isolates, the first reported for the subantarctic region, showed low genetic diversity and high similarity to northern hemisphere c. jejuni isolates, possibly suggesting recent introduction to the area.200010618265
s-layer proteins. 200010648507
genetic characterization of campylobacter jejuni o:41 isolates in relation with guillain-barré syndrome.campylobacter jejuni o:41 strains are found in association with guillain-barré syndrome in south africa. strains of this serotype collected over 17 years were characterized by amplified fragment length polymorphism and flagellin typing to determine their clonal nature. despite minor variation in gm1 expression, all of the strains were genetically indistinguishable, indicating that they are representative of a genetically stable clone.200010655404
use of defined mutants to assess the role of the campylobacter rectus s-layer in bacterium-epithelial cell interactions.campylobacter rectus is a periodontal pathogen with a 150-kda protein on its cell surface. this protein forms a paracrystalline lattice, called the s-layer, surrounding the outer membrane of this gram-negative bacterium. to initiate a genetic analysis of the possible role of the s-layer in the initial interaction of c. rectus with host epithelial cells, c. rectus strains lacking the s-layer protein gene (crsa) were constructed by allelic exchange mutagenesis. surprisingly, the lack of the s-laye ...200010678961
serum resistance in haemophilus ducreyi requires outer membrane protein dsra.haemophilus ducreyi is resistant to killing by normal serum antibody and complement. we discovered an h. ducreyi outer membrane protein required for expression of serum resistance and termed it dsra (for "ducreyi serum resistance a"). the dsra locus was cloned, sequenced, and mutagenized. an isogenic mutant (fx517) of parent strain 35000 was constructed and characterized, and it was found to no longer express dsra. fx517 was at least 10-fold more serum susceptible than 35000. dsra was expressed ...200010678980
roles of the surface layer proteins of campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in ovine abortion.the role of the surface (s)-layer proteins of campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus has been investigated using an ovine model of abortion. wild-type strain 23d induced abortion in up to 90% of pregnant ewes challenged subcutaneously. isolates recovered from both dams and fetuses expressed s-layer proteins with variable molecular masses. the spontaneous s-layer-negative variant, strain 23b, neither colonized nor caused abortions in pregnant ewes. a series of isogenic sapa and reca mutants, derived fr ...200010678989
polymicrobial cholangitis and liver abscess in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.cholangitis/cholangiopathy associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection is characterized by chronic abdominal pain, low-grade fever, cholestasis, and sometimes areas of focal or diffuse dilatation of the bile ducts that may be apparent on noninvasive imaging studies. although the etiology of this biliary disease may be multifactorial, it appears to be the result of immunosuppression and/or secondary opportunistic infections rather than a direct cytopathic effect of hiv itself ...200010701798
chronic atrophic gastritis in scid mice experimentally infected with campylobacter fetus.campylobacter fetus is a cause of enteritis and invasive extraintestinal disease in humans. in order to develop an animal model of c. fetus infection, outbred icr scid mice were orally challenged with a clinical isolate of c. fetus. the stomachs of scid mice were heavily colonized with c. fetus, and colonization was associated with the development of chronic atrophic gastritis. this lesion was characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate of granulocytes and macrophages that over time resulted in ...200010722608
identification of campylobacter jejuni, c. coli, c. lari, c. upsaliensis, arcobacter butzleri, and a. butzleri-like species based on the glya gene.currently, the detection and identification of campylobacter and arcobacter species remains arduous, largely due to cross-species phenotypic similarities and a relatively narrow spectrum of biochemical reactivity. we have developed a pcr-hybridization strategy, wherein degenerate primers are used to amplify glya fragments from samples, which are then subjected to species-specific oligodeoxyribonucleotide probe hybridizations, to identify and distinguish between campylobacter jejuni, c. coli, c. ...200010747131
restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using random chromosomal gene probes for epidemiological analysis of campylobacter jejuni infections.we have evaluated the ability of a new genotyping method for campylobacter jejuni based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms using random chromosomal gene probes. dnas from c. jejuni strains digested with each of three restriction enzymes, hhai, haeiii, and hpaii, were analyzed by southern hybridization using each of two unrelated cosmid clones, p14 and p15 (respectively containing 30- and 35-kb genomic dna fragments of c. jejuni strain oh4384). the method reported provides a stable and ...200010747164
