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in vitro inhibitory activity of chinese leek extract against campylobacter species.three aqueous extracts of dietary materials of chinese leek (leek flower stem, soft leek and green leek) and two other reference extracts of allium plants were used to investigate the antibacterial effects against campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. all the tested strains of campylobacter species were isolated from chickens. the minimum concentration of aqueous leek extracts (ales) required to inhibit the bacterial growth was 2.0 mg/ml. among the plant extracts tested, ales shared the l ...200415193803
genotyping of broiler-originated campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates using fla typing and random amplified polymorphic dna methods.liver and intestine samples taken from 200 broilers at 20 flocks were inoculated onto preston enrichment broth and agar for selective isolation of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. the isolates were identified by both conventional and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methods. campylobacter spp. were identified in 102 of 400 samples (200 liver and 200 intestine), 57 (14.25%) of which were identified as c. jejuni and 45 (11.25%) as c. coli. pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (r ...200415193806
role of an inducible single-domain hemoglobin in mediating resistance to nitric oxide and nitrosative stress in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacter jejuni expresses two hemoglobins, each of which exhibits a heme pocket and structural signatures in common with vertebrate and plant globins. one of these, designated cgb, is homologous to vgb from vitreoscilla stercoraria and does not possess the reductase domain seen in the flavohemoglobins. a cgb-deficient mutant of c. jejuni was hypersensitive to nitrosating agents (s-nitrosoglutathione [gsno] or sodium nitroprusside) and a nitric oxide-releasing compound (spermine nonoate). th ...200415292134
quinolone-resistant campylobacter infections: risk factors and clinical consequences.we integrated data on quinolone and macrolide susceptibility patterns with epidemiologic and typing data from campylobacter jejuni and c. coli infections in two danish counties. the mean duration of illness was longer for 86 patients with quinolone-resistant c. jejuni infections (median 13.2 days) than for 381 patients with quinolone-sensitive c. jejuni infections (median 10.3 days, p = 0.001). foreign travel, eating fresh poultry other than chicken and turkey, and swimming were associated with ...200415207057
adaptation of campylobacter jejuni nctc11168 to high-level colonization of the avian gastrointestinal tract.the genome sequence of the human pathogen campylobacter jejuni nctc11168 has been determined recently, but studies on colonization and persistence in chickens have been limited due to reports that this strain is a poor colonizer. experimental colonization and persistence studies were carried out with c. jejuni nctc11168 by using 2-week-old light sussex chickens possessing an acquired natural gut flora. after inoculation, nctc11168 initially colonized the intestine poorly. however, after 5 weeks ...200415213117
molecular characterization of benzimidazole resistance in helicobacter pylori.a family of benzimidazole derivatives (bi) was shown to possess potent and selective activity against helicobacter pylori, although the precise cellular target of the bis is unknown. spontaneous h. pylori mutants were isolated as resistant to a representative bi (compound a). genomic dna was isolated from a bi-resistant mutant, transformed into a bi-sensitive strain, and found to be sufficient to confer bi resistance. the resistance determinant was localized to a 17-kb clone after screening a la ...200415215104
longitudinal study of campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages and their hosts from broiler chickens.a longitudinal study of bacteriophages and their hosts was carried out at a broiler house that had been identified as having a population of campylobacter-specific bacteriophages. cloacal and excreta samples were collected from three successive broiler flocks reared in the same barn. campylobacter jejuni was isolated from each flock, whereas bacteriophages could be isolated from flocks 1 and 2 but were not isolated from flock 3. the bacteriophages isolated from flocks 1 and 2 were closely relate ...200415240258
identification of bacterial populations in dairy wastewaters by use of 16s rrna gene sequences and other genetic markers.hydraulic flush waste removal systems coupled to solid/liquid separators and circulated treatment lagoons are commonly utilized to manage the large amounts of animal waste produced on high-intensity dairy farms. although these systems are common, little is known about the microbial populations that inhabit them or how they change as they traverse the system. using culture-based and non-culture-based methods, we characterized the microbial community structure of manure, water from the separator p ...200415240310
multiplex pcr assay for detection of streptococcus suis species and serotypes 2 and 1/2 in tonsils of live and dead pigs.a pcr assay was developed for the detection of streptococcus suis serotypes 2 and 1/2. this multiplex pcr is based on the amplification of the gene coding for 16s rrna of s. suis and on the amplification of the cps2j gene coding for the capsule of s. suis serotypes 2 and 1/2. an internal control was constructed and added in this test to monitor the efficiency of amplification in each reaction. to evaluate the specificity of the test, 31 strains of other bacterial species related to s. suis or is ...200415243078
characterization of plasmid-mediated apha-3 kanamycin resistance in campylobacter jejuni.a total of 254 isolates of campylobacter jejuni and three isolates of campylobacter coli, isolated from sweden, canada, and egypt, were screened for kanamycin resistance. eight strains of c. jejuni contained large plasmids that carried the apha-3 kanamycin-resistance marker. in six plasmids, the apha-3 gene was located downstream of an apparent insertion sequence, designated is607*, which showed a considerable similarity to is607, characterized on the chromosome of some helicobacter pylori strai ...200415256024
helicobacter pylori induces apoptosis of human monocytes but not monocyte-derived dendritic cells: role of the cag pathogenicity island.monocytes are circulating precursors of the dendritic cell subset, professional antigen-presenting cells with a unique ability to initiate the innate and adaptive immune response. in this study, we have investigated the effects of wild-type helicobacter pylori strains and their isogenic mutants with mutations in known bacterial virulence factors on monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. we show that h. pylori strains induce apoptosis of human monocytes by a mechanism that is dependent o ...200415271906
occurrence of campylobacter in retail foods in ireland.a surveillance study was carried out to determine the prevalence of campylobacter in a range of retail foods purchased in three irish cities over a 20-month period between march 2001 and october 2002. in total 2391 food samples were analysed during this period. campylobacter was isolated from 444 raw chicken (49.9%), 33 turkey (37.5%) and 11 duck samples (45.8%). lower isolation rates of 7/221 (3.2%), 10/197 (5.1%) and 31/262 (11.8%) were observed for raw beef, pork and lamb, respectively. one s ...200415282123
