PMID(sorted ascending)
free-living waterfowl as a source of zoonotic bacteria in a dense wild bird population area in northeastern spain.salmonella spp. and campylobacter spp. are zoonotic bacteria that represent an economic and public health concern worldwide. due to the difficulty to collect samples from free-living waterfowl, little is known on their importance as a reservoir of zoonotic agents. thus, a study was conducted to determine the prevalence, genotypic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella and campylobacter from waterfowl in ebro delta (northeastern spain), a geographical area with a dense wild bird ...201524112278
prevalence of three campylobacter species, c. jejuni, c. coli, and c. lari, using multilocus sequence typing in wild birds of the mid-atlantic region, usa.campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the majority of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in the us, usually due to the consumption of undercooked poultry. research on which avian species transmit the bacterium is limited, especially in the us. we sampled wild birds in three families-anatidae, scolopacidae, and laridae-in eastern north america to determine the prevalence and specific strains of campylobacter. the overall prevalence of campylobacter spp. was 9.2% for all wild birds sampled (n = ...201424171567
increased incidence of campylobacter spp. infection and high rates among children, israel.during 1999-2010, the annual incidence of campylobacter spp. infection in israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. children <2 years of age were disproportionally affected; incidence in this age group (356.12 cases/100,000 population) was >26-fold higher than for the 30-<50 age group.201324188185
comparison of characteristics of patients infected by campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter fetus.a large database of campylobacter isolates precisely identified at the species level was used to compare patients' characteristics. in a multivariate analysis, campylobacter coli was found more often in older patients and in patients having traveled abroad and less often in summertime than campylobacter jejuni. campylobacter fetus infection occurred in much older patients and in hospitalized patients with a systemic disease.201424197884
genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine campylobacter jejuni isolates.campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. it is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. whereas genotypes of human and chicken c. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine c. jejuni genotypes is available. to gain more information on genotypes of canine c. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence stud ...201424210812
multilocus sequence typing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains isolated from environmental waters in the mediterranean area.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are important animal-related waterborne pathogens that are distributed worldwide. to further understand campylobacter populations in water from the mediterranean area, the genetic diversity of environmental strains was analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (mlst). mlst was also used to determine the potential geographical differences between these bacterial strains and other campylobacters isolated worldwide. the typing study was conducted using 58 ...201324216328
source attribution of human campylobacter isolates by mlst and fla-typing and association of genotypes with quinolone resistance.campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. in the present study we compared population structures of 730 c. jejuni and c. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in switzerland. all isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (mlst) and flab-typing and their genotypi ...201324244747
risk assessment of growth hormones and antimicrobial residues in meat.growth promoters including hormonal substances and antibiotics are used legally and illegally in food producing animals for the growth promotion of livestock animals. hormonal substances still under debate in terms of their human health impacts are estradiol-17β, progesterone, testosterone, zeranol, trenbolone, and melengestrol acetate (mga) . many of the risk assessment results of natural steroid hormones have presented negligible impacts when they are used under good veterinary practices. for ...201024278538
[spontaneous bacteremia due to campylobacter coli in a cirrhotic patient]. 201424280064
evaluation of the culture method nihsj-02 alternative to iso 10272-1:2006 for the detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in chicken: collaborative study.for the surveillance of the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in raw chicken products in japan, a qualitative method, national institute of health sciences japan (nihsj)-02, was developed as an alternative to international organization for standardization (iso) 10272-1:2006. in the nihsj-02 culture method, the enrichment step is carried out in a reduced volume of preston broth at 42 +/- 1 degrees c to reduce cost and space, and to prevent the overgrowth of background bact ...201324282937
foodborne campylobacter: infections, metabolism, pathogenesis and reservoirs.campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. the emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide ...201324287853
intersubspecific recombination in xylella fastidiosa strains native to the united states: infection of novel hosts associated with an unsuccessful invasion.the bacterial pathogen xylella fastidiosa infects xylem and causes disease in many plant species in the americas. different subspecies of this bacterium and different genotypes within subspecies infect different plant hosts, but the genetics of host adaptation are unknown. here we examined the hypothesis that the introduction of novel genetic variation via intersubspecific homologous recombination (ihr) facilitates host shifts. we investigated ihr in 33 x. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates pr ...201424296499
antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from poultry in italy.this study was aimed at assessing the antimicrobial resistance (amr) of campylobacter isolates from broilers and turkeys reared in industrial farms in northern italy, given the public health concern represented by resistant campylobacters in food-producing animals and the paucity of data about this topic in our country. thirty-six campylobacter jejuni and 24 campylobacter coli isolated from broilers and 68 c. jejuni and 32 c. coli from turkeys were tested by disk diffusion for their susceptibili ...201424320689
report of ribosomal rna methylase gene erm(b) in multidrug-resistant campylobacter coli.campylobacter is a major foodborne enteric pathogen and macrolides are the drug of choice for the clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis. macrolide resistance among campylobacter compromises clinical treatment, is associated with adverse health events and is a significant public health concern. here, we report the first identification of a horizontally transferrable macrolide resistance mechanism in porcine campylobacter coli zc113 that is mediated by a ribosomal rna methylase, erm(b).201424335515
