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cecal colonization of chicks by porcine strains of campylobacter coli.ten genotypically distinct strains of campylobacter coli were isolated from a swine production facility. these porcine isolates were then orally inoculated into day-of-hatch leghorn chicks and were excellent colonizers of the chick cecum. campylobacter coli recovered from inoculated chickens were genotypically identical to the challenge strain. the absence of host specificity suggests a possible movement of strains among swine, field animals and birds, and poultry houses.200212061661
identification of the vibrio cholerae enterobactin receptors vcta and irga: irga is not required for virulence.the gram-negative enteric pathogen vibrio cholerae requires iron for growth. v. cholerae has multiple iron acquisition systems, including utilization of heme and hemoglobin, synthesis and transport of the catechol siderophore vibriobactin, and transport of several siderophores that it does not itself make. one siderophore that v. cholerae transports, but does not make, is enterobactin. enterobactin transport requires tonb and is independent of the vibriobactin receptor viua. in this study, two c ...200212065481
cmeabc functions as a multidrug efflux system in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni, a gram-negative organism causing gastroenteritis in humans, is increasingly resistant to antibiotics. however, little is known about the drug efflux mechanisms in this pathogen. here we characterized an efflux pump encoded by a three-gene operon (designated cmeabc) that contributes to multidrug resistance in c. jejuni 81-176. cmeabc shares significant sequence and structural homology with known tripartite multidrug efflux pumps in other gram-negative bacteria, and it consis ...200212069964
agglutination of helicobacter pylori coccoids by lectins.aim:to study the agglutination pattern of helicobacter pylori coccoid andspiral forms.methods:assays of agglutination and agglu-tination inhibition were applied using fifteen commercial lectins.results:strong agglutination was observed with mannose specific concanavalin a(con a), fucose specific tetragonolobus purpureas(lotus a) and n-acetyl glucosamine-specific triticum vulgaris (wga) lectins. mannose and fucose specific lectins were reactive with all strains of h. pylori coccoids as compared t ...200011819557
growth of campylobacter jejuni supported by respiration of fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, trimethylamine-n-oxide, or dimethyl sulfoxide requires oxygen.the human gastrointestinal pathogen campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic bacterium with a respiratory metabolism. the genome sequence of c. jejuni strain 11168 reveals the presence of genes that encode terminal reductases that are predicted to allow the use of a wide range of alternative electron acceptors to oxygen, including fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, and n- or s-oxides. all of these reductase activities were present in cells of strain 11168, and the molybdoenzyme encoded by cj0264c was ...200212107136
characterization of pit, a streptococcus pneumoniae iron uptake abc transporter.bacteria frequently have multiple mechanisms for acquiring iron, an essential micronutrient, from the environment. we have identified a four-gene streptococcus pneumoniae operon, named pit, encoding proteins with similarity to components of a putative brachyspira hyodysenteriae iron uptake abc transporter, bit. an s. pneumoniae strain containing a defined mutation in pit has impaired growth in medium containing the iron chelator ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, reduced sensitivity ...200212117949
genome-wide transcriptional profiling in a histidine kinase mutant of helicobacter pylori identifies members of a regulon.to identify putative members of a regulon controlled by the h. pylori sensory histidine kinase hp0164 (hk0164), we constructed hk0164 null mutant h. pylori strains and analyzed bacterial gene transcription using dna arrays. seven genes were differentially expressed in multiple hk0164 mutant strains compared to their expression in control strains. strain-dependent variations in differential expression were also detected. these results indicate that the signal transduction circuit utilizing hk0164 ...200212142435
genetic basis of quinolone resistance and epidemiology of resistant and susceptible isolates of porcine campylobacter coli strains.the aims of this study were to investigate the epidemiology of quinolone-resistant and -susceptible porcine isolates of campylobacter coli and to characterize the genetic basis of quinolone resistance.200212147072
effects of repeated subculturing and prolonged storage at room temperature of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles.three clinical strains of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 which were subcultured repeatedly or stored at room temperature over a 25-week period showed appreciable variations in their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis fragment patterns. the variations could be explained by a couple of spontaneous genetic events at most and thus did not invalidate the genetic lineage of the strains.200212149386
prevalence of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in ready-to-eat foods and raw poultry in northern ireland.although there have been numerous studies investigating the prevalence of campylobacters in animals and raw meats, there are limited data on the persistence of these organisms in ready-to-eat (rte) foodstuffs. although poultry is now well established as a major reservoir of thermophilic campylobacters, it is widely assumed that hazard analysis critical control point (haccp) controls in commercial and industrial settings are effective in eliminating this hazard through thorough cooking of rte pro ...200212182488
a case-case comparison of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni infection: a tool for generating hypotheses.preventing campylobacteriosis depends on a thorough understanding of its epidemiology. we used case-case analysis to compare cases of campylobacter coli infection with cases of c. jejuni infection, to generate hypotheses for infection from standardized, population-based sentinel surveillance information in england and wales. persons with c. coli infection were more likely to have drunk bottled water than were those with c. jejuni infection and, in general, were more likely to have eaten pâté. im ...200212194770
quorum sensing and production of autoinducer-2 in campylobacter spp., escherichia coli o157:h7, and salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in foods.autoinducer molecules are utilized by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria to regulate density-dependent gene expression by a mechanism known as quorum sensing. pcr and dna sequencing results showed that campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli possessed luxs, which is responsible for autoinducer-2 (ai-2) production. using a vibrio harveyi luminescence assay, the production of ai-2 was observed in milk, chicken broth, and brucella broth by c. coli, c. jejuni, salmonella enterica serovar t ...200212200329
