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prevalence of thermophilic campylobacter infections in humans, chickens and crows in morogoro, tanzania.prevalence of thermophilic campylobacter infections in humans, chickens and crows was determined in a cross-sectional study that was carried out in urban and rural areas of morogoro region, tanzania during the period of january 2003 to december 2004. a total of 632 human stool samples, 536 cloacal swabs from local and broiler chickens and 22 intestinal contents from crows were screened for presence of thermophilic campylobacters using skirrow's protocol. representative campylobacter jejuni isola ...200616629722
fingerprinting of campylobacter jejuni by using resolution-optimized binary gene targets derived from comparative genome hybridization studies.the aim of this investigation was to exploit the vast comparative data generated by comparative genome hybridization (cgh) studies of campylobacter jejuni in developing a genotyping method. we examined genes in c. jejuni that exhibit binary status (present or absent between strains) within known plasticity regions, in order to identify a minimal subset of gene targets that provide high-resolution genetic fingerprints. using cgh data from three studies as input, binary gene sets were identified w ...200616997982
a large multi-pathogen waterborne community outbreak linked to faecal contamination of a groundwater system, france, 2000.a large waterborne outbreak of infection that occurred during august 2000 in a local community in france was investigated initially via a rapid survey of visits to local physicians. a retrospective cohort study was then conducted on a random cluster sample of residents. of 709 residents interviewed, 202 (28.5%) were definite cases (at least three liquid stools/day or vomiting) and 62 (8.7%) were probable cases (less than three liquid stools/day or abdominal pain). those who had drunk tap water h ...200616700706
the ability of flagellum-specific proteus vulgaris bacteriophage pv22 to interact with campylobacter jejuni flagella in culture.there has been a recent resurgent interest in bacteriophage biology. research was initiated to examine campylobacter jejuni-specific bacteriophage in the russian federation to develop alternative control measures for this pathogen.200616803630
quantification of campylobacter on the surface and in the muscle of chicken legs at retail.the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and numbers of campylobacter on the skin and in the muscle of chicken legs at retail to examine the external and internal contamination for an exposure assessment. furthermore, the study assessed seasonal influence on campylobacter contamination in chicken legs. of the 140 examined skin samples, 66% were positive, and the internal contamination of 115 sampled chicken legs was 27%. the enumeration of campylobacter on the surface of posit ...200616629016
characterization of macrolide-resistant campylobacter coli isolates from food-producing animals on farms across japan during 2004.we investigated the susceptibilities against 7 antimicrobial agents in campylobacter jejuni and c. coli isolates from food-producing animals in 2004. in comparison with the results of past surveillance, no significant difference was observed in resistance rates against all of the antimicrobials tested in campylobacter isolates. however, slight increase of erythromycin (em) resistance was found in c. coli isolates from pigs. we examined the mutation of the 23s rrna gene and their susceptibilities ...200617085893
adherence to and invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells by campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from retail meat products.the abilities of 34 campylobacter jejuni and 9 campylobacter coli isolates recovered from retail meats to adhere to and invade human intestinal epithelial t84 cells were examined and compared with those of a well-characterized human clinical strain, c. jejuni 81-176, to better assess the pathogenic potential of these meat isolates. the meat isolates exhibited a wide range of adherence and invasion abilities; a few of the isolates adhered to and invaded t84 cells almost as well as did c. jejuni 8 ...200616629018
amplified fragment length polymorphism, serotyping, and quinolone resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains from chicken-related samples and humans in taiwan.the high-resolution genotyping method of amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis was used to study the genetic relationships between campylobacter jejuni isolates from chicken-related samples (n = 32) and humans (n = 27) as well as between campylobacter coli isolates from chicken-related samples (n = 27) and humans (n = 5). these isolates were collected between 1994 and 2003 in taiwan. all c. jejuni and c. coli isolates showed highly heterogeneous fingerprints. c. jejuni isolates ...200616629019
unique features of a highly pathogenic campylobacter jejuni strain.campylobacter jejuni, a major human enteric pathogen, exhibits significant strain-to-strain differences which result in differences in pathogenic potential. c. jejuni 81-176 is a highly virulent strain that exhibits unique pathogenic features and is used by many research laboratories. we have determined the nucleotide sequence of its genome and compared it to the genomes of other sequenced c. jejuni strains. we identified a number of unique genetic features which may confer specific metabolic an ...200616861657
efficacy of iron chelators on campylobacter concentrations in turkey semen.campylobacter is a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne infections in the united states. recent studies suggest that the organism is highly prevalent in poultry semen and may contribute to vertical transmission between the breeder hen and offspring. because campylobacter requires iron for its growth and survival, the objective of this study was to determine if the addition of natural and synthetic chelators such as ovotransferrin, desferrioxaime, edta, or 2,2'-dipyridyl could reduce or eli ...200616903479
enumeration and identity of campylobacter spp. in italian broilers.transmission of campylobacter to humans has been prominently associated with mishandling or improperly preparing contaminated poultry carcasses. the number of organisms per carcass represents an important measure of human exposure to the agent. therefore, we wished to estimate this public exposure over 1 yr among italian broiler carcasses. we sampled 213 broiler carcasses from rinse water samples collected from a single slaughterhouse. groups of carcasses had mean processed weights ranging from ...200616553289
optimal settings of fingerprint-type analysing computer software for the analysis of enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns.settings of fingerprint-type analysing computer software were optimized for analysis of enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) patterns. under the lowest values of parameters, maximum value of similarities calculated using the dice coefficient were obtained between pfge patterns from one ehec strain on the same gel when reference lanes for calibration of distortions during electrophoresis were set to every fourth lane. pfge patterns of 15 ehec strains ...200616566856
