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ethyl pyruvate: an anti-microbial agent that selectively targets pathobionts and biofilms.the microbiota has a strong influence on health and disease in humans. a causative shift favoring pathobionts is strongly linked to diseases. therefore, anti-microbial agents selectively targeting potential pathogens as well as their biofilms are urgently demanded. here we demonstrate the impact of ethyl pyruvate, so far known as ros scavenger and anti-inflammatory agent, on planktonic microbes and biofilms. ethyl pyruvate combats preferably the growth of pathobionts belonging to bacteria and fu ...201627658257
the outer membrane phospholipase a is essential for membrane integrity and type iii secretion in shigella flexneri.outer membrane phospholipase a (ompla) is an enzyme located in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. ompla exhibits broad substrate specificity, and some of its substrates are located in the cellular envelope. generally, the enzymatic activity can only be induced by perturbation of the cell envelope integrity through diverse methods. although ompla has been thoroughly studied as a membrane protein in escherichia coli and is constitutively expressed in many other bacterial pathogens, litt ...201627655730
extraction of total nucleic acids from bacterial isolates using the biomérieux nuclisens easymag total nucleic acid extractor.the biomerieux nuclisens easymag total nucleic acid extractor was evaluated for use on bacterial isolates in the clinical microbiology laboratory. forty eight isolates were extracted, yielding quantifiable amounts of dna for all isolates. the easymag is appropriate for dna extraction from bacterial isolates and will be incorporated in the clinical laboratory.201627658494
a new lab developed real time pcr assay for direct detection of c. difficle from stool sample without dna extraction.clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. detection of c. difficile by anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays has been largely replaced by rapid enzyme immunoassays (eia). however, due to the lack of sensitivity of stool eia, we developed a multiplex real-time pcr assay targeting the c. difficile toxin genes tcdb. stool samples from hospitalized pediatric patients suspected of having c. difficile-a ...201627829823
novel methyltransferase recognition motif identified in chania multitudinisentens rb-25(t) gen. nov., sp. nov. 201627630623
antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter isolates from small scale and backyard chicken in kenya.thermophilic campylobacter species are a major cause of bacterial foodborne diarrhoea in humans worldwide. poultry and their products are the predominant source for human campylobacteriosis. resistance of campylobacter to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, but little is known about the antibiotic resistance in campylobacter isolated from chicken in kenya. in this study, 35 suspected campylobacter strains isolated from faeces and cloacal swabs of chicken were tested for their susceptibility to ...201627570543
whole-genome sequences of agricultural, host-associated campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni strains.we report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant campylobacter spp.: c. coli 11601 and c. jejuni 11601md, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and c. coli 6067 and c. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. the genomes provide insights on campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations.201627540063
infection with multidrug-resistant campylobacter coli mimicking recurrence of carcinoid syndrome: a case report of a neuroendocrine tumor patient with repeated diarrhea.campylobacteriosis caused by gram-negative bacteria of the genus campylobacter (mainly c. jejuni and c. coli) is one of the most common gastrointestinal zoonotic infections with increased incidence in humans worldwide. the typical symptoms are severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea and sometimes fever. the clinical course of campylobacter infection is mainly mild and after one week self-limiting, but can take several weeks in some rare cases. however, patients with neuroendocrine tumors in the gastro ...201627519265
comparison of statistical algorithms for the detection of infectious disease outbreaks in large multiple surveillance systems.a large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in england and wales since the early 1990s. changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. the time series of each disease is sep ...201627513749
mosaic tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins.first reported in 2003, mosaic tetracycline resistance genes are a subgroup of the genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins (rpps). they are formed when two or more rpp-encoding genes recombine resulting in a functional chimera. to date, the majority of mosaic genes are derived from sections of three rpp genes, tet(o), tet(w) and tet(32), with others comprising tet(m) and tet(s). in this first review of mosaic genes, we report on their structure, diversity and prevalence, and suggest that th ...201627494928
campylobacter pouchitis mimicking the appearance of crohn's disease.an unusual case of campylobacter pouchitis resembling the endoscopic appearance of crohn's disease is reported.201627555972
association of campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni chemotaxis receptor genes with multilocus sequence types and source of isolation.campylobacter jejuni's flagellar locomotion is controlled by eleven chemoreceptors. assessment of the distribution of the relevant chemoreceptor genes in the c. jejuni genomes deposited in the national center for biotechnology information (ncbi) database led to the identification of two previously unknown tlp genes and a tlp5 pseudogene. these two chemoreceptor genes share the same locus in the c. jejuni genome with tlp4 and tlp11, but the gene region encoding the periplasmic ligand binding doma ...201627766165
evaluation of various campylobacter-specific quantitative pcr (qpcr) assays for detection and enumeration of campylobacteraceae in irrigation water and wastewater via a miniaturized most-probable-number-qpcr assay.campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and water is increasingly seen as a risk factor in transmission. here we describe a most-probable-number (mpn)-quantitative pcr (qpcr) assay in which water samples are centrifuged and aliquoted into microtiter plates and the bacteria are enumerated by qpcr. we observed that commonly used campylobacter molecular assays produced vastly different detection rates. in irrigation water samples, detection rates varied depe ...201627235434
