the isolation and nature of campylobacters (microaerophilic vibrios) from laboratory and wild rodents.faeces voided by eight species of laboratory or feral rodents were cultured for campylobacters by means of selective methods. campylobacters were isolated from bank voles and from rats, but not from rabbits, laboratory mice, hamsters, guinea-pigs, field mice or field voles. in routine biochemical tests isolates from bank voles resembled a type of campylobacter fetus that causes infectious infertility in cattle; isolates from rats resembled campylobacter coli associated with swine dysentery. elec ...1977330861
[campylobacter coli--a new common cause of diarrhea in humans]. 1978364214
the effect of the nitroimidazole drug dimetridazole on microaerophilic campylobacters.dimetridazole, a nitroimidazole drug reported to act only on obligately anaerobic micro-organisms, is widely used for the prevention and treatment of swine dysentery. forty-four strains of the microaerophilic bacterium campylobacter coli isolated from either healthy or diseased pigs, and a strain of campylobacter fetus, were all sensitive to dimetridazole. the sensitivities (minimal inhibitory concentration less than 10 microng per ml) were similar to those of anaerobic bacteria. dimetridazole i ...1977558335
[the antigenic structure of vibrions studied by means of agglutination and fluorescent antibodies].cross immunofluorescent and serological studies were made of strains of vibrio coli of different forms-a short, commashaped strain and other long, spiral-shaped and serpent-like strains isolated from swine. some standard strains of vibrio foetus were also included for comparison. an antigenic difference was established between vibrions of long and short forms, as well as the known difference between strains isolated from swine and those from cattle which can be established by means of immunofluo ...1975779698
[comparison of nutrient media for isolation of microflora in swine dysentery].the usability of five nutrient media - three kinds of spirolate media, thioglycolate medium and brain hearth medium - suitable for the isolation of vibrio coli and germs similar to borrelia isolated from pigs affected by dysentery, and vibria isolated from cattle, was compared in the study. the results of comparison show that fresh-prepared substrates must be used bor the isolation of the mentioned germs in all cases and a corresponding medium must be provided. the modified spirolate media prepa ...1975812247
[biochemical characteristics of vibrio coli isolated from inflammatory pseudomembraneous swine dysentery].the paper presents the basic morphological and biochemical characteristics of seven microaerophilic vibrio cultures isolated by the membrane filtration method from the colon mucous membrane of pigs diseased with dysentery. for growth, the cultivated strains needen oxygen reduction; in the dark field they showed a typical active movement producing catalase and oxidase, reducing nitrates to nitrites, and tolerating the presence of 1% and 3% sodium chloride concentrations in the growth medium. no c ...1976828350
swine dysentery: inoculation of gnotobiotic pigs with treponema hyodysenteriae and vibrio coli and a peptostreptococcus.pure cultures of treponema hyodysenteriae given orally to conventional pigs resulted in the development of swine dysentery, whereas identical cultures given to gnotobiotic pigs did not produce the disease. oral inoculation of gnotobiotic pigs with vibrio coli and/or a peptostreptococcus in addition to t. hyodysenteriae did not result in dysentery. neutralization of gastric secretions with nahco3 immediately prior to inoculation with t. hyodysenteriae increased the period during which treponemes ...1977907906
the possibility that campylobacter (vibrio) coli and treponema hyodysenteriae are both involved in swine dysentery. 19751139284
emergence of resistance to erythromycin and fluoroquinolones in thermotolerant campylobacter strains isolated from feces 1987-1991.during the period 1987 to 1991 a retrospective study was performed to determine the resistance of thermotolerant campylobacter species isolated from feces to erythromycin and fluoroquinolones. of the 672 strains studied, 614 (91.3%) were identified as campylobacter jejuni and 58 (8.7%) as campylobacter coli. during the study period the rate of resistance of campylobacter jejuni to erythromycin remained relatively stable (0.9-3.5%), while resistance of campylobacter coli to erythromycin emerged l ...19921291314
genome maps of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.little information concerning the genome of either campylobacter jejuni or campylobacter coli is available. therefore, we constructed genomic maps of c. jejuni ua580 and c. coli ua417 by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. the genome sizes of c. jejuni and c. coli strains are approximately 1.7 mb, as determined by sali and smai digestion (n. chang and d. e. taylor, j. bacteriol. 172:5211-5217, 1990). the genomes of both species are represented by single circular dna molecules, and maps were ...19921313002
serotype distribution of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from hospitalized patients with diarrhea in central australia.campylobacter jejuni and/or campylobacter coli was cultured from 218 of 1,078 patients of all age groups admitted to alice springs hospital, alice springs, central australia, between july 1988 and june 1989 for treatment of diarrhea. one hundred sixty-six campylobacter colonies from 127 patients were subjected to o serotyping by using the penner typing scheme. all except 29 colonies could be serotyped. a total of 46 serotypes were identified, and the predominant serotypes were o:8, 17, o:22, o:1 ...19921370848
biochemical and antigenic properties of the campylobacter flagellar hook protein.the flagellar filament-hook complex was removed from campylobacter cells by shearing and was purified by differential solubilization and ultracentrifugation at ph 11 followed by cesium chloride buoyant density ultracentrifugation. flagellar filaments were then dissociated in 0.2 m glycine-hcl (ph 2.2), and purified hooks were collected by ultracentrifugation. the hooks (105 by 24 nm) each displayed a conical protrusion at the proximal end, a concave cavity at the distal end, and helically arrang ...19921375929
ribosomal rna gene restriction fragment diversity amongst lior biotypes and penner serotypes of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.diversity based on ribosomal rna gene-restriction endonuclease digest patterns was detected amongst 42 strains of campylobacter jejuni and 18 strains of c. coli including representatives of 53 different penner serotypes. haeiii ribopatterns were coded for numerical analysis which showed that all except two were different including those of several strains of the same serotype (p2 and p20). at the 30% similarity level, four groupings were formed in the analysis of which three corresponded to c. j ...19921381326