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter coli isolated from fattening pigs in france.campylobacter are a leading cause of human diarrhea. the usual source of infection is contaminated food, particularly poultry but pork has also been described. the veterinary use of antimicrobial drugs has been suggested to be largely responsible for resistance in human isolates of this zoonotic pathogen. a study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter isolated from french fattening pigs. from march 1998 to june 1999, stomach samples were colle ...200415172691
antigenicity of the campylobacter coli cjaa protein produced by escherichia coli.immunogenic c. coli cjaa protein is a candidate for a chicken anti-campylobacter subunit vaccine. in order to enhance its immunogenicity an antigenic determinant of the cjaa protein was identified. thereafter, two copies of the antigenic epitope were cloned in tandem directly or with a flexible hinge between them. all experiments documented that the cjaa protein contained not only linear antigenic epitope/s but also conformational ones.200415330269
use of midi-fatty acid methyl ester analysis to monitor the transmission of campylobacter during commercial poultry processing.the presence of campylobacter spp. on broiler carcasses and in scald water taken from a commercial poultry processing facility was monitored on a monthly basis from january through june. campylobacter agar, blaser, was used to enumerate campylobacter in water samples from a multiple-tank scalder; on prescalded, picked, eviscerated, and chilled carcasses; and on processed carcasses stored at 4 degrees c for 7 or 14 days. the midi sherlock microbial identification system was used to identify campy ...200415330523
species identification by genotyping and determination of antibiotic resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from humans and chickens in sweden.campylobacter is today the most common cause of human bacterial enteritis in sweden, as well as in most other industrialized countries. common sources of infection are undercooked chicken meat, unpasteurized milk and contaminated drinking water. one aim with our present study was to identify the species campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains from humans and chickens using a polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis (pcr/rea) method, as well as traditional hippurate hydro ...200415364471
use of culture, pcr analysis, and dna microarrays for detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from chicken feces.a dna microarray for detection of campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. the results of campylobacter sp. detection obtained with dna microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. by conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either campylobacter jejun ...200415364980
campylobacter colonization of sibling turkey flocks reared under different management conditions.uncertainty exists concerning the key factors contributing to campylobacter colonization of poultry, especially the possible role of vertical transmission from breeder hens to young birds. a longitudinal study of campylobacter colonization was performed in two sibling pairs of turkey flocks (four flocks total). each pair of sibling flocks shared breeder hen populations and was obtained from the same hatchery. one flock of each pair was grown on a commercial farm, and the other was grown in an in ...200415270502
campylobacter prevalence in lactating dairy cows in the united states.the objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal campylobacter in lactating dairy cows from various regions of the united states. participating commercial dairy farms were chosen at random and were part of a national survey to determine e. coli o157:h7 and salmonella prevalence in dairy cows. farms had no previous history of campylobacter problems. fecal samples were collected rectally from 720 cows on farms in the northeast (four farms), in the desert southwest ( ...200415270504
a real-time multiplexed pcr assay for rapid detection and differentiation of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacter species are the leading agents of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. c. jejuni and c. coli together are responsible for more than 95% of all cases of campylobacter-induced diarrheal disease in the united states. detection of campylobacteria in clinical samples by conventional culture is problematic and slow due to their complex taxonomy, fastidious growth requirements, and biochemical inertness. the current study describes a rapid, sensitive, and specific real-time polymerase cha ...200415271389
regional risks and seasonality in travel-associated campylobacteriosis.the epidemiology of travel-associated campylobacteriosis is still largely unclear, and various known risk factors could only explain limited proportions of the recorded cases.200415569393
a european survey of antimicrobial susceptibility among zoonotic and commensal bacteria isolated from food-producing animals.to study antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic bacteria isolated from food animals in different countries using uniform methodology.200415375107
the pattern and kinetics of substrate metabolism of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.the main aim was to investigate the patterns and kinetics of substrate oxidation by campylobacter jejuni and c. coli.200415287872
nucleotide sequences and comparison of two large conjugative plasmids from different campylobacter species.two large tetracycline resistance (tcr) plasmids have been completely sequenced, the ptet plasmid (45.2 kb) from campylobacter jejuni strain 81-176 and a plasmid pcc31 (44.7 kb) from campylobacter coli strain cc31 that was isolated from a human case of severe gastroenteritis in the uk. both plasmids are mosaic in structure, having homologues of genes found in a variety of different commensal and pathogenic bacteria, but nevertheless, showed striking similarities in dna sequence and overall gene ...200415470128
swimming and campylobacter infections.a matched case-control study was conducted to study risk factors for domestically acquired sporadic campylobacter infections in finland. swimming in natural sources of water was a novel risk factor. eating undercooked meat and drinking dug-well water were also independent risk factors for campylobacter infection.200415496253
antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates in japan. 200415499812
antimicrobial susceptibilities of campylobacter isolated from food-producing animals on farms (1999-2001): results from the japanese veterinary antimicrobial resistance monitoring program.nationwide monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter isolated from food-producing animals on farms was performed in japan. a total of 468 campylobacter isolates were obtained during the period from june 1999 to march 2001. campylobacter species showed high frequencies of resistance to oxytetracycline and dihydrostreptomycin. the frequencies of resistance in campylobacter coli to aminoglycosides, macrolides, tetracycline and quinolones were higher than those in campylobacter jejuni ...200415325430