hyperendemic campylobacter jejuni in guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) raised for food in a semi-rural community of quito, ecuador.domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic campylobacter jejuni and c. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the andean region of south america, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. in this study, we examined the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples f ...201627043446
campylobacter growth rates in four different matrices: broiler caecal material, live birds, bolton broth, and brain heart infusion broth.the objective of this study was to characterise campylobacter growth in enrichment broths (bolton broth, brain heart infusion broth), caecal material (in vitro), and in the naturally infected live broilers (in vivo) in terms of mean lag periods and generation times as well as maximum growth rates and population (cell concentration) achieved.201627052025
potential use of fosfomycin-tromethamine for treatment of recurrent campylobacter species enteritis.we report 2 cases of recurrent campylobacter coli enteritis caused by macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains in 2 patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, successfully treated with a prolonged course of fosfomycin-tromethamine with no side effects. fosfomycin-tromethamine may be a feasible alternative therapy for recurrent enteritis caused by campylobacter species resistant to first-line drugs.201627161640
genotyping and antibiotic resistance of thermophilic campylobacter isolated from chicken and pig meat in vietnam.campylobacter species are recognized as the most common cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. in this study nine campylobacter strains isolated from chicken meat and pork in hanoi, vietnam, were characterized using molecular methods and tested for antibiotic resistance.201627175218
identification of novel vaccine candidates against campylobacter through reverse vaccinology.campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the european union. human cases are mainly due to campylobacter jejuni or campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. in fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria's main reservoir. a promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. poultry vaccination is of potential for this p ...201627413761
non-alcoholic fatty liver and the gut microbiota.non-alcoholic fatty liver (nafld) is a common, multi-factorial, and poorly understood liver disease whose incidence is globally rising. nafld is generally asymptomatic and associated with other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. yet, up to 25% of nafld patients develop a progressive inflammatory liver disease termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (nash) that may progress towards cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and the need for liver transplantation. in recent years, several lines of e ...201627617201
pfge genotyping and molecular characterization of campylobacter spp. isolated from chicken meat.a total of 70 samples were collected from chicken meat obtained from 10 markets in tehran, iran from which 39 campylobacter coli were isolated. among 10 antibiotics used, maximum resistance was seen to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (sxt) (97.36%), nalidixic acid (94.8%), ciprofloxacin (87.7%), streptomycin (89.72%), and tetracycline (97.4%). no resistance was to gentamycin was observed. none of the campylobacter strains under study harbored integron, suggesting the involvement of other resistan ...201627822247
optimized cultivation of campylobacter concisus from gut mucosal biopsies in inflammatory bowel disease.campylobacter concisus is a commensal of the human oral flora that has been linked to prolonged diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease (ibd). it has been detected more often from intestinal biopsies in patients with ibd compared to healthy controls using pcr-based techniques, whereas the number of c. concisus culture-positive biopsies in previous studies has been very limited. determining the rate of viable isolates present in the gut mucosa is of great importance when evaluating the role in di ...201627252786
bacteria in an intense competition for iron: key component of the campylobacter jejuni iron uptake system scavenges enterobactin hydrolysis product.to acquire essential fe(iii), bacteria produce and secrete siderophores with high affinity and selectivity for fe(iii) to mediate its uptake into the cell. here, we show that the periplasmic binding protein ceue of campylobacter jejuni, which was previously thought to bind the fe(iii) complex of the hexadentate siderophore enterobactin (kd ∼ 0.4 ± 0.1 µm), preferentially binds the fe(iii) complex of the tetradentate enterobactin hydrolysis product bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-l-ser) (h5-bisdhbs) (kd ...201627162326
genome sequencing and annotation of a campylobacter coli strain isolated from milk with multidrug resistance.as the most prevalent bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis, food-borne campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health. whole genome sequencing (wgs) is a tool providing quick and inexpensive approaches for analysis of food-borne pathogen epidemics. here we report the wgs and annotation of a campylobacter coli strain, fnw20g12, which was isolated from milk in the united states in 1997 and carries multidrug resistance. the draft genome of fnw20g12 (ddbj/ena/genbank accession n ...201627257607
detection of campylobacter jejuni in rectal swab samples from rousettus amplexicaudatus in the philippines.bats are the second diversity species of mammals and widely distributed in the world. they are thought to be reservoir and vectors of zoonotic pathogens. however, there is scarce report of the evidence of pathogenic bacteria kept in bats. the precise knowledge of the pathogenic bacteria in bat microbiota is important for zoonosis control. thus, metagenomic analysis targeting the v3-v4 region of the 16s rrna of the rectal microbiota in rousettus amplexicaudatus was performed using high throughput ...201627109214
application of alternative nucleic acid extraction protocols to progastro sscs assay for detection of bacterial enteric pathogens.as an alternative to automated extraction, fecal specimens were processed by investigational lysis/heating (i.e., manual) and by chromatography/centrifugation (i.e., column) methods. progastro ssc and shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (i.e., stec) indeterminate rates for 101 specimens were 1.0% to 3.0% for automated, 11.9% for manual, and 24.8% to 37.6% for column methods. following freeze-thaw of 247 specimens, indeterminate rates were 1.6% to 2.4% for manual and 0.8 to 5.3% for column met ...201626935731