a field-suitable, semisolid aerobic enrichment medium for isolation of campylobacter jejuni in small numbers.the objective of this study was to produce an economical, easy to prepare, field-suitable enrichment medium for detection of campylobacter jejuni in small numbers. a semisolid aerobic enrichment medium was developed. rates of recovery from inoculated medium, sterile swabs, and mixed cultures of c. jejuni and coliform bacteria were tested.200010747165
campylobacter lanienae sp. nov., a new species isolated from workers in an abattoir.campylobacter-like organisms were isolated from the faeces of healthy individuals during a hygiene survey of abattoir workers. the strains, which exhibited characteristics of campylobacter, being non-glucose-fermenting, oxidase- and catalase-positive, gram-negative, motile rods, were identified to the genus level by a pcr assay. nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene, dna homology experiments and determination of g + c content demonstrated that they constituted a previously undescribe ...200010758898
the gale gene of campylobacter jejuni is involved in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and virulence.lipopolysaccharide (lps) is one of the main virulence factors of gram-negative bacteria. the lps from campylobacter spp. has endotoxic properties and has been shown to play a role in adhesion. we previously cloned a gene cluster (wla) which is involved in the synthesis of the campylobacter jejuni 81116 lps molecule. sequence alignment of the first gene in this cluster indicated similarity with gale genes. these genes encode a udp-glucose 4-epimerase, which catalyzes the interconversion of udp-ga ...200010768949
[a case report of campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus oophoritis].a 45-year-old female with oophoritis (pelvic inflammatory disease) caused by campylobacter fetus (c. fetus) is reported. she was admitted to the hospital because of high fever and an acute abdomen. on admission, severe inflammation was observed by the laboratory findings, and abdominal x-ray and ct scan revealed ileus with marked swelling of the right ovary. laparotomy was performed with adonexooophrectomy due to the tubo-ovarian abscesses. c. fetus was isolated from the right ovary, salpinx and ...200010783583
fecal shedding of campylobacter and arcobacter spp. in dairy cattle.campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and arcobacter spp. were detected in feces of healthy dairy cows by highly specific multiplex-pcr assays. for c. jejuni, at this one-time sampling, cows from 80.6% of farm operations (n = 31) and 37.7% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 2,085) were positive. farm management factors were correlated with prevalence in herds in which >25% of cows were positive for c. jejuni. statistical significance was set at a p of 0.20. using these criteria, a ...200010788372
growth supplements for helicobacter pylori.the growth response of helicobacter pylori in broth was determined in the presence of ferrous sulfate, sodium pyruvate, and mucin (porcine stomach). the addition of either ferrous sulfate and sodium pyruvate or mucin to brain heart infusion broth with 7% horse serum (bhi-hs) enhanced the growth of h. pylori. the best growth of strain nb2-1, which was the slowest growing of 10 h. pylori strains evaluated, occurred in the presence of 0.05% ferrous sulfate and 0.05% sodium pyruvate. the addition of ...200010790135
secretion of the caulobacter crescentus s-layer protein: further localization of the c-terminal secretion signal and its use for secretion of recombinant proteins.the secretion signal of the caulobacter crescentus s-layer protein (rsaa) was localized to the c-terminal 82 amino acids of the molecule. protein yield studies showed that 336 or 242 c-terminal residues of rsaa mediated secretion of >50 mg of a cellulase passenger protein per liter to the culture fluids.200010809716
analysis of the polar flagellar gene system of vibrio parahaemolyticus.vibrio parahaemolyticus has dual flagellar systems adapted for locomotion under different circumstances. a single, sheathed polar flagellum propels the swimmer cell in liquid environments. numerous unsheathed lateral flagella move the swarmer cell over surfaces. the polar flagellum is produced continuously, whereas the synthesis of lateral flagella is induced under conditions that impede the function of the polar flagellum, e.g., in viscous environments or on surfaces. thus, the organism possess ...200010850984
heat-labile serotyping of two campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from patients with guillain-barré syndrome and belonging to serotype o19 (penner) 200010866545
bioserogroups of campylobacter species isolated from sheep in kaduna state, nigeria.sheep campylobacter isolates from kaduna state were characterized into their species and bioserogrouped. a total of 1100 samples were collected from kaduna abattoir and national animal production research institute (napri), shika. the samples were from 250 gallbladder, 250 intestinal contents, 100 fetal stomach contents all from kaduna abattoir while 250 rectal swabs and 250 vaginal swabs were from the napri small ruminant programme. of a total of 1100 samples, 39 (3.54%) yielded campylobacter o ...200010867319