complete genome sequence of the campylobacter coli clinical isolate 15-537360.campylobacter coli strain 15-537360 was originally isolated in 2001 from a 42-year-old patient with gastroenteritis. here, we report its complete genome sequence, which comprises a 1.7-mbp chromosome and a 29-kbp conjugative cryptic plasmid. this is the first complete genome sequence of a clinical isolate of c. coli.201324336384
prevalence and pathogenic potential of campylobacter isolates from free-living, human-commensal american crows.recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. in this study, we detected campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging american crows (corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the sacramento valley of california in 2012 and 2013. biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16s rrna revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were c. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) ...201424375131
the renaissance of bacillosamine and its derivatives: pathway characterization and implications in pathogenicity.prokaryote-specific sugars, including n,n'-diacetylbacillosamine (dinacbac) and pseudaminic acid, have experienced a renaissance in the past decade because of their discovery in glycans related to microbial pathogenicity. dinacbac is found at the reducing end of oligosaccharides of n- and o-linked bacterial protein glycosylation pathways of gram-negative pathogens, including campylobacter jejuni and neisseria gonorrhoeae. further derivatization of dinacbac results in the nonulosonic acid known a ...201424383882
campylobacter in small ruminants at slaughter: prevalence, pulsotypes and antibiotic resistance.the present study aimed to address the prevalence, pulsotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of campylobacter species present in sheep and goat carcasses at slaughter. in total, 851 samples were collected (343 meat surfaces, 282 ileum contents, 226 liver surfaces) and 835 campylobacter isolates were detected in 274 out of 343 carcasses (116 kids, 110 lambs, 63 goats and 54 sheep). the contamination rates per carcass category were 78.4% for kids, 94.5% for lambs, 63.5% for goats, and ...201424412959
identification of a novel membrane transporter mediating resistance to organic arsenic in campylobacter jejuni.although bacterial mechanisms involved in the resistance to inorganic arsenic are well understood, the molecular basis for organic arsenic resistance has not been described. campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, is highly prevalent in poultry and is reportedly resistant to the arsenic compound roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsonic acid), which has been used as a feed additive in the poultry industry for growth promotion. in this study, we repor ...201424419344
identification and characterization of an invasion antigen b gene from the oral pathogen campylobacter rectus.the oral bacterium, campylobacter rectus, is an etiological agent of periodontitis. the virulence genes of c. rectus are largely unknown. the aim of this study was to query c. rectus for the presence of an invasion antigen b (ciab) gene, which is needed for cell invasion by the related species campylobacter jejuni. pcr and pcr-walking identified a ciab from c. rectus. in silico analyses of c. rectus 314 ciab (cr-ciab) revealed an orf of 1,830 base pairs. the cr-ciab protein shared significant se ...201424426164
comparison of the bd max enteric bacterial panel to routine culture methods for detection of campylobacter, enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (o157), salmonella, and shigella isolates in preserved stool specimens.we compared the bd max enteric bacterial panel (ebp) to culture for the detection of salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, and shiga toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) o157 in seeded stool samples. the ebp panel demonstrated superior sensitivity and reliably detected salmonella, ehec o157, shigella, and campylobacter at concentrations 1- to 2-log10 lower than those needed for culture detection.201424430460
diversity of campylobacter in retail meat and liver of lambs and goat kids.the presence, genetic diversity, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of campylobacter spp. in retail lamb and goat kid carcasses were assessed. a total of 200 samples consisting of 100 meat and 100 liver surface swabs were collected from 47 lamb and 53 goat kid carcasses at 23 retail markets in northern greece, and 125 campylobacter isolates were recovered from 32 meat surfaces (32%) and 44 liver surfaces (44%). multiplex polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphis ...201424437705
campylobacter coli cultured from the stools of a patient with immunoproliferative small intestinal disease.campylobacter has been associated with immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (ipsid), on the basis of 16s rdna sequencing, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. here, for the first time, we have cultured campylobacter from the stools of a patient with ipsid. phenotypic analysis and whole genome sequencing identified campylobacter coli. pcr on a ipsid tissue biopsy sample was positive for campylobacter coli and negative for campylobacter jejuni. these findings further support a ...201424438451
detection of campylobacter in stool and determination of significance by culture, enzyme immunoassay, and pcr in developing countries.campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (eia), or pcr. we compared culture for c. jejuni/c. coli, eia (prospect), and duplex pcr to distinguish campylobacter jejuni/c. coli and non-jejuni/coli campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in tanzania, bangladesh, and peru. the sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, re ...201424452175
presence and analysis of plasmids in human and animal associated arcobacter this study, we report the screening of four arcobacter species for the presence of small and large plasmids. plasmids were present in 9.9% of the 273 examined strains. one arcobacter cryaerophilus and four arcobacter butzleri plasmids were selected for further sequencing. the size of three small plasmids isolated from a. butzleri and the one from a. cryaerophilus strains ranged between 4.8 and 5.1 kb, and the size of the large plasmid, isolated from a. butzleri, was 27.4 kbp. the g+c content ...201424465575
comparison of conventional pcr, multiplex pcr, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for rapid detection of arcobacter species.this study aimed to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) method for the rapid detection of arcobacter species. specific primers targeting the 23s ribosomal rna gene were used to detect arcobacter butzleri, arcobacter cryaerophilus, and arcobacter skirrowii. the specificity of the lamp primer set was assessed using dna samples from a panel of arcobacter and campylobacter species, and the sensitivity was determined using serial dilutions of arcobacter species cultures. lamp show ...201424478488
