PMID(sorted ascending)
fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in southeast queensland, this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in southeast queensland (seq), australia. quantitative pcr (qpcr) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. the numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various s ...201222020514
Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Domestic and Travel-Associated Human Cases.Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) extended with flaB typing of 425 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 42 Campylobacter coli isolates revealed quite a low overlap between human isolates from travel-associated and domestic cases in Switzerland. Men were more frequently affected by Campylobacter than women, but strains from women and, overall, from travel-associated cases showed mutations conferring quinolone resistance more frequently than strains from men and domestic cases, respectively.201222020515
Comparative Genomics of Helicobacter pylori and the human-derived Helicobacter bizzozeronii CIII-1 strain reveal the molecular basis of the zoonotic nature of non-pylori gastric Helicobacter infections in humans.ABSTRACT:201122039924
Prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in raw chicken on retail sale in the republic of Ireland.To assess the current risks to consumers from Campylobacter and Salmonella in raw chicken products sold in the Republic of Ireland, a retail survey was undertaken to define their prevalence. Samples (n = 510) were analyzed using protocols based on ISO 10272-1:2006 and ISO 6579:2002. Processor codes on pack labels showed that 67% of samples were produced in the Republic of Ireland and 25% in the United Kingdom. Salmonella was present in 5.1% of samples, but the eight serovars found caused less t ...201122054193
comparison of electrolyzed oxidizing water with other antimicrobial interventions to reduce pathogens on fresh date, the effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing (eo) water against bacteria associated with fresh pork has not been determined. using a hand-held, food-grade garden sprayer, distilled water (w), chlorinated water (cl; 25 ppm), 2% lactic acid (la), acidic eo water (eoa), or "aged" acidic eo water (aeoa; stored at 4 °c for 24 h) was sprayed (15 s) onto pork bellies inoculated with feces containing listeria monocytogenes (lm), salmonella typhimurium (st), and campylobacter coli (cc). remaining ...200422062415
identification of lactobacilli residing in chicken ceca with antagonism against campylobacter.bacteriocins produced by lactobacillus salivarius have been recently recognized as a natural means to control campylobacter and salmonella in live poultry. this finding is of relevance since campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are the predominant species isolated from poultry that are associated with human campylobacteriosis. in the present work, lactic acid bacteria (lab) isolated from the cecum of twenty tunisian chickens were identified and those isolates with antagonism against campy ...201122069154
diversity and impact of prokaryotic toxins on aquatic environments: a review.microorganisms are ubiquitous in all habitats and are recognized by their metabolic versatility and ability to produce many bioactive compounds, including toxins. some of the most common toxins present in water are produced by several cyanobacterial species. as a result, their blooms create major threats to animal and human health, tourism, recreation and aquaculture. quite a few cyanobacterial toxins have been described, including hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins and dermatotoxins. these t ...201022069558
a model for the effect of homologous recombination on microbial diversification.the effect of homologous recombination (hr) on the evolution of microbial genomes remains contentious as competing hypotheses seek to explain the evolutionary dynamics of microbial species. evidence for hr between microbial genomes is widespread, and this process has been proposed to act as a cohesive force that can constrain the diversification of microbial lineages. we seek to characterize the evolutionary dynamics of sympatric populations to explore the impact of hr on microbial speciation. w ...201122071790
a comprehensive evaluation of colonic mucosal isolates of sutterella wadsworthensis from inflammatory bowel disease.inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) arises in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of an unidentified environmental trigger, possibly a hitherto unknown bacterial pathogen. twenty-six clinical isolates of sutterella wadsworthensis were obtained from 134 adults and 61 pediatric patients undergoing colonoscopy, of whom 69 and 29 respectively had ibd. s. wadsworthensis was initially more frequently isolated from ibd subjects, hence this comprehensive study was undertaken to elucidate its ro ...201122073125
Inaccuracy of the Disk Diffusion Method Compared with the Agar Dilution Method for Susceptibility Testing of Campylobacter spp.The agar dilution method has been standardized by the CLSI for the susceptibility testing of Campylobacter species, and according to these standards, the disk diffusion method should be used only in screening for macrolide and ciprofloxacin resistance. Nevertheless, the disk diffusion test is currently widely used, since it is easy to perform in clinical microbiology laboratories. In this study, the disk diffusion method was compared to the agar dilution method by analyzing the in vitro activiti ...201222075583
Simultaneous Detection of Six Diarrhea-Causing Bacterial Pathogens with an In-House PCR-Luminex Assay.Diarrhea can be caused by a range of pathogens, including several bacteria. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, biochemical tests, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are laborious. We developed a 7-plex PCR-Luminex assay to simultaneously screen for several of the major diarrhea-causing bacteria directly in fecal specimens, including pathogenic Aeromonas, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), Vibrio, and ...201222075596
emerging dynamics of human campylobacteriosis in southern ireland.infections with campylobacter spp. pose a significant health burden worldwide. the significance of campylobacter jejuni/campylobacter coli infection is well appreciated but the contribution of non-c. jejuni/c. coli spp. to human gastroenteritis is largely unknown. in this study, we employed a two-tiered molecular study on 7194 patient faecal samples received by the microbiology department in cork university hospital during 2009. the first step, using entericbio(®) (serosep), a multiplex pcr syst ...201122077228
whole-genome comparison of two campylobacter jejuni isolates of the same sequence type reveals multiple loci of different ancestral lineage.campylobacter jejuni st-474 is the most important human enteric pathogen in new zealand, and yet this genotype is rarely found elsewhere in the world. insight into the evolution of this organism was gained by a whole genome comparison of two st-474, flaa svr-14 isolates and other available c. jejuni isolates and genomes. the two isolates were collected from different sources, human (h22082) and retail poultry (p110b), at the same time and from the same geographical location. solexa sequencing of ...201122096527
prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter in broiler flocks in japan.campylobacter was isolated from 67 (47.2%) of 142 broiler flocks between september 2009 and february 2010. the prevalence of campylobacter in broiler flocks was significantly lower during january and february than it was from september to december. campylobacter colonization was more common in flocks that were not provided with a disinfected water supply, which was consistent with the findings of a previous study. the prevalence of antimicrobial drug-resistant campylobacter spp. was investigated ...201122103704
pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of more than one clinical isolate of campylobacter spp. from each of 49 patients in new zealand.pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) analysis demonstrated that while 76% of patients had only one genotype of campylobacter, 10% carried two different but related genotypes (dice coefficients > 0.78), and 14% carried at least two unrelated genotypes (dice coefficients < 0.65). this supports the clustering of campylobacter isolates with similar pfge patterns, highlights the need to analyze multiple isolates from both sources and patients, and confirms that caution should be exercised before e ...201122116155
fate of pathogens in a simulated bioreduction system for livestock carcasses.the eu animal by-products regulations generated the need for novel methods of storage and disposal of dead livestock. bioreduction prior to rendering or incineration has been proposed as a practical and potentially cost-effective method; however, its biosecurity characteristics need to be elucidated. to address this, salmonella enterica (serovars senftenberg and poona), enterococcus faecalis, campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and a lux-marked strain of escherichia coli o157 were inoculate ...201122119516
closely related campylobacter jejuni strains from different sources reveal a generalist rather than a specialist lifestyle.abstract: background: campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are human intestinal pathogens of global importance. zoonotic transmission from livestock animals or animal-derived food is the likely cause for most of these infections. however, little is known about their general and host-specific mechanisms of colonization, or virulence and pathogenicity factors. in certain hosts, campylobacter species colonize persistently and do not cause disease, while they cause acute intestinal disease i ...201122122991
pathogenic potential of campylobacter ureolyticus.the recent detection and isolation of the aflagellate campylobacter ureolyticus (previously known as bacteroides ureolyticus) from intestinal biopsy specimens and fecal samples of children with newly diagnosed crohn's disease led us to investigate the pathogenic potential of this bacterium. adherence and gentamicin protection assays were employed to quantify the levels of adherence to and invasion into host cells. c. ureolyticus unswcd was able to adhere to the caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell ...201122124656
applications of pcr (real-time and masstag) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in diagnosis of respiratory infections and diarrheal illness among deployed u.s. military personnel during exercise balikatan 2009, philippines.laboratory-based surveillance for diarrheal and respiratory illness was conducted at the 2009 republic of the philippines-united states balikatan exercise to determine the presence of specific pathogens endemic in the locations where the military exercises were conducted. ten stool and 6 respiratory specimens were obtained from individuals meeting case definitions for diarrhea or respiratory illness. stool specimens were frozen in dry ice and remotely tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...201122128641
Development of a rapid and sensitive method combining a cellulose ester microfilter and a real-time qPCR assay to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in 20 liters of drinking water or low turbidity waters.Investigation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in samples of drinking water suspected of being at the origin of outbreak very often leads to negative results. One of the reasons for this failure is the small volume of water typically used for detecting these pathogens (10 to 1000 mL). Efficiency of three microfilters and different elution procedures were determined using real-time qPCR to propose a procedure allowing detection of Campylobacter in 20 L drinking water or low turbidit ...201122138985
campylobacter populations in wild and domesticated mallard ducks (anas platyrhynchos).identifying the campylobacter genotypes that colonize farmed and wild ducks will help to assess the proportion of human disease that is potentially attributable to the consumption of duck meat and environmental exposure to duck faeces. comparison of temporally and geographically matched farmed and wild ducks showed that they had different campylobacter populations in terms of: (i) prevalence, (ii) campylobacter species and (iii) diversity of genotypes. furthermore, 92.4% of campylobacter isolate ...201122164198
[antimicrobial sensitivity of hippurate-negative campylobacter and helicobacter pullorum strains isolated from patients with diarrhea].c. jejuni as well as some hippurate-negative campylobacter species and related diarrheagenic organisms, are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in our environment all throughout the year. the aim of the present study was to determine the sensitivity of hippurate-negative campylobacter and helicobacter pullorum strains isolated from the stools of patients with diarrhea. we tested 39 campylobacter coli, two c. lari and five helicobacter pullorum strains identified by mass spectrometry analysis. t ...201122173192
campylobacter jejuni infection and its virulence associated genes among children with moderate to severe diarrhea attended at emergency rooms in northeastern brazil.campylobacter is an important cause of foodborne gastroenteritis. we determined the occurrence of campylobacter sp. - using culture-based methods - and c. jejuni, c. coli and some virulence associated genes (vag) - using pcr - among children aged ≤ 14 years attended at emergency rooms in northeastern brazil because of diarrhea. genomic dna was extracted directly from stool samples collected from 366 children. a survey form regarding clinical parameters was applied to caretakers. c. jejuni was de ...201122174372
impaired fitness and transmission of macrolide-resistant campylobacter jejuni in its natural host.campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans via the food chain and is prevalent in chickens, a natural reservoir for this pathogenic organism. due to the importance of macrolide antibiotics in clinical therapy of human campylobacteriosis, development of macrolide resistance in campylobacter has become a concern for public health. to facilitate the control of macrolide-resistant campylobacter, it is necessary to understand if macrolide resistance affects the fitness an ...201122183170
phenotypic and genotypic methods for typing campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in poultry.human campylobacteriosis, an infection caused by the bacterium campylobacter, is a major issue in the united states food system, especially for poultry products. according to the center for disease control, campylobacterosis is estimated to affect over 2.4 million people annually. campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are 2 species responsible for the majority of campylobacterosis infections. phenotypic and genotypic typing methods are often used to discriminate between bacteria at the spe ...201222184452