roles of fe superoxide dismutase and catalase in resistance of campylobacter coli to freeze-thaw stress.we demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a role in freeze-thaw-induced killing of campylobacter coli following analysis of mutants deficient in key antioxidant functions. superoxide anions, but not h(2)o(2), were formed during the freeze-thaw process. however, a failure to detoxify superoxide anions may lead to spontaneous disproportionation of the radicals to h(2)o(2).200010877815
antibody to heat shock protein can be used for early serological monitoring of helicobacter pylori eradication treatment.infection with helicobacter pylori induces humoral immune responses against various antigens of the bacterium. heat shock proteins (hsps) are immunodominant antigens in various diseases including h. pylori infection. in the present study, we measured the anti-hsp antibody titers in 42 patients with h. pylori-infected peptic ulcers during a bacterial eradication study. the patients were treated with a proton pump inhibitor and antimicrobial agents to eradicate the organism. their sera were obtain ...200010882654
rapid detection of campylobacter jejuni in stool specimens by an enzyme immunoassay and surveillance for campylobacter upsaliensis in the greater salt lake city area.the alexon-trend, inc. (ramsey, minn.), prospect campylobacter microplate assay was compared with culture on a campy-cva plate (remel, lenexa, kans.) and blood-free campylobacter agar with cefoperazone (20 microg/ml), amphotericin b (10 microg/ml), and teicoplanin (4 microg/ml) (cat medium; oxoid limited, hampshire, england) with 631 patient stool samples. the cat medium was used to isolate campylobacter upsaliensis. the enzyme immunoassay (eia) had a sensitivity and a specificity of 89 and 99%, ...200010921981
application of the 5'-nuclease pcr assay in evaluation and development of methods for quantitative detection of campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is recognized as a leading human food-borne pathogen. traditional diagnostic testing for c. jejuni is not reliable due to special growth requirements and the possibility that this bacterium can enter a viable but nonculturable state. nucleic acid-based tests have emerged as a useful alternative to traditional enrichment testing. in this article, we present a 5'-nuclease pcr assay for quantitative detection of c. jejuni and describe its evaluation. a probe including positions ...200010966425
comparative fingerprinting analysis of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains by amplified-fragment length polymorphism genotyping.amplified-fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis with the endonucleases bglii and mfei was used to genotype 91 campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains from outbreaks and sporadic cases. aflp-generated fragments were labeled with fluorescent dye and separated by capillary electrophoresis. the software packages genescan and gelcompar ii were used to calculate aflp pattern similarities and to investigate phylogenetic relationships among the genotyped strains. the aflp method was compared w ...200010970387
rapid detection of campylobacter fetus by polymerase chain reaction combined with non-radioactive hybridization using an oligonucleotide covalently bound to microwells.campylobacter fetus is recognized as a human and animal pathogen. the isolation and differentiation of c. fetus in diagnostic laboratories is hindered by its relatively slow growth and lack of distinguishing biochemical characteristics. we cloned and sequenced a 1581-bp dna fragment, ig02, isolated from a c. fetus genomic library. this fragment was used as a probe on dnas extracted from c. fetus strains and other campylobacter species: ig02 hybridized only with dnas from c. fetus strains. a pcr- ...200010970727
campylobacter fetus sap inversion occurs in the absence of reca function.phase variation of campylobacter fetus surface layer proteins (slps) occurs by inversion of a 6.2-kb dna segment containing the unique sap promoter, permitting expression of a single slp-encoding gene. previous work has shown that the c. fetus sap inversion system is reca dependent. when we challenged a pregnant ewe with a reca mutant of wild-type c. fetus (strain 97-211) that expressed the 97-kda slp, 15 of the 16 ovine-passaged isolates expressed the 97-kda protein. however, one strain (97-209 ...200010992468
antibodies, directed towards campylobacter jejuni antigens, in sera from poultry abattoir workers.occupational exposure of susceptible humans to campylobacter jejuni appears to result in resistance to disease. this is believed to be due to acquired protective immunity. to support this hypothesis the levels of c. jejuni-specific igg and igm antibodies were determined in sera from poultry abattoir workers. such individuals are persistently exposed to c. jejuni, but apparently rarely acquire campylobacteriosis. sera from 43 short-term workers (employed < or = 1 month), 78 long-term workers and ...200011012618
evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic methods for subtyping campylobacter jejuni isolates from humans, poultry, and cattle.six methods for subtyping of campylobacter jejuni were compared and evaluated with a collection of 90 isolates from poultry, cattle, and sporadic human clinical cases as well as from a waterborne outbreak. the applied methods were penner heat-stable serotyping; automated ribotyping (riboprinting); random amplified polymorphic dna typing (rapd); pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge); restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the flagellin gene, flaa (fla-rflp); and denaturing gradient gel el ...200011015406