mortality in captive baboons (papio spp.): a-23-year study.we report the causes of mortality for 4350 captive baboons that died or were euthanized due to natural causes during a 23 year period at the southwest national primate research center.201424483852
comparative analysis and limitations of ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide treatments for the differentiation of viable and nonviable campylobacter cells.the lack of differentiation between viable and nonviable bacterial cells limits the implementation of pcr-based methods for routine diagnostic approaches. recently, the combination of a quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) and ethidium monoazide (ema) or propidium monoazide (pma) pretreatment has been described to circumvent this disadvantage. in regard to the suitability of this approach for campylobacter spp., conflicting results have been reported. thus, we compared the suitabilities of ema and ...201424487529
distribution of indigenous bacterial pathogens and potential pathogens associated with roof-harvested rainwater.the harvesting of rainwater is gaining acceptance among many governmental authorities in countries such as australia, germany, and south africa, among others. however, conflicting reports on the microbial quality of harvested rainwater have been published. to monitor the presence of potential pathogenic bacteria during high-rainfall periods, rainwater from 29 rainwater tanks was sampled on four occasions (during june and august 2012) in a sustainable housing project in kleinmond, south africa. t ...201424487540
[microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in humans].campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. these infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in s ...201424491895
biological roles of the o-methyl phosphoramidate capsule modification in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and the capsular polysaccharide (cps) of this organism is required for persistence and disease. c. jejuni produces over 47 different capsular structures, including a unique o-methyl phosphoramidate (meopn) modification present on most c. jejuni isolates. although the meopn structure is rare in nature it has structural similarity to some synthetic pesticides. in this study, we have demonstrated, by whole genome comparis ...201424498018
evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification suite for the rapid, reliable, and robust detection of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli in produce.shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) strains are a leading cause of produce-associated outbreaks in the united states. rapid, reliable, and robust detection methods are needed to better ensure produce safety. we recently developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) suite for stec detection. in this study, the stec lamp suite was comprehensively evaluated against real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) using a large panel of bacterial strains (n = 156) and various produce items (s ...201424509927
detection of cdt toxin genes in campylobacter spp. strains isolated from broiler carcasses and vegetables in são paulo, brazil.campylobacteriosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis. one of the main virulence factors related to campylobacter spp. in animals and humans is the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt), encoded by three adjacent genes (cdta, cdtb, cdtc). the occurrence of campylobacter spp. in samples of vegetables has not been reported in brazil yet, and has seldom been described in the international literature. the detection of cdt in these strains has not been reported, either. the objectives of the present stu ...201424516435
prevalence of campylobacter among goats and retail goat meat in congo.the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli was determined in goat and goat meat sold at retail outlets in lubumbashi, democratic republic of congo (dr congo).201424518626
campylobacter prosthetic joint infection.a 75-year-old man was diagnosed with probable campylobacter jejuni prosthetic knee infection after a diarrheal illness. joint aspirate and operative cultures were negative, but pcr of prosthesis sonicate fluid was positive, as was stool culture. nineteen additional cases of campylobacter prosthetic joint infection reported in the literature are reviewed.201424523462
comparative genomics of unintrogressed campylobacter coli clades 2 and 3.campylobacter jejuni and c. coli share a multitude of risk factors associated with human gastrointestinal disease, yet their phylogeny differs significantly. c. jejuni is scattered into several lineages, with no apparent linkage, whereas c. coli clusters into three distinct phylogenetic groups (clades) of which clade 1 has shown extensive genome-wide introgression with c. jejuni, yet the other two clades (2 and 3) have less than 2% of c. jejuni ancestry. we characterized a c. coli strain (76339) ...201424524824
gram-negative flagella glycosylation.protein glycosylation had been considered as an eccentricity of a few bacteria. however, through advances in analytical methods and genome sequencing, it is now established that bacteria possess both n-linked and o-linked glycosylation pathways. both glycosylation pathways can modify multiple proteins, flagellins from archaea and eubacteria being one of these. flagella o-glycosylation has been demonstrated in many polar flagellins from gram-negative bacteria and in only the gram-positive genera ...201424557579
antimicrobial resistance of bacterial enteropathogens isolated from stools in madagascar.diarrheal diseases are a major public health problem in developing countries, and are one of the main causes of hospital admissions in madagascar. the pasteur institute of madagascar undertook a study to determine the prevalence and the pathogenicity of bacterial, viral and protozoal enteropathogens in diarrheal and non-diarrheal stools of children aged less than 5 years in madagascar. we present here the results of the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria isolated during thi ...201424568189
a pcr-rflp assay for the detection and differentiation of campylobacter jejuni, c. coli, c. fetus, c. hyointestinalis, c. lari, c. helveticus and c. upsaliensis.although campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of human gastrointestinal diseases, other campylobacter species are also involved in human and animal infections. in this study, we developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based pcr-rflp assay for the detection and differentiation of c. jejuni, c. coli, c. fetus, c. hyointestinalis, c. lari, c. helveticus and c. upsaliensis. previously designed common primers, which can amplify the cdtb gene of c ...201424568882