intestinal carriage of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli among cattle from south-western norway and comparative genotyping of bovine and human isolates by amplified-fragment length polymorphism.in a survey conducted in 1999-2001, the carriage of thermotolerant campylobacters in cattle was investigated, and the genetic diversity of c. jejuni within one herd was examined and compared with human isolates. c. jejuni, c. coli and other thermotolerant campylobacter spp. were isolated from intestinal contents from 26%, 3% and 2% of 804 cattle, respectively. the carriage rate was higher in calves (46%) than in adults (29%). twenty-nine c. jejuni isolates from one herd and 31 human isolates fro ...200616987400
relationship between the severity of hepatitis c virus-related liver disease and the presence of helicobacter species in the liver: a prospective study.to determine the presence of helicobacter species dna in the liver of chronic hepatitis c (chc) patients with and without cirrhosis as compared to controls, and to identify the bacterial species involved.200617143941
campylobacter jejuni multilocus sequence types in humans, northwest england, 2003-2004.detailed understanding of the epidemiology of campylobacter is increasingly facilitated through use of universal and reproducible techniques for accurate strain differentiation and subtyping. multilocus sequence typing (mlst) enables discriminatory subtyping and grouping of isolate types into genetically related clonal complexes; it also has the advantage of ease of application and repeatability. recent studies suggest that a measure of host association may be distinguishable with this system. w ...200617176563
effect of oral administration of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens mdt-1 on experimental enterocolitis in mice.butyrivibrio fibrisolvens mdt-1, a butyrate-producing strain, was evaluated for use as a probiotic to prevent enterocolitis. oral administration of the mdt-1 strain (10(9) cfu/dose) alleviated the symptoms of colitis (including body weight loss, diarrhea, bloody stool, organic disorder, and mucosal damage) that are induced in mice drinking water that contains 3.0% dextran sulfate sodium. in addition, myeloperoxidase (mpo) activity levels in colonic tissue were reduced, suggesting that mdt-1 miti ...200616988006
recovery methods for detection and quantification of campylobacter depend on meat matrices and bacteriological or pcr tools.campylobacter is one of the main causes of human foodborne bacterial disease associated with meat consumption in developed countries. therefore, the most effective approach for recovery and detection of campylobacter from meat should be determined. two hundred ninety pork skin and chine samples were inoculated with campylobacter jejuni nctc 11168 and two strains of campylobacter coli. campylobacter cells were then recovered from suspensions and enumerated by direct plating. campylobacter recover ...200616995511
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from raw chicken meat and human stools in korea.prevalence of campylobacter in raw chicken meat and human stools and subsequent antibiotic resistance profiles of the pathogenic isolates obtained from 2000 through 2002 were investigated. campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli were isolated from 570 of the 923 raw chicken meat samples collected from traditional markets, large retail stores, or department stores in korea, resulting in the isolation rate of 61.8%. a total of 579 campylobacter isolates were obtained from raw chicken (36.3% fo ...200617186659
recurrent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis associated with calves among students at an educational farm programme, minnesota, 2003.enteric illness outbreaks among middle-/high-school students in consecutive semesters of an educational farm programme were investigated with retrospective cohort studies. during the first outbreak, 31/92 (34%) interviewed students were ill. risk factors included participating in animal science class (rr 8.1, 95% ci 1.2-55.2) and contact with calves (rr 4.2, 95% ci 1.1-16.2). stool samples from seven students and two calves yielded cryptosporidium parvum. students cared for animals in street clo ...200616672084
survey of chicken abattoir for the presence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.the genus campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. these species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. this study investigated the presence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in são paulo state, brazil. a total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled carc ...200617221125
effect of direct culture versus selective enrichment on the isolation of thermophilic campylobacter from feces of mature cattle at harvest.campylobacterjejuni and campylobacter coli are leading bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis in the united states and other industrialized nations. these organisms frequently colonize avian hosts, including commercial poultry, but are also found in the gastrointestinal tract of other warm-blooded animals, including swine, sheep, and cattle. this study investigated the effect of direct culture versus selective enrichment on the isolation of thermophilic campylobacter from the colon of 610 cat ...200616715799
genetic characterisation of the cjaab operon of campylobacter coli.we investigated the regulation of the cjaa and cjab genes of campylobacter coli. these genes are seemingly arranged into one operon but appear to encode functionally different proteins i.e. an extracytoplasmic solute receptor and a mhs - metabolite: h+ symporter transport protein. analysis of various transcriptional cjaa and/or cjab lacz fusion constructs revealed that both genes are arranged in an operon. race analysis located the transcription start site of the cjaab operon 46 bp upstream of t ...200617419285
an investigation of the molecular mechanisms contributing to high-level erythromycin resistance in campylobacter.the molecular mechanisms contributing to high-level erythromycin resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates were investigated. the a2075g mutation in the 23s rrna target genes was identified in all high-level erythromycin-resistant isolates. a number of amino acid substitutions together with insertions and deletions were identified in the corresponding genes encoding l4 and l22 ribosomal proteins both of resistant and susceptible isolates. amino acid substitutions identif ...200616318913
new world monkey aotus nancymae as a model for campylobacter jejuni infection and immunity.three groups of six monkeys (aotus nancymae) each were inoculated intragastrically with increasing doses of campylobacter jejuni. infection resulted in fecal colonization (100% of monkeys), dose-related diarrhea, and robust immune responses. colonization duration and diarrhea rate were reduced upon secondary challenge. a. nancymae may be useful for studying anti-campylobacter vaccine efficacy.200616369042