detection of campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples by real-time pcr.a real-time pcr assay for detecting thermophilic campylobacter spp. directly in chicken feces has been developed. dna was isolated from fecal material by using magnetic beads followed by pcr with a prealiquoted pcr mixture, which had been stored at -18 degrees c. campylobacter could be detected in less than 4 h, with a detection limit of 100 to 150 cfu/ml, in a fecal suspension. a bacterial internal control was added before dna extraction to control both dna isolation and the presence of pcr inh ...200415528705
insufficient production and tissue delivery of cd4+ memory t cells in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection.the mechanisms linking human immunodeficiency virus replication to the progressive immunodeficiency of acquired immune deficiency syndrome are controversial, particularly the relative contribution of cd4+ t cell destruction. here, we used the simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) model to investigate the relationship between systemic cd4+ t cell dynamics and rapid disease progression. of 18 rhesus macaques (rms) infected with ccr5-tropic sivmac239 (n=14) or cxcr4-tropic sivmac155t3 (n=4), 4 of the ...200415545355
campylobacter, from obscurity to celebrity.after its successful isolation from stools in the 1970s, campylobacter jejuni has rapidly become the most commonly recognised cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in man. reported cases of human campylobacteriosis represent only a small fraction of the actual number. in industrialised countries, the incidence of c. jejuni/campylobacter coli infections peaks during infancy, and again in young adults aged 15-44 years. acute self-limited gastrointestinal illness, characterised by diarrhoea, fever and ...200415373879
fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains and its relationship with host specificity, serotyping, and phage typing.fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (faflp) analysis was applied to 276 campylobacter jejuni strains and 87 campylobacter coli strains isolated from humans, pigs, cattle, poultry, and retail meats to investigate whether certain faflp genotypes of c. jejuni and c. coli are associated with a particular host and to determine the degree of association between faflp-defined genotypes and heat-stable serotypes and/or phage types. within c. coli, the poultry strains clustered separately ...200414715757
l-serine catabolism via an oxygen-labile l-serine dehydratase is essential for colonization of the avian gut by campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic, asaccharolytic bacterium. the identity of the carbon and energy sources used by c. jejuni in vivo is unknown, but the genome sequence of strain nctc11168 indicates the presence of genes for catabolism of a limited range of amino acids, including serine. specific omission of l-serine from a defined medium containing a mixture of amino acids led to a dramatic decrease in cell yields. as c. jejuni does not have a biosynthetic serine requirement, this suppo ...200414688104
campylobacter spp., giardia spp., cryptosporidium spp., noroviruses, and indicator organisms in surface water in southwestern finland, 2000-2001.a total of 139 surface water samples from seven lakes and 15 rivers in southwestern finland were analyzed during five consecutive seasons from autumn 2000 to autumn 2001 for the presence of various enteropathogens (campylobacter spp., giardia spp., cryptosporidium spp., and noroviruses) and fecal indicators (thermotolerant coliforms, escherichia coli, clostridium perfringens, and f-rna bacteriophages) and for physicochemical parameters (turbidity and temperature); this was the first such systema ...200414711629
phase and antigenic variation in bacteria.phase and antigenic variation result in a heterogenic phenotype of a clonal bacterial population, in which individual cells either express the phase-variable protein(s) or not, or express one of multiple antigenic forms of the protein, respectively. this form of regulation has been identified mainly, but by no means exclusively, for a wide variety of surface structures in animal pathogens and is implicated as a virulence strategy. this review provides an overview of the many bacterial proteins a ...200415258095
comparison of electrolyzed oxidizing water with other antimicrobial interventions to reduce pathogens on fresh pork.to date, the effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing (eo) water against bacteria associated with fresh pork has not been determined. using a hand-held, food-grade garden sprayer, distilled water (w), chlorinated water (cl; 25 ppm), 2% lactic acid (la), acidic eo water (eoa), or "aged" acidic eo water (aeoa; stored at 4 °c for 24 h) was sprayed (15 s) onto pork bellies inoculated with feces containing listeria monocytogenes (lm), salmonella typhimurium (st), and campylobacter coli (cc). remaining ...200422062415
[incidence of the virulence markers iam in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains isolated from poultry carcases].previously found dna sequence (iam), correlated with the invasiveness of campylobacter strains, became a starting point for present investigation. main goal of this study was to isolate number of campylobacter strains from chicken carcasses, to determine their taxonomic position and to establish the presence of iam sequence in their genoms. it was found, that invasion associated marker is present in all campylobacter coli strains and in majority but not all campylobacter jejuni. this may confirm ...200419097580
characterization of cytolethal distending toxin of campylobacter species isolated from captive macaque monkeys.an association between certain campylobacter species and enterocolitis in humans and nonhuman primates is well established, but the association between cytolethal distending toxin and disease is incompletely understood. the purpose of the present study was to examine campylobacter species isolated from captive conventionally raised macaque monkeys for the presence of the cdtb gene and for cytolethal distending toxin activity. the identity of each isolate was confirmed on the basis of phenotypic ...200515695658
temperature-driven campylobacter seasonality in england and wales.campylobacter incidence in england and wales between 1990 and 1999 was examined in conjunction with weather conditions. over the 10-year interval, the average annual rate was determined to be 78.4 +/- 15.0 cases per 100,000, with an upward trend. rates were higher in males than in females, regardless of age, and highest in children less than 5 years old. major regional differences were detected, with the highest rates in wales and the southwest and the lowest in the southeast. the disease displa ...200515640174