specific detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.development of a routine detection assay for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). an oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaa gene of c. coli vc167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by pcr. the primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of c. coli and 47 strains of c. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of campylobacter fetus, campylobacter lari, campylobacter upsaliensis, cam ...19921400961
[chemotherapy of campylobacter infections].a total of 600 patients with suspected alimentary food poisoning were hospitalized. the ++clinico-laboratory findings showed that 27 (4.5 per cent) of them had campylobacter infection. the cultures of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli were isolated from 24 and 3 patients, respectively. the patients underwent complex pathogenetic treatment with oral rehydration saline solutions, symptomatic agents, enzymatic preparations and diet (the basic therapy) supplemented with biological bacteria ...19921417342
simple and economical culture of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in co2 in moist air.strains of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli representing the 18 serogroups (lior) most commonly isolated from humans in canada were grown on solid media in an atmosphere of 10% co2 in moist air, 99% relative humidity. when the growth of all 18 serogroups on mueller hinton agar in a microaerobic atmosphere (5% o2, 10% co2 and 85% n2) was compared with the growth of all 18 serogroups on the same media in 10% co2 in moist air, colony sizes were significantly larger (p less than 0.05) for strains gr ...19921419543
cloning and genetic characterization of a helicobacter pylori flagellin gene.helicobacter pylori produces polar sheathed flagella, which are believed to be essential for the bacterial colonization of the human gastric mucosa. here we report on the cloning and genetic characterization of a h. pylori gene encoding the subunit of the flagellar filament, the flagellin. screening of a genomic library of h. pylori with an oligonucleotide probe derived from the n-terminal amino acid sequence of purified flagellin resulted in a recombinant plasmid clone carrying the flagellin-en ...19921435261
structural studies of peptidoglycans in campylobacter species.peptidoglycans (pg) from campylobacter coli, campylobacter jejuni, and campylobacter fetus were composed of muramic acid, glucosamine, alanine, glutamic acid, and diaminopimelic acid in a molar ratio of 1.1:1:1.7:1.1:09. thirty percent of the amino groups of diaminopimelic acid were involved in cross-linkages between peptides. during cultivation, c. coli and c. jejuni changed from a spiral to a coccoid form. in c. coli, we could isolate pg only from the spiral forms in yields of 0.8-1.2% by dry ...19921461153
antibiotic susceptibility patterns and plasmid profile of helicobacter isolates from nigeria.antibiotic susceptibility testing and plasmid screening of 50 local isolates of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni were done. all isolates were sensitive to ofloxacin but were resistant to ampicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin, streptomycin and aztreonam. a large number of isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid (96%), ceftriaxone (96%) and chloramphenicol (86%). it is noteworthy that nine (18%) of the isolates were resistant to each of erythromycin, 15 (30%) were found to harbour plasm ...19921476963
antimicrobial susceptibilities of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated in sweden: a 10-year follow-up report.resistance to erythromycin and doxycycline and more recently to fluoroquinolones has been reported to occur in campylobacter spp. both in vitro and in patients treated with these antibiotics. the frequency of resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from patients infected in sweden or abroad is described. for some agents, a comparison of susceptibility in strains of campylobacter spp. isolated in 1978 with those isolated in 1988 is made. no ge ...19921482158
characterization of two plasmids from campylobacter jejuni isolates that carry the apha-7 kanamycin resistance determinant.two small plasmids of 11.5 and 9.5 kb, each carrying an apha-7 kanamycin phosphotransferase gene, were studied. the mics of kanamycin for the two human campylobacter jejuni isolates harboring the plasmids were 10,000 and 5,000 micrograms/ml, while the mics of amikacin were 32 and 8 micrograms/ml, respectively. the mics of gentamicin and tobramycin were less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml for both isolates. the restriction endonuclease maps of the plasmids were similar, with the larger plasmid ...19921503433
a multiple logistic model for predicting the occurrence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in water.a multiple logistic regression model was established to predict the occurrence of campylobacter jejuni/coli, related to index bacteria such as faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci, and sulphite-reducing clostridia, in a water source in southern norway. the fitted model indicated that faecal coliforms were strong predictors for c. jejuni/coli, although the water temperature also had a strong influence on results. sulphite-reducing clostridia, faecal streptococci, and season of the year had no si ...19921512182
a case of intrauterine fetal death associated with maternal campylobacter coli bacteraemia.campylobacter species are known to cause infectious abortion in domestic animals. in humans, campylobacter are an important cause of enteritis, an occasional cause of systemic infection and have had a rare association with abortion and perinatal infection. a case history of spontaneous abortion, at 26 weeks' duration, associated with maternal bacteraemia, due to campylobacter coli is presented. transmission, pathogenesis, treatment, and the need for further investigation are discussed.19921520207
experimental infection of the mouse mammary gland with campylobacter coli.campylobacter coli strains of bovine and avian origin were inoculated into the mammary gland of mice. a bovine strain isolated from a case of mastitis produced gross and histological changes in most of the glands; one bovine and one avian faecal isolate did not. histologically, lesions were characterised by neutrophil infiltration in the alveolar spaces and necrosis and oedema in the interalveolar tissue. on bacteriological examination, the bovine mastitis strain could be isolated from most of t ...19921553432
molecular discrimination of campylobacter coli serogroup 20 biotype i (lior) strains.plasmid, protein and restriction endonuclease analysis (rea) profiles and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis were used to effect a molecular discrimination of twenty-seven campylobacter coli serogroup 20, biotype 1 (lior) strains. these strains were not outbreak-associated but were isolated from a number of different countries and different animal and environmental sources. each of the techniques was able to discriminate, to various degrees, between the serogroup 20, biotype 1 strains. the choice ...19921557899