helicobacter pylori relies primarily on the purine salvage pathway for purine nucleotide biosynthesis.helicobacter pylori is a chronic colonizer of the gastric epithelium and plays a major role in the development of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. in its co-evolution with humans, a streamlining of the h. pylori genome has resulted in a significant reduction in metabolic pathways, one being purine nucleotide biosynthesis. bioinformatic analysis revealed that h. pylori lacks the enzymatic machinery for de novo production of inosine monophosphate (imp), the first purine nucleot ...201122194455
fate and survival of campylobacter coli in swine manure at various temperatures.campylobacter coli is the most common campylobacter species found in pig (95%), but the ability of this bacterium to survive in swine manure as well as the potential for causing human illness are poorly understood. we present here laboratory-scale experiments to investigate the effect of temperature on the survival of c. coli in spiked swine manure samples at temperatures from 4 to 52°c. the survival of c. coli during storage for 30 days was studied by three different methods: bacterial culture ...201122207868
Improvement of Modified Charcoal-Cefoperazone-Deoxycholate Agar by Supplementation with a High Concentration of Polymyxin B for the Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Chicken Carcass Rinse.Modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) was improved by supplementation with a high concentration of polymyxin B. The ability of the supplemented medium to isolate Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli from chicken carcass rinse was compared to that of Campy-Cefex agar and mCCDA. Modification of mCCDA with increased polymyxin B yielded significantly (p < 0.05) better isolation rate and selectivity than those achieved on using Campy-Cefex agar and mCCDA.201122210208
pan-european monitoring of susceptibility to human-use antimicrobial agents in enteric bacteria isolated from healthy food-producing animals.objectives: to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of escherichia coli, salmonella, campylobacter and enterococcus from cattle, pigs and chickens across the european union (eu) using uniform methodology. methods: intestinal samples (1624) were taken at slaughter across five eu countries. bacteria were isolated in national laboratories, whilst mics were determined in a central laboratory for key antimicrobials used in human medicine. clinical resistance was based on clsi breakpoints and de ...201122210758
investigation of chemical rinses suitable for very small meat plants to reduce pathogens on beef surfaces.numerous antimicrobial interventions are capable of reducing the prevalence of harmful bacteria on raw meat products. there is a need to identify effective and inexpensive antimicrobial interventions that could, in practice, be used in very small meat plants because of limited financial, space, and labor resources. eight antimicrobial compounds (acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, peroxyacetic acid, acidified sodium chlorite, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite, and aqueous ozone) were app ...201222221350
human isolates of cronobacter sakazakii bind efficiently to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro to induce monolayer permeability and apoptosis.cronobacter sakazakii (cs) is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that causes life-threatening infections in infants. this pathogen has been implicated in the outbreaks of necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) with associated rates of high mortality and morbidity. in this study, we compared the abilities of cs strains isolated from human and environmental sources to bind to intestinal epithelial cells and trigger apoptosis.201122221600
human isolates of cronobacter sakazakii bind efficiently to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro to induce monolayer permeability and apoptosis.cronobacter sakazakii (cs) is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that causes life-threatening infections in infants. this pathogen has been implicated in the outbreaks of necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) with associated rates of high mortality and morbidity. in this study, we compared the abilities of cs strains isolated from human and environmental sources to bind to intestinal epithelial cells and trigger apoptosis.201122221600
evaluation of novel agars for the enumeration of campylobacter spp. in poultry retail samples.the purpose of this study was to examine the performance of novel agars for the identification and enumeration of campylobacter species. the analytical sensitivity and specificity of campylobacter selective agar (casa), brilliance campycount agar (bcca) and campyfoodidagar (cfa) for 84 campylobacter spp. isolates and 50 non-campylobacter spp. isolates from 37 distinct genera were of 100% sensitivity, with a 98% specificity for bcca and cfa, and a 100% specificity for casa. the application of the ...201122226753
elucidation of colonization time and prevalence of thermophilic campylobacter species during turkey rearing using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.two turkey flocks (male and female) and the environment of their house were investigated for the presence of thermophilic campylobacter. sample dna was extracted directly from fecal material and environmental samples. bacterial identification was done using a modified campylobacter species specific multiplex pcr. the times needed for colonization and prevalence in male and female turkeys were determined independently. all environmental samples collected before restocking were negative in the pcr ...201222252360
detection and quantification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli using real-time multiplex pcr.aims:  we describe a real-time multiplex pcr (qmpcr) assay to identify and discriminate between isolates of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. methods and results:  two novel sets of primers and hydrolysis probes were designed to amplify the unique dna sequences within the hipo, ccon and cadf genes that are specific to c. jejuni and c. coli. by using the designed optimized qmpcr assay conditions, the amplification efficiency is in range from 108 to 116%. these qmpcr assays are highly s ...201222256961
molecular detection of campylobacter jejuni as a cause of culture-negative spondylodiscitis.spondylodiscitis caused by campylobacter species is a rare disease which is most often caused by campylobacter fetus. we report a case of culture-negative spondylodiscitis and a psoas abscess due to campylobacter jejuni in a 68-year-old woman, as revealed by 16s rrna gene and campylobacter-specific pcrs from biopsied tissue.201222259199
antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter spp. isolated from ontario sheep flocks and associations between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance.the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (amr) in faecal campylobacter spp. from lambs and adult sheep and associations between antimicrobial use (amu) and amr. a total of 275 faecal samples collected during initial and final visits from 51 sheep flocks, including one feedlot, across southern ontario were tested for the presence of campylobacter spp. campylobacter jejuni was detected in 52% (143/275) of the faecal samples, campylobacter coli in 7% ...201222273455