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic campylobacter spp. from cattle farms in washington state.the prevalence of thermophilic campylobacter spp. was investigated in cattle on washington state farms. a total of 350 thermophilic campylobacter isolates were isolated from 686 cattle sampled on 15 farms (eight dairies, two calf rearer farms, two feedlots, and three beef cow-calf ranches). isolate species were identified with a combination of phenotypic tests, hipo colony blot hybridization, and multiplex lpxa pcr. breakpoint resistance to four antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, ery ...200515640184
chemotaxis plays multiple roles during helicobacter pylori animal infection.helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen associated with gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as specific gastric cancers. h. pylori infects approximately 50% of the world's population, and infections can persist throughout the lifetime of the host. motility and chemotaxis have been shown to be important in the infection process of h. pylori. we sought to address the specific roles of chemotaxis in infection of a mouse model system. we found that mutants lacking chew, chea, or chey are all ...200515664919
detection of mutations associated with macrolide resistance in thermophilic campylobacter spp. by real-time pcr.two point mutations (a2074c and a2075g) in the 23s rrna gene of campylobacter coli and c. jejuni are associated with erythromycin resistance. a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer pcr assay using a melting curve analysis was developed to identify these two point mutations and the wild-type genotype in thermophilic campylobacter species such as c. coli, c. jejuni, and c. lari. concerning these species, 141 strains were tested and a result obtained in 140 (99.3%). a single genotype wa ...200515770093
sequence typing and comparison of population biology of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni.a multilocus sequence typing (mlst) scheme that uses the same loci as a previously described system for campylobacter jejuni was developed for campylobacter coli. the c. coli-specific primers were validated with 53 isolates from humans, chickens, and pigs, together with 15 penner serotype reference isolates. the nucleotide sequence of the flaa short variable region (svr) was determined for each isolate. these sequence data were compared to equivalent information for 17 c. jejuni isolates represe ...200515634992
enumeration and diversity of campylobacters and bacteriophages isolated during the rearing cycles of free-range and organic chickens.campylobacters and campylobacter-specific bacteriophages were isolated and enumerated during the rearing cycle of free-range (56 days) and organic chickens (73 days) at 3-day intervals from hatching until slaughter. in both flocks campylobacter jejuni was the initial colonizer but campylobacter coli was detected more frequently from 5 weeks of age. the diversity of the campylobacter isolates was examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of smai-digested genomic dna and antimicrobial resistanc ...200515746327
establishment of a universal size standard strain for use with the pulsenet standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols: converting the national databases to the new size standard.the pulsenet national database, established by the centers for disease control and prevention in 1996, consists of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) patterns obtained from isolates of food-borne pathogens (currently escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella, shigella, and listeria) and textual information about the isolates. electronic images and accompanying text are submitted from over 60 u.s. public health and food regulatory agency laboratories. the pfge patterns are generated according to ...200515750058
evaluation of a pcr assay for the detection and identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in retail poultry products.a pcr-based method was applied to campylobacter detection in poultry samples at the retail level. in total, 73 retail poultry samples purchased from supermarkets in the basque country area in the north of spain were examined using both culture and molecular (alternative) methods. in our routine method, the worldwide iso 10272:1995 standard of preston broth incubated at 42 degrees c for conventional campylobacter detection was adopted. the molecular method was comprised of a dna extraction kit co ...200515862456
crga is an inducible lysr-type regulator of neisseria meningitidis, acting both as a repressor and as an activator of gene transcription.the crga gene of neisseria meningitidis, which codes for a lysr-type regulator, is divergently oriented with respect to the mdab gene, which codes for a hypothetical nadph-quinone oxidoreductase. transcriptional studies of the intergenic region between crga and mdab showed that two overlapping and divergent promoters, p(crga) and p(mdab), control transcription of these genes. deletion of the crga gene led to a strong increase in transcription from the p(crga) promoter and a concomitant strong de ...200515866928
[antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from human diarrheic samples].one hundred forty-seven campylobacter were isolated using 3,204 samples taken from sporadic diarrheic patients from january 2001 to december 2003. the detection rate of campylobacter in 16 to 30 year old patients (12.9%, 83/641) was significantly higher than that in patients less than 16 years of age, 5%, (29/1,155) (p < 0.001) and more than 30 years of age, 2.5% (35/1,408) (p < 0.001), respectively. the highest detection rate was obtained from the stool of males in the 16 to 30 year old range d ...200515977557
clinical herd health, farm management and antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter coli on finishing pig farms in switzerland.the world-wide increase of antimicrobial resistance in micro-organisms complicates medical treatment of infected humans. we did a risk-factor analysis for the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant campylobacter coli on 64 swiss pig finishing farms. between may and november 2001, 20 faecal samples per farm were collected from the floor of pens holding finishing pigs shortly before slaughter. samples were pooled and cultured for campylobacter species. isolated campylobacter strains were tested for ...200515907569
analysis of the prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes in clinical isolates of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium in a japanese hospital.prevalence of seven tetracycline resistance (tc(r)) genes--tet(l), tet(m), tet(k), tet(o), tet(s), tet(t), and tet(u)--which are known to be distributed to gram-positive cocci was analyzed for 224 enterococcus faecalis and 46 enterococcus faecium clinical isolates obtained in a japanese hospital. any of the tc(r) genes was detected in 75.9% of all the enterococcal strains. the tet(m) was detected at highest rates in both e. faecalis (75.0%) and e. faecium (69.6%), followed by tet(l), which was h ...200515910229
[distribution and genetic characterization of porcine campylobacter coli isolates].the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the slaughter process on the campylobacter (c.) coli prevalence on pig carcasses and finally pork. to detect c. spp., faecal samples, organ samples and surfaces of slaughter pigs were sampled. additionally, various abattoir surfaces (n=208) and 227 pork and minced meat samples were included in our study. whereas a high c. spp. prevalence (64.0%) was detectable in the faeces of slaughter pigs (all isolates were identified as c. coli), low detect ...200515918485