multicenter evaluation of clinical diagnostic methods for detection and isolation of campylobacter spp. from stool.the use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (cidts), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of campylobacter in stool is increasing. we conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen cidts compared to culture and pcr for campylobacter detection. between july and october 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of campylobacter selective media, f ...201626962088
revisiting the roles of culture and culture-independent detection tests for campylobacter.culture-independent detection tests (cidts) for campylobacter have become an area of intense controversy and confusion among laboratorians in the field of clinical microbiology. to date, the true analytical and clinical performance of stool antigen cidts versus truly optimized culture conditions is unknown. in this issue of the journal of clinical microbiology, fitzgerald and colleagues (c. fitzgerald et al., j clin microbiol 54:1209-1215, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jcm.01925-15) report com ...201626912756
protein chips for detection of salmonella spp. from enrichment culture.food pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. a pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. molecular methods such as qpcr have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. forty ml of ...201627110786
campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mccda and campy-cefex agar.campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. the aim of this study was to evaluate the united states department of agriculture's (usda) recommended methodology, protocol mlg 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. a plating method using both mccda and campy-cefex agars is recommended to recover campylobacter cells. it i ...201627237112
a detailed protocol to enable safe-handling, preemptive detection, and systematic surveillance of rat-vectored pathogens in the urban environment.we detail a five-stage protocol to address physical barriers and experimental limitations that have hindered routine pathogen monitoring of wild rats in urban settings. new york city potentially harbors from 2 to 32 million rats among its 8-million people. however, at a time, when people are most vulnerable to disease from over-crowdedness brought on by increased urbanization of society, the difficulty of studying wild rats has led to a paucity of ecological and epidemiological research. challen ...201627471725
subtyping of salmonella enterica subspecies i using single-nucleotide polymorphisms in adenylate cyclase.methods to rapidly identify serotypes of salmonella enterica subspecies i are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. to supplement the serotyping method dkgb-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (isr), single-nucleotide polymorphisms were characterized within adenylate cyclase (cyaa). the national center for biotechnology information (ncbi) database had 378 cyaa sequences from s. enterica subspecies i, which included 42 unique dna sequences and 19 different amino acid sequences. ...201627035032
campylobacter species and neutrophilic inflammatory bowel disease in cats.inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) is a common cause of signs of gastrointestinal disease in cats. a subset of cats with ibd has neutrophilic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.201627362482
evidence of avian and possum fecal contamination in rainwater tanks as determined by microbial source tracking approaches.avian and possum fecal droppings may negatively impact roof-harvested rainwater (rhrw) water quality due to the presence of zoonotic pathogens. this study was aimed at evaluating the performance characteristics of a possum feces-associated (psm) marker by screening 210 fecal and wastewater samples from possums (n = 20) and a range of nonpossum hosts (n = 190) in southeast queensland, australia. the host sensitivity and specificity of the psm marker were 0.90 and 0.95 (maximum value, 1.00), respe ...201627208100
whole-genome sequencing of a campylobacter jejuni strain isolated from retail chicken meat reveals the presence of a megaplasmid with mu-like prophage and multidrug resistance genes.genome sequencing of campylobacter jejuni strain t1-21 isolated from retail chicken meat revealed the presence of a chromosome of 1,565,978 bp and a megaplasmid of 82,732 bp that contains mu-like prophage and multidrug resistance genes. this is the first reported sequence of a campylobacter megaplasmid >55 kb.201627231378
an overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the caribbean region.foodborne diseases (fbds) in the caribbean have a high economic burden. public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. salmonella spp., shigella spp., and campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. in spite of undertaking limited surveillance on fbd in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significanc ...201627215411
molecular epidemiology of campylobacter coli strains isolated from different sources in new zealand between 2005 and 2014.campylobacteriosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases worldwide and a significant health burden in new zealand. campylobacter jejuni is the predominant species worldwide, accounting for approximately 90% of human cases, followed by campylobacter coli most studies in new zealand have focused on c. jejuni; hence, the impact of c. coli strains on human health is not well understood. the aim of this study was to genotype c. coli isolates collected in the manawatu region of new zealand f ...201627208097
optimization of quantitative pcr methods for enteropathogen detection.detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. first, we evaluate the molecular detection and quantification of pathogens in rectal swabs versus stool, using paired flocked rectal swabs and whole stool collected from 129 children hospitalized ...201627336160
comparative genomics of campylobacter fetus from reptiles and mammals reveals divergent evolution in host-associated lineages.campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and c fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas c fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. both c. fetus subsp. testudinum and c. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. to study t ...201627333878