the prokaryotic antecedents of the ubiquitin-signaling system and the early evolution of ubiquitin-like beta-grasp domains.ubiquitin (ub)-mediated signaling is one of the hallmarks of all eukaryotes. prokaryotic homologs of ub (this and moad) and e1 ligases have been studied in relation to sulfur incorporation reactions in thiamine and molybdenum/tungsten cofactor biosynthesis. however, there is no evidence for entire protein modification systems with ub-like proteins and deconjugation by deubiquitinating enzymes in prokaryotes. hence, the evolutionary assembly of the eukaryotic ub-signaling apparatus remains unclea ...200616859499
a pilot study on post-evisceration contamination of broiler carcasses and ready-to-sell livers and intestines (mala) with campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in a high-throughput south african poultry abattoir.to assess post-evisceration contamination of broiler carcasses, 300 samples were randomly selected during routine slaughter in the winter of 2004. the samples originated from 50 chicken carcasses, taken directly after evisceration, as well as 25 samples from ready-to-sell packages of fresh intestines (mala) and livers. the samples were taken in batches over a period of 4 weeks to allow randomised sampling from different farms of origin. conventional culture-based detection methods of campylobact ...200617137050
a laboratory-based survey of campylobacter infections in prahova county.in developing countries, as well as in many western countries, members of the genus campylobacter are recognized as one of the most common cause of acute bacterial enteritis. campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolation rates have been shown to be equal to, and sometimes higher than those of other enteric pathogens. the microbiology laboratory of the local public health authority in prahova county conducted a one and a half-year laboratory-based survey of campylobacter infections in pat ...200718928068
assessing sensitivity to antibacterial topoisomerase ii inhibitors.both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have two major classes of topoisomerases that make transient single- or double-strand cuts in dna. while these enzymes play critical roles in cellular processes, they are also important targets of therapeutic agents. this unit describes assays to use in characterizing topoisomerase ii-targeting agents in vitro and in bacterial cells. it provides protocols for characterizing the action of small molecules against bacterial type ii topoisomerases in vitro and the in ...200721948169
the flik protein and flagellar hook-length control.the bacterial flagellum is a highly complex prokaryotic organelle. it is the motor that drives bacterial motility, and despite the large amount of energy required to make and operate flagella, motile organisms have a strong adaptive advantage. flagellar biogenesis is both complex and highly coordinated and it typically involves at least three two-component systems. part of the flagellum is a type iii secretion system, and it is via this structure that flagellar components are exported. the assem ...200717456739
campylobacter jejuni colonization and transmission in broiler chickens: a modelling perspective.campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of acute enteritis in the developed world. the consumption of contaminated poultry, where c. jejuni is believed to be a commensal organism, is a major risk factor. however, the dynamics of this colonization process in commercially reared chickens is still poorly understood. quantification of these dynamics of infection at an individual level is vital to understand transmission within populations and formulate new control strategies. there are ...200717472905
relapsing campylobacter coli bacteremia with reactive arthritis in a patient with x-linked agammaglobulinemia.a patient genetically diagnosed with x-linked agammaglobulinemia repeatedly developed bacteremia due to campylobacter coli (c. coli) for one year and seven months in spite of immunoglobulin replacement therapy. throughout the clinical course, c. coli with identical genetic patterns was repeatedly isolated from both blood and stool cultures, thus indicating that the patient had latent intestinal infection. the bacteremia was always accompanied by reactive arthritis. since the immunoglobulin level ...200717473499
comparison of the localization and post-translational modification of campylobacter coli cjac and its homolog from campylobacter jejuni, cj0734c/hisj.campylobacter is an asaccharolytic microorganism which uses amino acids as a source of carbon and energy. cjac/hisj is a ligand-binding protein, a component of the abc transport system. campylobacter cjac/hisj is post-translationally modified by glycosylation. the number of glycosylation motifs present in the cjac protein is species-specific. c. coli cjac has two and c. jejuni one motif (e/dxnys/t) which serves as a glycan acceptor. although the two c. coli cjac motifs have identical amino-acid ...200717351673
antibiotic resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from poultry in the south-east queensland region.the aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of 125 campylobacter jejuni and 27 campylobacter coli isolates from 39 queensland broiler farms.200717392353
detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in chicken meat samples by real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with molecular beacons.a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (nasba) assay based on molecular beacons was used for real-time detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in samples of chicken meat. a set of specific primers and beacon probe were designed to target the 16s rrna of both species. the real-time nasba protocol including the rna isolation was valid for both of the cell suspensions in buffered saline and the artificially contaminated chicken meat samples. the presence of rrna could be corre ...200717395329
pulsed-plasma gas-discharge inactivation of microbial pathogens in chilled poultry wash water.a pulsed-plasma gas-discharge (ppgd) system was developed for the novel decontamination of chilled poultry wash water. treatment of poultry wash water in the plasma generation chamber for up to 24 s at 4 degrees c reduced escherichia coli nctc 9001, campylobacter jejuni atcc 33560, campylobacter coli atcc 33559, listeria monocytogenes nctc 9863, salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis atcc 4931, and s. enterica serovar typhimurium atcc 14028 populations to non-detectable levels (< or = 8 log cfu ...200718095434
the complete genome sequence and analysis of the epsilonproteobacterium arcobacter butzleri.arcobacter butzleri is a member of the epsilon subdivision of the proteobacteria and a close taxonomic relative of established pathogens, such as campylobacter jejuni and helicobacter pylori. here we present the complete genome sequence of the human clinical isolate, a. butzleri strain rm4018.200718159241
campylobacter antimicrobial drug resistance among humans, broiler chickens, and pigs, france.we describe isolates from human campylobacter infection in the french population and the isolates' antimicrobial drug resistance patterns since 1986 and compare the trends with those of isolates from broiler chickens and pigs from 1999 through 2004. among 5,685 human campylobacter isolates, 76.2% were c. jejuni, 17.2% c. coli, and 5.0% c. fetus. resistance to nalidixic acid increased from 8.2% in 1990 to 26.3% in 2004 (p < 10(-3)), and resistance to ampicillin was high over time. nalidixic acid ...200717479889
