laboratory diagnosis of bacterial gastroenteritis.bacterial gastroenteritis is a disease that is pervasive in both the developing and developed worlds. while for the most part bacterial gastroenteritis is self-limiting, identification of an etiological agent by bacterial stool culture is required for the management of patients with severe or prolonged diarrhea, symptoms consistent with invasive disease, or a history that may predict a complicated course of disease. importantly, characterization of bacterial enteropathogens from stool cultures i ...201525567220
methylome analysis of two xanthomonas spp. using single-molecule real-time sequencing.single-molecule real-time (smrt) sequencing allows identification of methylated dna bases and methylation patterns/motifs at the genome level. using smrt sequencing, diverse bacterial methylomes including those of helicobacter pylori, lactobacillus spp., and escherichia coli have been determined, and previously unreported dna methylation motifs have been identified. however, the methylomes of xanthomonas species, which belong to the most important plant pathogenic bacterial genus, have not been ...201627904456
bacteriophage-based tools: recent advances and novel applications.bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect bacterial hosts, and since their discovery over a century ago they have been primarily exploited to control bacterial populations and to serve as tools in molecular biology. in this commentary, we highlight recent diverse advances in the field of phage research, going beyond bacterial control using whole phage, to areas including biocontrol using phage-derived enzybiotics, diagnostics, drug discovery, novel drug delivery systems and bionanotechnolo ...201627990274
bibliometric analysis of publications on campylobacter: (2000-2015).campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. in order to better understand national and international research output on campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on campylobacter. this study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy makers to global ...201627899145
exploiting bacterial whole-genome sequencing data for evaluation of diagnostic assays: campylobacter species identification as a case study.the application of whole-genome sequencing (wgs) to problems in clinical microbiology has had a major impact on the field. clinical laboratories are now using wgs for pathogen identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and epidemiological typing. wgs data also represent a valuable resource for the development and evaluation of molecular diagnostic assays, which continue to play an important role in clinical microbiology. to demonstrate this application of wgs, this study used publicly ...201627733632
glucose metabolism via the entner-doudoroff pathway in campylobacter: a rare trait that enhances survival and promotes biofilm formation in some isolates.isolates of the zoonotic pathogen campylobacter are generally considered to be unable to metabolize glucose due to lack of key glycolytic enzymes. however, the entner-doudoroff (ed) pathway has been identified in campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei and a few c. coli isolates. a systematic search for ed pathway genes in a wide range of campylobacter isolates and in the c. jejuni/coli pubmlst database revealed that 1.7% of >6,000 genomes encoded a complete ed pathway, including both c. jejuni and c ...201627920773
advances and challenges in viability detection of foodborne pathogens.foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. there is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (pcr), sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. among mo ...201627920757
epidemiology and rapd-pcr typing of thermophilic campylobacters from children under five years and chickens in morogoro municipality, tanzania.campylobacter species are gram negative and flagellated bacteria under the genus campylobacter, family campylobacteriaceae. these pathogens cause zoonotic infections among human and animal populations. this study was undertaken between december 2006 and may 2007 to determine prevalence, risk factors and genetic diversity of thermophilic campylobacter isolates from children less than 5 years and chickens in morogoro municipality, tanzania.201627871251
prevalence of enteropathogens in dogs attending 3 regional dog parks in northern california.the prevalence and risk factors for infection with enteropathogens in dogs frequenting dog parks have been poorly documented, and infected dogs can pose a potential zoonotic risk for owners.201627859745
momp from campylobacter jejuni is a trimer of 18-stranded β-barrel monomers with a ca(2+) ion bound at the constriction zone.the gram-negative organism campylobacter jejuni is the major cause of food poisoning. unlike escherichia coli, which has two major porins, ompc and ompf, c. jejuni has one, termed major outer membrane protein (momp) through which nutrients and antibiotics transit. we report the 2.1-å crystal structure of c. jejuni momp expressed in e. coli and a lower resolution but otherwise identical structure purified directly from c. jejuni. the 2.1-å resolution structure of recombinant momp showed that alth ...201627693650
evaluation of a microfluidic chip system for preparation of bacterial dna from swabs, air, and surface water samples.the detection of bacterial pathogens from complex sample matrices by pcr requires efficient dna extraction. in this study, a protocol for extraction and purification of dna from swabs, air, and water samples using a microfluidic chip system was established. the optimized protocol includes a combination of thermal, chemical and enzymatic lysis followed by chip-based dna purification using magnetic particles. the procedure was tested using gram-positive bacillus thuringiensis berliner var. kurstak ...201627520284
development of a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for rapid and simultaneous identification of common foodborne pathogens in soft cheese.dairy products can harbor various microorganisms (e.g., campylobacter spp., salmonella spp., listeria monocytogenes, verocytotoxin-producing escherichia coli) arising from animal reservoirs, and which can become important sources of foodborne illness. therefore, early detection of food pathogens is crucial to prevent diseases. we wished to develop an accurate quantitative protocol based on a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddpcr) involving eight individual taqman™ reactions to detect ...201627840628