[occurrence of campylobacter coli in a central boar breeding facility in thuringia].investigating the cause of an outbreak of mild diarrhoea in a boar rearing unit with about 750 animals, c. coli was found in all diseased animals, i.e. it was isolated from the intestines of culled boars and from faeces samples; often the amount of c. coli was very high. the intragastric application of c. coli to 5 weaning pigs (about 35 kg) resulted in the shedding of large numbers of c. coli via the faeces at days 3 and 5 post infectionem only. the development of the animals was undisturbed du ...19921575669
extended phage-typing scheme for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.the extended phage-typing scheme described for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli has established 46 different phage types using 19 typing phages. altogether 754 campylobacter isolates, 672 c. jejuni and 82 c. coli, isolated from human and non-human sources received from 17 different countries were phage-typed. overall, 80.6% of the total isolates were typable. among typable strains, 9 phage types (3, 5, 10, 11, 18, 19, 23, 26 and 44) represented 57.0% of the strains, 21.3% of the strai ...19921601075
outer membrane components of campylobacter hyointestinalis.outer membranes were isolated, by sodium lauryl sulphate extraction, from the american type strain, five australian, and four english isolates of campylobacter hyointestinalis. on sds-page examination, the protein profiles of seven strains (including the type strain) were similar, and were dominated by two major proteins of 47 and 50 kda. three other isolates had unique major protein profiles. the largest of these proteins was heat-modifiable in these isolates, and in the type strain. the flagel ...19921624127
antigenic shifts in serotype determinants of campylobacter coli are accompanied by changes in the chromosomal dna restriction endonuclease digestion pattern.changes in somatic (o) lipopolysaccharide (lps) antigenic specificities of campylobacter coli serostrains were observed after continuous laboratory subculture. two serostrains (c. coli o34 and c. coli o48) lost o specificity and did not react with homologous or any of the available heterologous antisera. the c. coli serostrain for serogroup o5, after subculture, yielded a variant that had acquired a new specificity which was detectable with a heterologous antiserum. in a repeat experiment with t ...19911654431
the in-vitro activity of temafloxacin compared with other antimicrobial agents.temafloxacin, like other 4-quinolones, was highly active against most isolates of enterobacteriaceae. it was slightly less active than ciprofloxacin but approximately as active as ofloxacin and enoxacin. it was the most active of the quinolones against acinetobacter spp. and xanthomonas maltophilia but was slightly less active than ciprofloxacin against pseudomonas spp. temafloxacin was highly active against haemophilus influenzae, moraxella catarrhalis and neisseria gonorrhoeae and was the most ...19911657855
in vitro susceptibilities of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to azithromycin and erythromycin.mics of azithromycin and erythromycin for 20 campylobacter coli and 20 campylobacter jejuni strains were determined. the results demonstrated that, for campylobacter species, all high-level erythromycin-resistant strains were also resistant to azithromycin and that azithromycin did not exhibit increased potency in comparison with that of erythromycin.19911659309
the in-vitro activity of tosufloxacin, a new fluorinated quinolone, compared with that of ciprofloxacin and temafloxacin.tosufloxacin was highly active in vitro against most isolates of enterobacteriaceae. it was slightly less active than ciprofloxacin for most species but more active than temafloxacin. it was the most active agent against acinetobacter spp., xanthomonas maltophilia and some pseudomonas spp. but was slightly less active than ciprofloxacin against the fluorescent pseudomonads. tosufloxacin was highly active against strains of haemophilus influenzae, moraxella catarrhalis, neisseria gonorrhoeae and ...19911663930
a comparison of the in-vitro activity of clarithromycin, a new macrolide antibiotic, with erythromycin and other oral agents.on the basis of minimum inhibitory concentrations clarithromycin (6-o-methylerythromycin), a new macrolide, was found to be slightly more active than erythromycin against staphylococcus aureus, enterococci. moraxella catarrhalis, gardnerella vaginalis, bacteroides fragilis (sensu stricto) and b. ureolyticus and slightly less active against coagulase-negative staphylococci, alpha- and beta-haemolytic streptococci, haemophilus influenzae, campylobacter coli/jejuni and the b. melaninogenicus/oralis ...19911684981
identification, characterization, and spatial localization of two flagellin species in helicobacter pylori flagella.flagellar filaments were isolated from helicobacter pylori by shearing, and flagellar proteins were further purified by a variety of techniques, including cscl density gradient ultracentrifugation, ph 2.0 acid disassociation-neutral ph reassociation, and differential ultracentrifugation followed by molecular sieving with a sephacryl s-500 column or mono q anion-exchange column, and purified to homogeneity by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transfer to an ...19911704004
revision of campylobacter, helicobacter, and wolinella taxonomy: emendation of generic descriptions and proposal of arcobacter gen. nov.hybridization experiments were carried out between dnas from more than 70 strains of campylobacter spp. and related taxa and either 3h-labeled 23s rrnas from reference strains belonging to campylobacter fetus, campylobacter concisus, campylobacter sputorum, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter nitrofigilis, an unnamed campylobacter sp. strain, and a wolinella succinogenes strain or 3h- or 14c-labeled 23s rrnas from 13 gram-negative reference strains. an immunotyping analysis of 130 antigens ver ...19911704793
evaluation of a simplified procedure for serotyping campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli which is based on the o antigen.a simplified procedure for serotyping campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli on the basis of thermostable antigens was developed and tested for its applicability as a routine typing method. the assay involves the sensitization of erythrocytes with an antigenic extract and performance of a slide agglutination assay with specific antisera. in order to simplify the typing system to a greater extent, the standard typing antisera were pooled into nine groups for c. jejuni and four groups for c. ...19911719020
a dna sequence upstream of the tet(o) gene is required for full expression of tetracycline resistance.the dna sequences upstream of the tet(o) and tet(m) open reading frames (orfs) (ca. 300 bp) were found to share a higher degree of homology than those of the tet(o) and tet(m) orfs themselves. a transcription initiation site for tet(o) was located by primer extension analysis. campylobacter coli was found to use a promoter sequence different from that used by escherichia coli. the sequence upstream of tet(o) was shown to be required in cis for high-level resistance to tetracycline.19911722078