evaluation of the alexon-trend prospect campylobacter microplate assay.we evaluated stool specimens known to contain or be free of campylobacter by traditional culture, using the prospect campylobacter microplate assay (alexon-trend, ramsey, minn.). this rapid enzyme immunoassay for the detection of campylobacter-specific antigens demonstrated 96% sensitivity and 99% specificity and is an acceptable alternative method of campylobacter detection.200011015419
fatal prosthetic valve endocarditis due to campylobacter fetus.campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus has a predilection for vascular endothelium. this report describes a case of a prosthetic valve infective endocarditis due to this microorganism. despite adequate antibiotic combination treatment, valvular vegetations and perivalvular suppurative complications evolved, leading to valvular dysfunction, heart failure and death. only three other cases of c. fetus prosthetic valve endocarditis have been described previously. campylobacter fetus bacteraemia must b ...200011023767
detection and characterization of autoagglutination activity by campylobacter several gram-negative bacterial pathogens, autoagglutination (aag) activity is a marker for interaction with host cells and virulence. campylobacter jejuni strains also show aag, but this property varies considerably among strains. to examine the characteristics of c. jejuni aag, we developed a quantitative in vitro assay. for strain 81-176, which shows high aag, activity was optimal for cells grown for < or = 24 h, was independent of growth temperature, and was best measured for cells suspen ...200011035721
[campylobacter fetus fetus: an infection in immunosuppressed patients unknown in hemodialysis]. 200011039269
analysis of the role of reca in phenotypic switching of pseudomonas tolaasii.switching between the pathogenic smooth (1116s) and nonpathogenic rough (1116r) forms of pseudomonas tolaasii occurs due to the reversible duplication of a 661-bp element within the phen locus. disruption of the chromosomal reca locus of 1116s and 1116r produced strains 1116sreca and 1116rreca, respectively, which showed typical loss of uv resistance. switching from the smooth to the rough form was virtually eliminated in the 1116sreca strain, whereas the extent of switching from the rough to th ...200011053404
identification of ciprofloxacin-resistant campylobacter jejuni by use of a fluorogenic pcr assay.fluoroquinolones are one class of antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat severe campylobacter jejuni infection. c. jejuni strains resistant to high levels of the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (mic >/=16 microg/ml) have been predominantly characterized with a c-->t transition in codon 86 of gyra. the gyra gene encodes one subunit of dna gyrase, which is a primary target for fluoroquinolone antibiotics. this study establishes a rapid pcr-based taqman method for identifying ciprofloxacin-resis ...200011060054
sialylation of lipooligosaccharide cores affects immunogenicity and serum resistance of campylobacter jejuni.three genes involved in biosynthesis of the lipooligosaccharide (los) core of campylobacter jejuni msc57360, the type strain of the hs:1 serotype, whose structure mimics gm(2) ganglioside, have been cloned and characterized. mutation of genes encoding proteins with homology to a sialyl transferase (cstii) and a putative n-acetylmannosamine synthetase (neuc1), part of the biosynthetic pathway of n-acetylneuraminic acid (neunac), have identical phenotypes. the los cores of these mutants display id ...200011083778
recurring febrile illness in a slaughterhouse worker.a slaughterhouse worker presented with fever and a pleuropericardial effusion. conventional microbiology failed to identify the responsible organism. however, dna sequencing definitively identified campylobacter fetus ssp fetus, which is rare in immunocompetent individuals. prolonged treatment was required to eradicate the infection.200011085771
campylobacter contamination of raw meat and poultry at retail sale: identification of multiple types and comparison with isolates from human infection.campylobacter species are the major cause of acute bacterial enteritis reported in the united kingdom, nonetheless many aspects of campylobacteriosis epidemiology remain poorly understood. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in fresh bovine, ovine, and porcine liver and chicken portions from retail outlets and compare strain subtype distributions with those associated with cases of human campylobacteriosis occurring within the same ...200011131886
determination of helicobacter pylori virulence by simple gene analysis of the cag pathogenicity island.nucleic acid amplification was performed for five loci in the cag pathogenicity island (pai) of helicobacter pylori (comprising caga, the caga promoter region, cage, cagt, and the left end of cagii [lec]), and gastric inflammation in patients was evaluated. of 204 h. pylori isolates from japanese patients (53 with peptic ulcer, 55 with gastric cancer, and 96 with chronic gastritis), 197 (96.6%) were positive for all five loci. two isolates (1%) were negative for all five loci, and five isolates ...200111139216