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in raw milk and some dairy products.this study was accomplished to test raw milk and certain dairy products sold in local markets of qena, egypt, for the presence of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni.201627847427
molecular epidemiology, virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter spreading in retail chicken meat in central china.campylobacter species are the major food-borne pathogens which could cause bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. contaminated chicken products have been recognized as the primary vehicles of campylobacter transmission to human beings. in this study, the prevalence of campylobacter in retail chicken meat in central china was investigated, and the isolates were further characterized using molecular approaches and tested for antibiotic resistance.201627800028
a direct-sensing galactose chemoreceptor recently evolved in invasive strains of campylobacter jejuni.a rare chemotaxis receptor, tlp11, has been previously identified in invasive strains of campylobacter jejuni, the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. here we use glycan and small-molecule arrays, as well as surface plasmon resonance, to show that tlp11 specifically interacts with galactose. tlp11 is required for the chemotactic response of c. jejuni to galactose, as shown using wild type, allelic inactivation and addition mutants. the inactivated mutant displays reduced ...201627762269
complete genome sequences of multidrug-resistant campylobacter jejuni strain 14980a (turkey feces) and campylobacter coli strain 14983a (housefly from a turkey farm), harboring a novel gentamicin resistance mobile element.multidrug resistance (mdr) in foodborne pathogens is a major food safety and public health issue. here we describe whole-genome sequences of two mdr strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from turkey feces and a housefly from a turkey farm. both strains harbor a novel chromosomal gentamicin resistance mobile element.201627795285
the risk of some veterinary antimicrobial agents on public health associated with antimicrobial resistance and their molecular basis.the risk of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals on public health associated with antimicrobial resistance continues to be a current topic of discussion as related to animal and human public health. in the present review, resistance monitoring data, and risk assessment results of some important antimicrobial agents were cited to elucidate the possible association of antimicrobial use in food animals and antimicrobial resistance in humans. from the selected examples, it was apparen ...201627803693
new weapons to fight old enemies: novel strategies for the (bio)control of bacterial biofilms in the food industry.biofilms are microbial communities characterized by their adhesion to solid surfaces and the production of a matrix of exopolymeric substances, consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, dna and lipids, which surround the microorganisms lending structural integrity and a unique biochemical profile to the biofilm. biofilm formation enhances the ability of the producer/s to persist in a given environment. pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species capable of forming biofilms are a significant problem ...201627803696
use of direct lamp screening of broiler fecal samples for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in the positive flock identification strategy.rapid identification of campylobacter-positive flocks before slaughter, following freezing and heat treatment for the campylobacter-positive carcasses at the slaughterhouses is an effective control strategy against foodborne campylobacteriosis. we evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the direct screening of naturally contaminated chicken cloacal swabs for c. jejuni/c. coli to compare this assay with conventional quantitative culture methods. in a comparison study o ...201627746777
extraction of total nucleic acids from bacterial isolates using the biomérieux nuclisens easymag total nucleic acid extractor.the biomerieux nuclisens easymag total nucleic acid extractor was evaluated for use on bacterial isolates in the clinical microbiology laboratory. forty eight isolates were extracted, yielding quantifiable amounts of dna for all isolates. the easymag is appropriate for dna extraction from bacterial isolates and will be incorporated in the clinical laboratory.201627658494
ethyl pyruvate: an anti-microbial agent that selectively targets pathobionts and biofilms.the microbiota has a strong influence on health and disease in humans. a causative shift favoring pathobionts is strongly linked to diseases. therefore, anti-microbial agents selectively targeting potential pathogens as well as their biofilms are urgently demanded. here we demonstrate the impact of ethyl pyruvate, so far known as ros scavenger and anti-inflammatory agent, on planktonic microbes and biofilms. ethyl pyruvate combats preferably the growth of pathobionts belonging to bacteria and fu ...201627658257
the outer membrane phospholipase a is essential for membrane integrity and type iii secretion in shigella flexneri.outer membrane phospholipase a (ompla) is an enzyme located in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. ompla exhibits broad substrate specificity, and some of its substrates are located in the cellular envelope. generally, the enzymatic activity can only be induced by perturbation of the cell envelope integrity through diverse methods. although ompla has been thoroughly studied as a membrane protein in escherichia coli and is constitutively expressed in many other bacterial pathogens, litt ...201627655730
emergence of a potent multidrug efflux pump variant that enhances campylobacter resistance to multiple antibiotics.bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of "super" efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named re-cmeabc) of the predominant efflux pump cmeabc in campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibi ...201627651364
production of the bioactive compounds violacein and indolmycin is conditional in a maea mutant of pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea s4054 lacking the malic has previously been reported that some strains of the marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea produce the purple bioactive pigment violacein as well as the antibiotic compound indolmycin, hitherto only found in streptomyces. the purpose of the present study was to determine the relative role of each of these two compounds as antibacterial compounds in p. luteoviolacea s4054. using tn10 transposon mutagenesis, a mutant strain that was significantly reduced in violacein production in m ...201627695447
prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of thermophilic campylobacter spp. of slaughtered cattle and sheep in shiraz, iranalthough poultry meat is considered as the main source for human campylobacter infections, there is limited information about non-poultry sources. the present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in fecal samples of the cattle and sheep in shiraz, iran. a total of 302 fecal samples were obtained from clinically healthy, slaughtered cattle and sheep from shiraz slaughterhouse. the animals were clinically healthy before bein ...201627872721
complete genome sequences of the plasmid-bearing campylobacter coli strains hc2-48, cf2-75, and co2-160 isolated from retail beef liver.the complete genome sequences of campylobacter coli strains hc2-48, cf2-75, and co2-160, isolated from retail beef liver, showed the presence of 1,663,782-, 1,711,393-, and 1,683,224-bp circular chromosomes and 44,064-, 44,233-, and 44,228-bp circular plasmids, respectively. this is the first reported campylobacter coli genome sequence isolated from retail beef liver.201627635012
persistence and potential viable but non-culturable state of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates from agricultural biogas plants.despite the development of on-farm anaerobic digestion as a process for making profitable use of animal by-products, factors leading to the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria during storage of digestates remain poorly described. here, a microcosm approach was used to evaluate the persistence of three pathogenic bacteria (salmonella enterica derby, campylobacter coli and listeria monocytogenes) in digestates from farms, stored for later land spreading. nine samples, including raw digestates, liq ...201627695451
quantification of growth of campylobacter and extended spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria sheds light on black box of enrichment procedures.campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, and is routinely found in meat originating from poultry, sheep, pigs, and cattle. effective monitoring of campylobacter contamination is dependent on the availability of reliable detection methods. the method of the international organization for standardization for the detection of campylobacter spp. in food (iso 10272-1:2006) recommends the use of bolton broth (bb) as selective enrichment ...201627672384
cross-talk between the aeromonas hydrophila type iii secretion system and lateral flagella system.aeromonas hydrophila is responsible for aeromonad septicaemia in fish, and gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. the type iii secretion system (t3ss) is utilized by aeromonads to inject protein effectors directly into host cells. one of the major genetic regulators of the t3ss in several bacterial species is the arac-like protein exsa. previous studies have suggested a link between t3ss regulation and lateral flagella expression. the aim of this study was to determine the genetic regul ...201627656180
polyphosphate and associated enzymes as global regulators of stress response and virulence in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni (c. jejuni), a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium, is a predominant cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. despite its importance as a major foodborne pathogen, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying c. jejuni stress survival and pathogenesis is limited. inorganic polyphosphate (poly p) has been shown to play significant roles in bacterial resistance to stress and virulence in many pathogenic bacteria. c. jejuni contains the ...201627672264
point mutations in the major outer membrane protein drive hypervirulence of a rapidly expanding clone of campylobacter jejuni.infections due to clonal expansion of highly virulent bacterial strains are clear and present threats to human and animal health. association of genetic changes with disease is now a routine, but identification of causative mutations that enable disease remains difficult. campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans mainly via the foodborne route. c. jejuni typically colonizes the gut, but a hypervirulent and rapidly expanding clone of c. jejuni recently emerged, ...201627601641
a new lab developed real time pcr assay for direct detection of c. difficle from stool sample without dna extraction.clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. detection of c. difficile by anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays has been largely replaced by rapid enzyme immunoassays (eia). however, due to the lack of sensitivity of stool eia, we developed a multiplex real-time pcr assay targeting the c. difficile toxin genes tcdb. stool samples from hospitalized pediatric patients suspected of having c. difficile-a ...201627829823
novel methyltransferase recognition motif identified in chania multitudinisentens rb-25(t) gen. nov., sp. nov. 201627630623
antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter isolates from small scale and backyard chicken in kenya.thermophilic campylobacter species are a major cause of bacterial foodborne diarrhoea in humans worldwide. poultry and their products are the predominant source for human campylobacteriosis. resistance of campylobacter to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, but little is known about the antibiotic resistance in campylobacter isolated from chicken in kenya. in this study, 35 suspected campylobacter strains isolated from faeces and cloacal swabs of chicken were tested for their susceptibility to ...201627570543
whole-genome sequences of agricultural, host-associated campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni strains.we report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant campylobacter spp.: c. coli 11601 and c. jejuni 11601md, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and c. coli 6067 and c. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. the genomes provide insights on campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations.201627540063
infection with multidrug-resistant campylobacter coli mimicking recurrence of carcinoid syndrome: a case report of a neuroendocrine tumor patient with repeated diarrhea.campylobacteriosis caused by gram-negative bacteria of the genus campylobacter (mainly c. jejuni and c. coli) is one of the most common gastrointestinal zoonotic infections with increased incidence in humans worldwide. the typical symptoms are severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea and sometimes fever. the clinical course of campylobacter infection is mainly mild and after one week self-limiting, but can take several weeks in some rare cases. however, patients with neuroendocrine tumors in the gastro ...201627519265