seroprevalence of campylobacter-specific antibodies in two german duck farms - a prospective follow-up study.several studies have shown that about 60-100% of farmed ducks are colonized by campylobacter species. because of this, a higher risk of campylobacteriosis among duck farm workers can be assumed. to estimate the risk of campylobacter infections in duck farm workers, we investigated the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in ducks of two duck farms and the seroprevalence of anti-campylobacter antibodies (iga and igg) in two cohorts of workers. the first cohort consisted of high-exposed stable workers ...201627429794
genetic diversity of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from conventional broiler flocks and the impacts of sampling strategy and laboratory method.the genetic diversity of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coliisolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (mlst), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of campylobacter isolated. a total of 645c. jejuniand 106c. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (sts) identified. the campylobacter jejuniisolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory met ...201626873321
evaluation of luminex xtag gastrointestinal pathogen panel assay for detection of multiple diarrheal pathogens in fecal samples in vietnam.diarrheal disease is a complex syndrome that remains a leading cause of global childhood morbidity and mortality. the diagnosis of enteric pathogens in a timely and precise manner is important for making treatment decisions and informing public health policy, but accurate diagnosis is a major challenge in industrializing countries. multiplex molecular diagnostic techniques may represent a significant improvement over classical approaches. we evaluated the luminex xtag gastrointestinal pathogen p ...201626865681
comparative detection and quantification of arcobacter butzleri in stools from diarrheic and nondiarrheic people in southwestern alberta, canada.arcobacter butzleri has been linked to enteric disease in humans, but its pathogenicity and epidemiology remain poorly understood. the lack of suitable detection methods is a major limitation. using comparative genome analysis, we developed pcr primers for direct detection and quantification ofa. butzleri dna in microbiologically complex matrices. these primers, along with existing molecular and culture-based methods, were used to detecta. butzleri and enteric pathogens in stools of diarrheic an ...201626865686
the bacteriophage carrier state of campylobacter jejuni features changes in host non-coding rnas and the acquisition of new host-derived crispr spacer sequences.incorporation of self-derived crispr dna protospacers in campylobacter jejuni pt14 occurs in the presence of bacteriophages encoding a crispr-like cas4 protein. this phenomenon was evident in carrier state infections where both bacteriophages and host are maintained for seemingly indefinite periods as stable populations following serial passage. carrier state cultures of c. jejuni pt14 have greater aerotolerance in nutrient limited conditions, and may have arisen as an evolutionary response to s ...201627047470
whole-genome sequences of two campylobacter coli isolates from the antimicrobial resistance monitoring program in colombia.campylobacter coli, along with campylobacter jejuni, is a major agent of gastroenteritis and acute enterocolitis in humans. we report the whole-genome sequences of two multidrug-resistance c. coli strains, isolated from the colombian poultry chain. the isolates contain a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes for aminoglycosides, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracycline.201626988048
whole-genome sequence of multidrug-resistant campylobacter coli strain col b1-266, isolated from the colombian poultry chain.campylobacter coli is considered one of the main causes of food-borne illness worldwide. we report here the whole-genome sequence of multidrug-resistant campylobacter coli strain col b1-266, isolated from the colombian poultry chain. the genome sequences encode genes for a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes, including aminoglycosides, β-lactams, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines.201626988047
fate of viable but non-culturable listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms.the fate of two strains of listeria monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (vbnc) was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures) stored for 2 months at 8 and 20°c. levels of l. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qpcr, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qpcr (qpcrpma). the chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analyzed. the s ...201626973623
immune responses to mycobacterial heat shock protein 70 accompany self-reactivity to human bip in rheumatoid arthritis.rheumatoid arthritis (ra) is an autoimmune disease, and a member of human heat shock protein (hsp) 70 protein family, binding immunoglobulin protein (bip), has been identified as an important autoantigen for t and b cells. we herein focused on mycobacterial (myc) hsps and immune responses to mychsps in ra patients. serum titers of antibodies against mychsp70 were significantly elevated in ra patients and correlated with serum anti-bip antibody titers. a mychsp70-derived hla-dr4 major epitope was ...201626927756
a biotin biosynthesis gene restricted to helicobacter.in most bacteria the last step in synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin is cleavage of the ester bond of pimeloyl-acyl carrier protein (acp) methyl ester. the paradigm cleavage enzyme is escherichia coli bioh which together with the bioc methyltransferase allows synthesis of the pimelate moiety by a modified fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. analyses of the extant bacterial genomes showed that bioh is absent from many bioc-containing bacteria and is replaced by other genes. helicobacter pylo ...201626868423
in silico analysis of the cadf gene and development of a duplex polymerase chain reaction for species-specific identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by campylobacter jejuni and c. coli. the cadf gene is considered as a genus-specific gene while other genes are mainly used for discrimination at the species level.201627127589
campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in wild birds on danish livestock farms.reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the eu. livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of campylobacter spp. the farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic campylobacter spp. we investigated the campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird s ...201626842400
campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in wild birds on danish livestock farms.reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the eu. livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of campylobacter spp. the farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic campylobacter spp. we investigated the campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird s ...201626842400
ebola or not? evaluating the ill traveler from ebola-affected countries in west africa.background.  the 2014-2015 ebola epidemic in west africa had global impact beyond the primarily affected countries of guinea, liberia, and sierra leone. other countries, including the united states, encountered numerous patients who arrived from highly affected countries with fever or other signs or symptoms consistent with ebola virus disease (evd). methods.  we describe our experience evaluating 25 travelers who met the us centers for disease control and prevention case definition for a person ...201626925428
oral phage therapy of acute bacterial diarrhea with two coliphage preparations: a randomized trial in children from bangladesh.antibiotic resistance is rising in important bacterial pathogens. phage therapy (pt), the use of bacterial viruses infecting the pathogen in a species-specific way, is a potential alternative.201626981577
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter isolated from dressed beef carcasses and raw milk in tanzania.campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in tanzania. the antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaoxa-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(o) (tetracycline), and cmeb (multi-drug efflux pump). the prevalence of campylo ...201626153978
simultaneous identification of 13 foodborne pathogens by using capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation polymorphism coupled with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and its application in foods.capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation polymorphism (ce-sscp) coupled with stuffer-free multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (mlpa) was developed to identify 13 species of foodborne pathogens simultaneously. species-specific mlpa probes were designed for nine of these species. these probes were targeted to the groel, glya, mms, tuf, inv, ipah, nuc, vvh, and 16s rrna genes, which corresponded to bacillus cereus, campylobacter coli, cronobacter sakazakii, enterococcus spp ...201627494415
systematic site-directed mutagenesis of the helicobacter pylori cagl protein of the cag type iv secretion system identifies novel functional domains.the cag type iv secretion system, which contributes to inflammation and cancerogenesis during chronic infection, is one of the major virulence factors of the bacterial gastric pathogen helicobacter pylori. we have generated and characterized a series of non-marked site-directed chromosomal mutants in h. pylori to define domains of unknown function of the essential tip protein cagl of the cag secretion system. characterizing the cagl mutants, we determined that their function to activate cells an ...201627922023
isolation of campylobacter spp. from client-owned dogs and cats, and retail raw meat pet food in the manawatu, new zealand.campylobacter causes acute gastroenteritis in people worldwide and is frequently isolated from food, animals and the environment. the disease is predominately food-borne but many routes of transmission and sources of infection have been described, including contact with pets. the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in dogs and cats varies widely, and data on new zealand pets are limited. this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in dogs, cats and retail raw meat pet food ...201627860343
multilocus sequence typing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from poultry, cattle and humans in nigeria.to determine the genetic diversity of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from nigeria and to identify the association between multilocus sequence types and hosts (poultry, cattle and humans).201627206561
functional genomics in campylobacter coli identified a novel streptomycin resistance gene located in a hypervariable genomic region.numerous aminoglycoside resistance genes have been reported in campylobacter spp. often resembling those from gram-positive bacterial species and located in transferable genetic elements with other resistance genes. we discovered a new streptomycin (str) resistance gene in campylobactercoli showing 27-34 % amino acid identity to aminoglycoside 6-nucleotidyl-transferases described previously in campylobacter. str resistance was verified by gene expression and insertional inactivation. this ant-li ...201627154456
identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by mama-deg pcr.among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli, the 2 main campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyra c-257-t, which can be genotyped by sev ...201626658311
molecular characterization, antimicrobial resistance and caco-2 cell invasion potential of campylobacter jejuni/coli from young children with diarrhea.campylobacter is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. young children represent a particular age group affected by campylobacter infection because of their limited diets and weak immune systems.201626627197
description of an erm(b)-carrying campylobacter coli isolate in europe. 201626604242
evaluation of a multiplex real-time pcr assay for detecting major bacterial enteric pathogens in fecal specimens: intestinal inflammation and bacterial load are correlated in campylobacter infections.a total of 1,056 native or cary-blair-preserved stool specimens were simultaneously tested by conventional stool culturing and by enteric bacterial panel (ebp) multiplex real-time pcr for campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, salmonella spp., and shigellosis disease-causing agents (shigella spp. and enteroinvasive escherichia coli [eiec]). overall, 143 (13.5%) specimens tested positive by pcr for the targets named above; 3 coinfections and 109 (10.4%) campylobacter spp., 17 (1.6%) salmonella ...201627307458