porins and lipopolysaccharide induce apoptosis in human spermatozoa.treatment of human spermatozoa with porins or lipopolysaccharide (lps) increases spontaneous apoptosis in these cells. porins and lps were extracted from salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and pasteurella multocida and were mixed with human spermatozoa for detection of levels of apoptosis.200111139223
emergence of diverse helicobacter species in the pathogenesis of gastric and enterohepatic diseases.since helicobacter pylori was first cultivated from human gastric biopsy specimens in 1982, it has become apparent that many related species can often be found colonizing the mucosal surfaces of humans and other animals. these other helicobacter species can be broadly grouped according to whether they colonize the gastric or enterohepatic niche. gastric helicobacter species are widely distributed in mammalian hosts and are often nearly universally prevalent. in many cases they cause an inflammat ...200111148003
endocarditis due to rare and fastidious bacteria.the etiologic diagnosis of infective endocarditis is easily made in the presence of continuous bacteremia with gram-positive cocci. however, the blood culture may contain a bacterium rarely associated with endocarditis, such as lactobacillus spp., klebsiella spp., or nontoxigenic corynebacterium, salmonella, gemella, campylobacter, aeromonas, yersinia, nocardia, pasteurella, listeria, or erysipelothrix spp., that requires further investigation to establish the relationship with endocarditis, or ...200111148009
competitive exclusion of heterologous campylobacter spp. in chicks.chicken and human isolates of campylobacter jejuni were used to provide oral challenge of day-old broiler chicks. the isolation ratio of the competing challenge strains was monitored and varied, depending upon the isolates used. a pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay of the flagellin gene (flaa) was used to discriminate between the chick-colonizing isolates. our observations indicated that the selected c. jejuni colonizers dominated the niche provided by the chicken ceca. chicken i ...200111157253
s-layer variation in bacillus stearothermophilus pv72 is based on dna rearrangements between the chromosome and the naturally occurring megaplasmids.bacillus stearothermophilus pv72 expresses different s-layer genes (sbsa and sbsb) under different growth conditions. no stretches of significant sequence identity between sbsa and sbsb were detected. in order to investigate s-layer gene regulation in b. stearothermophilus pv72, we characterized the upstream regulatory region of sbsa and sbsb by sequencing and primer extension analysis. both genes are transcribed from unique but different promoters, independently of the growth phase. localizatio ...200111160098
n-acyl-l-homoserine lactone-mediated regulation of the lip secretion system in serratia liquefaciens mg1.the analysis of serratia liquefaciens mg1 'luxab insertion mutants that are responsive to n-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone revealed that expression of lipb is controlled by the swr quorum-sensing system. lipb is part of the lip exporter, a type i secretion system, which is responsible for the secretion of extracellular lipase, metalloprotease, and s-layer protein.200111160117
evaluation of numerical analysis of pfge-dna profiles for differentiating campylobacter fetus subspecies by comparison with phenotypic, pcr and 16s rdna sequencing assess the efficacy of numerical analysis of pfge-dna profiles for identification and differentiation of campylobacter fetus subspecies.200111168732
thermophilic multidrug-resistant campylobacter fetus infection with hypersplenism and histiocytic phagocytosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.we present a case report of a patient who had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and campylobacter fetus infection with a number of unusual clinical and microbiological features. the patient had prominent gastrointestinal symptoms, splenic infarction, splenomegaly with hypersplenism, and hemophagocytic histiocytosis in the spleen and lymph nodes; the organism displayed growth on campy-selective blood agar, thermotolerance, and resistance to quinolones, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime ...200111170921
characterization of culture-derived spiral bacteria by 16s ribosomal rna gene sequence analysis.broad range amplification and sequence analysis of the 16s ribosomal rna gene was used to identify three spiral-form organisms. the agents were identified as campylobacter fetus, "flexispira rappini", and borrelia burgdorferi, respectively, using either proprietary or public sequence databases. in each case, the rdna sequence showed 99-100% homology with known sequence data. sequence-based analysis for each isolate required only 2-3 days, whereas traditional means of identification took 8-12 day ...200111173192
[campylobacter fetus fetus and colon adenocarcinoma]. 200011188913
[aortic valve infective endocarditis due to campylobacter fetus]. 200111215462