comparison of statistical algorithms for the detection of infectious disease outbreaks in large multiple surveillance systems.a large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in england and wales since the early 1990s. changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. the time series of each disease is sep ...201627513749
mosaic tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins.first reported in 2003, mosaic tetracycline resistance genes are a subgroup of the genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins (rpps). they are formed when two or more rpp-encoding genes recombine resulting in a functional chimera. to date, the majority of mosaic genes are derived from sections of three rpp genes, tet(o), tet(w) and tet(32), with others comprising tet(m) and tet(s). in this first review of mosaic genes, we report on their structure, diversity and prevalence, and suggest that th ...201627494928
campylobacter pouchitis mimicking the appearance of crohn's unusual case of campylobacter pouchitis resembling the endoscopic appearance of crohn's disease is reported.201627555972
association of campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni chemotaxis receptor genes with multilocus sequence types and source of isolation.campylobacter jejuni's flagellar locomotion is controlled by eleven chemoreceptors. assessment of the distribution of the relevant chemoreceptor genes in the c. jejuni genomes deposited in the national center for biotechnology information (ncbi) database led to the identification of two previously unknown tlp genes and a tlp5 pseudogene. these two chemoreceptor genes share the same locus in the c. jejuni genome with tlp4 and tlp11, but the gene region encoding the periplasmic ligand binding doma ...201627766165
evaluation of various campylobacter-specific quantitative pcr (qpcr) assays for detection and enumeration of campylobacteraceae in irrigation water and wastewater via a miniaturized most-probable-number-qpcr assay.campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and water is increasingly seen as a risk factor in transmission. here we describe a most-probable-number (mpn)-quantitative pcr (qpcr) assay in which water samples are centrifuged and aliquoted into microtiter plates and the bacteria are enumerated by qpcr. we observed that commonly used campylobacter molecular assays produced vastly different detection rates. in irrigation water samples, detection rates varied depe ...201627235434
a detailed protocol to enable safe-handling, preemptive detection, and systematic surveillance of rat-vectored pathogens in the urban environment.we detail a five-stage protocol to address physical barriers and experimental limitations that have hindered routine pathogen monitoring of wild rats in urban settings. new york city potentially harbors from 2 to 32 million rats among its 8-million people. however, at a time, when people are most vulnerable to disease from over-crowdedness brought on by increased urbanization of society, the difficulty of studying wild rats has led to a paucity of ecological and epidemiological research. challen ...201627471725
subtyping of salmonella enterica subspecies i using single-nucleotide polymorphisms in adenylate cyclase.methods to rapidly identify serotypes of salmonella enterica subspecies i are of vital importance for protecting the safety of food. to supplement the serotyping method dkgb-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (isr), single-nucleotide polymorphisms were characterized within adenylate cyclase (cyaa). the national center for biotechnology information (ncbi) database had 378 cyaa sequences from s. enterica subspecies i, which included 42 unique dna sequences and 19 different amino acid sequences. ...201627035032
campylobacter species and neutrophilic inflammatory bowel disease in cats.inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) is a common cause of signs of gastrointestinal disease in cats. a subset of cats with ibd has neutrophilic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.201627362482
evidence of avian and possum fecal contamination in rainwater tanks as determined by microbial source tracking approaches.avian and possum fecal droppings may negatively impact roof-harvested rainwater (rhrw) water quality due to the presence of zoonotic pathogens. this study was aimed at evaluating the performance characteristics of a possum feces-associated (psm) marker by screening 210 fecal and wastewater samples from possums (n = 20) and a range of nonpossum hosts (n = 190) in southeast queensland, australia. the host sensitivity and specificity of the psm marker were 0.90 and 0.95 (maximum value, 1.00), respe ...201627208100
molecular epidemiology of campylobacter coli strains isolated from different sources in new zealand between 2005 and 2014.campylobacteriosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases worldwide and a significant health burden in new zealand. campylobacter jejuni is the predominant species worldwide, accounting for approximately 90% of human cases, followed by campylobacter coli most studies in new zealand have focused on c. jejuni; hence, the impact of c. coli strains on human health is not well understood. the aim of this study was to genotype c. coli isolates collected in the manawatu region of new zealand f ...201627208097
optimization of quantitative pcr methods for enteropathogen detection.detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. first, we evaluate the molecular detection and quantification of pathogens in rectal swabs versus stool, using paired flocked rectal swabs and whole stool collected from 129 children hospitalized ...201627336160
comparative genomics of campylobacter fetus from reptiles and mammals reveals divergent evolution in host-associated lineages.campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and c fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas c fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. both c. fetus subsp. testudinum and c. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. to study t ...201627333878
potential use of fosfomycin-tromethamine for treatment of recurrent campylobacter species enteritis.we report 2 cases of recurrent campylobacter coli enteritis caused by macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains in 2 patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, successfully treated with a prolonged course of fosfomycin-tromethamine with no side effects. fosfomycin-tromethamine may be a feasible alternative therapy for recurrent enteritis caused by campylobacter species resistant to first-line drugs.201627161640