macrolide resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli: molecular mechanism and stability of the resistance phenotype.a collection of 23 macrolide-resistant campylobacter isolates from different geographic areas was investigated to determine the mechanism and stability of macrolide resistance. the isolates were identified as campylobacter jejuni or campylobacter coli based on the results of the hippurate biochemical test in addition to five pcr-based genotypic methods. three point mutations at two positions within the peptidyl transferase region in domain v of the 23s rrna gene were identified. about 78% of the ...200515980346
agricultural antibiotics and human health. 200515984910
a new approach for the analysis of bacterial microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization: insights from an empirical study.microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (m-cgh) has been used to characterize the extensive intraspecies genetic diversity found in bacteria at the whole-genome level. although conventional microarray analytical procedures have proved adequate in handling m-cgh data, data interpretation using these methods is based on a continuous character model in which gene divergence and gene absence form a spectrum of decreasing gene conservation levels. however, whereas gene divergence may yet b ...200515918914
effect of preslaughter events on prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in market-weight turkeys.the effects of events which occur prior to slaughter, such as loading, transport, and holding at an abattoir, on the prevalence of campylobacter species, including campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli, were examined. cloacal swabs from market-weight turkeys in each of five flocks were obtained on a farm prior to loading (time 1; 120 swabs per flock) and after transport and holding at the abattoir (time 2; 120 swabs per flock). a statistically significant increase in the overall prevalence ...200515932973
genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance patterns in a campylobacter population isolated from poultry farms in switzerland.the diversity and genetic interrelation of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli isolated from swiss poultry were assessed by three independent typing methods. samples were derived prior to slaughter from 100 randomly selected flocks (five birds per flock) raised on three different farm types. the observed flock prevalence was 54% in total, with 50% for conventional and 69% for free-range farms. birds held on farms with a confined roaming area had the lowest prevalence of 37%. campylobacter isolates ...200515932975
resistance of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts to the cytolethal distending toxin of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a typical member of this gram-negative bacterium holotoxin family that targets a wide spectrum of eukarytotic cells, typically causing cell cycle arrest at either the g(1) or g(2)/m phase of the cell cycle. in view of the possible role of the cdt as a prominent a. actinomycetemcomitans virulence factor in periodontal diseases, we have examined the effects of the toxin on primary cultures of human periodontal ligamen ...200516018764
evaluation of agar plates for direct enumeration of campylobacter spp. from poultry carcass rinses.campy-cefex, a modification of campy-cefex, modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mccda), karmali, campy, and campy-line agars were evaluated for their efficiency to isolate and enumerate campylobacter spp. from poultry carcass rinses. campy-cefex and its modification produced the best results but were statistically similar to campy, mccda, and karmali.200515933040
h-ns is a part of a thermally controlled mechanism for bacterial gene regulation.temperature is a primary environmental stress to which micro-organisms must be able to adapt and respond rapidly. whereas some bacteria are restricted to specific niches and have limited abilities to survive changes in their environment, others, such as members of the enterobacteriaceae, can withstand wide fluctuations in temperature. in addition to regulating cellular physiology, pathogenic bacteria use temperature as a cue for activating virulence gene expression. this work confirms that the n ...200515966862
stable accumulation of sigma54 in helicobacter pylori requires the novel protein hp0958.several flagellar genes in helicobacter pylori are dependent on sigma(54) (rpon) for their expression. these genes encode components of the basal body, the hook protein, and a minor flagellin, flab. a protein-protein interaction map for h. pylori constructed from a high-throughput screen of a yeast two-hybrid assay (http://pim.hybrigenics.com/pimriderext/common/) revealed interactions between sigma(54) and the conserved hypothetical protein hp0958. to see if hp0958 influences sigma(54) function, ...200515968056
real-time pcr screening for 16s rrna mutations associated with resistance to tetracycline in helicobacter pylori.the effectiveness of recommended first-line therapies for helicobacter pylori infections is decreasing due to the occurrence of resistance to metronidazole and/or clarithromycin. quadruple therapies, which include tetracycline and a bismuth salt, are useful alternative regimens. however, resistance to tetracycline, mainly caused by mutations in the 16s rrna genes (rrna and rrnb) affecting nucleotides 926 to 928, are already emerging and can impair the efficacies of such second-line regimens. her ...200516048919
further characterization of campylobacter isolated from u.s. dairy cows.the objective of the present study was to compare polymerase chain reaction (pcr) identification with ribotype results and to use pulsed field electrophoresis (pfge) to correlate genotypic patterns with antibiotic resistance of campylobacter isolated from lactating dairy cows in the united states. thirty isolates were studied. twenty-seven of the isolates were identified by pcr as campylobacter jejuni and three were identified as campylobacter coli. genotypic patterns of 15 isolates were determi ...200515992313
effects of subtherapeutic administration of antimicrobial agents to beef cattle on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter hyointestinalis.the influence of antimicrobial agents on the development of antimicrobial resistance (amr) in campylobacter isolates recovered from 300 beef cattle maintained in an experimental feedlot was monitored over a 315-day period (11 sample times). groups of calves were assigned to one of the following antimicrobial treatments: chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (cs), chlortetracycline alone (ct), virginiamycin, monensin, tylosin phosphate, and no antimicrobial agent (i.e., control treatment). in tota ...200516000800