l-fucose influences chemotaxis and biofilm formation in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are zoonotic pathogens once considered asaccharolytic, but are now known to encode pathways for glucose and fucose uptake/metabolism. for c. jejuni, strains with the fuc locus possess a competitive advantage in animal colonization models. we demonstrate that this locus is present in > 50% of genome-sequenced strains and is prevalent in livestock-associated isolates of both species. to better understand how these campylobacters sense nutrient availabili ...201627145048
antibiotic resistance and polymorphism in the quinolone resistance-determining region of campylobacter spp. isolated from 1-day-old ducklings.thirty-three isolates of campylobacter coli and three isolates of campylobacter jejuni were recovered from 150 1-day-old ducklings. all isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol and amikacin, but resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (sxt) by the disc diffusion method. most isolates were susceptible to tetracycline and erythromycin, but resistant to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. of the 33 c. coli isolates, nine were positive for the tetracycline resistance gene tet(o), although only two of ...201627068149
combined campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli rapid testing and molecular epidemiology in conventional broiler flocks.campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial zoonosis, most often transmitted by contaminated poultry meat. from an epidemiological and risk assessment perspective, further knowledge should be obtained on campylobacter prevalence and genotype distribution in primary production. consequently, 15 austrian broiler flocks were surveyed in summer for their thermophilic campylobacter spp. contamination status. chicken droppings, dust and drinking water samples were collected from each flock at ...201627061601
molecular subtyping and erythromycin resistance of campylobacter in china.to investigate the erythromycin resistance patterns and mechanism for campylobacter isolates in china.201626999516
discriminative power of campylobacter phenotypic and genotypic typing methods.the aim of this study was to compare different typing methods, individually and combined, for use in the monitoring of campylobacter in food. campylobacter jejuni (n=94) and campylobacter coli (n=52) isolated from different broiler meat carcasses were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (mlst), flagellin gene a restriction fragment length polymorphism typing (flaa-rflp), antimicrobial resistance profiling (amrp), the presence/absence of 5 putative virulence genes; and, exclusively for ...201626996762
influence of commercial laying hen housing systems on the incidence and identification of salmonella and campylobacter.the housing of laying hens is important for social, industrial, and regulatory aspects. many studies have compared hen housing systems on the research farm, but few have fully examined commercial housing systems and management strategies. the current study compared hens housed in commercial cage-free aviary, conventional cage, and enriched colony cage systems. environmental and eggshell pool samples were collected from selected cages/segments of the housing systems throughout the production cycl ...201626976901
comprehensive analysis of flagellin glycosylation in campylobacter jejuni nctc 11168 reveals incorporation of legionaminic acid and its importance for host colonization.campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. it relies on several virulence factors for host colonization, including glycosylated flagella. c. jejuni nctc 11168 modifies its flagellins with pseudaminic acid derivatives. it is also presumed to modify these proteins with legionaminic acid, although no glycopeptide evidence was available at the onset of this study. the enzyme encoded by cj1319 can be used to make legionaminic acid in vitro, but the pathway for legionamini ...201626582606
effect of antimicrobial use in agricultural animals on drug-resistant foodborne campylobacteriosis in humans: a systematic literature review.controversy continues concerning antimicrobial use in food animals and its relationship to drug-resistant infections in humans. we systematically reviewed published literature for evidence of a relationship between antimicrobial use in agricultural animals and drug-resistant foodborne campylobacteriosis in humans. based on publications from the united states (u.s.), canada and denmark from 2010 to july 2014, 195 articles were retained for abstract review, 50 met study criteria for full article r ...201626580432
species shift and multidrug resistance of campylobacter from chicken and swine, china, 2008-14.the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter isolated from broiler chickens and swine during 2008-14.201626568567
the effects of 405-nm visible light on the survival of campylobacter on chicken skin and stainless steel.campylobacter spp. are foodborne pathogens responsible for a significant portion of human cases of bacterial-mediated gastrointestinal disease. a primary method for the introduction of campylobacter into the food supply is through poultry products. reducing the number of campylobacter on poultry products may reduce the incidence of human disease. research has been conducted on the use of light to inactivate campylobacter on poultry products and processing environments. more recently, the use of ...201626938455
isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter strains isolated from domestic and free-living pigeons.1. the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. the material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from lublin and its vicinity. the identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for campylobacter spp. was carried out by maldi-tof and pcr. the susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum i ...201626841300
a rapid and simple real-time pcr assay for detecting foodborne pathogenic bacteria in human feces.a rapid, simple method for detecting foodborne pathogenic bacteria in human feces is greatly needed. here, we examined the efficacy of a method that employs a combination of a commercial pcr master mix, which is insensitive to pcr inhibitors, and a dna extraction method which used sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (sdbs), and tween 20 to counteract the inhibitory effects of sdbs on the pcr assay. this method could detect the target genes (stx1 and stx2 of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli, inva ...201626902211
sensitivity of direct culture, enrichment and pcr for detection of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli in broiler flocks at slaughter.broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. accurate estimates of the prevalence of both c. coli and c. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. this study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and pcr) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. a parallel interpretation approa ...201627770505