the genome and proteome of a campylobacter coli bacteriophage vb_ccom-ibb_35 reveal unusual features.campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. bacteriophages (phages) are naturally occurring predators of bacteria, ubiquitous in the environment, with high host specificity and thus considered an appealing option to control bacterial pathogens. nevertheless for an effective use of phages as antimicrobial agents, it is important to understand phage biology which renders crucial the analysis of phage genomes and proteomes. the lack of sequence data from campylobacter phages ...201222284308
prevalence, antibiotic resistance and rapd typing of campylobacter species isolated from ducks, their rearing and processing environments in penang, malaysia.we report for the first time on the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and rapd types of campylobacter species in ducks and duck related environmental samples in malaysia. samples were examined by enrichment in bolton broth followed by plating onto modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mccda) and/or plating directly onto mccda. a total of 643 samples were screened, and the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in samples from different sources ranged from 0% to 85%. the method of isolation ...201222285201
development and comparison of a real-time pcr assay for detection of dichelobacter nodosus with culturing and conventional pcr: harmonisation between three laboratories.ovine footrot is a contagious disease with worldwide occurrence in sheep. the main causative agent is the fastidious bacterium dichelobacter nodosus. in scandinavia, footrot was first diagnosed in sweden in 2004 and later also in norway and denmark. clinical examination of sheep feet is fundamental to diagnosis of footrot, but d. nodosus should also be detected to confirm the diagnosis. pcr-based detection using conventional pcr has been used at our institutes, but the method was laborious and t ...201222293440
longitudinal study of the persistence of antimicrobial-resistant campylobacter strains in distinct swine production systems on farms, at slaughter, and in the environment.the objectives of this study were to compare and characterize the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (ar) campylobacter in conventional and antimicrobial-free (abf) production systems on farms, at slaughter, and in the environment. fecal and environmental samples were collected from abf farms (pigs, 1,239; environment, 797) and conventional farms (pigs, 1,650; environment, 1,325). at slaughter, we collected samples from carcasses, including postevisceration swabs, postchill swabs, and mesente ...201222307299
comparison of the microflex lt and vitek ms systems for routine identification of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.this study compared the performance of three matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry systems: microflex lt (bruker daltonics, bremen, germany), vitek ms ruo (axima assurance-saramis database; biomérieux, marcy l'etoile, france), and vitek ms ivd (biomérieux). a total of 1,129 isolates, including 1,003 routine isolates, 73 anaerobes, and 53 bacterial enteropathogens, were tested on the microflex lt and axima assurance devices. the spectra were analyzed using t ...201222322345
fitness of macrolide resistant campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni.the aim of this study was to investigate the fitness of macrolide resistant campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni. the in vitro growth, the survival on food matrix, and the in vivo colonization of c. jejuni and c. coli susceptible isolates and their isogenic resistant mutants were studied. in vitro experiments demonstrated that macrolide resistance imposed a fitness cost when the susceptible strains and their isogenic resistant mutants were cultured in competition. when inoculated in food ...201222324770
detection and genotyping of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by use of dna oligonucleotide arrays.campylobacter have emerged as the most common bacterial food-borne illness in the developed world. the ability to reduce campylobacter infections in humans is linked to the full comprehension of the principal key aspects of its infection cycle. a microbial diagnostic microarray detecting campylobacter housekeeping, structural, and virulence associated genes was designed and validated using genomic dna from reference and field strains of campylobacter jejuni and coli isolated from human, chicken, ...201322354794
characterization of protein glycosylation in francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica: identification of a novel glycosylated lipoprotein required for virulence.fth_0069 is a previously uncharacterized strongly immunoreactive protein that has been proposed to be a novel virulence factor in francisella tularensis. here, the glycan structure modifying two c-terminal peptides of fth_0069 was identified utilizing high resolution, high mass accuracy mass spectrometry, combined with in-source cid tandem ms experiments. the glycan observed at m/z 1156 was determined to be a hexasaccharide, consisting of two hexoses, three n-acetylhexosamines, and an unknown mo ...201222361235
involvement of efflux mechanisms in biocide resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter efflux has an important role in the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. the effects of two putative efflux pump inhibitors (epis), phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine, and the effects of inactivation of the cmeb,cmef and cmer genes on resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials were studied using the broth microdilution method. the antimicrobials tested in c. jejuni and c. coli were the biocides triclosan, benza ...201222361460
development of a novel genus-specific real-time pcr assay for detection and differentiation of bartonella species and genotypes.the genus bartonella includes numerous species with varied host associations, including several that infect humans. development of a molecular diagnostic method capable of detecting the diverse repertoire of bartonella species while maintaining genus specificity has been a challenge. we developed a novel real-time pcr assay targeting a 301-bp region of the ssra gene of bartonella and demonstrated specific amplification in over 30 bartonella species, subspecies, and strains. subsequent analysis o ...201222378904
current concepts in laboratory testing to guide antimicrobial therapy.antimicrobial susceptibility testing (ast) is indicated for pathogens contributing to an infectious process that warrants antimicrobial therapy if susceptibility to antimicrobials cannot be predicted reliably based on knowledge of their identity. such tests are most frequently used when the etiologic agents are members of species capable of demonstrating resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics. some organisms have predictable susceptibility to antimicrobial agents (ie, streptococcus pyogen ...201222386185