distribution of environmentally regulated genes of streptococcus suis serotype 2 among s. suis serotypes and other organisms.the occurrence of 36 environmentally regulated genes of streptococcus suis strain 10 among all 35 s. suis serotypes was determined by using hybridization with the amplified genes as probes. in addition, the distribution of these genes among the virulence phenotypes of serotypes 1 and 2 was assessed. hybridization was also performed with various other streptococcal species and nonstreptococcal bacterial species which may be present in pigs. interestingly, probe ivs-25/iri-1, similar to agra and s ...200212202563
use of a lightcycler gyra mutation assay for identification of ciprofloxacin-resistant campylobacter coli.a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay has been employed to detect mutations at the 86 codon in the dna gyrase a (gyra) gene in campylobacter coli strains. these mutations were associated with ciprofloxacin resistance in strains isolated in italy in 2000. the mutations in the gyra gene were detected by real-time pcr amplification followed by hybridization with two fluorescent probes designed with sequences complementary to the wild-type c. coli gyra gene. mutation detection was per ...200212204377
identification and localization of flagellins flaa and flab3 within flagella of methanococcus voltae.methanococcus voltae possesses four flagellin genes, two of which (flab1 and flab2) have previously been reported to encode major components of the flagellar filament. the remaining two flagellin genes, flaa and flab3, are transcribed at lower levels, and the corresponding proteins remained undetected prior to this work. electron microscopy examination of flagella isolated by detergent extraction of whole cells revealed a curved, hook-like region of varying length at the end of a long filament. ...200212218007
campylobacter coli bacteremia in an 11-year-old boy. 200212225560
two predicted chemoreceptors of helicobacter pylori promote stomach infection.helicobacter pylori must be motile or display chemotaxis to be able to fully infect mammals, but it is not known how this chemotaxis is directed. we disrupted two genes encoding predicted chemoreceptors, tlpa and tlpc. h. pylori mutants lacking either of these genes are fully motile and chemotactic in vitro and are as able as the wild type to infect mice when they are the sole infecting strains. in contrast, when mice are coinfected with the h. pylori ss1 tlpa or tlpc mutant and the wild type, w ...200212228322
long-term antibody responses following human infection with campylobacter jejuni.epidemiological evidence suggests prior infection of humans by campylobacter jejuni leads to protection against disease following further exposure. it is known that infections elicit strong antibody responses following the onset of disease and that antibody levels are elevated in putatively immune populations. to determine if systemic and mucosal antibodies induced by a confirmed infection remain at elevated levels for prolonged periods, repeat serum, saliva and urine samples were taken from cam ...200212296859
polyphosphate kinase from activated sludge performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal.a novel polyphosphate kinase (ppk) was retrieved from an uncultivated organism in activated sludge carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal (ebpr). acetate-fed laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors were used to maintain sludge with a high phosphorus content (approximately 11% of the biomass). pcr-based clone libraries of small subunit rrna genes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) were used to verify that the sludge was enriched in rhodocyclus-like beta-proteobacteria kn ...200212324346
double-staining method for differentiation of morphological changes and membrane integrity of campylobacter coli cells.we developed a double-staining procedure involving nanoorange dye (molecular probes, eugene, oreg.) and membrane integrity stains (live/dead baclight kit; molecular probes) to show the morphological and membrane integrity changes of campylobacter coli cells during growth. the conversion from a spiral to a coccoid morphology via intermediary forms and the membrane integrity changes of the c. coli cells can be detected with the double-staining procedure. our data indicate that young or actively gr ...200212324366
detection of helicobacter colonization of the murine lower bowel by genus-specific pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.helicobacter genus-specific pcr and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis can detect and speciate the helicobacters that colonize the lower bowel of laboratory mice. the method's sensitivity is comparable to that of species-specific pcr and may detect unnamed helicobacter species. this approach should prove useful for commercial and research murine facilities.200212324369
trends in antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of campylobacter species in ireland and the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin.measurements were made of the susceptibility to six commonly prescribed antibiotics, including erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, of 130 isolates of campylobacterjejuni and 15 isolates of campylobacter coli cultured from human and poultry sources during 2000. the results were compared with the results from a collection of strains isolated between 1996 and 1998. the levels of resistance to erythromycin remained low, 2 per cent and 4.4 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respec ...200212356234
human campylobacteriosis in developing countries.campylobacteriosis is a collective description for infectious diseases caused by members of the bacterial genus campylobacter. the only form of campylobacteriosis of major public health importance is campylobacter enteritis due to c. jejuni and c. coli. research and control efforts on the disease have been conducted more often in developed countries than developing countries. however, because of the increasing incidence, expanding spectrum of infections, potential of hiv-related deaths due to ca ...200211927019
evaluation of a commercial diagnostic pcr for the identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.aims: dupont qualicon recently developed a new pcr assay for the identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. we evaluated the selectivity and utility of this assay compared with a pcr method already in use in our laboratory. methods and results: a group of 133 campylobacter isolates from poultry carcass rinse samples were screened using the commercial pcr and standard pcr. identical results were found for 89.5% (119/133) of the isolates. however, 10.5% (14/133) gave conflictin ...200212358702
genetic diversity and relationships of campylobacter species and subspecies.the existence of tremendous genetic diversity within campylobacter species has been well documented. to analyse the population structure of campylobacter and determine whether or not a clonal population structure could be detected, genetic diversity was assessed within the genus campylobacter by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis of 156 isolates representing 11 species and subspecies from disparate sources. analyses of electrophoretic mobility of 11 enzymes revealed 109 electrophoretic types (ets ...200212361288