strain persistence and fluctuation of multiple-antibiotic resistant campylobacter coli colonizing turkeys over successive production cycles.the dynamics of colonization of turkeys by thermophilic campylobacters that are resistant to multiple antibiotics is poorly understood. in this study, we monitored cecal colonization of turkeys by campylobacter over three successive production cycles at the same farm. campylobacter isolated from the ceca was predominantly c. coli in all three flocks. isolates with two distinct fla types that represented a single clonal group based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and that were resistant to mu ...200515992304
mama-pcr assay for the detection of point mutations associated with high-level erythromycin resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains.twenty campylobacter jejuni and 16 campylobacter coli strains isolated from humans and food/animals, including 17 isolates resistant to erythromycin, were analyzed. a combined mismatch amplification mutation assay-pcr technique was developed to detect the mutations a 2074 c and a 2075 g in the 23s rrna gene associated with erythromycin resistance. all high-level erythromycin-resistant strains examined by dna sequencing carried the transition mutation a 2075 g, whereas no isolate carried the a 20 ...200515927294
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter spp. and salmonella serovars in organic chickens from maryland retail stores.retail organic (n = 198) and conventional (n = 61) chickens were analyzed. most organic (76%) and conventional (74%) chickens were contaminated with campylobacters. salmonellae were recovered from 61% of organic and 44% of conventional chickens. all salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium isolates from conventional chickens were resistant to five or more antimicrobials, whereas most s. enterica serovar typhimurium isolates (79%) from organic chickens were susceptible to 17 antimicrobials tested.200516000828
campylobacter coli: prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in antimicrobial-free (abf) swine production systems.to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species in swine reared in the intensive and extensive antimicrobial-free (abf) production systems at farm and slaughter. in the abf system, antimicrobials are neither used for growth promotion nor therapeutic purposes.200516120624
role of efflux pumps and topoisomerase mutations in fluoroquinolone resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.point mutations in the topoisomerase (dna gyrase a) gene are known to be associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in campylobacter. recent studies have shown that an efflux pump encoded by cmeabc is also involved in decreased susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones, as well as other antimicrobials. genome analysis suggests that campylobacter jejuni contains at least nine other putative efflux pumps. using insertional inactivation and site-directed mutagenesis, we investigated the potential contri ...200516048946
a newly constructed primer pair for the pcr amplification, cloning and sequencing of the flagellin (flaa) gene from isolatesof urease-negative campylobacter lari.a newly constructed primer pair (lari-af/lari-ar) designed to generate a product of the flagellin (flaa) gene for urease-negative campylobacter lari produced a pcr amplicon of about 1700 bp for 16 isolates from 7 seagulls, 5 humans, 3 food animals and one mussel in japan and northern ireland. nucleotide sequencing and alignments of the flaa amplicons from these isolates demonstrated that the deduced amino acid sequences of the possible open reading frame were 564-572 amino acid residues in lengt ...200516096687
advantages of peptide nucleic acid oligonucleotides for sensitive site directed 16s rrna fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) detection of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and campylobacter lari.traditionally fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) has been performed with labeled dna oligonucleotide probes. here we present for the first time a high affinity peptide nucleic acid (pna) oligonucleotide sequence for detecting thermotolerant campylobacter spp. using fish. thermotolerant campylobacter spp, including the species campylobacter coli, campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter lari, are important food and water borne pathogens. the designed pna probe (cje195) bound with higher affi ...200516009278
rapid decay of salmonella flagella antibodies during human gastroenteritis: a follow up study.an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) based on salmonella re-polymerized flagella was employed to measure levels of immunoglobulin (ig) g, igm and iga antibodies in sera from 303 danish patients diagnosed with either salmonella enteritidis or salmonella typhimurium. the antibody-levels were assessed at one, three and six months after onset of salmonellosis, and sera from a control-group of 170 healthy blood donors were additionally analysed in order to establish cut-off values fo ...200516009280
[establishment of immunomagnetic capture-fluorescent pcr detection method for campylobacter jejuni].in order to develop a rapid method which can check campylobacter jejuni in animal and poultry foods nicely, an immunomagnetic capture-fluorescent pcr (imc-fpcr) method was established in this paper. the reported method involves isolation of the target pathogen by immunocapture prior to the fluorescent pcr step, therefore the immunomagnetic-beads for campylobacter were developed, and two groups of primer/probe, which targeted for the species special sequence of flaa gene and hipo gene for campylo ...200516013502
does age acquired immunity confer selective protection to common serotypes of campylobacter jejuni?campylobacter infection is a major cause of bacterial gastrointestinal disease. exposure to campylobacter is known to produce an immune response in humans that can prevent future symptomatic infections. further, studies of the general population have shown that seroprevalence to campylobacter increases with age.200516117832
origin and evolution of the archaeo-eukaryotic primase superfamily and related palm-domain proteins: structural insights and new members.we report an in-depth computational study of the protein sequences and structures of the superfamily of archaeo-eukaryotic primases (aeps). this analysis greatly expands the range of diversity of the aeps and reveals the unique active site shared by all members of this superfamily. in particular, it is shown that eukaryotic nucleo-cytoplasmic large dna viruses, including poxviruses, asfarviruses, iridoviruses, phycodnaviruses and the mimivirus, encode aeps of a distinct family, which also includ ...200516027112
identification of a d-glycero-d-manno-heptosyltransferase gene from helicobacter pylori.we have identified a helicobacter pylori d-glycero-d-manno-heptosyltransferase gene, hp0479, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the outer core region of h. pylori lipopolysaccharide (lps). insertional inactivation of hp0479 resulted in formation of a truncated lps molecule lacking an alpha-1,6-glucan-, dd-heptose-containing outer core region and o-chain polysaccharide. detailed structural analysis of purified lps from hp0479 mutants of strains ss1, 26695, o:3, and pj1 by a combination of c ...200516030209