a comparison between hippurate hydrolysis and multiplex pcr for differentiating campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni.species identification is important for epidemiological, clinical and treatment purposes. the aim of this study was to find out whether hippurate hydrolysis is a reliable test for differentiating between campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni. to achieve this, hippurate hydrolysis test was compared with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mpcr) for their ability to speciate c. coli and c. jejuni. eighteen campylobacter strains from poultry samples were used for this study. the results from ...201124575212
divergent distribution of the sensor kinase coss in non-thermotolerant campylobacter species and its functional incompatibility with the response regulator cosr of campylobacter jejuni.two-component signal transduction systems are commonly composed of a sensor histidine kinase and a cognate response regulator, modulating gene expression in response to environmental changes through a phosphorylation-dependent process. cosr is an ompr-type response regulator essential for the viability of campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogenic species causing human gastroenteritis. although cosr is a response regulator, its cognate sensor kinase has not been identified in c. jejuni. ...201424587027
validation according to iso 16140:2003 of a commercial real-time pcr-based method for detecting campylobacter jejuni, c. coli, and c. lari in foods.campylobacteriosis was the most frequently reported zoonosis in the european union (eu) in 2010, with campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter lari as the most frequently reported species in foodborne outbreaks (fbos). relatively sensitive to environmental factors, these species may be present in low numbers. in line with eu policy for food control and fbo detection and in view of the need to reduce response time, we validated an alternative molecular method according to iso 1 ...201424607425
campylobacter bacteremia: a rare and under-reported event?bacteria belonging to the species campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. the clinical phenotype associated with campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. in susceptible patients, campylobacter infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with both host factors and bacterial factors being involved in the pathogenesis of bacteremia. in the host, age, gender and immune-compromising conditi ...201224611124
draft genome sequence of campylobacter coli strain ipsid-1 isolated from a patient with immunoproliferative small intestinal disease.the genome sequence and annotation of campylobacter coli strain ipsid-1 are reported here. this bacterial isolate is the first to be cultured from a patient with immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (ipsid). the draft genome sequence is 1.683 mb long, comprises 64 contigs, and has 31.26% g+c content.201424625865
isolation of a campylobacter lanienae-like bacterium from laboratory chinchillas (chinchilla laniger).routine necropsies of 27 asymptomatic juvenile chinchillas revealed a high prevalence of gastric ulcers with microscopic lymphoplasmacytic gastroenteritis and typhlocolitis. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis using campylobacter genus-specific partial 16s rrna primers revealed the presence of campylobacter spp. dna in the faeces of 12 of 27 animals (44.4%). species-specific partial 16s rrna pcr and sequencing confirmed that these animals were colonized with campylobacter lanienae, a gram-n ...201424628887
high-throughput sequencing of campylobacter jejuni insertion mutant libraries reveals mapa as a fitness factor for chicken colonization.campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of gastrointestinal infections worldwide, due primarily to its ability to asymptomatically colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of agriculturally relevant animals, including chickens. infection often occurs following consumption of meat that was contaminated by c. jejuni during harvest. because of this, much interest lies in understanding the mechanisms that allow c. jejuni to colonize the chicken gastrointestinal tract. to address this, we generated a c. ...201424633877
evaluation and single-laboratory verification of a proposed modification to the u.s. food and drug administration method for detection and identification of campylobacter jejuni or campylobacter coli from raw silo milk.the current u.s. food and drug administration (fda) methodology for detection of campylobacter, a leading source for foodborne illness, is outdated. the purpose of this study, therefore, was to improve and update the cultural and identification methods found in the fda/bacteriological analytical manual (bam). raw silo milk samples containing typical and atypical strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli at different levels (5 cfu/25 g, 50 cfu/25 g, and 125 cfu/25 g) were analyzed. v ...201424645512
alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of campylobacter jejuni.members of the genus campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. treatment of campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle ...201424671947
a reference pan-genome approach to comparative bacterial genomics: identification of novel epidemiological markers in pathogenic campylobacter.the increasing availability of hundreds of whole bacterial genomes provides opportunities for enhanced understanding of the genes and alleles responsible for clinically important phenotypes and how they evolved. however, it is a significant challenge to develop easy-to-use and scalable methods for characterizing these large and complex data and relating it to disease epidemiology. existing approaches typically focus on either homologous sequence variation in genes that are shared by all isolates ...201424676150
[bacterial biofilms: their importance in animal health and public health].bacterial biofilms are structured communities of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymer matrix that is attached to a surface. biofilms protect and allow bacteria to survive and thrive in hostile environments. bacteria within biofilms can withstand host immune responses, and are much less susceptible to antibiotics and disinfectants when compared to their planktonic counterparts. the ability to form biofilms is now considered an attribute of many microorganisms. diseases associated w ...201424688172
prevalence of virulence genes in strains of campylobacter jejuni isolated from human, bovine and broiler.campylobacter jejuni isolates of different origins (bovine, broiler meat, human) were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of 4 genes cdtb, cst-ii, ggt, and virb11, previously linked to virulence such as adherence, invasion, colonization, molecular mimicry, and cytotoxin production. in addition, the isolates were screened for the presence of the global gene regulator csra linked to oxidative stress responses, biofilms formation, and cell adhesion. all the c. jejuni isolates wer ...201424688515