characterization of the gene encoding the major secreted lysophospholipase a of legionella pneumophila and its role in detoxification of lysophosphatidylcholine.we previously showed that legionella pneumophila secretes, via its type ii secretion system, phospholipase a activities that are distinguished by their specificity for certain phospholipids. in this study, we identified and characterized plaa, a gene encoding a phospholipase a that cleaves fatty acids from lysophospholipids. the plaa gene encoded a 309-amino-acid protein (plaa) which had homology to a group of lipolytic enzymes containing the catalytic signature gdsl. in escherichia coli, the cl ...200212379686
dna sequence and mutational analyses of the pvir plasmid of campylobacter jejuni 81-176.the circular pvir plasmid of campylobacter jejuni strain 81-176 was determined to be 37,468 nucleotides in length with a g+c content of 26%. a total of 83% of the plasmid represented coding information, and all but 2 of the 54 predicted open reading frames were encoded on the same dna strand. there were seven genes on the plasmid in a continguous region of 8.9 kb that encoded orthologs of type iv secretion proteins found in helicobacter pylori, including four that have been described previously ...200212379703
impediometric detection of campylobacter coli.the rapid automated bacterial impedance technique (rabit) was examined as a method for the detection of two wild-type isolates of campylobacter coli in broth media. both isolates failed to produce a change in impedance that was sufficient for detection in any combination of six nonselective basal broth media, including mueller-hinton broth, nutrient broth no. 2, brain heart infusion broth supplemented with yeast extract (0.5% [wt/vol]), brucella broth, campy broth supplemented with yeast extract ...200212380757
speciation of thermotolerant campylobacter isolates involved in foodborne disease by means of dna restriction analysis and molecular probes.the molecular identification of several strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli involved in foodborne disease was carried out by investigating the restriction profiles of their chromosomal dna and by dna/dna hybridization. cleavage with ecorv allowed the visualization of a 3 kb dna fragment characteristic of c. jejuni, whereas restriction with clai allowed the identification of a 9.3 kb dna fragment, also characteristic of c. jejuni, and a dna duplet of 9.5-10 kb, specific to c. c ...200212381150
structural heterogeneity of carbohydrate modifications affects serospecificity of campylobacter flagellins.flagellin from campylobacter coli vc167 is post-translationally modified at > or = 16 amino acid residues with pseudaminic acid and three related derivatives. the predominant modification was 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9 - tetradeoxy - l - glycero - l - manno - nonulosonic acid (pseudaminic acid, pse5ac7ac), a modification that has been described previously on flagellin from campylobacter jejuni 81-176. vc167 lacked two modi-fications present in 81-176 and instead had two unique modifications of mass ...200212406231
requirement of flha for swarming differentiation, flagellin export, and secretion of virulence-associated proteins in bacillus thuringiensis.bacillus thuringiensis is being used worldwide as a biopesticide, although increasing evidence suggests that it is emerging as an opportunistic human pathogen. while phospholipases, hemolysins, and enterotoxins are claimed to be responsible for b. thuringiensis virulence, there is no direct evidence to indicate that the flagellum-driven motility plays a role in parasite-host interactions. this report describes the characterization of a mini-tn10 mutant of b. thuringiensis that is defective in fl ...200212426328
speciating campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from poultry and humans using six pcr-based assays.six previously published polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays each targeting different genes were used to speciate 116 isolates previously identified as campylobacter jejuni using routine microbiological techniques. of the 116 isolates, 84 were of poultry origin and 32 of human origin. the six pcr assays confirmed the species identities of 31 of 32 (97%) human isolates and 56 of 84 (67%) poultry isolates as c. jejuni. twenty eight of 84 (33%) poultry isolates were identified as campylobacter c ...200212435503
molecular diversity of campylobacter coli and c. jejuni isolated from pigs at slaughter by flaa-rflp analysis and ribotyping.a population of porcine isolates of camplobacter jejuni (n = 11) and c. coli (n = 17) were examined for genotypic relatedness employing ribotyping, as well as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) analysis of the flagellin (fla)a gene locus. pcr was employed to amplify a 533 bp fragment from the flaa gene, including the previously described short variable region (svr), employing the novel primers, a2 and al and successfully generated this amplicon for all ...200212449248
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter lari, and campylobacter coli in different ecological guilds and taxa of migrating birds.a total of 1,794 migrating birds trapped at a coastal site in southern sweden were sampled for detection of campylobacter spp. all isolates phenotypically identified as campylobacter jejuni and a subset of those identified as non-c. jejuni were identified to the species level by pcr-based techniques. c. jejuni was found in 5.0% of the birds, campylobacter lari was found in 5.6%, and campylobacter coli was found in 0.9%. an additional 10.7% of the tested birds were infected with hippurate hydroly ...200212450810
campylobacter jejuni in black-headed gulls (larus ridibundus): prevalence, genotypes, and influence on c. jejuni epidemiology.campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease in which birds have been suggested to play an important role as a reservoir. we investigated the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni in black-headed gulls (larus ridibundus) in southern sweden with the aim of examining the nature of c. jejuni infection in this bird species. birds were sampled in four sampling series each year during 1999 (n = 419) and 2000 (n = 365). longitudinally sampled c. jejuni isolates from individual gulls were subject ...200212454158
rapid pcr using nested primers of the 16s rrna and the hippuricase (hip o) genes to detect campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in environmental samples.identification of sources campylobacter infection in the poultry houses is in general problematic due to the lack of reliable methods to detect campylobacteria in environmental samples. detection of campylobacteria in environmental samples by conventional culture methods is difficult and of limited sensitivity due to the use of selective media, the low number of bacteria in the samples and possibly also due to the presence of non-culturable or sub-lethally injured stages of the bacteria. the pre ...200212477440