cytolethal distending toxin (cdt)-negative campylobacter jejuni strains and anti-cdt neutralizing antibodies are induced during human infection but not during colonization in chickens.the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) of campylobacter jejuni was detectable, using an in vitro assay, in most but not all of 24 strains tested. the reason for the absence of toxin activity in these naturally occurring cdt-negative c. jejuni strains was then investigated at the genetic level. cdt is encoded by three highly conserved genes, cdta, -b, and -c. in the cdt-negative strains, two types of mutation were identified. the cdt activities of c. jejuni strains possessing both types of mutatio ...200515845513
mixed diarrhoeal infection caused by vibrio cholerae and several other enteric pathogens in a 4-year-old child returning to germany from pakistan.we report a mixed enteric infection in a 4-y-old child who returned from pakistan with fever, vomiting and profuse diarrhoea leading to severe dehydration. vibrio cholerae o1, salmonella paratyphi a and campylobacter coli were cultured from stool. furthermore, giardia lamblia antigen and hepatitis a rna were detected. this is the first paediatric cholera case seen in frankfurt/main.200515764195
oral campylobacter species involved in extraoral abscess: a report of three cases.oral campylobacter species are rarely reported to cause extraoral infections. here we present three cases of extraoral abscess caused by an oral campylobacter sp. and a streptococcus sp. the campylobacter species were all isolated anaerobically and identified by sequencing analysis of the 16s rrna gene. the cases included a breast abscess caused by campylobacter rectus and a non-group a beta-hemolytic streptococcus in a patient with lymphoma, a liver abscess caused by campylobacter curvus and an ...200515872299
tetracycline resistance of australian campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates.tetracycline resistance in campylobacter is encoded by the tet(o) gene and is usually associated with conjugative plasmids. little was known about tetracycline resistance in australian campylobacter species, therefore we investigated this resistance in 41 campylobacter jejuni and five campylobacter coli strains from humans and healthy chickens.200515743900
pcr identification of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni by partial sequencing of virulence genes.the objective of this study was to utilize a multiplex pcr assay for concurrent detection of campylobacter spp. and c. coli or c. jejuni, using probes derived from genes cadf and ceue and an undefined virulence gene. a total of 97 campylobacter strains, isolated from turkey litter (n=74), chicken livers (n=15) and clinical (n=8) samples, were speciated using the pcr-based assay. pcr amplification of the isolates identified a 400-bp cadf gene, conserved in campylobacter species, an 894-bp ceue ge ...200515797819
extended multilocus sequence typing system for campylobacter coli, c. lari, c. upsaliensis, and c. helveticus.a multilocus sequence typing (mlst) system has been reported previously for campylobacter jejuni to both differentiate strains and identify clonal lineages. however, sequence variation at the mlst loci prevents its use for closely related campylobacter species. we describe herein an expanded mlst method to include three clinically relevant campylobacter species, c. coli, c. lari, and c. upsaliensis, and a fourth campylobacter species, c. helveticus. the c. coli and c. helveticus methods use the ...200515872261
function of neisserial outer membrane phospholipase a in autolysis and assessment of its vaccine potential.outer membrane phospholipase a (ompla) is an outer membrane-localized enzyme, present in many gram-negative bacterial species. it is implicated in the virulence of several pathogens. here, we investigated the presence, function, and vaccine potential of ompla in the human pathogen neisseria meningitidis. immunoblot analysis showed the presence of ompla in 28 out of 33 meningococcal strains investigated. the ompla-negative strains all contained a plda gene, but these alleles contained premature s ...200515784566
epidemiologic features of campylobacter infection among cats in the upper midwestern united states.to describe the epidemiologic features of campylobacter infection among cats in the minneapolis-saint paul metropolitan area.200515742694
the occurrence of campylobacter subtypes in environmental reservoirs and potential transmission routes.to identify potential reservoirs and transmission routes of human pathogenic campylobacter spp.200515752345
one-year (2003) nationwide pork carcass microbiological baseline data survey in taiwan.from january through december 2003, swab samples from 1,650 pork carcasses were collected from 39 slaughter plants in taiwan. these samples were analyzed for the prevalence of indicator microorganisms and specific pathogens. viable aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, and escherichia coli were recovered from 100, 95.3, and 87.5% of these carcasses, respectively. of those carcasses that harbored bacteria, the mean aerobic plate, total coliform, and escherichia coli counts were 4.0, 0.6, and 0.1 log ...200515771166
could flies explain the elusive epidemiology of campylobacteriosis?unlike salmonellosis with well-known routes of transmission, the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis is still largely unclear. known risk factors such as ingestion of contaminated food and water, direct contact with infected animals and outdoor swimming could at most only explain half the recorded cases.200515752427
fly transmission of campylobacter.an annual increase in campylobacter infection in england and wales begins in may and reaches a maximum in early june. this increase occurs in all age groups and is seen in all geographic areas. examination of risk factors that might explain this seasonal increase identifies flies as a potential source of infection. the observed pattern of infection is hypothesized to reflect an annual epidemic caused by direct or indirect contamination of people by small quantities of infected material carried b ...200515757548
prevalence of campylobacter, salmonella, and escherichia coli on the external packaging of raw meat.during september and october 2002, 3,662 prepackaged raw meat samples were collected to evaluate the extent and nature of microbiological contamination on external surfaces of the packaging, which could potentially cross-contaminate ready-to-eat foods during and after purchase. salmonella was detected on two (<1%) samples of external packaging (both from raw chicken), and campylobacter was detected on 41 (1.1%) samples of external packaging. the external packaging of game fowl exhibited the high ...200515771168
rapid detection and differentiation of pathogenic campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by real-time pcr.a two-tube real-time assay, developed in a lightcycler, was used to detect, identify and differentiate campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from all other pathogenic members of the family campylobacteriaceae. in the first assay, continuous monitoring of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (fret) signal acquired from the hybridisation of two adjacent fluoroprobes, a specific fitc probe 5'-gtgctagcttgctagaacttagaga-fitc-3') and a universal downstream probe cy5 (5'-cy5-aggtgitgcatggit ...200515636755