characterization of the structurally diverse n-linked glycans of campylobacter species.the gram-negative bacterium campylobacter jejuni encodes an extensively characterized n-linked protein glycosylation system that modifies many surface proteins with a heptasaccharide glycan. in c. jejuni, the genes that encode the enzymes required for glycan biosynthesis and transfer to protein are located at a single pgl gene locus. similar loci are also present in the genome sequences of all other campylobacter species, although variations in gene content and organization are evident. in this ...201222389484
isolation of campylobacter from feral swine (sus scrofa) on the ranch associated with the 2006 escherichia coli o157:h7 spinach outbreak investigation in california.we report the isolation of campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in san benito county, california, during the 2006 spinach-related escherichia coli o157:h7 outbreak. this is the first survey of campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the united states. campylobacter species were cultured from buccal and rectal-anal swabs, colonic faeces and tonsils using a combination of selective enrichment and antibiotic-free membrane filtration m ...201222405465
the zinc-ribbon domain of helicobacter pylori hp0958: requirement for rpon accumulation and possible roles of homologs in other bacteria.helicobacter pylori hp0958 protein (flgz) prevents the rapid turnover of rpon (σ(54)), a transcription factor required for expression of several flagellar genes in h. pylori. flgz possesses a zinc-ribbon domain (duf164) that contains two conserved cxxc motifs which coordinate a zinc ion and is thought to interact with nucleic acids or proteins. two conserved cysteine residues in flgz (cys-202 and cys-223) were replaced with serine to assess their significance in flgz function. after confirming t ...201122408721
extracts of edible and medicinal plants in inhibition of growth, adherence, and cytotoxin production of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacter spp. is recognized as one of the most common cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. campylobacter infection causes campylobacteriosis, which can range from asymptomatic to dysentery-type illnesses with severe complications, such as guillian-barre syndrome. epidemiological studies have revealed that consumption of poultry products is an important risk factor of this disease. adherence and cytotoxic activity of the bacteria to host mucosal surfaces have been propose ...201122417513
development and evaluation of a genus-specific, probe-based, internal-process-controlled real-time pcr assay for sensitive and specific detection of blastocystis spp.blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite of unsettled clinical significance, which is not easily detected by standard parasitological methods. the genus comprises at least 13 subtypes (sts) (which likely represent separate species), 9 of which have been found in humans. recent data indicate that at least one of the subtypes is associated with intestinal disease. a quantitative taqman 5' nuclease real-time pcr (taqman pcr) including an internal process control (ipc) was developed for the dete ...201222422846
diversity in prokaryotic glycosylation: an archaeal-derived n-linked glycan contains legionaminic acid.vp4, the major structural protein of the haloarchaeal pleomorphic virus, hrpv-1, is glycosylated. to define the glycan structure attached to this protein, oligosaccharides released by β-elimination were analysed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. such analyses showed that the major vp4-derived glycan is a pentasaccharide comprising glucose, glucuronic acid, mannose, sulphated glucuronic acid and a terminal 5-n-formyl-legionaminic acid residue. this is the first obs ...201222435790
effects of probiotics and antibiotics on the intestinal homeostasis in a computer controlled model of the large intestine.antibiotic associated diarrhea and clostridium difficile infection are frequent complications of broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. probiotic bacteria are used as therapeutic and preventive agents in these disorders, but the exact functional mechanisms and the mode of action are poorly understood. the effects of clindamycin and the probiotic mixture vsl#3 (containing the 8 bacterial strains streptococcus thermophilus, bifidobacterium breve, bifidobacterium longum, bifidobacterium infantis, lacto ...201222452835
trend analysis of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from belgian pork and poultry meat products using surveillance data of 2004-2009.the purpose of this study was to analyze and compare antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter spp. isolated from pork and poultry carcasses, and pork and poultry meat (at slaughterhouse level, during meat cutting, and at retail) in belgium, using available surveillance data over the period 2004-2009. the susceptibilities of 1724 campylobacter isolates for ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin were tested by e-test. gentamicin resistance was low (n ...201222510058
xer recombinase and genome integrity in helicobacter pylori, a pathogen without topoisomerase the model organism e. coli, recombination mediated by the related xerc and xerd recombinases complexed with the ftsk translocase at specialized dif sites, resolves dimeric chromosomes into free monomers to allow efficient chromosome segregation at cell division. computational genome analysis of helicobacter pylori, a slow growing gastric pathogen, identified just one chromosomal xer gene (xerh) and its cognate dif site (difh). here we show that recombination between directly repeated difh sit ...201222511919
associations of antimicrobial use with antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter coli from grow-finish pigs in determine associations between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter coli, 155 isolates were obtained from the feces of apparently healthy grow-finish pigs in japan. in addition, data on the use of antibiotics collected through the national antimicrobial resistance monitoring system in japan were used for the analysis. logistic regression was used to identify risk factors to antimicrobial resistance in c. coli in pigs for the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, dih ...201222521447
incidence and antimicrobial resistance profiling of campylobacter in retail chicken livers and gizzards.campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of foodborne disease in the united states. campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are the two main species that are of concern to human health, and they cause approximately 95% of human infections. the number of studies investigating campylobacter in chicken livers and gizzards is very limited in the literature. the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in retail chicken live ...201222545960
molecular characterization of the 16s rrna gene of helicobacter fennelliae isolated from stools and blood cultures from paediatric patients in south africa.forty strains of h. fennelliae collected from paediatric blood and stool samples over an 18 year period at a children's hospital in cape town, south africa, were amplified by pcr of the 16s rrna. two distinct genotypes of h. fennelliae were identified based on the phylogenetic analysis. this was confirmed by sequencing a portion of the beta subunit of the rna polymerase (rpob) gene. all isolates from south africa clustered with a proposed novel helicobacter strain (accession number af237612) iso ...201022567323