molecular mechanisms of quinolone, macrolide, and tetracycline resistance among campylobacter isolates from initial stages of broiler production.the aim of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanisms of quinolones, macrolides and tetracycline in campylobacter isolates from grandparent and parent broiler breeders in spain. twenty-six isolates were investigated for quinolone resistance, three isolates for macrolide resistance and 39 for tetracycline resistance. all of the quinolone-resistant isolates possessed the mutation thr86ile in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyra and one isolate possessed the mutation pro ...201424689432
cryptic ecology among host generalist campylobacter jejuni in domestic animals.homologous recombination between bacterial strains is theoretically capable of preventing the separation of daughter clusters, and producing cohesive clouds of genotypes in sequence space. however, numerous barriers to recombination are known. barriers may be essential such as adaptive incompatibility, or ecological, which is associated with the opportunities for recombination in the natural habitat. campylobacter jejuni is a gut colonizer of numerous animal species and a major human enteric pat ...201424689900
prevalence of zoonotic campylobacter spp. in rectal swabs from dogs in slovakia: special reference to c. jejuni and c. coli.this work focused on the isolation of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in samples obtained from dog droppings. there were 135 samples collected and examined from both clinically healthy and diseased dogs from households, clinics, rehabilitation centres and dog shelters in eastern slovakia. the isolation of the campylobacter spp. was achieved by the use of combined selective cultivation methods, followed by confirmation and species identification of the isolates using the pcr method.the overall pr ...201424693660
molecular testing for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations of intestinal parasitic infections.over the past few decades, nucleic acid-based methods have been developed for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections. advantages of nucleic acid-based methods are numerous; typically, these include increased sensitivity and specificity and simpler standardization of diagnostic procedures. dna samples can also be stored and used for genetic characterization and molecular typing, providing a valuable tool for surveys and surveillance studies. a variety of technologies have been applied, ...201424696439
a gene-by-gene approach to bacterial population genomics: whole genome mlst of campylobacter.campylobacteriosis remains a major human public health problem world-wide. genetic analyses of campylobacter isolates, and particularly molecular epidemiology, have been central to the study of this disease, particularly the characterization of campylobacter genotypes isolated from human infection, farm animals, and retail food. these studies have demonstrated that campylobacter populations are highly structured, with distinct genotypes associated with particular wild or domestic animal sources, ...201224704917
prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in dressed porcine carcass of chitwan, nepal.campylobacter is the primary cause of food borne gastroenteritis. moreover, the emergence of multiple drug resistant campylobacters from poultry and pork has produced a potential threat to public health. research addressing these issues is sparse in nepal. so, this cross-sectional study aims at determining the prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of campylobacters from dressed porcine carcass of chitwan, nepal.201424708489
a multiplex pcr/ldr assay for simultaneous detection and identification of the niaid category b bacterial food and water-borne pathogens.enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis remain a major global health concern. the goal of this study was to develop a multiplex pcr/ligation detection reaction (ldr) assay for the detection of all niaid category b bacterial food and water-borne pathogens directly from stool specimens. to validate the pcr/ldr assay, clinical isolates of campylobacter spp., vibrio spp., shigella spp., salmonella spp., listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheagenic escherichia coli were tes ...201424709368
identification of genes involved in the glycosylation of modified viosamine of flagellins in pseudomonas syringae by mass spectrometry.previously we revealed that flagellin proteins in pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 (pta 6605) were glycosylated with a trisaccharide, modified viosamine (mvio)-rhamnose-rhamnose and that glycosylation was required for virulence. we further identified some glycosylation-related genes, including vioa, viob, viot, fgt1, and fgt2. in this study, we newly identified vior and viom in a so-called viosamine island as biosynthetic genes for glycosylation of mvio in pta 6605 by the mass spectrometry ( ...201124710292
draft genome sequence of campylobacter ureolyticus strain cit007, the first whole-genome sequence of a clinical isolate.herein, we present the draft genome sequence of campylobacter ureolyticus. strain cit007 was isolated from a stool sample from an elderly female presenting with diarrheal illness and end-stage chronic renal disease.201424723712
perspectives in the use of tannins as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoter factors in poultry.antibiotics have been included in the formulation of feed for livestock production for more than 40 years as a strategy to improve feed conversion rates and to reduce costs. the use of antimicrobials as growth-promoting factors (agp) in sub-therapeutic doses for long periods is particularly favorable for the selection of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. in the last years, global concern about development of antimicrobial resistance and transference of resistance genes from animal to human ...201424723916
colonisation of a phage susceptible campylobacter jejuni population in two phage positive broiler flocks.the pathogens campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are commensals in the poultry intestine and campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequent foodborne diseases in developed and developing countries. phages were identified to be effective in reducing intestinal campylobacter load and this was evaluated, in the first field trials which were recently carried out. the aim of this study was to further investigate campylobacter population dynamics during phage application on a commercial broil ...201424733154
detection and molecular analysis of campylobacter ureolyticus in domestic animals.previous studies showed the presence of campylobacter ureolyticus in a large proportion of diarrhoeal samples from patients in ireland. this emerging gastrointestinal pathogen was the second most common campylobacter species detected in patients presenting with gastroenteritis, surpassed only by c. jejuni. however, the source of c. ureolyticus infections in humans remains unknown. the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of c. ureolyticus in a range of domestic animals. over a perio ...201424739468