identification of novel vaccine candidates against campylobacter through reverse vaccinology.campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the european union. human cases are mainly due to campylobacter jejuni or campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. in fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria's main reservoir. a promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. poultry vaccination is of potential for this p ...201627413761
non-alcoholic fatty liver and the gut microbiota.non-alcoholic fatty liver (nafld) is a common, multi-factorial, and poorly understood liver disease whose incidence is globally rising. nafld is generally asymptomatic and associated with other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. yet, up to 25% of nafld patients develop a progressive inflammatory liver disease termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (nash) that may progress towards cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and the need for liver transplantation. in recent years, several lines of e ...201627617201
pfge genotyping and molecular characterization of campylobacter spp. isolated from chicken meat.a total of 70 samples were collected from chicken meat obtained from 10 markets in tehran, iran from which 39 campylobacter coli were isolated. among 10 antibiotics used, maximum resistance was seen to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (sxt) (97.36%), nalidixic acid (94.8%), ciprofloxacin (87.7%), streptomycin (89.72%), and tetracycline (97.4%). no resistance was to gentamycin was observed. none of the campylobacter strains under study harbored integron, suggesting the involvement of other resistan ...201627822247
optimized cultivation of campylobacter concisus from gut mucosal biopsies in inflammatory bowel disease.campylobacter concisus is a commensal of the human oral flora that has been linked to prolonged diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease (ibd). it has been detected more often from intestinal biopsies in patients with ibd compared to healthy controls using pcr-based techniques, whereas the number of c. concisus culture-positive biopsies in previous studies has been very limited. determining the rate of viable isolates present in the gut mucosa is of great importance when evaluating the role in di ...201627252786
whole-genome sequencing of a campylobacter jejuni strain isolated from retail chicken meat reveals the presence of a megaplasmid with mu-like prophage and multidrug resistance genes.genome sequencing of campylobacter jejuni strain t1-21 isolated from retail chicken meat revealed the presence of a chromosome of 1,565,978 bp and a megaplasmid of 82,732 bp that contains mu-like prophage and multidrug resistance genes. this is the first reported sequence of a campylobacter megaplasmid >55 kb.201627231378
an overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the caribbean region.foodborne diseases (fbds) in the caribbean have a high economic burden. public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. salmonella spp., shigella spp., and campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. in spite of undertaking limited surveillance on fbd in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significanc ...201627215411
seroprevalence of campylobacter-specific antibodies in two german duck farms - a prospective follow-up study.several studies have shown that about 60-100% of farmed ducks are colonized by campylobacter species. because of this, a higher risk of campylobacteriosis among duck farm workers can be assumed. to estimate the risk of campylobacter infections in duck farm workers, we investigated the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in ducks of two duck farms and the seroprevalence of anti-campylobacter antibodies (iga and igg) in two cohorts of workers. the first cohort consisted of high-exposed stable workers ...201627429794
hyperendemic campylobacter jejuni in guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) raised for food in a semi-rural community of quito, ecuador.domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic campylobacter jejuni and c. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the andean region of south america, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. in this study, we examined the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples f ...201627043446
genotyping and antibiotic resistance of thermophilic campylobacter isolated from chicken and pig meat in vietnam.campylobacter species are recognized as the most common cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. in this study nine campylobacter strains isolated from chicken meat and pork in hanoi, vietnam, were characterized using molecular methods and tested for antibiotic resistance.201627175218
bacteria in an intense competition for iron: key component of the campylobacter jejuni iron uptake system scavenges enterobactin hydrolysis acquire essential fe(iii), bacteria produce and secrete siderophores with high affinity and selectivity for fe(iii) to mediate its uptake into the cell. here, we show that the periplasmic binding protein ceue of campylobacter jejuni, which was previously thought to bind the fe(iii) complex of the hexadentate siderophore enterobactin (kd ∼ 0.4 ± 0.1 µm), preferentially binds the fe(iii) complex of the tetradentate enterobactin hydrolysis product bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-l-ser) (h5-bisdhbs) (kd ...201627162326
genome sequencing and annotation of a campylobacter coli strain isolated from milk with multidrug the most prevalent bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis, food-borne campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health. whole genome sequencing (wgs) is a tool providing quick and inexpensive approaches for analysis of food-borne pathogen epidemics. here we report the wgs and annotation of a campylobacter coli strain, fnw20g12, which was isolated from milk in the united states in 1997 and carries multidrug resistance. the draft genome of fnw20g12 (ddbj/ena/genbank accession n ...201627257607