molecular characterization of the 16s rrna gene of helicobacter fennelliae isolated from stools and blood cultures from paediatric patients in south africa.forty strains of h. fennelliae collected from paediatric blood and stool samples over an 18 year period at a children's hospital in cape town, south africa, were amplified by pcr of the 16s rrna. two distinct genotypes of h. fennelliae were identified based on the phylogenetic analysis. this was confirmed by sequencing a portion of the beta subunit of the rna polymerase (rpob) gene. all isolates from south africa clustered with a proposed novel helicobacter strain (accession number af237612) iso ...201022567323
selective pressure of antibiotic pollution on bacteria of importance to public health.many bacteria of clinical importance survive and may grow in different environments. antibiotic pollution may exert on them a selective pressure leading to an increase in the prevalence of resistance.201222571927
prevalence of human pathogens and indicators in stormwater runoff in brisbane, australia.elevated numbers of enteric pathogens in the receiving waters following a storm event can be a serious public health concern. the purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the presence of human pathogens of concern in urban stormwater runoff. the involvement of a human sewage as a potential source of contamination was also investigated by using microbial source tracking methods. water samples (20 l) were collected after storm events and during the dry weather from six ...201222572123
the intermediate region of helicobacter pylori vaca is a determinant of toxin potency in a jurkat t cell assay.colonization of the human stomach with helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for peptic ulceration, noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. the secreted vaca toxin is an important h. pylori virulence factor that causes multiple alterations in gastric epithelial cells and t cells. several families of vaca alleles have been described, and h. pylori strains containing certain vaca types (s1, i1, and m1) are associated with an increased risk of gastric disease, compared to strains con ...201222585965
welcome to microbial informatics and experimentation. 201122587655
antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multi-locus sequence typing of campylobacter coli in swine before, during, and after the slaughter process.the objective of this study was to determine persistence of clonal strains from farm to retail by assessing the clonal relatedness of campylobacter coli isolated on farm, peri-harvest, and at processing from 11 individually identified pigs. phenotypic (antimicrobial susceptibility) and genotypic (pulsed field gel electrophoresis [pfge] and multi-locus sequence typing [mlst]) characterization of isolates was conducted. there was high genetic diversity of campylobacter isolates from on-farm fecal ...201222663186
analysis of helicobacter pylori caga promoter elements required for salt-induced upregulation of caga expression.helicobacter pylori infection and consumption of a high-salt diet are each associated with an increased risk for the development of gastric cancer. to investigate potential synergism between these factors, we used a global proteomic approach to analyze h. pylori strains cultured in media containing varying salt concentrations. among the differentially expressed proteins identified, caga exhibited the greatest increase in expression in response to high salt concentrations. analysis of 36 h. pylor ...201222710874
nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth.the use of natural honey (nh) as a nutraceutical agent is associated with nutritional benefits and therapeutic promises. nh is widely accepted as food and medicine by all generations, traditions and civilizations, both ancient and modern. the nutritional profiles, including its use in infant and children feeding reported in different literatures as well as health indices and biomarkers observed by various researchers are illustrated in this manuscript. the review documents folk medicine, experim ...201222716101
prevalence of multidrug resistance campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in chickens slaughtered in selected markets, malaysia.the objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence of campylobacter spp. in live chickens sold at wet markets in selangor, malaysia and the multidrug resistance (mdr) profiles of the isolates. cloacal swabs were taken from the chickens before slaughter and their caecal mucosae were swabbed after slaughter. of the 90 chickens examined, 68 (75.6%) were positive for campylobacter. campylobacter were recovered from caecal swabs (53/90) and cloacal swabs (34/90) and campylobacter coli (46 ...201222735845
effects of efflux pump inhibitors on erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline resistance in campylobacter spp. isolates.the aim was to assess the potency of the efflux pump inhibitors (epis) phenylalanine-arginine ß-naphthylamide (paßn) and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (nmp) and the putative natural epi phenolic (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (egcg) for the reversal of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates. we investigated target mutations and resistant genes involved in erythromycin and tetracycline resistance and determined the roles of ...201222741576
detection of kudoa septempunctata 18s ribosomal dna in patient fecal samples from novel food-borne outbreaks caused by consumption of raw olive flounder (paralichthys olivaceus).kudoa septempunctata is a newly identified myxosporean parasite of olive flounder (paralichthys olivaceus) and a suspected causative agent of several food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in japan. here, we report the detection of k. septempunctata 18s ribosomal dna in fecal samples of outbreak patients using an efficient method based on real-time pcr. we first performed a spiking experiment to assess whether our previously developed real-time pcr assay was applicable to detect k. septempunctata ...201222760033
estimating the relative roles of recombination and point mutation in the generation of single locus variants in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.single locus variants (slvs) are bacterial sequence types that differ at only one of the seven canonical multilocus sequence typing (mlst) loci. estimating the relative roles of recombination and point mutation in the generation of new alleles that lead to slvs is helpful in understanding how organisms evolve. the relative rates of recombination and mutation for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli were estimated at seven different housekeeping loci from publically available mlst data. th ...201222767048
prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among hiv-infected patients with low cd4 cells counts in france in the combination antiretroviral therapy era.the use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cart) has dramatically reduced the prevalence of opportunistic infections, however data on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in hiv-infected patients with low cd4 cell counts in the cart era are scarce.201222771183