inhibition controls for qualitative real-time pcr assays: are they necessary for all specimen matrices?a retrospective analysis of 386,706 specimens representing a variety of matrix types used in qualitative real-time pcr assays determined the overall inhibition rate to be 0.87% when the inhibition control was added preextraction to 5,613 specimens and 0.01% when the inhibition control was added postextraction but preamplification in 381,093 specimens. inhibition rates of ≤ 1% were found for all specimen matrix types except urine and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.201424740078
comparison of fecalswab and eswab devices for storage and transportation of diarrheagenic bacteria.using a collection (n = 12) of atcc and known stock isolates, as well as 328 clinical stool specimens, we evaluated the eswab and the new fecalswab liquid-based microbiology (lbm) devices for storing and transporting diarrheagenic bacteria. the stock isolates were stored in these swab devices up to 48 h at refrigeration (4°c) or room (∼25°c) temperature and up to 3 months at -20°c or -70°c. with the clinical stool specimens, the performances of the eswab and fecalswab were compared to those of r ...201424740083
hygromycin b and apramycin antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni genetic manipulation is restricted by the limited number of antibiotic resistance cassettes available for use in this diarrheal pathogen. in this study, two antibiotic resistance cassettes were developed, encoding for hygromycin b and apramycin resistance, for use in mutagenesis or for selection of gene expression and complementation constructs in c. jejuni. first, the marker genes were successfully modified to allow for insertional mutagenesis or deletion of a gene-of-inter ...201424751825
antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates obtained in montreal, quebec, canada, from 2002 to 2013.from 2002 to 2013 in montreal, quebec, canada, 38 campylobacter coli isolates were more frequently erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin resistant than 440 campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolates (18.4% versus 1.8%; p = 0.00005), of which the 148 isolates acquired abroad were more frequently erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin resistant than the 292 isolates acquired locally (5.4% versus 0%; p = 0.0001).201424759726
molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter coli clinical isolates.campylobacter spp. is a major cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide, and c. coli is responsible for 10% of the cases.201424768104
outbreak of campylobacteriosis associated with a long-distance obstacle adventure race--nevada, october 2012.on october 12, 2012, the nellis air force base public health flight (nellis public health), near las vegas, nevada, was notified by the mike o'callaghan federal medical center (mofmc) emergency department (ed) of three active-duty military patients who went to the ed during october 10-12 with fever, vomiting, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. initial interviews by clinical staff members indicated that all three patients had participated october 6-7 in a long-distance obstacle adventure race on a cattle ...201424785983
marinade with thyme and orange oils reduces salmonella enteritidis and campylobacter coli on inoculated broiler breast fillets and whole wings.essential oils have been reported to possess antimicrobial properties and therefore have potential usage as natural antimicrobials in food. in a previous study, thyme orange essential oil combination (toc) used at the 0.5% level as a dip application on chicken cut-up parts had a significant antibacterial effect against salmonella and campylobacter. a study was designed to evaluate the effect of salt-phosphate marinade solution containing 0.5% toc to 1) reduce salmonella enteritidis and campyloba ...201424795320
loads and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter spp. on fresh chicken meat in nueva ecija, philippines.this study was performed to determine the prevalence and to semiquantify campylobacter spp. on chicken meat samples at 4 selected local wet markets in nueva ecija, philippines, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the campylobacter isolates. out of 120 chicken meat samples, 57 (47.5%) were campylobacter spp. positive. the majority of isolated campylobacter strains were identified as campylobacter coli (54.4%) and 45.6% as campylobacter jejuni. most of these positive samples ...201424795322
specific pathogen-free pig herds also free from campylobacter?as specific pathogen-free (spf) pig herds are designed and managed to prevent specific pig diseases, it might be feasible to expand the list of micro-organisms also including zoonotic pathogens such as campylobacter coli as this agent has its origin in pigs. in a previous survey, 15 of 16 of spf herds were found free from human pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica. accordingly, three nucleus and seven multiplying herds were surveyed for campylobacter to investigate whether the norwegian spf pig py ...201524798507
human diarrhea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry: a systematic review and meta-analysis.domestic animal husbandry, a common practice globally, can lead to zoonotic transmission of enteric pathogens. however, this risk has received little attention to date. this systematic review and meta-analysis examines the evidence for an association between domestic exposure to food-producing animals and cases of human diarrhea and specific enteric infections. we performed a systematic review of available literature to examine domestic livestock and poultry as risk factors for diarrhea and appl ...201424812065
supplementation of bolton broth with triclosan improves detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in chicken carcass rinse.we compared bolton enrichment broth supplemented with antimicrobial triclosan (t-bolton broth) and normal bolton broth for the isolation of campylobacter jejuni (c. jejuni) and campylobacter coli (c. coli) from chicken carcass rinse. whole chickens were rinsed with buffered peptone water prior to enrichment in normal bolton broth or t-bolton broth, followed by inoculation onto modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mccda). suspect colonies were confirmed by pcr. we observed a signific ...201424813626
comparison of maldi-tof ms, gene sequencing and the vitek 2 for identification of seventy-three clinical isolates of enteropathogens.this study was performed to evaluate the analytical and practical performance of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) compared to the sequencing method and the vitek 2 system for identification of enteropathogens in the clinical microbiology laboratory.201424822116