a note on the comparative efficacy of three selective media for isolation of campylobacter species from environmental samples.the efficacy of three selective broths and agars, i.e. preston-, mccd- and car medium, were compared to each other in various combinations. twelve campylobacter coli and 9 campylobacter jejuni strains that had been isolated from sewage were used as test strains. to evaluate the applicability for highly contaminated environmental samples 15 sewage samples were examined, subsequently. significant differences between the media could not be ascertained. the application of preston broth/agar or car b ...19911750964
fluoroquinolone resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from human faeces in switzerland. 19911753149
characterization of erythromycin resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.the mechanism of resistance to erythromycin, the drug of choice in the treatment of campylobacter gastroenteritis, was investigated. erythromycin resistance (mics, greater than 1,024 micrograms/ml) in three clinical isolates of campylobacter jejuni and one c. coli isolate was determined to be constitutive and chromosomally mediated. in vivo protein synthesis in erythromycin-susceptible c. jejuni and c. coli strains was completely inhibited by low levels of erythromycin (5 micrograms/ml), whereas ...19911759819
emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in subjects from finland.the in vitro susceptibilities of 102 human campylobacter strains isolated between 1978 and 1980 and 100 strains isolated in 1990 to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and doxycycline were examined. the biotypes and heat-stable serotypes of the strains as well as antimicrobial treatments and travel history of the campylobacter-positive patients were also studied. the results indicated that susceptibility to erythromycin, gentamicin, and doxycycline has remained the same during ...19911759828
analysis of the role of flagella in the heat-labile lior serotyping scheme of thermophilic campylobacters by mutant allele exchange.flagellin mutations originally constructed in campylobacter coli vc167 (serotype lio8) by a gene replacement mutagenesis technique (p. guerry, s. m. logan, s. thornton, and t. j. trust, j. bacteriol. 172:1853-1860, 1990) were moved from the original host into campylobacter strains of a number of other lior serogroups by a natural transformation procedure. this is the first report of the use of this transformation method to transfer a mutated locus among campylobacter strains. flagellin mutants w ...19911774247
development of resistance to quinolones in five patients with campylobacteriosis treated with norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin.development of resistance to nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin was observed in five patients with campylobacter jejuni or campylobacter coli infection. from all these patients nalidixic acid- and quinolone-susceptible strains were isolated initially, whereas after therapy with norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin strains resistant to these antibiotics were found. campylobacter strains from the same patient always belonged to the same species and, with the exception of one case, showed identi ...19911794366
[morphological changes of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli under various culture conditions and the accompanied changes in the cell composition].the morphological transformation from the spiral form to the coccoidal form campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli was studied under various conditions by such techniques as electron microscopy, sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page), and chemical analyses. the conversion from the spiral form to the coccoidal form of campylobacter in microaerophilic cultivation occurred in about 50% of the cells in 48 h and in about 90% of the cells in 72 h. at higher temperatures (37 c and 42 c) ...19911805043
a noti restriction site of campylobacter coli chromosomal dna detected by double-digestion analysis with apai. 19911832048
identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli antigens with mucosal and systemic antibodies.the development of a rapid and specific diagnostic assay for campylobacter infections is important in determining the etiology of acute diarrhea in humans. studies have shown that sonicated whole bacteria or partially purified antigens cross-reacted with antibodies against other closely related bacteria. to solve the problems of specificity, we identified specific antigens of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli for use in diagnostic assays. we investigated the responses of serum, urine, ...19911855976
role of two flagellin genes in campylobacter motility.campylobacter coli vc167 t2 has two flagellin genes, flaa and flab, which share 91.9% sequence identity. the flaa gene is transcribed from a o-28 promoter, and the flab gene from a o-54 promoter. gene replacement mutagenesis techniques were used to generate flaa+ flab and flaa flab+ mutants. both gene products are capable of assembling independently into functional filaments. a flagellar filament composed exclusively of the flaa gene product is indistinguishable in length from that of the wild t ...19911856171
incidence of toxigenic campylobacter strains in south africa.campylobacter strains can produce a heat-labile cytotonic toxin (cton) and various cytotoxins (ctox). of 22 south african campylobacter strains tested, 86% were toxigenic (77% produced cton, 41% produced ctox, and 32% produced both types) and 14% were toxin negative. campylobacter jejuni strains were 67% cton positive and 47% ctox positive, whereas campylobacter coli strains were 100 and 29% positive, respectively.19911864947
use of embryonating eggs for isolation of campylobacter species from intestines of swine with proliferative enteritis.intestinal tissues from swine affected with proliferative enteritis were ground, filtered through a 0.65-micron pore membrane filter, diluted, and injected into 7-day-old embryonated hens' eggs via the yolk sac. at 2, 4, and 7 days later, yolk sac swab specimens taken from live embryos were cultured for campylobacter species. campylobacter hyointestinalis was recovered from eggs injected with tissues of swine with acute hemorrhagic proliferative enteritis at dilutions up to 10(-4). campylobacter ...19911883083
identification, purification, and characterization of major antigenic proteins of campylobacter jejuni.evidence from developing countries and volunteer studies indicates that immunity to campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli may be acquired, but the antigenic basis for this protection is poorly defined. we have purified to homogeneity four proteins with molecular weights of 28,000 (peb1), 29,000 (peb2), 30,000 (peb3), and 31,000 (peb4) from epidemic c. jejuni strain 81-176 using acid extraction and sequential ion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography. the rela ...19911885571
comparison of the survival of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in culturable form in surface water.six campylobacter jejuni and six campylobacter coli strains were isolated from cows and pigs, and their survival in lake water was compared by viable counts. campylobacter jejuni survived longer in culturable form than c. coli in untreated and membrane-filtered water both at 4 and 20 degrees c. this difference in survival time may be a reason why c. jejuni is generally isolated from surface waters more frequently than c. coli. both species survived better in filtered than in untreated water. thi ...19911913357