a polyphosphate kinase (ppk2) widely conserved in bacteria.synthesis of inorganic polyphosphate (poly p) from the terminal phosphate of atp is catalyzed reversibly by poly p kinase (ppk, now designated ppk1) initially isolated from escherichia coli. ppk1 is highly conserved in many bacteria, including some of the major pathogens such as pseudomonas aeruginosa. in a null mutant of p. aeruginosa lacking ppk1, we have discovered a previously uncharacterized ppk activity (designated ppk2) distinguished from ppk1 by the following: synthesis of poly p from gt ...200212486232
resistance to quinolones in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from danish broilers at farm level.to investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance among campylobacter jejuni and camp. coli isolates from danish poultry at the farm level, as well as for the whole country.200312492931
association of helicobacter pylori antioxidant activities with host colonization proficiency.to assess the importance of two separate antioxidant activities in helicobacter pylori, we tested the abilities of strains with mutations in either tpx (encoding thiolperoxidase) or ahpc (encoding alkyl hydroperoxide reductase [ahpc]) to colonize the stomachs of mice. the tpx strain was clearly more sensitive than the parent strain to both oxygen and cumene hydroperoxide. the strain colonized only 5% of the inoculated mice. two different classes of oxygen-sensitive ahpc mutants in the type strai ...200312496216
antimicrobial susceptibilities of campylobacter strains isolated from finnish subjects infected domestically or from those infected abroad.the in vitro susceptibilities of 678 campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains isolated from stool samples of the same number of finnish subjects were studied. a total of 523 patients, representing inhabitants from throughout finland, had not traveled abroad within the 2 weeks prior to becoming ill, whereas 155 persons had presumably acquired their infections abroad. the antimicrobial agents studied were erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, and moxifloxacin. the mi ...200312499176
enhanced surveillance of campylobacter infection in the north west of england 1997-1999.to identify sources and routes of infection for sporadic cases of campylobacter infection in the north west of england.200312504607
survival and resuscitation of ten strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli under acid conditions.the culturability of 10 strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli was studied after the bacteria were exposed to acid conditions for various periods of time. campylobacter cells could not survive 2 h under acid conditions (formic acid at ph 4). the 10 campylobacter strains could not be recovered, even when enrichment media were used. viable cells, however, could be detected by a double-staining (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride [ctc]-4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole [dapi]) te ...200312514068
comparative genotyping of campylobacter jejuni by amplified fragment length polymorphism, multilocus sequence typing, and short repeat sequencing: strain diversity, host range, and recombination.three molecular typing methods were used to study the relationships among 184 campylobacter strains isolated from humans, cattle, and chickens. all strains were genotyped by amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (mlst), and sequence analysis of a genomic region with short tandem repeats designated clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (crisprs). mlst and aflp analysis yielded more than 100 different profiles and patterns, respectiv ...200312517820
molecular assays for detection of human metapneumovirus.the recent description of the respiratory pathogen human metapneumovirus (hmpv) has highlighted a deficiency in current diagnostic techniques for viral agents associated with acute lower respiratory tract infections. we describe two novel approaches to the detection of viral rna by use of reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr). the pcr products were identified after capture onto a solid-phase medium by hybridization with a sequence-specific, biotinylated oligonucleotide probe. the assay was applied ...200312517833
evaluation of 11 pcr assays for species-level identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.we examined the sensitivity and specificity of 11 pcr assays described for the species identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by using 111 type, reference, and field strains of c. jejuni, c. coli, and campylobacter lari. for six assays, an additional 21 type strains representing related campylobacter, arcobacter, and helicobacter species were also included. pcr tests were initially established in the laboratory by optimizing conditions with respect to five type and referen ...200312517869
real-time pcr assay for rapid and accurate detection of point mutations conferring resistance to clarithromycin in helicobacter pylori.the main cause of failure of helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is resistance to clarithromycin. the resistance is due to three point mutations in two positions on the 23s rrna (a2142c, a2142g, and a2143g). our aim was to develop a rapid and accurate method to detect these mutations directly on biopsy specimens. we developed a real-time pcr that included a simultaneous detection of the amplicons by hybridization of two probes labeled with lc-red and fluorescein by using the fluorescence res ...200312517879
epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of 111 campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus strains isolated in québec, canada, from 1983 to 2000.the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of 111 campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus strains isolated from 103 patients from 1983 to 2000 in québec, canada, were determined. the median number of patients infected annually with this bacteria was seven, with an incidence of 0.1 per 100,000 population. the male-to-female ratio was 1.1 to 1.0. the patients originated from 13 of the 18 québec socioeconomic regions. the age range of the patients was 6 months to 90 years old, 53% being > or = 70 ...200312517895
the gam protein of bacteriophage mu is an orthologue of eukaryotic ku.mu bacteriophage inserts its dna into the genome of host bacteria and is used as a model for dna transposition events in other systems. the eukaryotic ku protein has key roles in dna repair and in certain transposition events. here we show that the gam protein of phage mu is conserved in bacteria, has sequence homology with both subunits of ku, and has the potential to adopt a similar architecture to the core dna-binding region of ku. through biochemical studies, we demonstrate that gam and the ...200312524520
characterization of helicobacter pylori nickel metabolism accessory proteins needed for maturation of both urease and hydrogenase.previous studies demonstrated that two accessory proteins, hypa and hypb, play a role in nickel-dependent maturation of both hydrogenase and urease in helicobacter pylori. here, the two proteins were purified and characterized. hypa bound two ni(2+) ions per dimer with positive cooperativity (hill coefficient, approximately 2.0). the dissociation constants k(1) and k(2) for ni(2+) were 58 and 1.3 microm, respectively. studies on purified site-directed mutant proteins in each of the five histidin ...200312533448