evidence for a genetically stable strain of campylobacter jejuni.the genetic stability of selected epidemiologically linked strains of campylobacter jejuni during outbreak situations was investigated by using subtyping techniques. strains isolated from geographically related chicken flock outbreaks in 1998 and from a human outbreak in 1981 were investigated. there was little similarity in the strains obtained from the different chicken flock outbreaks; however, the strains from each of three chicken outbreaks, including strains isolated from various environme ...200111229909
campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus bacteremia associated with chorioamnionitis and intact fetal membranes.campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus was isolated from the blood of a patient with chorioamnionitis and intact fetal membranes. the mother improved after appropriate antibiotic treatment, but the infant died of neonatal infection a few minutes after delivery. this is a very unusual etiology of intra-amniotic infection.200111233847
evidence that the campylobacter fetus sap locus is an ancient genomic constituent with origins before mammals and reptiles diverged.campylobacter fetus bacteria, isolated from both mammals and reptiles, may be either subsp. fetus or subsp. venerealis and either serotype a or serotype b. surface layer proteins, expressed and secreted by genes in the sap locus, play an important role in c. fetus virulence. to assess whether the sap locus represents a pathogenicity island and to gain further insights into c. fetus evolution, we examined several c. fetus genes in 18 isolates. all of the isolates had 5 to 9 sapa or sapb homologs. ...200111254579
escherichia coli cdtb mediates cytolethal distending toxin cell cycle arrest.we previously reported that the cdtb polypeptide of escherichia coli cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) shares significant pattern-specific homology with mammalian type i dnases. in addition, the dnase-related residues of cdtb are required for cellular toxicity. here we demonstrate that purified cdtb converts supercoiled plasmid dna to relaxed and linear forms and promotes cell cycle arrest when combined with an e. coli extract containing cdta and cdtc. cdtb alone had no effect on hela cells, how ...200111292766
sequence and antigenic variability of the helicobacter mustelae surface ring protein hsr.we have identified an array of more than 500 repetitive sequences flanking the hsr gene, which encodes the major surface protein of the ferret pathogen helicobacter mustelae. the repeats show identity exclusively to the amino-terminal half of hsr. analysis of hsr from three strains indicated variability of exposed epitopes. characterization of an hsr mutant showed that hsr is not an adhesin.200111292773
survival of campylobacter jejuni during stationary phase: evidence for the absence of a phenotypic stationary-phase response.when campylobacter jejuni nctc 11351 was grown microaerobically in rich medium at 39 degrees c, entry into stationary phase was followed by a rapid decline in viable numbers to leave a residual population of 1% of the maximum number or less. loss of viability was preceded by sublethal injury, which was seen as a loss of the ability to grow on media containing 0.1% sodium deoxycholate or 1% sodium chloride. resistance of cells to mild heat stress (50 degrees c) or aeration was greatest in exponen ...200111319108
[a case of infected subdural hematoma due to campyrobacter fetus].a 20-year-old male presented fever, nausea and headache 1 week after eating uncooked liver. on admission, it was revealed he had suffered a closed head injury 3 months before without unconsciousness. on admission, computed tomography scan showed a left chronic subdural hematoma. gd-dtpa magnetic resonance images revealed unusual enhancement of the capsule and linear enhancement of the subarachnoid space. the patient underwent burr hole irrigation and drainage. the culture of the hematoma content ...200111321797
rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for subtyping of campylobacter jejuni.we developed a rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) protocol for subtyping campylobacter isolates based on the standardized protocols used by pulsenet laboratories for the subtyping of other food-borne bacterial pathogens. various combinations of buffers, reagents, reaction conditions (e.g., cell suspension concentration, lysis time, lysis temperature, and restriction enzyme concentration), and electrophoretic parameters were evaluated in an effort to devise a protocol that is simple, r ...200111326009
comparison of two methods for serotyping campylobacter spp.two serotyping schemes (penner and laboratory of enteric pathogens [lep]) based on soluble heat-stable antigens were used to analyze 3,788 campylobacter sp. isolates. a significant percentage (36.6%) was untypeable using lep serotyping; greater cross-reaction was also observed. the relative discrimination capabilities of the techniques were similar. penner serotyping fulfils more of the requisite criteria for typing methods.200111326013
[femoral aneurysm infected by campylobacter fetus]. 200111333725
polarity in action: asymmetric protein localization in bacteria. 200111344132