detection of campylobacter jejuni in rectal swab samples from rousettus amplexicaudatus in the philippines.bats are the second diversity species of mammals and widely distributed in the world. they are thought to be reservoir and vectors of zoonotic pathogens. however, there is scarce report of the evidence of pathogenic bacteria kept in bats. the precise knowledge of the pathogenic bacteria in bat microbiota is important for zoonosis control. thus, metagenomic analysis targeting the v3-v4 region of the 16s rrna of the rectal microbiota in rousettus amplexicaudatus was performed using high throughput ...201627109214
application of alternative nucleic acid extraction protocols to progastro sscs assay for detection of bacterial enteric an alternative to automated extraction, fecal specimens were processed by investigational lysis/heating (i.e., manual) and by chromatography/centrifugation (i.e., column) methods. progastro ssc and shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (i.e., stec) indeterminate rates for 101 specimens were 1.0% to 3.0% for automated, 11.9% for manual, and 24.8% to 37.6% for column methods. following freeze-thaw of 247 specimens, indeterminate rates were 1.6% to 2.4% for manual and 0.8 to 5.3% for column met ...201626935731
multicenter evaluation of clinical diagnostic methods for detection and isolation of campylobacter spp. from stool.the use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (cidts), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of campylobacter in stool is increasing. we conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen cidts compared to culture and pcr for campylobacter detection. between july and october 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of campylobacter selective media, f ...201626962088
revisiting the roles of culture and culture-independent detection tests for campylobacter.culture-independent detection tests (cidts) for campylobacter have become an area of intense controversy and confusion among laboratorians in the field of clinical microbiology. to date, the true analytical and clinical performance of stool antigen cidts versus truly optimized culture conditions is unknown. in this issue of the journal of clinical microbiology, fitzgerald and colleagues (c. fitzgerald et al., j clin microbiol 54:1209-1215, 2016, report com ...201626912756
protein chips for detection of salmonella spp. from enrichment pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. a pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. molecular methods such as qpcr have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. forty ml of ...201627110786
campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mccda and campy-cefex agar.campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. the aim of this study was to evaluate the united states department of agriculture's (usda) recommended methodology, protocol mlg 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. a plating method using both mccda and campy-cefex agars is recommended to recover campylobacter cells. it i ...201627237112
campylobacter growth rates in four different matrices: broiler caecal material, live birds, bolton broth, and brain heart infusion broth.the objective of this study was to characterise campylobacter growth in enrichment broths (bolton broth, brain heart infusion broth), caecal material (in vitro), and in the naturally infected live broilers (in vivo) in terms of mean lag periods and generation times as well as maximum growth rates and population (cell concentration) achieved.201627052025
genetic diversity of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates from conventional broiler flocks and the impacts of sampling strategy and laboratory method.the genetic diversity of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coliisolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (mlst), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of campylobacter isolated. a total of 645c. jejuniand 106c. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (sts) identified. the campylobacter jejuniisolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory met ...201626873321
evaluation of luminex xtag gastrointestinal pathogen panel assay for detection of multiple diarrheal pathogens in fecal samples in vietnam.diarrheal disease is a complex syndrome that remains a leading cause of global childhood morbidity and mortality. the diagnosis of enteric pathogens in a timely and precise manner is important for making treatment decisions and informing public health policy, but accurate diagnosis is a major challenge in industrializing countries. multiplex molecular diagnostic techniques may represent a significant improvement over classical approaches. we evaluated the luminex xtag gastrointestinal pathogen p ...201626865681
comparative detection and quantification of arcobacter butzleri in stools from diarrheic and nondiarrheic people in southwestern alberta, canada.arcobacter butzleri has been linked to enteric disease in humans, but its pathogenicity and epidemiology remain poorly understood. the lack of suitable detection methods is a major limitation. using comparative genome analysis, we developed pcr primers for direct detection and quantification ofa. butzleri dna in microbiologically complex matrices. these primers, along with existing molecular and culture-based methods, were used to detecta. butzleri and enteric pathogens in stools of diarrheic an ...201626865686
the bacteriophage carrier state of campylobacter jejuni features changes in host non-coding rnas and the acquisition of new host-derived crispr spacer sequences.incorporation of self-derived crispr dna protospacers in campylobacter jejuni pt14 occurs in the presence of bacteriophages encoding a crispr-like cas4 protein. this phenomenon was evident in carrier state infections where both bacteriophages and host are maintained for seemingly indefinite periods as stable populations following serial passage. carrier state cultures of c. jejuni pt14 have greater aerotolerance in nutrient limited conditions, and may have arisen as an evolutionary response to s ...201627047470
whole-genome sequences of two campylobacter coli isolates from the antimicrobial resistance monitoring program in colombia.campylobacter coli, along with campylobacter jejuni, is a major agent of gastroenteritis and acute enterocolitis in humans. we report the whole-genome sequences of two multidrug-resistance c. coli strains, isolated from the colombian poultry chain. the isolates contain a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes for aminoglycosides, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracycline.201626988048