the iron-binding protein dps confers hydrogen peroxide stress resistance to campylobacter jejuni.we identified and characterized the iron-binding protein dps from campylobacter jejuni. electron microscopic analysis of this protein revealed a spherical structure of 8.5 nm in diameter, with an electron-dense core similar to those of other proteins of the dps (dna-binding protein from starved cells) family. cloning and sequencing of the dps-encoding gene (dps) revealed that a 450-bp open reading frame (orf) encoded a protein of 150 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 17,332 da. ami ...200312533477
evaluation of broiler litter with reference to the microbial composition as assessed by using 16s rrna and functional gene markers.very little is known about the microbial composition of animal bedding wastes, including poultry litter, and what is known has been deduced from standard culture methods, by which some fastidious organisms that exist in the environment may not be detected. we evaluated the bacterial composition of poultry litter by using a combination of culture and molecular detection. total aerobic bacteria in poultry litter were detected by culture at 10(9) cfu/g of material. enteric bacteria such as enteroco ...200312571010
specific detection of arcobacter and campylobacter strains in water and sewage by pcr and fluorescent in situ hybridization.the aim of this study was to evaluate pcr and fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) techniques for detecting arcobacter and campylobacter strains in river water and wastewater samples. both 16s and 23s rrna sequence data were used to design specific primers and oligonucleotide probes for pcr and fish analyses, respectively. in order to assess the suitability of the methods, the assays were performed on naturally and artificially contaminated samples and compared with the isolation of cells on ...200312571045
occurrence and resistance to antibiotics of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in animals and meat in northeastern italy.a study was carried out in northeastern italy during 2000 and 2001 to investigate the occurrence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in animals, cattle, pigs, and broilers, and raw meat, beef, pork, and chicken. campylobacter spp. were detected in 53.9% of the cattle, 63.5% of the pigs, and 82.9% of the broilers examined. chicken meat was frequently contaminated (81.3%), while lower rates were found in pork meat (10.3%) and beef (1.3%). the resistance to antibiotics of the strains was ...200312593931
[campylobacter jejuni and c. coli in aborted swine: comparison between phenotypic identification and polyacrylamide gel protein profiles].campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli were isolated from aborted pig fetuses which proceeded from different animals and farms between february 2000 and march 2001. seven campylobacter jejuni biotype ii, three biotype i and one campylobacter coli biotype i were identified by phenotypic tests and lior's scheme. to corroborate and compare the phenotypic results, 7.5, 10 and 12.5% polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) were used under reducing conditions. characteristic bands of hyperva ...200212600003
pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for detection of point mutations associated with macrolide resistance in campylobacter spp.a 23s rrna gene fragment in domain v was sequenced from 30 clinical isolates of campylobacter spp., including 22 resistant to macrolides. two point mutations associated with erythromycin resistance were identified at positions 2074 and 2075 on the 23s rrna gene (homologous to a2142c and a2143g mutations in helicobacter pylori) in which an adenine residue is also replaced with a cytosine and a guanine residue, respectively. a combined pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was dev ...200312604552
comparison of 23s polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and amplified fragment length polymorphism techniques as typing systems for thermophilic campylobacters.in this study, we evaluated the combination of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) molecular typing techniques for the analysis of thermophilic campylobacter species isolated from clinical and poultry samples. 23s pcr-rflp analysis performed to fingerprint 69 strains exhibited an excellent level of typability. eleven different types were defined at 100% linkage level following numerical analysis of band p ...200212052557
campylobacter coli pulsed field gel electrophoresis genotypic diversity among sows and piglets in a farrowing barn.genotypes of campylobacter coli isolates from feces of three sows and rectal swabs of 17 piglets were examined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge). all of the animals originated from a single farrowing barn of a farrow-to-finish swine operation. five campylobacter colonies were picked from a single agar plate for each sample after broth enrichment and growth on campy-cefex agar. genotypes were examined by pfge after genomic dna digestion with smai and sacii restriction endonucleases. twen ...200212070692
comparison of the etest and agar dilution for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of campylobacter.the performance of the etest and agar dilution for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter spp. was evaluated using a quality control strain campylobactor jejuni atcc 33560, and 81 c. jejuni and 54 campylobacter coli isolates recovered from retail raw meats. seven antimicrobial agents: chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline, were tested using the two methods, whereas azithromycin was tested using the etest only. the c ...200212356792
molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacter spp. isolated from poultry.campylobacteriosis, an infectious disease caused by campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli, is treated by fluoroquinolone antibiotics in clinical practices. however, use of these drugs in animal husbandry may select for fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacters and, thereby, compromise the clinical treatment of infection. in this study, 21 fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacters were isolated from poultry samples. morphological and biochemical characteristics indicated that 19 isolates were ...200312619802
a real-time pcr assay for the detection of campylobacter jejuni in foods after enrichment culture.a real-time pcr assay was developed for the quantitative detection of campylobacter jejuni in foods after enrichment culture. the specificity of the assay for c. jejuni was demonstrated with a diverse range of campylobacter species, related organisms, and unrelated genera. the assay had a linear range of quantification over six orders of magnitude, and the limit of detection was approximately 12 genome equivalents. the assay was used to detect c. jejuni in both naturally and artificially contami ...200312620820