immunocytochemical identification of helicobacter pylori in formalin-fixed gastric biopsies.h&e and special histochemical stains are used by most laboratories to identify helicobacter pylori (h. pylori) in gastric biopsy specimens. however, background staining can complicate recognition of h. pylori and small numbers of organisms may be overlooked. additionally, histochemical stains do not distinguish h. pylori from other spiral organisms. we investigated two commercially available monoclonal antibodies, one directed against campylobacter coli and c. jejuni (mab002) and the other again ...19911924280
common and variable domains of the flagellin gene, flaa, in campylobacter jejuni.the organization of the flagellin gene locus in campylobacter jejuni strain in1 (lior 7) was determined using the polymerase chain (pcr) reaction and a series of oligonucleotide primers. two tandemly arranged flagellin genes of approximately 1.7 kb were found to be joined by an intervening segment of c.0.2kb, similar to that reported for campylobacter coli. the 5' flagellin gene, flaa, was generated by pcr and both strands sequenced. comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence for c. jejuni fl ...19911956293
isolation of group 2 aerotolerant campylobacter species from thai children with diarrhea.campylobacter species were isolated from 93 (15%) of 631 thai children with diarrhea using the membrane filter technique on nonselective blood agar incubated at 37 degrees c. campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 62 (10%), campylobacter coli from 14 (2%), and atypical campylobacters from 17 (3%). the 17 atypical strains were first characterized biochemically and by dot blot dna hybridization. catalase-negative strains also were characterized by dna hybridization and ribotype pattern. one strain ...19912019754
pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli genomic dna and its epidemiologic application.genomic dna from 12 different campylobacter jejuni and 10 campylobacter coli isolates was digested with smai and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and 16s rrna hybridization studies. although the two campylobacter species displayed species-specific restriction and hybridization patterns, significant intraspecies differences were observed. combined pfge and hybridization pattern analysis failed to provide any more epidemiologic information than was obtained from pfge restriction ...19912019755
relationship between the clostridium perfringens catq gene product and chloramphenicol acetyltransferases from other bacteria.the nucleotide sequence of the clostridium perfringens chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat)-encoding resistance determinant, catq, was determined. an open reading frame encoding a protein of 219 amino acids with a molecular weight of 26,014 was identified. although catq was expressed constitutively, sequences similar in structure to those found upstream of inducible cat genes were observed. the catq gene was distinct from the c. perfringens catp determinant. the deduced catq monomer had consi ...19912039197
significance of flagella in colonization resistance of rabbits immunized with campylobacter spp.cross-protection among different lior and penner serogroups of campylobacter spp. was studied. rabbits were orally immunized by gastric feeding with campylobacter spp., and 27 to 30 days later, they were challenged with matched or unmatched serogroups by the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea (ritard) procedure. when immunized animals were challenged with different lior serotypes, no protection against colonization was seen; however, when challenged with homologous lior serogroups, p ...19912050397
identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from waste water by sds-disc-page of whole cell protein.analysis of the electrophoretic profiles of whole cell proteins of campylobacter strains from waste water was used to differentiate c. jejuni from c. coli. the results show, that biotyping of campylobacters from waste water may results in a false species differentiation. some of the campylobacter strains originally typed as c. coli, were proved to be atypical c. jejuni strains. therefore, in addition to biotyping and serotyping, electrophoretic typing is recommended to ensure correct identificat ...19902080967
[evaluation of a latex agglutination method for the rapid identification of campylobacter jejuni/coli].a latex agglutination assay was developed to identify campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. we evaluated the specificity, reproducibility and utility of the assay for clinical use and the following results were obtained. 1) to prepare standardized antigen, bacterial cells must be suspended to a density of 1 to 5 mcfarland unit, and heated at 121 degrees c for 10 to 30 min. 2) bacterial cells may be suspended either in the solution provided with the kit, or in physiological saline, without ...19902082036
isolation of campylobacter coli from a proliferative intestinal lesion in a ferret. 19902094455
immuno-histochemical and -cytochemical evidence suggesting the presence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in cases of porcine intestinal adenomatosis.antisera against a number of campylobacter species were used in immuno-histochemical and -cytochemical studies on cases of porcine intestinal adenomatosis. avidin-biotin-complex (abc) and streptavidin immunoperoxidase methods were used on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and frozen sections. protein a gold method was used on formaldehyde fixed and frozen sections for immuno-cytochemistry. the antisera used were raised in rabbits by subcutaneous or intravenous injection of living or formalin tre ...19902099622
electrolyte abnormalities associated with diarrhea in rhesus monkeys: 100 cases (1986-1987).serum electrolyte values from 100 rhesus monkeys with diarrhea were reviewed. the most frequent finding was hyponatremia (88%), with hypochloremia next most frequently detected (80%). metabolic acidosis was less common (59%) and usually associated with high anion gap values. associations between electrolyte abnormalities and age, housing, or case outcome were not found. bacteriologic culturing was performed on fecal specimens from 90 monkeys. campylobacter coli or c jejuni alone was isolated fro ...19902112122
emergence of aminoglycoside resistance genes aada and aade in the genus campylobacter.resistance to streptomycin or spectinomycin or both in five campylobacter coli strains, two campylobacter jejuni strains, and a campylobacter-like strain was studied by enzymatic assays and dot blot hybridization. resistance was due to 6- or 3",9-aminoglycoside adenylyltransferases and to new types of phospho- and adenylyltransferases.19902168151