whole-genome sequence of multidrug-resistant campylobacter coli strain col b1-266, isolated from the colombian poultry chain.campylobacter coli is considered one of the main causes of food-borne illness worldwide. we report here the whole-genome sequence of multidrug-resistant campylobacter coli strain col b1-266, isolated from the colombian poultry chain. the genome sequences encode genes for a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes, including aminoglycosides, β-lactams, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines.201626988047
fate of viable but non-culturable listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms.the fate of two strains of listeria monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (vbnc) was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures) stored for 2 months at 8 and 20°c. levels of l. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qpcr, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qpcr (qpcrpma). the chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analyzed. the s ...201626973623
immune responses to mycobacterial heat shock protein 70 accompany self-reactivity to human bip in rheumatoid arthritis.rheumatoid arthritis (ra) is an autoimmune disease, and a member of human heat shock protein (hsp) 70 protein family, binding immunoglobulin protein (bip), has been identified as an important autoantigen for t and b cells. we herein focused on mycobacterial (myc) hsps and immune responses to mychsps in ra patients. serum titers of antibodies against mychsp70 were significantly elevated in ra patients and correlated with serum anti-bip antibody titers. a mychsp70-derived hla-dr4 major epitope was ...201626927756
a biotin biosynthesis gene restricted to most bacteria the last step in synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin is cleavage of the ester bond of pimeloyl-acyl carrier protein (acp) methyl ester. the paradigm cleavage enzyme is escherichia coli bioh which together with the bioc methyltransferase allows synthesis of the pimelate moiety by a modified fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. analyses of the extant bacterial genomes showed that bioh is absent from many bioc-containing bacteria and is replaced by other genes. helicobacter pylo ...201626868423
in silico analysis of the cadf gene and development of a duplex polymerase chain reaction for species-specific identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by campylobacter jejuni and c. coli. the cadf gene is considered as a genus-specific gene while other genes are mainly used for discrimination at the species level.201627127589
campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in wild birds on danish livestock farms.reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the eu. livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of campylobacter spp. the farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic campylobacter spp. we investigated the campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird s ...201626842400
campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in wild birds on danish livestock farms.reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the eu. livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of campylobacter spp. the farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic campylobacter spp. we investigated the campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird s ...201626842400
ebola or not? evaluating the ill traveler from ebola-affected countries in west africa.background.  the 2014-2015 ebola epidemic in west africa had global impact beyond the primarily affected countries of guinea, liberia, and sierra leone. other countries, including the united states, encountered numerous patients who arrived from highly affected countries with fever or other signs or symptoms consistent with ebola virus disease (evd). methods.  we describe our experience evaluating 25 travelers who met the us centers for disease control and prevention case definition for a person ...201626925428
oral phage therapy of acute bacterial diarrhea with two coliphage preparations: a randomized trial in children from bangladesh.antibiotic resistance is rising in important bacterial pathogens. phage therapy (pt), the use of bacterial viruses infecting the pathogen in a species-specific way, is a potential alternative.201626981577
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter isolated from dressed beef carcasses and raw milk in tanzania.campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in tanzania. the antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaoxa-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(o) (tetracycline), and cmeb (multi-drug efflux pump). the prevalence of campylo ...201626153978
first case report of myopericarditis linked to campylobacter coli enterocolitis.campylobacter spp. are a common cause of mostly self-limiting enterocolitis. although rare, pericarditis and myopericarditis have been increasingly documented as complications following campylobacteriosis. such cases have occurred predominantly in younger males, and involved a single causative species, namely campylobacter jejuni. we report the first case of myopericarditis following campylobacter coli enterocolitis, with illness occurring in an immunocompetent middle-aged female.201728056838
complete genome sequence of the campylobacter coli clinical isolate 15-537360.campylobacter coli strain 15-537360 was originally isolated in 2001 from a 42-year-old patient with gastroenteritis. here, we report its complete genome sequence, which comprises a 1.7-mbp chromosome and a 29-kbp conjugative cryptic plasmid. this is the first complete genome sequence of a clinical isolate of c. coli.201324336384
clinical evaluation of a real-time pcr assay for identification of salmonella, shigella, campylobacter (campylobacter jejuni and c. coli), and shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli isolates in stool specimens.enteric illness affects millions of individuals annually in the united states and results in >50,000 hospitalizations. the rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens associated with gastroenteritis can aid acute patient management decisions, including the use of antibiotic therapy and infection control. this study compared the progastro sscs multiplex real-time pcr assay (gen-probe prodesse, san diego, ca) to culture for the identification of campylobacter spp. (campylobacter jejun ...201324048539
foodborne campylobacter: infections, metabolism, pathogenesis and reservoirs.campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. the emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide ...201324287853