development of experimental genetic tools for campylobacter fetus.molecular analysis of the virulence mechanisms of the emerging pathogen campylobacter fetus has been hampered by the lack of genetic tools. we report the development and functional analysis of escherichia coli-campylobacter shuttle vectors that are appropriate for c. fetus. some vectors were constructed based on the known campylobacter coli plasmid pip1455 replicon, which confers a wide host range in campylobacter spp. versatility in directing gene expression was achieved by introducing a strong ...200717513579
common genomic features of campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei strains distinguish them from c. jejuni subsp. jejuni.campylobacter jejuni has been divided into two subspecies: c. jejuni subsp. jejuni (cjj) and c. jejuni subsp. doylei (cjd). nearly all of the c. jejuni strains isolated are cjj; nevertheless, although cjd strains are isolated infrequently, they differ from cjj in two key aspects: they are obtained primarily from human clinical samples and are associated often with bacteremia, in addition to gastroenteritis. in this study, we utilized multilocus sequence typing (mlst) and a dna microarray-based c ...200717535437
heterogeneity of a campylobacter jejuni protein that is secreted through the flagellar filament.cj0859c, or fspa, is a small, acidic protein of campylobacter jejuni that is expressed by a sigma(28) promoter. analysis of the fspa gene in 41 isolates of c. jejuni revealed two overall variants of the predicted protein, fspa1 and fspa2. secretion of fspa occurs in broth-grown bacteria and requires a minimum flagellar structure. the addition of recombinant fspa2, but not fspa1, to int407 cells in vitro resulted in a rapid induction of apoptosis. these data define a novel c. jejuni virulence fac ...200717517862
relationships between bacterial genotypes and in vitro virulence properties of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from turkeys.campylobacter isolates from turkeys were genotyped and characterized by their in vitro virulence properties. relationships between bacterial genotypes and virulence properties were analysed.200717241349
campylobacter coli isolates derived from chickens in senegal: diversity, genetic exchange with campylobacter jejuni and quinolone resistance.we used the multilocus sequence typing (mlst) method to study the genetic diversity of campylobacter coli isolated from chickens in senegal, and to check the presence of genetic exchange with campylobacter jejuni. in addition, we assessed the resistance of the isolates to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid, and their gyra sequences. mlst revealed a low level of diversity and the absence of lineages among c. coli isolates. in addition, an exchange of alleles with c. jejuni was found. twenty percent ...200717258435
expression patterns and role of the cadf protein in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.binding of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to host fibronectin is mediated by the 37 kda outer membrane protein cadf. immunoblot analysis of 58 c. jejuni and c. coli isolates of human and animal origin showed that cadf is expressed in every strain. in most c. jejuni isolates, a 37 kda band (p37) and a less-prominent 32 kda band (p32) reacted with the antibodies. in c. coli isolates, cadf was consistently larger with sizes of 39 kda (p39) and 34 kda (p34), respectively. pcr analysis a ...200717573935
evaluation of different plate media for direct cultivation of campylobacter species from live broilers.accurate identification and optimal culturing procedures for campylobacter spp. from live broilers are needed for epidemiological studies. because there is no standardized protocol, we designed and conducted studies to evaluate different selective media for the culturing and isolation of campylobacter spp. from cecal and fecal samples obtained from battery-reared and commercial broilers. five media selective for campylobacter were evaluated: campylobacter agar base, campylobacter, campy-line, mo ...200717575175
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter in us dairy cattle.to obtain an overview of the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter in faeces of us dairy cows in 2002.200717578422
antibiotic resistance and resistance mechanisms in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world and infections with these organisms occur more frequently than do infections due to salmonella species, shigella species, or escherichia coli 0157:h7. the incidence of human campylobacter infections has increased markedly in both developed and developing countries worldwide and, more significantly, so has the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant campylobacte ...200718031331
gastrointestinal disease in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques is characterized by proinflammatory dysregulation of the interleukin-6-janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription3 pathway.gastrointestinal disease and inflammation are common sequelae of human and simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) infection. nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that lead to gastrointestinal dysfunction remain unclear. we investigated regulation of the interleukin (il)-6-jak-stat3 pathway in jejunum and colon, collected at necropsy, from 10 siv-infected macaques with diarrhea (group 1), 10 non-siv-infected macaques with diarrhea (group 2), and 7 control uninfected macaques (group 3). all group 1 ...200718055558
targeted metabolomics analysis of campylobacter coli vc167 reveals legionaminic acid derivatives as novel flagellar glycans.glycosylation of campylobacter flagellin is required for the biogenesis of a functional flagella filament. recently, we used a targeted metabolomics approach using mass spectrometry and nmr to identify changes in the metabolic profile of wild type and mutants in the flagellar glycosylation locus, characterize novel metabolites, and assign function to genes to define the pseudaminic acid biosynthetic pathway in campylobacter jejuni 81-176 (mcnally, d. j., hui, j. p., aubry, a. j., mui, k. k., gue ...200717371878
composite sequence proteomic analysis of protein biomarkers of campylobacter coli, c. lari and c. concisus for bacterial identification.protein biomarkers observed in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra (maldi-tof-ms) of cell lysates of three strains of campylobacter coli, two strains of c. lari and one strain of c. concisus have been identified by 'bottom-up' proteomic techniques. the significant findings are as follows. first, the protein biomarkers identified were: phna-related protein, 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (dmpi)-related protein, nifu-like protein, cytochrome c, dna-binding pro ...200717893805
prevalence and strain diversity of thermophilic campylobacters in cattle, sheep and swine farms.to determine prevalence and strain diversity of thermophilic campylobacters in healthy ruminants and swine.200717897201