intrachromosomal recombination within the vsp locus of mycoplasma bovis generates a chimeric variable surface lipoprotein antigen.a family of 13 related but divergent vsp genes was recently found in the chromosome of the bovine pathogen mycoplasma bovis. the vsp genomic locus was shown to undergo high-frequency rearrangements and to mediate phenotypic switching of variable lipoprotein antigens (vsps) on the mycoplasma cell surface. here we report that the vsp gene repertoire is subject to changes. genetic analysis of m. bovis clonal isolates displaying distinct vsp phenotypes showed that an intergenic recombination event b ...200111349034
comparative study using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, pcr genotyping, and phenotyping to differentiate campylobacter fetus strains isolated from animals.a collection of campylobacter fetus strains, including both c. fetus subsp. fetus and c. fetus subsp. venerealis, were phenotypically identified to the subspecies level and genotypically typed by pcr and amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis. phenotypic subspecies determination methods were unreliable. genotyping of the strains by pcr and aflp showed a clear discrimination between the two subspecies.200111376071
cdta, cdtb, and cdtc form a tripartite complex that is required for cytolethal distending toxin activity.campylobacter jejuni encodes a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) that causes cells to arrest in the g(2)/m transition phase of the cell cycle. highly related toxins are also produced by other important bacterial pathogens. cdt activity requires the function of three genes: cdta, cdtb, and cdtc. recent studies have established that cdtb is the active subunit of cdt, exerting its effect as a nuclease that damages the dna and triggers cell cycle arrest. microinjection of cdtb into target cells led ...200111401974
[pleural empyema and pericardial effusion due to campylobacter fetus in an immunocompetent adult]. 200111412511
comparison of genotypes and serotypes of campylobacter jejuni isolated from danish wild mammals and birds and from broiler flocks and humans.the incidence of human infection with campylobacter jejuni is increasing in most developed countries and the reason for this is largely unknown. although poultry meat is considered to be a major source, it is evident that other reservoirs exist, possibly common to humans and poultry. environmental sources are believed to be important reservoirs of campylobacter infection in broiler chicken flocks. we investigated the potential importance of wildlife as a source of infection in commercial poultry ...200111425730
evaluation of methods for subtyping campylobacter jejuni during an outbreak involving a food october 1998, the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) assisted in an investigation of an outbreak of campylobacteriosis at a school in salina, kansas. twenty-two isolates were submitted from the kansas state public health laboratory to cdc, 9 associated with the outbreak and 13 epidemiologically unrelated sporadic isolates. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) using smai and sali was initially used to validate the epidemiologic data. we then tested the ability of other subtypi ...200111427543
helicobacter winghamensis sp. nov., a novel helicobacter sp. isolated from patients with gastroenteritis.from 1997 to 1999 seven isolates of campylobacter-like organisms from five patients that were exhibiting symptoms of gastroenteritis, including fever, stomach malaise, and diarrhea, were investigated. the organisms were isolated from stool samples and found to exhibit a diverse colony morphology; hence multiple isolates were submitted from one of the patients. all isolates were found to be identical. the organisms were catalase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, and nitrate negative but oxidase and ...200111427547
genomic heterogeneity and o-antigenic diversity of campylobacter upsaliensis and campylobacter helveticus strains isolated from dogs and cats in germany.a serotyping scheme based on heat-stable surface antigens was established for 101 campylobacter upsaliensis and 10 campylobacter helveticus strains isolated from 261 dogs and 46 cats of different ages originating from two geographically distinct regions in germany. the prevalence of c. upsaliensis varied between 27.8% in juvenile dogs (<12 months of age) and 55.4% in adult dogs (p < 0.05). of the cats, 19.6% harbored c. upsaliensis, whereas 21.7% carried c. helveticus. of the c. upsaliensis isol ...200111427567
cytolethal distending toxin demonstrates genotoxic activity in a yeast model.cytolethal distending toxins (cdts) are multisubunit proteins produced by a variety of bacterial pathogens that cause enlargement, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in mammalian cells. while their function remains uncertain, recent studies suggest that they can act as intracellular dnases in mammalian cells. here we establish a novel yeast model for understanding cdt-associated disease. expression of the cdtb subunit in yeast causes a g2/m arrest, as seen in mammalian cells. cdtb toxicity is not ...200111500452
prevalence, antigenic specificity, and bactericidal activity of poultry anti-campylobacter maternal antibodies.poultry are considered the major reservoir for campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human food-borne diarrhea. to understand the ecology of c. jejuni and develop strategies to control c. jejuni infection in the animal reservoir, we initiated studies to examine the potential role of anti-campylobacter maternal antibodies in protecting young broiler chickens from infection by c. jejuni. using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), the prevalence of anti-c. jejuni antibodies in ...200111525990