biotypes, serogroups and antibiotic susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in chile.phenotypic markers were studied in 105 strains of thermophilic campylobacters isolated from human beings, animals and drinking water in santiago, chile. the strains were identified as campylobacter jejuni (n = 49) and campylobacter coli (n = 56). biotypes i and ii (lior schema) accounted for 96% c. jejuni isolates, the other 4% being biotype iv but the two biotypes of c. coli were about equally represented. a total of 28 serogroups (lior's heat-labile antigens) were identified. lior 13, 9, 79, 2 ...19902181024
morphology and immunoperoxidase studies of intestinal adenomatosis in the blue fox, alopex a blue fox farm about 300 of 400 weanling pups were affected with diarrhoea and prolapse of the rectum. about 40 pups died in an emaciated state after a few days of disease. eight pups were submitted for examination. pathological findings were restricted to the caecum, proximal colon and rectum, with occasional extension to the ileum. affected areas revealed a thick and rigid intestinal wall, a narrow lumen and a thickened, wrinkled and sometimes ulcerated mucosa. histologically, the mucosa s ...19902195067
comparative in vitro activity of cefpirome and cefepime, two new in vitro tests the broad-spectrum cephalosporins cefpirome and cefepime were highly active against enterobacteriaceae, although often less so against strains resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate and ticarcillin-clavulanate, and against most strains of acinetobacter spp. and aeromonas hydrophila. they were also active against pseudomonas aeruginosa, although strains with non-plasmid mediated beta-lactam resistance were sometimes less sensitive. other pseudomonas spp. varied in their sensitivit ...19902226498
evaluation of cytotoxic activity in fecal filtrates from patients with campylobacter jejuni or campylobacter coli enteritis.we sought to determine the prevalence of cytotoxic activity in fecal filtrates from persons with c. jejuni or c. coli enteritis. stool specimens were collected from 20 persons with c. jejuni or c. coli enteritis, 20 persons with acute diarrheal illnesses of other causes, and 9 healthy, asymptomatic persons. fecal filtrates were then incubated with chinese hamster ovary (cho) or hela cells. the fecal filtrate from 1 of the 20 (5%) persons with campylobacter enteritis was cytotoxic for hela cells ...19902227365
chloramphenicol resistance in campylobacter coli: nucleotide sequence, expression, and cloning vector construction.a chloramphenicol-resistance determinant (cmr), originally cloned from campylobacter coli plasmid pnr9589 in japan, was isolated and the nucleotide sequence determined, which contained an open reading frame of 621 bp. the gene product was identified as cm acetyltransferase (cat), which had a putative amino acid sequence that showed 43% to 57% identity with other cat proteins of both gram+ and gram- origin. although expression of the cat gene was constitutive in both c. coli and escherichia coli, ...19902227449
use of tri-gas incubator for routine culture of campylobacter species from fecal specimens.we evaluated a tri-gas incubator for campylobacter isolation to be used instead of an anaerobic jar. fecal specimens were cultured in duplicate onto charcoal selective medium and incubated at 43 degrees c for 48 h in two different environments: a tri-gas incubator (forma scientific) adjusted to provide an atmosphere of 10% co2, 10% o2, and the balance n2; and evacuated anaerobic jars with a replacement gas mixture of 10% co2, 5% o2, and 85% n2. a total of 106 campylobacter jejuni and 8 campyloba ...19902280012
[evaluation of a new medium using red-cell lysate for the isolation of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli].a semiprepared medium containing horse globular lysate was evaluated for the isolation of campylobacter under two incubation atmospheres (5% o2 and candle jar). studying 19 known strains of c. jejuni, 151 human and 230 animal fecal samples. they were seeded on conventional medium (mc) and on the new medium (mlg) and incubated at 42 degrees c for 24 and 48 h. campylobacter strains grew better in 5% o2 atmosphere after 48 h of incubation. all the strains that grew or were isolated on mc, could als ...19902287716
tropical arthritis in papua new guinea: a reactive idiopathic, asymmetrical oligoarthritis affecting young adults is prevalent in the tropical regions of africa, asia and melanesia. a serological study was undertaken in 23 consecutive patients with polyarthritis. each patient was assigned two paired control subjects. a standardized history, physical examination and investigations were performed. acute and convalescent sera were examined for evidence of recent infection. the presence of hla-b27 was determined. twelve (52%) of the 23 patients h ...19902300025
sizing and mapping of the genome of campylobacter coli strain ua417r using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.agarose-immobilized chromosomal dna from the nalidixic-acid-resistant campylobacter coli strain ua417 and its streptomycin-resistant (strr) derivative, ua417r, were digested with the restriction enzymes sali (gtcgac) and smai (cccggg). the sizes of the resulting fragments were determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. the two genomes showed similar restriction patterns of seven and 13 fragments for the two respective enzymes and the total genome size was determined to be approx. 1.7 mb. ...19911676383
variation in antigenicity and molecular weight of campylobacter coli vc167 flagellin in different genetic backgrounds.campylobacter coli vc167 has been shown to undergo a reversible flagellar antigenic variation between antigenic type 1 (t1) and antigenic type 2 (t2). vc167 contains two flagellin genes, and the products of both genes are incorporated into a complex flagellar filament in both antigenic types. although there are only minor amino acid changes in the flagellins expressed by t1 and t2 cells, the two antigenic types of flagellins can be distinguished by differences in apparent m(r) on sodium dodecyl ...19921624417
occurrence, removal and seasonal variation of "thermophilic" campylobacters in a sewage treatment plant in italy.monitoring of "thermophilic" campylobacters in a sewage treatment plant in bologna (italy) has shown that incoming sewage contained a most probable number of 1630 campylobacters/100 ml. the secondary treatment in activated sludge tanks reduced 98.61% of campylobacters, 95.32% of fecal coliforms, 96.46% of fecal streptococci, 93.36% of salmonellas and 93.01% and 88.29% of bod5 and cod respectively. subsequent tertiary treatment with 3 ppm of chlorine dioxide for 15 min reduced 100% of campylobact ...19921457031
prevalence, biotypes, plasmid profile and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter isolated from wild and domestic animals from northeast portugal.the incidence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in wild and producing animals has been studied to evaluate their importance as potential reservoirs of campylobacter infection. these organisms were isolated from: 59 chicken (60.2%), 65 swine (59.1%), 31 black rats (57.4%), 61 sparrows (45.5%), 21 ducks (40.5%), 32 cows (19.5%) and 27 sheep (15.3%). biotypes, plasmid and resistance profiles were studied in order to characterize the isolates. biotypes i and ii of c. jejuni were predomi ...19921429305