longitudinal study of finnish campylobacter jejuni and c. coli isolates from humans, using multilocus sequence typing, including comparison with epidemiological data and isolates from poultry and cattle.we describe a study on the application of multilocus sequence typing for the analysis of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli isolates from human domestically acquired infections in the helsinki-uusimaa area of finland in 1996, 2002, and 2003. in addition, isolates from poultry meat and fecal samples of cattle from the seasonal peak (july to september) in 2003 were included in the study. in total, 361 finnish c. jejuni and c. coli strains were typed. sequence type 45 (st-45) (45%), st-21 (21%), and ...200717085689
prevalence, numbers, and subtypes of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in uncooked retail meat samples.a national quantitative survey of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in 1,011 uncooked retail meat samples (beef, unweaned veal, chicken, lamb and mutton, and pork) was undertaken from august 2003 to june 2004 to establish baseline proportionality data. the presence, number, and type of campylobacter present in each sample was assessed. prevalences of c. jejuni and c. coli were 89.1% in chicken, 9.1% in pork, 6.9% in lamb and mutton, 3.5% in beef, and 10% in unweaned veal. c. jejuni was ...200717388043
helicobacter pylori is invasive and it may be a facultative intracellular organism.the pathogenicity of many bacteria colonizing the gastrointestinal tract often depends on their ability to gain access to cells that are normally non-phagocytic. helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach of over half the world population and is the main cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. it is generally considered to be a non-invasive pathogen present only in the lumen of the stomach and attached to gastric epithelial cells although a number of in vivo and in vitro studies have de ...200717388791
campylobacter flagella: not just for motility.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are among the major causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. the motility imparted by the polar flagella of these pathogens is required for colonization of the mucus lining of the gastrointestinal tract. however, recent studies have revealed a more complex role for flagella in campylobacter pathogenesis that includes the ability to secrete non-flagellar proteins that modulate virulence and the co-regulation of secreted and non-secreted virulence factors ...200717920274
the persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacter in poultry production.the use of antibiotics in food animal production has been associated with antibiotic-resistant infections in humans. in 2005, the food and drug administration (fda) banned fluoroquinolone use in u.s. poultry production in order to reduce the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacter. little is known about the potential efficacy of this policy.200717637919
epidemiology, relative invasive ability, molecular characterization, and competitive performance of campylobacter jejuni strains in the chicken gut.one hundred forty-one campylobacter jejuni isolates from humans with diarrhea and 100 isolates from retailed poultry meat were differentiated by flaa typing. the bacteria were isolated in a specific geographical area (dunedin) in new zealand over a common time period. twenty nine flaa types were detected, one of which (flaa restriction fragment length polymorphism type 15 [flaa-15]) predominated among isolates from humans ( approximately 30% of isolates). this strain was of low prevalence (5% of ...200717921281
high level of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chickens in estonia in 2005 and 2006.the development of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli is a matter of increasing concern. because campylobacteriosis is transmitted to humans usually via food of animal origin, the presence of antimicrobial-resistant campylobacters in broiler chickens has important public health implications. the aim of our study was to analyze resistance patterns of c. jejuni isolated from fecal samples collected at a large estonian chicken farm, from cecal contents collected ...200717803154
development of macrolide-resistant campylobacter in broilers administered subtherapeutic or therapeutic concentrations of tylosin.the use of antimicrobials in food animal production, particularly those commonly used to treat infections in humans, has become a source of debate in recent years. however, limited data are available regarding the development of resistance following the subtherapeutic or therapeutic administration of antimicrobials in animal production. the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the administration of therapeutic and subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin on the erythromycin susc ...200717803155
development of a multiplex pcr assay for identification of campylobacter coli, campylobacter fetus, campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter lari and campylobacter upsaliensis.a multiplex pcr assay has been developed for the identification of the six common campylobacter taxa associated with human gastroenteritis and/or septicaemia, namely campylobacter coli, campylobacter fetus, campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter lari and campylobacter upsaliensis. the assay was developed using a combination of newly designed and published primers. it provided a specific pcr product for each of the five campylobacter species and ...200717965346
effects of short-chain nitrocompounds against campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in vitro.effects of 2-nitro-1-propanol, 2-nitroethanol, nitroethane, and 2-nitro-methyl-propionate (0, 10, and 20 mm) on growth of campylobacter jejuni were tested during culture in bolton broth adjusted to ph 5.6, 7.0, or 8.2. the nitrocompounds were similarly tested against c. coli but at ph 8.2 only. viable cell counts measured during incubation revealed main effects (p < 0.05) of all nitrocompounds on the survivability of c. jejuni. an effect of ph (p < 0.05) on the survivability of c. jejuni during ...200717995842
expanding the helicobacter pylori genetic toolbox: modification of an endogenous plasmid for use as a transcriptional reporter and complementation vector.helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen. however, the study of this organism is often limited by a relative shortage of genetic tools. in an effort to expand the methods available for genetic study, an endogenous h. pylori plasmid was modified for use as a transcriptional reporter and as a complementation vector. this was accomplished by addition of an escherichia coli origin of replication, a kanamycin resistance cassette, a promoterless gfpmut3 gene, and a functional multiple clonin ...200717921278
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in chicken hybrids with different growth rates, reared according to conventional and "free-range" production methods. 200717682919