a molecular survey of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli virulence and diversity.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of virulence-associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus pcr (eric-pcr) analysis of campylobacter spp. isolated from children with diarrhea in iran.201424842142
molecular subtyping and antimicrobial susceptibilities of campylobacter coli isolates from diarrheal patients and food-producing animals in china.the aim of this study was to determine the molecular subtyping and antimicrobial susceptibility characteristics of campylobacter coli isolates from different sources in china. one hundred thirteen c. coli isolates were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), multilocus sequence typing (mlst), and pora and flaa short variable region (svr) nucleotide sequences. cluster analysis was performed based on the pfge and sequence types (st). eighty-four pfge patterns (smai) were observed in 1 ...201424844559
antimicrobial resistance among campylobacter spp. strains isolated from different poultry production systems at slaughterhouse level.the aim of the current work was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter spp. isolated from different chicken production systems at the slaughterhouse level. chicken sampling at slaughterhouse was performed for cecum, carcass, and breast meat from flocks of organic (n = 6), extensive indoor (n = 14), and intensive production (n = 14), totaling 34 ceca pools, 64 neck skin pools, and 132 breasts, representing 96,386 chickens. a collection of 167 strains were ide ...201424879708
genes required for assembly of pili associated with the helicobacter pylori cag type iv secretion system.helicobacter pylori causes numerous alterations in gastric epithelial cells through processes that are dependent on activity of the cag type iv secretion system (t4ss). filamentous structures termed "pili" have been visualized at the interface between h. pylori and gastric epithelial cells, and previous studies suggested that pilus formation is dependent on the presence of the cag pathogenicity island (pai). thus far, there has been relatively little effort to identify specific genes that are re ...201424891108
in depth analysis of the helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island transcriptional responses.the severity of symptoms elicited by the widespread human pathogen helicobacter pylori is strongly influenced by the genetic diversity of the infecting strain. among the most important pathogen factors that carry an increased risk for gastric cancer are specific genotypes of the cag pathogenicity island (cag-pai), encoding a type iv secretion system (t4ss) responsible for the translocation of the caga effector oncoprotein. to date, little is known about the regulatory events important for the ex ...201424892739
the importance of the viable but non-culturable state in human bacterial pathogens.many bacterial species have been found to exist in a viable but non-culturable (vbnc) state since its discovery in 1982. vbnc cells are characterized by a loss of culturability on routine agar, which impairs their detection by conventional plate count techniques. this leads to an underestimation of total viable cells in environmental or clinical samples, and thus poses a risk to public health. in this review, we present recent findings on the vbnc state of human bacterial pathogens. the characte ...201424917854
rapid detection and differentiation of important campylobacter spp. in poultry samples by dot blot and pcr.the detection of campylobacter, the most commonly reported cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the european union, is very important for human health. the most commonly recognised risk factor for infection is the handling and/or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. the methods typically applied to evaluate the presence/absence of campylobacter in food samples are direct plating and/or enrichment culture based on the horizontal method for detection and enumeration of campylobacter spp. (iso ...201424929879
development of 23 individual taqman® real-time pcr assays for identifying common foodborne pathogens using a single set of amplification conditions.most of the acute intestinal diseases are caused by foodborne pathogens with infants and elderly people being at major risk. the aim of this study was to develop a procedure to simultaneously detect 20 foodborne pathogens in complex alimentary matrices such as milk, cheese and meat. the list of targets include, among the others, listeria spp., salmonella spp., shigella spp., escherichia coli spp., campylobacter spp., clostridium spp. and staphylococcus aureus. the accuracy of detection was deter ...201424929880
a national investigation of the prevalence and diversity of thermophilic campylobacter species in agricultural watersheds in canada.the occurrence and diversity of thermophilic campylobacter species (c. jejuni, coli, and lari) were studied in water samples from four river basins located across canada. these basins located in quebec (bras d'henri), alberta (oldman), ontario (south nation), and british columbia (sumas) represented some of the most intensive farming areas in canada for hog, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and poultry, respectively. this study analyzed 769 water samples collected from 23 monitoring sites with agricul ...201424930011
videotaped behavior as a predictor of clinical outcome in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).understanding the behavior of laboratory nhp facilitates health assessment and clinical care. we sought to characterize the behavior of critically ill rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) and determine whether specific behaviors or behavioral changes might facilitate the determination of prognosis and clinical endpoints. twenty-two critically-ill subjects were videorecorded after they were removed from the outdoor breeding colony for diagnostic work-up and treatment. subjects were categorized as sur ...201424956211
benefits and risks of antimicrobial use in food-producing animals.benefits and risks of antimicrobial drugs, used in food-producing animals, continue to be complex and controversial issues. this review comprehensively presents the benefits of antimicrobials drugs regarding control of animal diseases, protection of public health, enhancement of animal production, improvement of environment, and effects of the drugs on biogas production and public health associated with antimicrobial resistance. the positive and negative impacts, due to ban issue of antimicrobia ...201424971079
emergence of multidrug-resistant campylobacter species isolates with a horizontally acquired rrna methylase.antibiotic-resistant campylobacter constitutes a serious threat to public health, and resistance to macrolides is of particular concern, as this class of antibiotics is the drug of choice for clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis. very recently, a horizontally transferrable macrolide resistance mediated by the rrna methylase gene erm(b) was reported in a campylobacter coli isolate, but little is known about the dissemination of erm(b) among campylobacter isolates and the association of erm(b)-c ...201424982085