detection and typing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli and analysis of indicator organisms in three waterborne outbreaks in finland.waterborne outbreaks associated with contamination of drinking water by campylobacter jejuni are rather common in the nordic countries sweden, norway, and finland, where in sparsely populated districts groundwater is commonly used without disinfection. campylobacters, escherichia coli, or other coliforms have rarely been detected in potential sources. we studied three waterborne outbreaks in finland caused by c. jejuni and used sample volumes of 4,000 to 20,000 ml for analysis of campylobacters ...200312620821
comparison of broth microdilution, e test, and agar dilution methods for antibiotic susceptibility testing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.a standardized broth microdilution method was compared to the e test and an agar dilution method for the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli isolates. a group of 47 human clinical isolates, 37 isolates from retail poultry, and 29 isolates from living turkeys (total, 113 isolates) was included in the study. these encompassed 92 c. jejuni and 21 c. coli strains. the mics of six antimicrobial agents were determined by the broth microdilution and e test methods, ...200312624030
molecular typing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. 200312624086
role of campylobacter jejuni/coli in diarrhoea in ile-ife, nigeria.campylobacter jejuni/coli are well established causative agents of diarrhoea. in nigeria, gastroenteritis due to c. jejuni was first reported in northern part of the country in 1981 and the south-western part in ile-ife in 1983.200212638844
antibiotic susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli human isolates from bosnia and herzegovina. 200312654755
antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from broiler chickens isolated at an irish poultry processing plant.the antibiotic susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from broiler chickens were determined in order to evaluate the level of antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species in the irish poultry industry.200312680938
prevalence of cytolethal distending toxin production in periodontopathogenic bacteria.cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) is a newly identified virulence factor produced by several pathogenic bacteria implicated in chronic infection. seventy three strains of periodontopathogenic bacteria were examined for the production of cdt by a hela cell bioassay and for the presence of the cdt gene by pcr with degenerative oligonucleotide primers, which were designed based on various regions of the escherichia coli and campylobacter cdtb genes, which have been successfully used for the identif ...200312682119
investigation of infectious agents associated with arthritis by reverse transcription pcr of bacterial rrna.in reactive and postinfectious arthritis the joints are generally sterile but the presence of bacterial antigens and nucleic acids has been reported. to investigate whether organisms traffic to affected joints in these conditions, we performed reverse transcription pcr using universal primers to amplify any bacterial 16s rrna sequences present in synovial fluid. bacterial sequences were detected in most cases, even after treatment of the synovial fluid with dnase, implying the presence of bacter ...200312716447
investigation of infectious agents associated with arthritis by reverse transcription pcr of bacterial rrna.in reactive and postinfectious arthritis the joints are generally sterile but the presence of bacterial antigens and nucleic acids has been reported. to investigate whether organisms traffic to affected joints in these conditions, we performed reverse transcription pcr using universal primers to amplify any bacterial 16s rrna sequences present in synovial fluid. bacterial sequences were detected in most cases, even after treatment of the synovial fluid with dnase, implying the presence of bacter ...200312716447
detection of conserved n-linked glycans and phase-variable lipooligosaccharides and capsules from campylobacter cells by mass spectrometry and high resolution magic angle spinning nmr spectroscopy.glycomics, the study of microbial polysaccharides and genes responsible for their formation, requires the continuous development of rapid and sensitive methods for the identification of glycan structures. in this study, methods for the direct analysis of sugars from 108 to 1010 cells are outlined using the human gastrointestinal pathogen, campylobacter jejuni. using capillary-electrophoresis coupled with sensitive electrospray mass spectrometry, we demonstrate variability in the lipid a componen ...200312716884
inhibition of helicobacter pylori growth in vitro by bulgarian propolis: preliminary report.bee glue (propolis) possesses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and immunostimulating activities. the aim of the study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of bulgarian propolis on helicobacter pylori growth in vitro. activity of 30% ethanolic extract of propolis (eep) against 38 clinical isolates of h. pylori was evaluated by using the agar-well diffusion method. ethanol was used as a control. in addition, the effect of propolis on the growth of 26 h. pylori and 18 campylobacter st ...200312721318
in vivo tracking of campylobacter jejuni by using a novel recombinant expressing green fluorescent protein.campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of food-borne disease in developed countries. the goal of this study was to develop a plasmid-based reporter system with green fluorescent protein (gfp) to facilitate the study of c. jejuni in a variety of niches. c. jejuni transformants harboring the pmek91 gfp gene (gfp)-containing vector were readily detectable by both fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. given the ease of detecting these organisms, additional experiments were performed in which ...200312732559
antimicrobial-resistant campylobacter species from retail raw meats.the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 378 campylobacter isolates were determined. resistance to tetracycline was the most common (82%), followed by resistance to doxycycline (77%), erythromycin (54%), nalidixic acid (41%), and ciprofloxacin (35%). campylobacter coli displayed significantly higher rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin than campylobacter jejuni, and campylobacter isolates from turkey meat showed a greater resistance than those from chicken meat.200312732579
usefulness of the microseq 500 16s ribosomal dna-based bacterial identification system for identification of clinically significant bacterial isolates with ambiguous biochemical profiles.due to the inadequate automation in the amplification and sequencing procedures, the use of 16s rrna gene sequence-based methods in clinical microbiology laboratories is largely limited to identification of strains that are difficult to identify by phenotypic methods. in this study, using conventional full-sequence 16s rrna gene sequencing as the "gold standard," we evaluated the usefulness of the microseq 500 16s ribosomal dna (rdna)-based bacterial identification system, which involves amplifi ...200312734240
phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of campylobacter spp. isolated from austrian broiler farms: a comparison.an identification scheme based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of polymerase chain reaction products (pcr-rflp) was developed to differentiate isolates of the genera campylobacter, arcobacter and helicobacter. based on the 16s rrna gene of these genera, pcr amplified a 1216-bp fragment. the amplicons were digested with the restriction enzymes rsai and ecorv. additional differentiation was obtained using a pcr-assay based on the hippuricase gene. genotyping was performed on several re ...200312745378
comparison of recovery methods for freeze-injured listeria monocytogenes, salmonella typhimurium, and campylobacter coli in cell suspensions and associated with pork surfaces.cells injured as a result of freezing, heating, and acidification treatments may not grow during conventional microbiological procedures owing to the presence of selective agents, compounds, or dyes in the media, impairing the cell's ability to repair itself and grow. injured cells can be recovered by combining selective and nonselective media into a single system. with such combinations, the diffusion of the selective compounds or dyes is controlled, allowing for the resuscitation of injured ce ...200312747688
pcr detection of seven virulence and toxin genes of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from danish pigs and cattle and cytolethal distending toxin production of the isolates.to study the prevalence of seven virulence and toxin genes, and cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) production of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli isolates from danish pigs and cattle.200312752808
antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains isolated from humans in 1998 to 2001 in montréal, canada.the rates of resistance of 51 to 72 human strains of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolated annually from 1998 to 2001 in montréal, québec, canada, varied from 1 to 12% for erythromycin, 43 to 68% for tetracycline, and 10 to 47% for ciprofloxacin. in the last years of the study, there was a significant increase in the rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin (p = 0.00003) but not in the rate of resistance to erythromycin (p = 0.056) or tetracycline (p = 0.095) compared to the rate obtained in th ...200312760892
campylobacter--a tale of two protein glycosylation systems.post-translational glycosylation is a universal modification of proteins in eukarya, archaea and bacteria. two recent publications describe the first confirmed report of a bacterial n-linked glycosylation pathway in the human gastrointestinal pathogen campylobacter jejuni. in addition, an o-linked glycosylation pathway has been identified and characterized in c. jejuni and the related species campylobacter coli. both pathways have similarity to the respective n- and o-linked glycosylation proces ...200312781527
use of pcr for direct detection of campylobacter species in bovine feces.this study reports on the use of pcr to directly detect and distinguish campylobacter species in bovine feces without enrichment. inhibitors present in feces are a major obstacle to using pcr to detect microorganisms. the qiaamp dna stool minikit was found to be an efficacious extraction method, as determined by the positive amplification of internal control dna added to bovine feces before extraction. with nested or seminested multiplex pcr, campylobacter coli, c. fetus, c. hyointestinalis, and ...200312788747
rapid detection of campylobacter coli, c. jejuni, and salmonella enterica on poultry carcasses by using pcr-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.contamination of retail poultry by campylobacter spp. and salmonella enterica is a significant source of human diarrheal disease. isolation and identification of these microorganisms require a series of biochemical and serological tests. in this study, campylobacter ceue and salmonella inva genes were used to design probes in pcr-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), as an alternative to conventional bacteriological methodology, for the rapid detection of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter ...200312788755
species-specific identification of campylobacters by partial 16s rrna gene sequencing.species-specific identification of campylobacters is problematic, primarily due to the absence of suitable biochemical assays and the existence of atypical strains. 16s rrna gene (16s rdna)-based identification of bacteria offers a possible alternative when phenotypic tests fail. therefore, we evaluated the reliability of 16s rdna sequencing for the species-specific identification of campylobacters. sequence analyses were performed by using almost 94% of the complete 16s rrna genes of 135 phenot ...200312791878
reduction of bacteria on pork carcasses associated with chilling method.in addition to reducing the temperature of pork carcasses immediately after slaughter and before fabrication, blast chilling (snap chill) or conventional chilling can reduce bacterial populations associated with fresh meats. however, there is little information on bacteria survival resulting from the freeze or chill injury of meat products. in this study, porcine fecal slurries with and without pathogens (listeria monocytogenes, salmonella typhimurium, and campylobacter coli) were inoculated ont ...200312801003
comparison of eight phenotypic methods for subspecies characterization of thermophilic campylobacter spp. isolated from pig liver.four hundred pork livers from bacon pigs (37 herds) obtained at six pig-processing plants were studied to assess the campylobacter contamination rate. deep tissue areas were sampled immediately after evisceration. approximately 6% of livers were infected with campylobacter spp., including campylobacter coli (67%), campylobacter jejuni (30%), and campylobacter lari (3%). the 60 resulting isolates (39 c. coli isolates, 19 c. jejuni isolates, and 2 c. lari isolates) employed in this study were char ...200312801013
the complete genome sequence of the carcinogenic bacterium helicobacter hepaticus.helicobacter hepaticus causes chronic hepatitis and liver cancer in mice. it is the prototype enterohepatic helicobacter species and a close relative of helicobacter pylori, also a recognized carcinogen. here we report the complete genome sequence of h. hepaticus atcc51449. h. hepaticus has a circular chromosome of 1,799,146 base pairs, predicted to encode 1,875 proteins. a total of 938, 953, and 821 proteins have orthologs in h. pylori, campylobacter jejuni, and both pathogens, respectively. h. ...200312810954
infectious agent and immune response characteristics of chronic enterocolitis in captive rhesus macaques.chronic enterocolitis is the leading cause of morbidity in colonies of captive rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta). this study's aim was to identify the common enteric pathogens frequently associated with chronic enterocolitis in normal, immunocompetent rhesus monkeys and to elucidate the influence of this clinical syndrome on the host immune system. we analyzed the fecal specimens from 100 rhesus macaques with or without clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhea. retrospective analysis revealed an inc ...200312819098