antimicrobial resistance of arcobacter and campylobacter from broiler carcasses.the antimicrobial resistance of arcobacter (n=174) and campylobacter (n=215) isolated from broiler carcasses in a us poultry processing plant was examined. for arcobacter, 93.7% (n=163) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials and 71.8% (n=125) were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. for campylobacter, 99.5% (n=214) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials and 28.4% (n=61) were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. arcobacter butzleri isolates were particularly resistant to clin ...200717303391
crystal structure of the transcriptional regulator cmer from campylobacter jejuni.the cmeabc multidrug efflux pump, which belongs to the resistance-nodulation-division (rnd) family, recognizes and extrudes a broad range of antimicrobial agents and is essential for campylobacter jejuni colonization of the animal intestinal tract by mediating the efflux of bile acids. the expression of cmeabc is controlled by the transcriptional regulator cmer, whose open reading frame is located immediately upstream of the cmeabc operon. to understand the structural basis of cmer regulation, w ...200717686491
peptide transport in helicobacter pylori: roles of dpp and opp systems and evidence for additional peptide transporters.despite research into the nutritional requirements of helicobacter pylori, little is known regarding its use of complex substrates, such as peptides. analysis of genome sequences revealed putative abc-type transporter genes for dipeptide (dppabcdf) and oligopeptide (oppabcd) transport. genes from each system were pcr amplified, cloned, and disrupted by cassette insertion either individually (dppa, dppb, dppc, oppa, oppb, and oppc) or to create double mutants (dppa oppa, dppb oppb, dppb dppc, and ...200717322309
identification of genomic differences between campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and c. jejuni subsp. doylei at the nap locus leads to the development of a c. jejuni subspeciation multiplex pcr method.the human bacterial pathogen campylobacter jejuni contains two subspecies: c. jejuni subsp. jejuni (cjj) and c. jejuni subsp. doylei (cjd). although cjd strains are isolated infrequently in many parts of the world, they are obtained primarily from human clinical samples and result in an unusual clinical symptomatology in that, in addition to gastroenteritis, they are associated often with bacteremia. in this study, we describe a novel multiplex pcr method, based on the nitrate reductase (nap) lo ...200717328805
genome dynamics of campylobacter jejuni in response to bacteriophage predation.campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of food-borne illness. although a natural reservoir of the pathogen is domestic poultry, the degree of genomic diversity exhibited by the species limits the application of epidemiological methods to trace specific infection sources. bacteriophage predation is a common burden placed upon c. jejuni populations in the avian gut, and we show that amongst c. jejuni that survive bacteriophage predation in broiler chickens are bacteriophage-resistant types that d ...200717722979
microbiological evaluation of the new vitek 2 neisseria-haemophilus identification card.vitek 2 is an automated identification system for diverse bacterial and fungal species. a new card (the neisseria-haemophilus [nh] card) for the identification of neisseria spp., haemophilus spp., and other fastidious gram-negative or gram-variable microorganisms has been developed, but its performance in a routine clinical laboratory has not yet been evaluated. in this study, a total of 188 bacterial strains belonging to the genera actinobacillus, campylobacter, capnocytophaga, cardiobacterium, ...200717728469
a collaborative study on a nordic standard protocol for detection and enumeration of thermotolerant campylobacter in food (nmkl 119, 3. ed., 2007).a nordic standard protocol for detection and enumeration of thermotolerant campylobacter in food has been elaborated (nmkl 119, 3. ed., 2007). performance and precision characteristics of this protocol were evaluated in a collaborative study with participation of 14 laboratories from seven european countries. the laboratories performed qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative analyses on samples of chicken meat, cut lettuce, and milk artificially inoculated with different concentrations i ...200717761333
kinetics of the human antibody response against salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis and typhimurium determined by lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.two indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) were employed to measure levels of immunoglobulin g (igg), igm, and iga antibodies against salmonella in sera from 303 danish patients diagnosed by fecal culture with either salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis or salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium infections. the elisas were based on serovar enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (lps) and serovar typhimurium lps. the antibody levels were assessed approximately 1, 3, 6, and 12 months afte ...200717329442
novel campylobacter isolation method using hydrophobic grid membrane filter and semisolid medium.culture procedures for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from food matrices are complex, labor intensive, and time-consuming. most available methods include the use of antibiotics as selective agents to prevent the growth of competing microflora. a simple procedure for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters after enrichment in rosef's enrichment broth was developed using a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (hgmf) on semisolid medium (ssm). ssm contains no antibiotics, and the hgmf physic ...200717340869
siderophore-based iron acquisition and pathogen control.high-affinity iron acquisition is mediated by siderophore-dependent pathways in the majority of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and fungi. considerable progress has been made in characterizing and understanding mechanisms of siderophore synthesis, secretion, iron scavenging, and siderophore-delivered iron uptake and its release. the regulation of siderophore pathways reveals multilayer networks at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. due to the key role of many siderophores ...200717804665
comparative analysis of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes among campylobacter jejuni, c. coli and c. fetus strains.the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene clusters of campylobacter coli strain co1-243 and c. fetus strain col-187 were cloned and sequenced to understand the importance of cdt as a virulence factor. the cdt genes of c. coli and c. fetus consist of three closely linked genes termed cdta, cdtb, cdtc whose sizes are 774, 801, and 570 bp, and 702, 798, and 546 bp, respectively. the homologies of each subunit of cdt genes between c. jejuni and c. coli, c. jejuni and c. fetus, or c. coli and c. fet ...200717353111
campylobacter and bacterial gastroenteritis. 200717846438