same-day subtyping of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli isolates by use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification-binary typing.campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported form of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. sound identification of infectious sources requires subtyping, but the most widely used methods have turnaround times measured in days and require specialist equipment and skills. a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification-binary typing (mbit) assay was developed for subtyping campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. it was tested on 245 isolates, including recent isolates from belg ...201424989612
campylobacter infection in a cohort of rural children in moramanga, madagascar.campylobacter infection is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in developing countries, including madagascar. reports of pathogenicity have not been consistent and repeated exposures over time seem to lead to the development of protective immunity in developing areas. we conducted this study to support evidence for these hypotheses by exploring the association between infection and age, the reoccurrence of infection and the pathogenicity of campylobacter.201424996559
antibiotic susceptibility pattern and genotyping of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from study the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis .201425008814
prevalence of and risk factors for campylobacter colonisation in broiler flocks at the end of the rearing period in france.1. a study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and quantification by species of campylobacter infection in broiler flocks at the end of the rearing period and to identify associated risk factors. 2. a questionnaire about the rearing period was completed and caecal samples were collected from 121 broiler flocks in brittany, france, during 2008. 3. campylobacter was isolated in 87 out of 121 flocks--a prevalence of 71.9% (95% ci, 63.7-80.1%), including 40.5% of campylobacter jejuni and 29.8% ...201425010255
development and assessment of molecular diagnostic tests for 15 enteropathogens causing childhood diarrhoea: a multicentre study.childhood diarrhoea can be caused by many pathogens that are difficult to assay in the laboratory. molecular diagnostic techniques provide a uniform method to detect and quantify candidate enteropathogens. we aimed to develop and assess molecular tests for identification of enteropathogens and their association with disease.201425022434
repetitive sequence variations in the promoter region of the adhesin-encoding gene saba of helicobacter pylori affect transcription.the pathogenesis of diseases elicited by the gastric pathogen helicobacter pylori is partially determined by the effectiveness of adaptation to the variably acidic environment of the host stomach. adaptation includes appropriate adherence to the gastric epithelium via outer membrane protein adhesins such as saba. the expression of saba is subject to regulation via phase variation in the promoter and coding regions as well as repression by the two-component system arsrs. in this study, we investi ...201425022855
inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester).anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. we sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the fort hare dairy farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdra ...201425026086
identifying etiological agents causing diarrhea in low income ecuadorian communities.continued success in decreasing diarrheal disease burden requires targeted interventions. to develop such interventions, it is crucial to understand which pathogens cause diarrhea. using a case-control design we tested stool samples, collected in both rural and urban ecuador, for 15 pathogenic microorganisms. pathogens were present in 51% of case and 27% of control samples from the urban community, and 62% of case and 18% of control samples collected from the rural community. rotavirus and shige ...201425048373
campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.a total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two wildlife rescue and rehabilitation centers of italy were examined. birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as campylobacter coli recovered fro ...201425055637
detection, identification and quantification of campylobacter jejuni, coli and lari in food matrices all at once using multiplex qpcr.thermotolerant campylobacter jejuni, coli and lari are recognized as leading food-borne pathogens causing an acute bacterial enteritis worldwide. due to narrow spectrum of their biochemical activity, it is very complicated to distinguish between individual species. for reliable risk assessment, proper incidence evaluation or swift sample analysis regarding individual species, a demand for simple and rapid method for their distinguishing is reasonable. in this study, we evaluated a reliable and s ...201425057300
quantitative effects of in-line operations on campylobacter and escherichia coli through two australian broiler processing plants.campylobacter is an important food borne pathogen, mainly associated with poultry. a lack of through-chain quantitative campylobacter data has been highlighted within quantitative risk assessments. the aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively measure campylobacter and escherichia coli concentration on chicken carcasses through poultry slaughter. chickens (n=240) were sampled from each of four flocks along the processing chain, before scald, after scald, before chill, after chill ...201425104301
the molecular evolution of the qo motif.quinol oxidation in the catalytic quinol oxidation site (q(o) site) of cytochrome (cyt) bc(1) complexes is the key step of the q cycle mechanism, which laid the ground for mitchell's chemiosmotic theory of energy conversion. bifurcated electron transfer upon quinol oxidation enables proton uptake and release on opposite membrane sides, thus generating a proton gradient that fuels atp synthesis in cellular respiration and photosynthesis. the q(o) site architecture formed by cyt b and rieske iron- ...201425115012
genome analysis of bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum ucmb5113: a rhizobacterium that improves plant growth and stress management.the bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain ucmb5113 is a gram-positive rhizobacterium that can colonize plant roots and stimulate plant growth and defense based on unknown mechanisms. this reinforcement of plants may provide protection to various forms of biotic and abiotic stress. to determine the genetic traits involved in the mechanism of plant-bacteria association, the genome sequence of ucmb5113 was obtained by assembling paired-end illumina reads. the assembled chromosome of 3, ...201425119988
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