rapid and sensitive detection of campylobacter spp. in chicken products by using the polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) after a short enrichment culture was used to detect campylobacter spp. in chicken products. after the 16s rrna gene sequence of campylobacter jejuni was determined and compared with known sequences from other enterobacteria, a primer and probe combination was selected from the region before v3 and the variable regions v3 and v5. with this primer set and probe, 426-bp fragments from c. jejuni, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter lari could be amplified. the d ...19921282312
[detection of vibrio coli in swine]. 19761021956
potential sources of campylobacter species in the homes of farmworkers in zimbabwe.chicken faeces, houseflies, household stored drinking water, cooked or prepared foods and handwashings of people of all age groups and hands of children under 5 years old were examined as potential sources and transmission routes of campylobacter species in a farmworker community. campylobacter species were found to be common in chicken faeces collected from the homesteads of the farmworkers but were rarely isolated from houseflies or household stored drinking water. they were not isolated from ...19911758009
adherence, enterotoxigenicity, invasiveness and serogroups in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains from adult humans with acute enterocolitis.two hundred campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains from the same number of adult swedish patients with acute enterocolitis were tested regarding adherence to and invasiveness in hep-2 cells and for enterotoxigenicity by the cho-cell assay. the serogroup characteristics, heat-stable and heat-labile, for each strain were also investigated. eighty-four percent of the strains were classified as c. jejuni and 16 percent as c. coli. all of the strains were adherent to hep-2 cells, 39% wer ...19902302354
isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni from slaughter hogs.cultural examination of cecal contents from 109 market weight hogs slaughtered in prince edward island during may-july 1988 yielded 62 isolates of campylobacter coli and seven campylobacter jejuni. a commercial latex agglutination test helped to confirm the identification of campylobacter. when tested against four drugs: erythromycin, tetracycline, kanamycin and ampicillin, 11 isolates showed multiple resistance. resistance to erythromycin was seen in 19% and 28.6% of campylobacter coli and camp ...19902308529
genomic organization and expression of campylobacter flagellin genes.campylobacter coli vc167, which undergoes an antigenic flagellar variation, contains two full-length flagellin genes, flaa and flab, that are located adjacent to one another in a tandem orientation and are 91.5% homologous. the gene product of flab, which has an mr of 58,946, has 93% sequence homology to the gene product of flaa, which has an mr of 58,916 (s. m. logan, t. j. trust, and p. guerry, j. bacteriol. 171:3031-3038, 1989). mutational analyses and primer extension experiments indicated t ...19902318805
a cohort study of enteric campylobacter infection in children from birth to two years in bangui (central african republic).a cohort of 111 children from bangui, central african republic, was followed for enteric campylobacter infection from birth until the age of 2 years. stools were examined at each episode of diarrhoea, and bi-weekly up to the age of 6 months irrespective of the presence of diarrhoea. 349 episodes of diarrhoeal illness were recorded (1.6 per child-year). campylobacters were isolated from 41 (11.7%) of the 349 episodes, but in half of them another enteric pathogen was also isolated. campylobacters ...19902345912
in vitro susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated in austria to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin.more than 200 strains of campylobacter (c.) jejuni/coli isolated in 1985 and 1987/88 from human fecal specimens were tested for their susceptibility to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. their mic90 as assessed by agar dilution tests was 2.0 and 0.5 mg/l, respectively. thus, all strains were regarded as susceptible to ciprofloxacin. with 2 out of 55 strains of c. coli the mic of erythromycin was 8.0 mg/l. therefore, only 3.6% of the c. coli strains were resistant to erythromycin. all 209 strains of ...19902360966
evidence of reinfection with multiple strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in macaca nemestrina housed under hyperendemic conditions.a prospective bacteriologic study of 18 infant pig-tailed macaques (macaca nemestrina) housed in a nursery facility in which campylobacter spp. are endemic was undertaken to determine the epidemiology of infection and reinfection. the isolates of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli cultured from 8 of the 18 infants were characterized by serotyping, dna hybridization, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profiles. the chronology of infection was indicative of multiple reinfections with dif ...19902365455
polynucleotide sequence relationships among flagellin genes of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.dna probes that encode a complete flagellin gene and various internal regions of the campylobacter coli vc167 flagellin genes were hybridized to 30 strains of c. coli or c. jejuni from 20 different lior serogroups. the results indicated a high overall degree of homology among all of the strains examined. although the most variable regions occurred within the middle of the gene, significant dna homology was observed among many serogroups in this region of the molecule.19902370114
campylobacter jejuni versus campylobacter coli in developing countries: how accurate are prevalence estimates? 19902373882
purification, characterization, and localization of a protein antigen shared by thermophilic campylobacters.a protein antigen with an apparent molecular weight (mr) of 31,000 was isolated from 0.2 m glycine hydrochloride (ph 2.2) extracts of a typical human fecal isolate, campylobacter jejuni vc74. the protein was purified to homogeneity on a preparative scale by immunoaffinity chromatography followed by molecular sieving with a superose 12 column. isoelectric focusing under nondenaturing conditions indicated a pi of 9.3, and amino acid composition analysis showed that the protein was unusually rich i ...19902380360
use of an alkaline phosphatase-labeled synthetic oligonucleotide probe for detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.a commercially available synthetic nucleic acid probe (snap) conjugated to alkaline phosphatase was compared with standard culture techniques for detecting campylobacter species. the snap was able to detect either 5 ng of c. jejuni dna or 10(5) cfu of bacteria. the snap could also detect dna extracted from 10(5) cfu in mock-infected stool samples. the snap detected c. jejuni and c. coli but showed no reactivity with c. laridis, c. fetus subsp. fetus, c. fetus subsp. venerealis, c. fennelliae, "c ...19902380381