[multi-pcr identification and virulence genes detection of campylobacter jejuni isolated from china].this study was to simultaneously identify campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates in china by multi-pcr assay and to study the prevalence of six virulence and toxin genes on them.200717850712
quorum sensing: fact, fiction, and everything in between. 200717869606
characterization of genetically matched isolates of campylobacter jejuni reveals that mutations in genes involved in flagellar biosynthesis alter the organism's virulence potential.phenotypic and genotypic evidence suggests that not all campylobacter jejuni isolates are pathogenic for humans. we hypothesized that differences in gene content or gene expression alter the degree of pathogenicity of c. jejuni isolates. a c. jejuni isolate (turkey) recovered from a turkey and a second c. jejuni isolate (cs) recovered from a chicken differed in their degrees of in vitro and in vivo virulence. the c. jejuni turkey isolate invaded int 407 human epithelial cells and secreted the ci ...200717369342
a possible mechanism of macrolide resistance among multiple resistant campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from thai children during 1991-2000.a total of 495 campylobacterjejuni and 122 c. coli isolated from thai children were screened for macrolide (erythromycin and azithromycin) resistance by disk diffusion assay. minimum inhibitory concentrations for erythromycin, azithromycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin and chloramphenicol were further determined for these macrolide-resistant campylobacter isolates. presence of known point mutations resulting in reduced susceptibility to macrolides was inv ...200717877226
the orphan response regulator hp1021 of helicobacter pylori regulates transcription of a gene cluster presumably involved in acetone metabolism.helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen for which no nonhuman reservoir is known. in accordance with the tight adaptation to its unique habitat, the human stomach, h. pylori is endowed with a very restricted repertoire of regulatory proteins. nevertheless, the three complete two-component systems of h. pylori were shown to be involved in the regulation of important virulence traits like motility and acid resistance and in the control of metal homeostasis. hp1021 is an orphan response regulator ...200717220217
evaluation of genetic markers and molecular typing methods for prediction of sources of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli infections.campylobacter jejuni and c. coli isolates from poultry, cattle, and humans were studied using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and pcr of candidate livestock-associated marker genes. human isolates showed 5.7 and 61% overlap with cattle and poultry isolates, respectively, by use of pfge. no unambiguous association was found between marker genes (the cj1321 and cj1324 genes) and livestock-associated isolates.200717220252
host-associated genetic import in campylobacter jejuni.host association of campylobacter jejuni was analyzed by using multilocus sequence typing data for 713 isolates from chickens and bovids (cattle and sheep). commonly used summary measures of genotypes (sequence type and clonal complex) showed poor accuracy, but a method using the full allelic profile showed 80% accuracy in distinguishing isolates from these 2 host groups. we explored the biologic basis of more accurate results with allelic profiles. strains isolated from specific hosts have impo ...200717479890
survey of campylobacter, salmonella and mycoplasmas in house crows (corvus splendens) in malaysia.house crows (corvus splendens) in selangor, malaysia were examined for the presence of campylobacter species, salmonella species, mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae by serology, culture and pcr. for the detection of campylobacter and salmonella species swabs were taken either from the intestine or cloaca. for the detection of mycoplasmas, swabs were taken either from the choanal cleft or trachea for culture and pcr and serum samples were tested by the rapid serum agglutination (rsa ...200717483380
campylobacter in finnish organic laying hens in autumn 2003 and spring 2004.a total of 642 fecal samples and 360 table eggs from finnish organic laying hens were collected in autumn 2003 (19 farms) and spring 2004 (17 farms) and studied for the presence of campylobacter. in autumn, 84% of the farms were positive for campylobacter and in spring, 76%. the percentage of positive samples within a flock varied between 5 and 100%. in addition, campylobacter was isolated in a single eggshell sample. campylobacter jejuni was the species isolated most often, although campylobact ...200717495096
development and application of real-time pcr assays for quantification of erm genes conferring resistance to macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin b in livestock manure and manure management systems.erythromycin and tylosin are commonly used in animal production, and such use is perceived to contribute to the overall antimicrobial resistance (ar) reservoirs. quantitative measurements of this type of ar reservoir in microbial communities are required to understand ar ecology (e.g., emergence, persistence, and dissemination). we report here the development, validation, and use of six real-time pcr assays for quantifying six classes of erm genes (classes a through c, f, t, and x) that encode t ...200717496134
phylogenetic relationships of campylobacter jejuni based on pora sequences.campylobacter porins are the dominant major outer membrane protein (momp) of these bacteria. they are composed of hypervariable, surface-exposed, peptide loops and membrane-embedded, conserved peptide regions. porins are functionally important and may also be useful for molecular subtyping methods but have not yet been well characterized. we therefore sequenced the pora gene from 39 campylobacter isolates, including multilocus sequence type (mlst) reference strains, isolates from patients with t ...200717496947
role of the plasmid-encoded tet(o) gene in tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.the prevalence of tetracycline resistance, tetracycline mics and tet(o) gene localization were investigated in 83 campylobacter isolates from patients suffering from acute gastroenteritis in germany. combined biochemical and molecular markers identified 74 isolates (89 %) as campylobacter jejuni, including seven atypical isolates that failed to hydrolyse hippurate, and nine isolates (11 %) as campylobacter coli. tetracycline resistance was detected in six out of nine campylobacter coli isolates ...200717510271
multilocus sequence typing performed on campylobacter coli isolates from humans, broilers, pigs and cattle originating in denmark.to assess whether campylobacter coli isolated from different sources in denmark constitute separate populations.200717584467
use of multilocus sequence typing to investigate the association between the presence of campylobacter spp. in broiler drinking water and campylobacter colonization in broilers.the presence of campylobacters in broiler chickens and throughout the broiler water delivery systems of 12 farms in northeastern scotland was investigated by sensitive enrichment methods and large-volume filtration. campylobacter presence was independent of the water source and whether the water was treated. the genotypes of campylobacter jejuni isolates recovered from chickens and various locations within the water delivery systems were compared by multilocus sequence typing. matching strains i ...200717586665