phosphorylation-independent activity of atypical response regulators of helicobacter pylori.the genome of the gastric pathogen helicobacter pylori harbors a remarkably low number of regulatory genes, including three and five open reading frames encoding two-component histidine kinases and response regulators, respectively, which are putatively involved in transcriptional regulation. two of the response regulator genes, hp1043 and hp166, proved to be essential for cell growth, and inactivation of the response regulator gene hp1021 resulted in a severe growth defect, as indicated by a sm ...200515838037
quantification of campylobacter spp. in chicken rinse samples by using flotation prior to real-time pcr.real-time pcr is fast, sensitive, specific, and can deliver quantitative data; however, two disadvantages are that this technology is sensitive to inhibition by food and that it does not distinguish between dna originating from viable, viable nonculturable (vnc), and dead cells. for this reason, real-time pcr has been combined with a novel discontinuous buoyant density gradient method, called flotation, in order to allow detection of only viable and vnc cells of thermotolerant campylobacters in ...200516204485
quantifying transmission of campylobacter spp. among broilers.campylobacter species are frequently identified as a cause of human gastroenteritis, often from eating or mishandling contaminated poultry products. quantitative knowledge of transmission of campylobacter in broiler flocks is necessary, as this may help to determine the moment of introduction of campylobacter in broiler flocks more precisely. the aim of this study was to determine the transmission rate parameter in broiler flocks. four experiments were performed, each with four campylobacter-ino ...200516204486
etiology of diarrhea in young children in denmark: a case-control study.infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in young children. to clarify the infectious etiology of diarrhea in danish children less than 5 years of age, we conducted a 2-year prospective case-control study. stools from 424 children with diarrhea and 870 asymptomatic age-matched controls were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms. rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and norovirus and sapovirus wer ...200516081890
genetic diversity of campylobacter sp. isolates from retail chicken products and humans with gastroenteritis in central michigan.multilocus sequencing was used to compare campylobacter sp. strains isolated from retail chicken products and humans with gastroenteritis in central michigan. sequence comparisons demonstrated overlapping diversity between chicken and human isolates. campylobacter jejuni isolates from clinical sources had a greater diversity of flagellin alleles and a higher rate of quinolone resistance than isolates from retail chicken products.200516081984
acid-induced activation of the urease promoters is mediated directly by the arsrs two-component system of helicobacter pylori.the nickel-containing enzyme urease is an essential colonization factor of the human gastric pathogen helicobacter pylori which enables the bacteria to survive the low-ph conditions of the stomach. transcription of the urease genes is positively controlled in response to increasing concentrations of nickel ions and acidic ph. here we demonstrate that acid-induced transcription of the urease genes is mediated directly by the arsrs two-component system. footprint analyses identify binding sites of ...200516177315
factors affecting the pressure resistance of some campylobacter species.to compare pressure resistance between strains of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, campylobacter lari and campylobacter fetus, and to investigate the effect of suspending medium on pressure resistance of sensitive and more resistant strains.200516162138
genomic diversity of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni isolates recovered from free-range broiler farms and comparison with isolates of various origins.in many industrialized countries, the incidence of campylobacteriosis exceeds that of salmonellosis. campylobacter bacteria are transmitted to humans mainly in food, especially poultry meat products. total prevention of campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks is the best way to reduce (or eliminate) the contamination of poultry products. the aim of this study was to establish the sources and routes of contamination of broilers at the farm level. molecular typing methods (dna macrorestrictio ...200516204541
speciation of campylobacter coli, c. jejuni, c. helveticus, c. lari, c. sputorum, and c. upsaliensis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.multiple strains of campylobacter coli, c. jejuni, c. helveticus, c. lari, c. sputorum, and c. upsaliensis isolated from animal, clinical, or food samples have been analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms). whole bacterial cells were harvested from colonies or confluent growth on agar and transferred directly into solvent and then to a spot of dried 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (matrix). multiple ions in the 5,000- to 15,000-da m ...200516204551
delineation of campylobacter concisus genomospecies by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and correlation of results with clinical data.campylobacter concisus has been as frequently isolated from human diarrhea as the important enteropathogen campylobacter jejuni, but it also occurs in the feces of healthy individuals. the role of c. concisus in human disease has been difficult to determine, since the species comprises at least two phenotypically indistinguishable but genetically distinct taxa (i.e., genomospecies) that may vary in pathogenicity. we examined 62 c. concisus strains by amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) ...200516207968
comparative phylogenomics of the food-borne pathogen campylobacter jejuni reveals genetic markers predictive of infection source.campylobacter jejuni is the predominant cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, but traditional typing methods are unable to discriminate strains from different sources that cause disease in humans. we report the use of genomotyping (whole-genome comparisons of microbes using dna microarrays) combined with bayesian-based algorithms to model the phylogeny of this major food-borne pathogen. in this study 111 c. jejuni strains were examined by genomotyping isolates from humans with a spectrum ...200516230626
occurrence of campylobacter species in poultry forms in lagos area of nigeria.samples of poultry droppings were collected from fifty poultry farms in lagos area of nigeria. campylobacter species were isolated from serially diluted samples using bolton selective enrichment medium under microaerophilic condition at 42 degrees c. samples of water, both treated and untreated used in the farms were also analysed in the same manner. fifteen campylobacter strains were isolated from the droppings. all the strains were identified using biochemical characteristics differentiating c ...200516334275
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