source attribution of human campylobacter isolates by mlst and fla-typing and association of genotypes with quinolone resistance.campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. in the present study we compared population structures of 730 c. jejuni and c. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in switzerland. all isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (mlst) and flab-typing and their genotypi ...201324244747
increased incidence of campylobacter spp. infection and high rates among children, israel.during 1999-2010, the annual incidence of campylobacter spp. infection in israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. children <2 years of age were disproportionally affected; incidence in this age group (356.12 cases/100,000 population) was >26-fold higher than for the 30-<50 age group.201324188185
whole-genome sequencing of gentamicin-resistant campylobacter coli isolated from u.s. retail meats reveals novel plasmid-mediated aminoglycoside resistance genes.aminoglycoside resistance in campylobacter has been routinely monitored in the united states in clinical isolates since 1996 and in retail meats since 2002. gentamicin resistance first appeared in a single human isolate of campylobacter coli in 2000 and in a single chicken meat isolate in 2007, after which it increased rapidly to account for 11.3% of human isolates and 12.5% of retail isolates in 2010. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that gentamicin-resistant c. coli isolates ...201323959310
multilocus sequence typing (and phylogenetic analysis) of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains isolated from clinical cases in greece.the molecular epidemiology of c. jejuni and c. coli clinical strains isolated from children with gastroenteritis, was investigated using the multilocus sequence typing method (mlst). this analysis establishes for the first time in greece and constitutes an important tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of campylobacter infection in our country.201324010733
arsenic resistance and prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from retail meats.studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium campylobacter are limited. a total of 552 campylobacter isolates (281 campylobacter jejuni and 271 campylobacter coli) isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4-2,048 μg/ml), roxarsone (4-2048 μg/ml), arsenate (16-8,192 μg/ml) and arsenite (4-2,048 μg/ml). a total of 223 of these isolates (114 campylobacter jejuni and 109 campyloba ...201323965921
real-time genomic epidemiological evaluation of human campylobacter isolates by use of whole-genome multilocus sequence typing.sequence-based typing is essential for understanding the epidemiology of campylobacter infections, a major worldwide cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. we demonstrate the practical and rapid exploitation of whole-genome sequencing to provide routine definitive characterization of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli for clinical and public health purposes. short-read data from 384 campylobacter clinical isolates collected over 4 months in oxford, united kingdom, were assembled de novo. c ...201323698529
bacteriophage receptor binding protein based assays for the simultaneous detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis which is occasionally followed by a debilitating neuropathy known as guillain-barré syndrome. rapid and specific detection of these pathogens is very important for effective control and quick treatment of infection. most of the diagnostics available for these organisms are time consuming and require technical expertise with expensive instruments and reagents to perform. bacteriophages bi ...201323874996
a higher prevalence rate of campylobacter in retail beef livers compared to other beef and pork meat cuts.the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the tulsa (ok, usa) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. a total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. the prevalence of campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no campylobacter was isolated from ...201323698698
elucidating the aetiology of human campylobacter coli infections.there has been little research on the determinants of campylobacter coli infection, despite its contributing up to 10% of human campylobacter infections. a case-control and two case-case study methods explored the aetiology of c. coli over a one year period across scotland. the case-control multivariate model found an increased risk of c. coli infection in people older than 19 years (o.r. = 3.352), and during the summer months (o.r. = 2.596), while residing in an urban area decreased the risk (o ...201323734204
comparison of genotypes and antibiotic resistances of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli on chicken retail meat and at slaughter.multilocus sequence typing (mlst) and antibiotic resistance patterns of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from retail chicken meat showed high overlap with isolates collected at slaughterhouses, indicating little selection along the production chain. they also showed significant common sequence types with human clinical isolates, revealing chicken meat as a likely source for human infection.201323584778
antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among campylobacter.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. the most common antimicrob ...201323865047
a molecular survey of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli virulence and diversity.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of virulence-associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus pcr (eric-pcr) analysis of campylobacter spp. isolated from children with diarrhea in iran.201424842142
[detection of biofilm formation by selected pathogens relevant to the food industry].detection of biofilm formation by microbial pathogens relevant to the food industry and comparison of biofilm formation under different conditions of culture.201526448305
occurrence and characteristics of fastidious campylobacteraceae species in porcine samples.this study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of campylobacteraceae including a range of fastidious species in porcine samples. over a thirteen month period caecal contents (n=402) and pork carcass swabs (n=401) were collected from three pork abattoirs and pork products (n=399) were purchased at point of sale in the republic of ireland. campylobacteraceae isolates were recovered by enrichment, membrane filtration and incubation in antibiotic free media under a modified atmosphere (3 ...201323474652
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