survival of clinical and poultry-derived isolates of campylobacter jejuni at a low temperature (4 degrees c).campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, and contamination of poultry has been implicated in illness. the bacteria are fastidious in terms of their temperature requirements, being unable to grow below ca. 31 degrees c, but have been found to be physiologically active at lower temperatures and to tolerate exposure to low temperatures in a strain-dependent manner. in this study, 19 field isolates of c. jejuni (10 of clinical and 9 of poultry origin) were stud ...200111526022
phenotyping of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by a quantitative antibiogram [mic] typing scheme using euclidean distances [qated].background: enteropathogenic campylobacter jejuni and c. coli are presently the most common cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. an understanding of sources and means of transmission of campylobacter is an essential factor in order to reduce the incidence of campylobacter-related gastroenteritis in man. consequently a reproducible, sensitive and well-standardised typing scheme is critical in the successful discrimination of strains and in the subsequent investigations ...200111527505
polar flagellar motility of the vibrionaceae.polar flagella of vibrio species can rotate at speeds as high as 100,000 rpm and effectively propel the bacteria in liquid as fast as 60 microm/s. the sodium motive force powers rotation of the filament, which acts as a propeller. the filament is complex, composed of multiple subunits, and sheathed by an extension of the cell outer membrane. the regulatory circuitry controlling expression of the polar flagellar genes of members of the vibrionaceae is different from the peritrichous system of ent ...200111528005
juxtaposition of an active promoter to vsp genes via site-specific dna inversions generates antigenic variation in mycoplasma bovis.mycoplasma bovis, the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmosis, undergoes extensive antigenic variation of major and highly immunogenic surface lipoprotein antigens (vsps). a family of 13 related but divergent vsp genes, which occur as single chromosomal copies, was recently found in the chromosome of m. bovis. in the present study, the molecular mechanism mediating the high-frequency phase variation of two vsps (vspa and vspc) as representatives of the vsp family was investigate ...200111544233
locus of enterocyte effacement from citrobacter rodentium: sequence analysis and evidence for horizontal transfer among attaching and effacing pathogens.the family of attaching and effacing (a/e) bacterial pathogens, which includes diarrheagenic enteropathogenic escherichia coli (epec) and enterohemorrhagic e. coli (ehec), remains a significant threat to human and animal health. these bacteria intimately attach to host intestinal cells, causing the effacement of brush border microvilli. the genes responsible for this phenotype are encoded in a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (lee). citrobacter rodentium is the only ...200111553577
campylobacter fetus diagnosis: direct immunofluorescence comparing chicken igy and rabbit igg argentina bovine genital campylobacteriosis is routinely diagnosed by direct immunofluorescence test. generally, the hyperimmune sera used for this test are obtained from rabbits and less often from goats. in this work, a chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (igy) extract was conjugated and its ability to detect campylobacters with the regular conjugate prepared with rabbit sera was comparatively evaluated. both conjugates were independently evaluated by two laboratories, named "azul" (lab a) and ...200111565050
differentiation of campylobacter species by aflp fingerprinting.the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) fingerprinting method was tested for its ability to identify and subtype the most important campylobacter species found in veterinary infections. sixty-nine reference strains and 19 clinical isolates of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni, campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei, campylobacter upsaliensis, campylobacter coli, campylobacter lari, campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, c. fetus subsp. venerealis, campylobacter hyointestinalis subs ...200111577152
whole genome comparison of campylobacter jejuni human isolates using a low-cost microarray reveals extensive genetic diversity.campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease throughout the world, and yet is still a poorly understood pathogen. whole genome microarray comparisons of 11 c. jejuni strains of diverse origin identified genes in up to 30 nctc 11168 loci ranging from 0.7 to 18.7 kb that are either absent or highly divergent in these isolates. many of these regions are associated with the biosynthesis of surface structures including flagella, lipo-oligosaccharide, and the ne ...200111591647
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