bacteremia caused by antimicrobial resistant campylobacter species at a medical center in taiwan, 1998-2008.this study was intended to delineate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by campylobacter species.201222771419
a convenient and robust in vivo reporter system to monitor gene expression in the human pathogen helicobacter pylori.thirty years of intensive research have significantly contributed to our understanding of helicobacter pylori biology and pathogenesis. however, the lack of convenient genetic tools, in particular the limited effectiveness of available reporter systems, has notably limited the toolbox for fundamental and applied studies. here, we report the construction of a bioluminescent h. pylori reporter system based on the photorhabdus luminescens luxcdabe cassette. the system is constituted of a promoterle ...201222773640
campylobacter epidemiology: a descriptive study reviewing 1 million cases in england and wales between 1989 and review campylobacter cases in england and wales over 2 decades and examine the main factors/mechanisms driving the changing epidemiology.201222798256
restricted gene flow among hospital subpopulations of enterococcus faecium.enterococcus faecium has recently emerged as an important multiresistant nosocomial pathogen. defining population structure in this species is required to provide insight into the existence, distribution, and dynamics of specific multiresistant or pathogenic lineages in particular environments, like the hospital. here, we probe the population structure of e. faecium using bayesian-based population genetic modeling implemented in bayesian analysis of population structure (baps) software. the anal ...201222807567
a longitudinal 6-year study of the molecular epidemiology of clinical campylobacter isolates in oxfordshire, united kingdom.temporal and seasonal trends in campylobacter genotypes causing human gastroenteritis were investigated in a 6-year study of 3,300 recent isolates from oxfordshire, united kingdom. genotypes (sequence types [st]) were defined using multilocus sequence typing and assigned to a clonal complex (a cluster of related strains that share four or more identical alleles with a previously defined central genotype). a previously undescribed clonal complex (st-464) was identified which, together with st-42, ...201222814466
ischaemic colitis associated with oral contraceptive and bisacodyl use.a woman with a history of hip replacement presented 3 days prior to revision of the hip with abdominal pain, diarrhoea and haematochezia. these symptoms began 6 h after she began taking bisacodyl in preparation for her upcoming surgery. she was on low-dose estradiol for hormone replacement therapy (hrt). subsequent colonoscopy and biopsies were consistent with acute colonic ischaemia (ci). she was treated with intravenous fluids and antibiotics and discharged and told to stop hrt and bisacodyl. ...201222843752
the complete genome sequence of bacteriophage cp21 reveals modular shuffling in campylobacter group ii phages.campylobacter group ii phages described so far share a high degree of sequence similarity. we report the 182,833-bp genomic sequence of the closely related group ii phage cp21 and show that it has a completely different genomic organization. as in other group ii phages, the cp21 genome is composed of large modules separated by long dna repeat regions which obviously trigger recombination and modular shuffling.201222843857
guillain-barré syndrome and anti-ganglioside antibodies: a clinician-scientist's journey.guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) is the most frequent cause of acute flaccid paralysis. having seen my first gbs patient in 1989, i have since then dedicated my time in research towards understanding the pathogenesis of gbs. along with several colleagues, we identified igg autoantibodies against ganglioside gm1 in two patients with gbs subsequent to campylobacter jejuni enteritis. we proceeded to demonstrate molecular mimicry between gm1 and bacterial lipo-oligosaccharide of c. jejuni isolated from ...201222850724
identification of a novel genomic island conferring resistance to multiple aminoglycoside antibiotics in campylobacter coli.historically, the incidence of gentamicin resistance in campylobacter has been very low, but recent studies reported a high prevalence of gentamicin-resistant campylobacter isolated from food-producing animals in china. the reason for the high prevalence was unknown and was addressed in this study. pcr screening identified aminoglycoside resistance genes apha-3 and apha-7 and the aade-sat4-apha-3 cluster among 41 campylobacter isolates from broiler chickens. importantly, a novel genomic island c ...201222869568
short-term and medium-term clinical outcomes of campylobacter concisus infection.there are only sparse data on the short-term and medium-term clinical impacts of campylobacter concisus infection. a clinical study was performed during a 2-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in c. concisus-positive adult patients. a case patient was defined as an adult patient (≥18 years) with a c. concisus-positive stool sample during the study period. clinical data were obtained with use of a questionnaire supplemented with the patients' medical records, if any. the short-te ...201222882347
acid stress response and protein induction in campylobacter jejuni isolates with different acid tolerance.during the transmission route from poultry to the human host, the major foodborne pathogen c. jejuni may experience many types of stresses, including low ph caused by different acids. however, not all strains are equally sensitive to the stresses. the aim of this study was to investigate the response to acid stress of three sequenced c. jejuni strains with different acid tolerances using hcl and acetic acid.201222889088
[simple and rapid detection methods for campylobacters].campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli have been leading cause of food poisoning in terms of both number of patients and cases in japan. therefore these bacteria are recognized as one of the most important food-borne pathogens. since campylobacters are microaerobic, slow growing, biochemically unreactive, not only it takes some time but also there are several problems regarding isolation and identification of campylobacter spp. we found that cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes are ubiqu ...201222894063
campylobacter antimicrobial resistance in peru: a ten-year observational study.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are food-borne pathogens of great importance and feature prominently in the etiology of developing world enteritis and travellers' diarrhoea. increasing antimicrobial resistant campylobacter prevalence has been described globally, yet data from peru is limited. our objective was to describe the prevalence trends of fluoroquinolone and macrolide-resistant c. jejuni and c. coli stool isolates from three regions in peru over a ten-year period.201222898609
association of campylobacter upsaliensis with persistent bloody diarrhea.campylobacter upsaliensis is a zoonotic, emerging pathogen that is not readily recovered in traditional stool culture. this case represents the first report of persistent bloody diarrhea with c. upsaliensis that was confirmed by filtration culture, pcr, and sequencing.201222915607