variation in campylobacter multilocus sequence typing subtypes from chickens as detected on three plating media.the objective of this study was to compare subtypes of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli detected on three selective campylobacter plating media to determine whether each medium selected for different subtypes. fifty ceca and 50 carcasses (representing 50 flocks) were collected from the evisceration line in a commercial broiler processing plant. campylobacter was cultured and isolated from cecal contents and carcass rinses on campy-cefex, campy line, and rf campylobacter jejuni/coli ag ...201628221919
characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility and its association with virulence genes related to adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from animals, meat, and humans.the aim of this research was to statistically analyze the association between antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance to erythromycine, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline and 11 virulence genes associated with adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity in 528 isolates of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni obtained from retail meat and fecal samples from food-producing animals and human patients. a high percentage of campylobacter strains were resistant to antimicrobials, specificall ...201626779841
zoonotic public health hazards in backyard chickens.backyard poultry has become increasingly popular in industrialized countries. in addition to keeping chickens for eggs and meat, owners often treat the birds as pets. however, several pathogenic enteric bacteria have the potential for zoonotic transmission from poultry to humans but very little is known about the occurrence of zoonotic pathogens in backyard flocks. the occurrence and the antimicrobial resistance of salmonella enterica, campylobacter spp., listeria monocytogenes and enteropathoge ...201626752227
large sequence diversity within the biosynthesis locus and common biochemical features of campylobacter coli lipooligosaccharides.despite the importance of lipooligosaccharides (loss) in the pathogenicity of campylobacteriosis, little is known about the genetic and phenotypic diversity of los in campylobacter coli in this study, we investigated the distribution of los locus classes among a large collection of unrelated c. coli isolates sampled from several different host species. furthermore, we paired c. coli genomic information and los chemical composition for the first time to investigate possible associations between l ...201627481928
influence of enrichment and isolation media on the detection of campylobacter spp. in naturally contaminated chicken samples.investigating campylobacter epidemiology requires adequate technique and media to ensure optimal culturing and accurate detection and isolation of campylobacter strains. in the present study, we investigated the performances of three enrichment durations in bolton broth (0, 24 and 48h) and compared four isolation media (mccda, karmali, butzler no. 2 and campyfood agar (cfa)) for the detection of campylobacter positive samples and the identification of campylobacter species, from naturally contam ...201627373751
clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of campylobacter.genus campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. human campylobacter infections have caused more concern. campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. the major zoonotic species are campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli, which mostly reside in the intestines of avian species and are transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated poultry products, thus causing hum ...201627350611
quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. the contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with campylobacter is largely unknown. in the netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosi ...201627244295
prevalence of thermotolerant campylobacter spp. in chicken meat in croatia and multilocus sequence typing of a small subset of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates.in order to detect thermotolerant campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86%. campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35% of the samples, respectively. in 4.98% of isolates thermotolerant campylobacter spp. were n ...201628115906
restriction glycosylases: involvement of endonuclease activities in the restriction process.all restriction enzymes examined are phosphodiesterases generating 3'-oh and 5'-p ends, but one restriction enzyme (restriction glycosylase) excises unmethylated bases from its recognition sequence. whether its restriction activity involves endonucleolytic cleavage remains unclear. one report on this enzyme, r.pabi from a hyperthermophile, ascribed the breakage to high temperature while another showed its weak ap lyase activity generates atypical ends. here, we addressed this issue in mesophiles ...201627980098
identification of a campylobacter coli methyltransferase targeting adenines at gatc sites.campylobacter coli can infect humans and colonize multiple other animals but its host-associated genes or adaptations are poorly understood. adenine methylation at gatc sites, resulting in mboi resistance of genomic dna, was earlier frequently detected among c. coli from swine but not among turkey-derived isolates. the underlying genetic basis has remained unknown. comparative genome sequence analyses of c. coli 6461, a swine-derived strain with mboi-resistant dna, revealed two chromosomal orfs, ...201627915251
genomic variations leading to alterations in cell morphology of campylobacter spp.campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease, is normally helical. however, it can also adopt straight rod, elongated helical and coccoid forms. studying how helical morphology is generated, and how it switches between its different forms, is an important objective for understanding this pathogen. here, we aimed to determine the genetic factors involved in generating the helical shape of campylobacter. a c. jejuni transposon (tn) mutant library was screened for non ...201627910897
[multilocus sequence typing analysis of human campylobacter coli in granada (spain)].different subtypes of campylobacter spp. have been associated with diarrhoea and a multilocus sequence typing (mlst) method has been performed for subtyping. in the present work, mlst was used to analyse the genetic diversity of eight strains of campylobacter coli.201627701619