helicobacter pylori preferentially induces interleukin 12 (il-12) rather than il-6 or il-10 in human dendritic cells.dendritic cells are potent antigen-presenting cells that are present in the gastrointestinal tract and are required for the induction of a th1 t-cell acquired immune response. since infection with the gastric pathogen helicobacter pylori elicits a th1 cell response, the interaction of these organisms with dendritic cells should reflect the th1 bias. we incubated h. pylori with cultured human dendritic cells and measured the cytokine induction profile, comparing the response to that induced by sa ...200312819109
campylobacter coli - an important foodborne pathogen.campylobacters are the most common bacterial cause of infectious intestinal disease (iid) in temperate countries. c. jejuni is the predominant cause of campylobacter iid, but the impact of other, less prevalent species has largely been ignored. here, we present estimates of the burden of indigenously acquired foodborne disease (ifd) due to campylobacter coli, the second most common cause of human campylobacteriosis.200312850159
[antibody response following campylobacter infections determined by elisa].an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was adapted to measure immunoglobulin g (igg), igm, and iga classes of human serum antibody to campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. a total of 631 sera from 210 patients with verified campylobacter enteritis were examined at various intervals after infection, and a control group of 164 sera were tested to determine the cut-off for negative results. with 90 percentile specificity, igg, igm, and iga showed a sensitivity of 71, 60, and 80%, respe ...200312872469
sources of campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. 200312902214
effect of incubation temperature on isolation of campylobacter jejuni genotypes from foodstuffs enriched in preston broth.preston broth and agar incubated at either 37 or 42 degrees c have been widely used to isolate campylobacters from foodstuffs. the consequences of using either incubation temperature were investigated. retail packs of raw chicken (n = 24) and raw lamb liver (n = 30) were purchased. samples were incubated in preston broth at 37 and 42 degrees c and then streaked onto preston agar and incubated as before. two campylobacter isolates per treatment were characterized. poultry isolates were genotyped ...200312902254
description of a "phoenix" phenomenon in the growth of campylobacter jejuni at temperatures close to the minimum for growth.when campylobacter jejuni cultures that had been grown in broth at 39 degrees c were subcultured into fresh medium at 30 degrees c, there was a transient period of growth followed by a decline in viable-cell numbers before growth resumed once more. we propose that this complex behavior is the net effect of the growth of inoculum cells followed by a loss of viability due to oxidative stress and the subsequent emergence of a spontaneously arising mutant population that takes over the culture.200312902294
molecular typing of campylobacter jejuni isolates involved in a neonatal outbreak indicates nosocomial transmission.genotypic typing by restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that two neonates in a neonatal ward were infected with the same campylobacter jejuni strain. isolates from the mother and brother of the index patient were identical to each other but distinct from the neonatal type. genotyping results therefore suggested that the neonatal c. jejuni infection was nosocomial in origin.200312904420
prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance in 443 campylobacter spp. isolated from humans and animals.in view of recent findings that a multidrug efflux pump cmeabc exists in campylobacter jejuni, 391 c. jejuni and 52 campylobacter coli of human and animal origin were examined for a multidrug resistance phenotype.200312917241
rapid detection of campylobacter jejuni in chicken rinse water by melting-peak analysis of amplicons in real-time polymerase chain reaction.five dna extraction protocols for the detection of campylobacter spp. by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were compared. a method involving triton x-100 produced template dna of sufficient quality to allow the detection of campylobacter jejuni at levels of 100 cfu/ml in pure culture. primers were designed on the basis of the cadf gene sequence. with a sybr green i real-time pcr assay, these primers amplified only sequences present in c. jejuni to produce a product with a melting temperature of 81 ...200312929818
comparison of human and porcine strains of campylobacter coli. 200312930063
sequence analysis of a cryptic plasmid pcj419 from campylobacter jejuni and construction of an escherichia coli-campylobacter shuttle vector.a small cryptic plasmid, pcj419, was identified in a human clinical isolate of campylobacter jejuni, cloned and sequenced. pcj419 is a circular molecule of 4013 bp with a g+c content of 27.1%. the products of four open reading frames (orfs) share significant sequence similarity with putative proteins from known c. jejuni and campylobacter coli plasmids. orf-1 encodes a putative mobilisation protein (mob). orf-2 and orf-3 encode proteins that have high identity to putative repa and repb proteins, ...200312932741
in vitro activities of new fluoroquinolones against campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates obtained from humans in 1980 to 1982 and 1997 to 2001.the antibacterial activities of three newly developed fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin) against a total of 307 gastrointestinal human isolates of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli collected during 1980 to 1982 and 1997 to 2001 were examined and compared to those of ciprofloxacin and the unrelated antibacterial agents, clarithromycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline by using the agar plate dilution method. all of the fluoroquinolones exhibited a good activit ...200312936999
development of a sensitive dna microarray suitable for rapid detection of campylobacter spp.campylobacter is the most common cause of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, widely distributed and isolated from human clinical samples as well as from many other different sources. to comply with the demands of consumers for food safety, there is a need for development of a rapid, sensitive and specific detection method for campylobacter. in this study, we present the development of a novel sensitive dna-microarray based detection method, evaluated on campylobacter and non-campyl ...200312944122
natural transformation of campylobacter jejuni requires components of a type ii secretion system.the human pathogen campylobacter jejuni is one of more than 40 naturally competent bacterial species able to import macromolecular dna from the environment and incorporate it into their genomes. however, in c. jejuni little is known about the genes involved in this process. we used random transposon mutagenesis to identify genes that are required for the transformation of this organism. we isolated mutants with insertions in 11 different genes; most of the mutants are affected in the dna uptake ...200312949093
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