detection of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk igy antibodies.enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec), a subset of shiga toxin producing e. coli (stec) is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (hus). regardless of serotype, shiga toxins (stx1 and/or stx2) are uniformly expressed by all ehec, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. in this study, a sandwich elisa for determination of shiga toxin (stx) was developed using anti-stx2b ...201222919675
identification of cj1051c as a major determinant for the restriction barrier of campylobacter jejuni strain nctc11168.campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human diarrheal illness in the world, and research on it has benefitted greatly by the completion of several genome sequences and the development of molecular biology tools. however, many hurdles remain for a full understanding of this unique bacterial pathogen. one of the most commonly used strains for genetic work with c. jejuni is nctc11168. while this strain is readily transformable with dna for genomic recombination, transformation with plasmids is ...201222923403
campylobacter coli isolates from finnish farrowing farms using aminopenicillins: high prevalence of bla(oxa-61) and β-lactamase production, but low mic values.antimicrobial treatment of animals may select resistance in campylobacter to antimicrobial agents belonging to several classes of compounds. we investigated the effect of widely used aminopenicillin therapy on the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) levels in porcine campylobacter coli isolates and investigated the presence of a β-lactamase gene and β-lactamase production. epidemiological cut-off values (ecoffs) were applied to detect decreased susceptibility. fifty-three isolates were obtain ...201222924522
analysis of evolutionary patterns of genes in campylobacter jejuni and c. coli. 201222929701
occurrence of ε-proteobacterial species in rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) reared in intensive and rural order to investigate the occurrence of campylobacter, helicobacter and arcobacter species in caecal contents of rabbits reared in intensive and rural farms, a total of 87 samples from animals belonging to 29 farms were analysed by both cultural and pcr analyses. pcr analysis directly from faecal samples detected 100% positive samples for campylobacter genus, 3.4% for helicobacter genus and none for arcobacter genus. 83 out of 87 animals (95.4%) and all the 29 farms were positive for campyloba ...201322944072
campylobacter spp. recovered from the upper oconee river watershed, georgia in a 4-year study.waterways should be considered in the migration routes of campylobacter, and the genus has been isolated from several water sources. inferences on migration routes can be made from tracking genetic types in populations found in specific habitats and testing how they are linked to other types. water samples were taken over a 4-year period from waterways in the upper oconee river watershed, georgia, to recover isolates of thermophilic campylobacter. the isolates were typed by multilocus sequence t ...201322945232
effects of lactic acid and commercial chilling processes on survival of salmonella, yersinia enterocolitica, and campylobacter coli in pork variety meats.current industry chilling practices with and without the application of 2% l-lactic acid were compared for their effectiveness at reducing levels of salmonella, yersinia enterocolitica, and campylobacter coli on pork variety meats. pork variety meats (livers, intestines, hearts, and stomachs) were inoculated individually with one of the three pathogens and subjected to five different treatment combinations that included one or more of the following: water wash (25°c), lactic acid spray (2%, 40 t ...201222947465
reproductive clonality of pathogens: a perspective on pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasitic protozoa.we propose that clonal evolution in micropathogens be defined as restrained recombination on an evolutionary scale, with genetic exchange scarce enough to not break the prevalent pattern of clonal population structure, a definition already widely used for all kinds of pathogens, although not clearly formulated by many scientists and rejected by others. the two main manifestations of clonal evolution are strong linkage disequilibrium (ld) and widespread genetic clustering ("near-clading"). we hyp ...201222949662
rodents on pig and chicken farms - a potential threat to human and animal health.rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. the two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (mus musculus) and the brown rat (rattus norvegicus). both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. this review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. however, wi ...201222957130
outcome of infection of c57bl/6 il-10(-/-) mice with campylobacter jejuni strains is correlated with genome content of open reading frames up- and down-regulated in vivo.human campylobacter jejuni infection can result in an asymptomatic carrier state, watery or bloody diarrhea, bacteremia, meningitis, or autoimmune neurological sequelae. infection outcomes of c57bl/6 il-10(-/-) mice orally infected with twenty-two phylogenetically diverse c. jejuni strains were evaluated to correlate colonization and disease phenotypes with genetic composition of the strains. variation between strains was observed in colonization, timing of development of clinical signs, and occ ...201222960579
outcome of infection of c57bl/6 il-10(-/-) mice with campylobacter jejuni strains is correlated with genome content of open reading frames up- and down-regulated in vivo.human campylobacter jejuni infection can result in an asymptomatic carrier state, watery or bloody diarrhea, bacteremia, meningitis, or autoimmune neurological sequelae. infection outcomes of c57bl/6 il-10(-/-) mice orally infected with twenty-two phylogenetically diverse c. jejuni strains were evaluated to correlate colonization and disease phenotypes with genetic composition of the strains. variation between strains was observed in colonization, timing of development of clinical signs, and occ ...201222960579
phylogenetic analysis reveals common antimicrobial resistant campylobacter coli population in antimicrobial-free (abf) and commercial swine systems.the objective of this study was to compare the population biology of antimicrobial resistant (ar) campylobacter coli isolated from swine reared in the conventional and antimicrobial-free (abf) swine production systems at farm, slaughter and environment. a total of 200 c. coli isolates selected from fecal, environmental, and carcass samples of abf (n = 100) and conventional (n = 100) swine production systems were typed by multilocus sequence typing (mlst). sequence data from seven housekeeping ge ...201222984540
an enhanced technique combining pre-enrichment and passive filtration increases the isolation efficiency of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from water and animal fecal samples.improved isolation techniques from environmental water and animal samples are vital to understanding campylobacter epidemiology. in this study, the efficiency of selective enrichment in bolton broth (bb) followed by plating on charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (ccda) (conventional method) was compared with an approach combining bb enrichment and passive filtration (membrane method) adapted from a method previously developed for testing of broiler meat, in the isolation of thermophilic camp ...201222985716
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