use of non-radioactive dna probes for detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in stool specimens.dna probes specific for c. jejuni (pdt1720 containing a 1475 base pair fragment) and for c. jejuni and c. coli (pdt1719 containing a 1845 base pair fragment) were isolated from a bacteriophage lambda gt11 genomic library of c. jejuni, using antiserum prepared against a 46 kda major outer membrane protein of c. jejuni. the two probe-fragments had different restriction maps and were only moderately related by dna hybridization analysis. a non-radioactive labelling kit which consisted of alkaline p ...19902402249
natural transformation in campylobacter species.growing cells of campylobacter coli and c. jejuni were naturally transformed by naked dna without the requirement for any special treatment. transformation frequencies for homologous chromosomal dna were approximately 10(-3) transformants per recipient cell in c. coli and 10(-4) in c. jejuni. maximum competence was found in the early log phase of growth. campylobacters preferentially took up their own dna in comparison with escherichia coli chromosomal dna, which was taken up very poorly. three ...19902404960
interaction of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli with lectins and blood group antibodies.lectins and blood group antibodies were used to probe the surface structures of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. of the 29 strains tested, there were distinct reaction patterns. the lectin-reactive and blood group antibody-reactive sites on the bacterial surface were distinguishable from the heat-stable (lipopolysaccharide) antigenic determinants. the interactions were strain specific. the reactive sites were stable with respect to culture media and passage and may be useful as addit ...19852410445
isolation and characterization of a common antigen in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.flagellin protein was isolated and purified from two serotype reference strains of campylobacter jejuni, pen 1 and pen 3. each preparation was shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to consist of a diffuse band with a molecular mass of approximately 62 kilodaltons. antisera were prepared against flagellin from pen 1, and specific antibody was isolated by affinity chromatography with flagellin protein covalently bound to cyanogen bromide-activated sepharose. the high-a ...19862424932
antigenic variation of campylobacter flagella.sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of flagella dissociated from strains of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni belonging to the heat-labile serogroup lio 8 showed that some strains were capable of producing flagellin subunits of two different molecular weights (mrs), 59,500 and 61,500. immunoelectron microscopy of cultures of the type strain of this serogroup, c. coli vc167, showed the presence of two flagellum filaments of different antigenic specificity. epitopes ...19872444577
isolation and characterization of campylobacter flagellins.sequential acid ph dissociation, differential ultracentrifugation, and neutral ph reassociation were used to partially purify serotypically distinct flagella from three strains of campylobacter jejuni and the two antigenic phases of flagella of campylobacter coli vc167. each c. jejuni flagellin and c. coli vc167 antigenic phase 1 flagellin were purified to homogeneity by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with a c8 spheri-10 column. c. coli vc167 antigenic phase 2 was purified ...19872444578
comparison of methods used to separate the inner and outer membranes of cell envelopes of campylobacter spp.the outer membrane of campylobacter coli, c. jejuni and c. fetus cell envelopes appeared as three fractions after sucrose gradient centrifugation. each outer membrane fraction was contaminated with succinate dehydrogenase activity from the cytoplasmic membrane fraction. similarly the inner membrane fraction was contaminated with 2-ketodeoxyoctonate and outer membrane proteins including the porin(s). the separation of these two membranes was not facilitated by variations in lysozyme treatment, ce ...19882474628
oligonucleotide probe for detection and identification of campylobacter pylori.we have developed a novel and practical dna-rna hybridization assay for the detection and identification of campylobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa. this technique utilizes a [32p]ddatp-labeled synthetic oligonucleotide probe complementary to a nucleotide sequence present in c. pylori 16s rrna. this probe is very sensitive and reacted with all 23 strains of c. pylori tested. it is also highly specific, since there was no cross-reactivity with the heterologous organisms campylobacter coli, c. ...19892480360
studies on the chemical constitution of cell wall lipo-oligosaccharide from campylobacter coli labet 227.the lipo-oligosaccharide (los) from campylobacter coli labet 227 was extracted by aqueous phenol. after delipidation and gel chromatography, two oligosaccharides were isolated. the higher molecular weight material os (i) which was estimated to contain six to seven sugar units was found to contain glucose, galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxygalactose and heptose. analysis of the partially methylated alditol acetates by g.c.-m.s. revealed the presence of terminal hexoses, a ...19892489074
coumamidines, new broad spectrum antibiotics of the cinodine type. iii. microbiologic activity of coumamidine gamma 1.the coumamidines are novel antibiotics with activity against a wide spectrum of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. all microbiological studies were performed on coumamidine gamma 1. the mic90s (micrograms/ml) of coumamidine are as follows: staphylococcus aureus 1.0, streptococcus pyogenes 8, enterobacteriaceae 2.0, pseudomonas aeruginosa 8, campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli 1, legionella pneumophila 8, haemophilus influenzae 0.5, neisseria gonorrhoeae 0.5. coumamidine ha ...19892498268
[in vitro susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to quinolone antibiotics].in this study, in vitro susceptibilities of 24 campylobacter strains isolated from fecal samples were tested for quinolone antibiotics. 13 of the strains were identified as c. jejuni and 11 of them were c. coli. antibiotics which were included in this study were ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin and fleroxacin. antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on mueller-hinton agar (supplemented with 5% sheep blood) using the agar dilution method. results showed that quinolone antibiotics are v ...19892518646
characterization of the porins of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli and implications for antibiotic susceptibility.the major outer membrane protein was extracted from campylobacter coli by triton x-100/edta fractionation of cell envelopes. this heat-modifiable protein was shown to have pore-forming activity in black lipid bilayers. the c. coli porin formed a relatively small cation-selective pore with a mean single-channel conductance of 0.53 +/- 0.16 ns in 1.0 m kcl. there was no evidence of oligomer formation, which suggested that each protein monomer formed a pore. pore-forming activity of the c. coli por ...19892543277
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