[antimicrobial susceptibilities of campylobacter sp strains isolated from humans in 2005 to 2006 in bielsko-biala region, poland].campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are frequent causes of bacterial gastroeneritis in humans worldwide. campylobacteriois is usually a self-limiting disease and therapy with antibiotics is required in severe clinical infections. the objective [corrected] of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance of c. jejuni and c. coli isolated from humans with diarrhea during 2005-2006 in bielsko-biala region in poland. the mics of ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin, gentamicin a ...200717601030
campylobacter succession in broiler chickens.the competitive ability of campylobacter coli or12 over c. jejuni or1 has been examined in experimental broiler chickens following the observation that c. coli replaced an established c. jejuni intestinal colonisation within commercial chicken flocks reared outdoors [el-shibiny, a., connerton, p.l., connerton, i.f., 2005. enumeration and diversity of campylobacters and bacteriophages isolated during the rearing cycles of free-range and organic chickens. appl. environ. microbiol. 71, 1259-1266]. ...200717628357
characterization of campylobacter jejuni biofilms under defined growth conditions.campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of human diarrheal disease in many industrialized countries and is a source of public health and economic burden. c. jejuni, present as normal flora in the intestinal tract of commercial broiler chickens and other livestock, is probably the main source of human infections. the presence of c. jejuni in biofilms found in animal production watering systems may play a role in the colonization of these animals. we have determined that c. jejuni can form biofilms ...200717259368
flagellin glycans from two pathovars of pseudomonas syringae contain rhamnose in d and l configurations in different ratios and modified 4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose.flagellins from pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea race 4 and pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 have been found to be glycosylated. glycosylation of flagellin is essential for bacterial virulence and is also involved in the determination of host specificity. flagellin glycans from both pathovars were characterized, and common sites of glycosylation were identified on six serine residues (positions 143, 164, 176, 183, 193, and 201). the structure of the glycan at serine 201 (s201) of flagellin ...200717644592
identification of putative zinc hydrolase genes of the metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily from campylobacter jejuni.dna fragments encoding two putative zinc-dependent hydrolases, designated glx2-1 and glx2-2, from a clinical isolate of campylobacter jejuni, strain 012, were cloned and sequenced. glx2-1 was encoded by a sequence of 798 bp and glx2-2 by a sequence of 597 bp. the amino acid sequences deduced from c. jejuni dna showed 99% and 100% identity, respectively, to putative zinc hydrolases reported from c. jejuni atcc strain 11168, and also shared identity (28-43%) with several hypothetical conserved pro ...200717266723
development of a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer pcr to detect arcobacter species.a real-time pcr targeting the gyrase a subunit gene outside the quinolone resistance-determining region has been developed to detect arcobacter species. the species identification was done by probe hybridization and melting curve analysis, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology. discrimination between arcobacter species was straightforward, as the corresponding melting points showed significant differences with the characteristic melting temperatures of 63.5 degrees c, 58.4 degr ...200717652482
commonality and biosynthesis of the o-methyl phosphoramidate capsule modification in campylobacter jejuni.in this study we investigated the commonality and biosynthesis of the o-methyl phosphoramidate (meopn) group found on the capsular polysaccharide (cps) of campylobacter jejuni. high resolution magic angle spinning nmr spectroscopy was used as a rapid, high throughput means to examine multiple isolates, analyze the cecal contents of colonized chickens, and screen a library of cps mutants for the presence of meopn. sixty eight percent of c. jejuni strains were found to express the meopn with a hig ...200717675288
evaluating antibiotics for use in medicine using a poloxamer biofilm model.wound infections, due to biofilms, are a constant problem because of their recalcitrant nature towards antibiotics. appropriate antibiotic selection for the treatment of these biofilm infections is important. the traditional in vitro disc diffusion method for antibiotic selection uses bacterial cultures grown on agar plates. however, the form of bacterial growth on agar is not representative of how bacteria grow in wounds and other tissue sites as here bacteria grow naturally in a biofilm. the a ...200717302978
prevalence of campylobacter spp isolated from grower-finisher pigs in ontario.this study aimed to establish the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in 80 ontario grower-finisher pig herds. ninety-nine percent of the isolates yielded campylobacter, c coli being the most common species detected. control of this microorganism must rely on careful food processing and storage of pork, rather than on an on-farm approach.200717542372
diversity of campylobacter coli genotypes in the lower porcine gastrointestinal tract at time of slaughter.to compare the genotypes of campylobacter coli obtained from the rectal and ileal samples of pigs at the time of slaughter.200717922816
sequence variation in the outer membrane protein-encoding gene cmec, conferring multidrug resistance among campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains isolated from different hosts.a novel pcr primer pair was used to detect the presence of cmec in 131 campylobacter jejuni and c. coli strains isolated from various hosts (cattle, turkeys, humans, and pigs). dna sequence analysis revealed a high degree of genetic variation between the two species, while extremely limited genetic variation among isolates of the same species was detected.200717652470
prevalence of resistance to 11 antimicrobials among campylobacter coill isolated from pigs on 80 grower-finisher farms in ontario.we carried out a cross-sectional study to investigate antimicrobial resistance patterns of campylobacter coli isolated from ontario grower-finisher pigs. from january to june 2004, 1200 samples were collected from 80 farms by obtaining a constant number (15) of fecal samples per farm. susceptibility of the isolates to 11 antimicrobial drugs was determined by the agar-dilution technique. the overall prevalence of resistance to 1 or more antimicrobials among the isolates was 99.2%. high levels of ...200717695593
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