sensitivity to enterocins of thermophilic campylobacter spp. from different poultry species.campylobacter spp. have been isolated from various animals, including poultry. they are rapidly transmitted throughout broiler sheds by the fecal-oral route. a promising strategy to reduce campylobacter spp. in poultry may be done due to the beneficial properties of probiotic bacteria and their bacteriocins. in this study, inhibition spectrum/activity of different enterocins was evaluated against campylobacter spp. (isolated from different poultry) to indicate further practical use of enterocins ...201627602434
monitoring antimicrobial resistance in the food supply chain and its implications for fda policy initiatives.in response to concerning increases in antimicrobial resistance (amr), the food and drug administration (fda) has decided to increase veterinary oversight requirements for antimicrobials and restrict their use in growth promotion. given the high stakes of this policy for the food supply, economy, and human and veterinary health, it is important to rigorously assess the effects of this policy. we have undertaken a detailed analysis of data provided by the national antimicrobial resistance monitor ...201627324772
genotyping of campylobacter coli strains isolated in brazil suggests possible contamination amongst environmental, human, animal and food sources.campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni are two of the most common causative agents of food-borne gastroenteritis in numerous countries worldwide. in brazil, campylobacteriosis is under diagnosed and under-reported, and few studies have molecularly characterized campylobacter spp. in this country. the current study genotyped 63 c. coli strains isolated from humans (n512), animals (n521), food (n510) and the environment (n520) between 1995 and 2011 in brazil. the strains were genotyped using ...201626531157
campylobacteriosis: the role of poultry meat.the incidence of human infections caused by campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for campylobacter. contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. yet campylobacter prevalence in poultry, a ...201626686808
salmonella and campylobacter: antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.salmonella and campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. many of the isolated salmonella and campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant salmonella and campylobacter strains still persist. ...201626678136
high rates of contamination of poultry meat products with drug resistant campylobacter in metro manila, philippines.a total of 265 chicken parts were collected from 15 wet markets and 15 supermarkets in metro manila, philippines. campylobacter spp. was isolated on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar plates and identified through biochemical tests and pcr amplification of genus and species specific genes. antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined following clinical and laboratory standards institute protocols. two hundred seven (78%) campylobacter spp. were isolated. c. jejuni and c. coli ...201627795478
monitoring of virulence genes, drug-resistance in campylobacter coli isolated from golden retrievers.the investigation was performed on 75 of golden retriever puppies. faecal samples were collected on the 42 day of the puppies life (control). probiotic preparation was administered on 43 day of the puppies life and 10 days after the application of the probiotic, faecal samples were collected again (on 53 day of puppies life). all isolates of campylobacter coli isolated prior to the administration of the probiotic were found to contain the cadf gene responsible for adhesion, as well as, the flaa ...201628520333
prevalence and risk factors for thermotolerant species of campylobacter in poultry meat at retail in europe.the thermotolerant species campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, campylobacter lari and campylobacter upsaliensis are the causative agents of the human illness called campylobacteriosis. this infection represents a threat for the health of consumers in europe. it is well known that poultry meat is an important food vehicle of campylobacter infection. as emerged from the reported scientific literature published between 2006 and 2016, poultry meat sold at retail level in europe represents an i ...201728854745
isolation and identification of campylobacter spp. from poultry and poultry by-products in tunisia by conventional culture method and multiplex real-time pcr.thermophilic campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. the consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex pcr assay. two hundred fifty fre ...201728853632
genome reduction for niche association in campylobacter hepaticus, a cause of spotty liver disease in poultry.the term "spotty liver disease" (sld) has been used since the late 1990s for a condition seen in the uk and australia that primarily affects free range laying hens around peak lay, causing acute mortality and a fall in egg production. a novel thermophilic sld-associated campylobacter was reported in the united kingdom (uk) in 2015. subsequently, similar isolates occurring in australia were formally described as a new species, campylobacter hepaticus. we describe the comparative genomics of 10 c. ...201728848714
fecal shedding of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli among feral pigs in texas.the population and range of feral pigs in the united states are rapidly expanding, yet key knowledge gaps exist regarding their role in the ecology and transmission of foodborne pathogens. our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli shedding among feral pigs throughout texas and to identify risk factors for positive status. faecal samples were collected from feral pigs in texas from february 2014 through may 2015, and target organisms were detect ...201728834190
survival of selected foodborne pathogens on dry cured pork loins.the safety of ready-to-eat products such as cured pork loins must be guaranteed by the food industry. in the present study, the efficacy of the dry curing process of pork loins obtained from free-range pigs in the reduction of three of the most important foodborne pathogens is analysed. a total of 28 pork loin segments, with an average weight of 0.57±0.12kg, were divided into four groups with three being inoculated by immersion with 7logcfu/ml of either salmonella typhimurium, campylobacter coli ...201728759797
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