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prevalence of multidrug resistance campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in chickens slaughtered in selected markets, malaysia.the objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence of campylobacter spp. in live chickens sold at wet markets in selangor, malaysia and the multidrug resistance (mdr) profiles of the isolates. cloacal swabs were taken from the chickens before slaughter and their caecal mucosae were swabbed after slaughter. of the 90 chickens examined, 68 (75.6%) were positive for campylobacter. campylobacter were recovered from caecal swabs (53/90) and cloacal swabs (34/90) and campylobacter coli (46 ...201222735845
antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multi-locus sequence typing of campylobacter coli in swine before, during, and after the slaughter process.the objective of this study was to determine persistence of clonal strains from farm to retail by assessing the clonal relatedness of campylobacter coli isolated on farm, peri-harvest, and at processing from 11 individually identified pigs. phenotypic (antimicrobial susceptibility) and genotypic (pulsed field gel electrophoresis [pfge] and multi-locus sequence typing [mlst]) characterization of isolates was conducted. there was high genetic diversity of campylobacter isolates from on-farm fecal ...201222663186
prevalence of human pathogens and indicators in stormwater runoff in brisbane, australia.elevated numbers of enteric pathogens in the receiving waters following a storm event can be a serious public health concern. the purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the presence of human pathogens of concern in urban stormwater runoff. the involvement of a human sewage as a potential source of contamination was also investigated by using microbial source tracking methods. water samples (20 l) were collected after storm events and during the dry weather from six ...201222572123
incidence and antimicrobial resistance profiling of campylobacter in retail chicken livers and gizzards.campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of foodborne disease in the united states. campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are the two main species that are of concern to human health, and they cause approximately 95% of human infections. the number of studies investigating campylobacter in chicken livers and gizzards is very limited in the literature. the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in retail chicken live ...201222545960
associations of antimicrobial use with antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter coli from grow-finish pigs in japan.to determine associations between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter coli, 155 isolates were obtained from the feces of apparently healthy grow-finish pigs in japan. in addition, data on the use of antibiotics collected through the national antimicrobial resistance monitoring system in japan were used for the analysis. logistic regression was used to identify risk factors to antimicrobial resistance in c. coli in pigs for the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, dih ...201222521447
trend analysis of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from belgian pork and poultry meat products using surveillance data of 2004-2009.the purpose of this study was to analyze and compare antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter spp. isolated from pork and poultry carcasses, and pork and poultry meat (at slaughterhouse level, during meat cutting, and at retail) in belgium, using available surveillance data over the period 2004-2009. the susceptibilities of 1724 campylobacter isolates for ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin were tested by e-test. gentamicin resistance was low (n ...201222510058
isolation of campylobacter from feral swine (sus scrofa) on the ranch associated with the 2006 escherichia coli o157:h7 spinach outbreak investigation in california.we report the isolation of campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in san benito county, california, during the 2006 spinach-related escherichia coli o157:h7 outbreak. this is the first survey of campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the united states. campylobacter species were cultured from buccal and rectal-anal swabs, colonic faeces and tonsils using a combination of selective enrichment and antibiotic-free membrane filtration m ...201222405465
involvement of efflux mechanisms in biocide resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.active efflux has an important role in the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. the effects of two putative efflux pump inhibitors (epis), phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine, and the effects of inactivation of the cmeb,cmef and cmer genes on resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials were studied using the broth microdilution method. the antimicrobials tested in c. jejuni and c. coli were the biocides triclosan, benza ...201222361460
detection and genotyping of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by use of dna oligonucleotide arrays.campylobacter have emerged as the most common bacterial food-borne illness in the developed world. the ability to reduce campylobacter infections in humans is linked to the full comprehension of the principal key aspects of its infection cycle. a microbial diagnostic microarray detecting campylobacter housekeeping, structural, and virulence associated genes was designed and validated using genomic dna from reference and field strains of campylobacter jejuni and coli isolated from human, chicken, ...201322354794
fitness of macrolide resistant campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni.the aim of this study was to investigate the fitness of macrolide resistant campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni. the in vitro growth, the survival on food matrix, and the in vivo colonization of c. jejuni and c. coli susceptible isolates and their isogenic resistant mutants were studied. in vitro experiments demonstrated that macrolide resistance imposed a fitness cost when the susceptible strains and their isogenic resistant mutants were cultured in competition. when inoculated in food ...201222324770
prevalence, antibiotic resistance and rapd typing of campylobacter species isolated from ducks, their rearing and processing environments in penang, malaysia.we report for the first time on the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and rapd types of campylobacter species in ducks and duck related environmental samples in malaysia. samples were examined by enrichment in bolton broth followed by plating onto modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mccda) and/or plating directly onto mccda. a total of 643 samples were screened, and the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in samples from different sources ranged from 0% to 85%. the method of isolation ...201222285201
elucidation of colonization time and prevalence of thermophilic campylobacter species during turkey rearing using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.two turkey flocks (male and female) and the environment of their house were investigated for the presence of thermophilic campylobacter. sample dna was extracted directly from fecal material and environmental samples. bacterial identification was done using a modified campylobacter species specific multiplex pcr. the times needed for colonization and prevalence in male and female turkeys were determined independently. all environmental samples collected before restocking were negative in the pcr ...201222252360
characterisation of aerotolerant forms of a robust chicken colonizing campylobacter coli.campylobacter contaminated poultry meat is a major source of human foodborne illness. campylobacter coli strain or12 is a robust colonizer of chickens that was previously shown to outcompete and displace other campylobacter strains from the chicken's gastrointestinal tract. this strain is capable of aerobic growth on blood agar. serial aerobic passage increased this aerotolerance as assessed by quantitative assays for growth and survival on solid media. aerotolerance was also associated with inc ...201728396658
high prevalence and predominance of the aph(2″)-if gene conferring aminoglycoside resistance in campylobacter.campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and previous studies revealed that campylobacter isolates from food-producing animals are increasingly resistant to gentamicin in china. the molecular epidemiology and genetic mechanisms responsible for gentamicin resistance in china have not been well understood. in this study, 607 campylobacter isolates of chicken and swine origins collected in the year of 2014 were analyzed, revealing that 15.6% (25/160) of the c. jejuni isolates and 79.9% (357/447) ...201728264854
isolation and identification of campylobacter spp. from poultry and poultry by-products in tunisia by conventional culture method and multiplex real-time pcr.thermophilic campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. the consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex pcr assay. two hundred fifty fre ...201728853632
genome reduction for niche association in campylobacter hepaticus, a cause of spotty liver disease in poultry.the term "spotty liver disease" (sld) has been used since the late 1990s for a condition seen in the uk and australia that primarily affects free range laying hens around peak lay, causing acute mortality and a fall in egg production. a novel thermophilic sld-associated campylobacter was reported in the united kingdom (uk) in 2015. subsequently, similar isolates occurring in australia were formally described as a new species, campylobacter hepaticus. we describe the comparative genomics of 10 c. ...201728848714
fecal shedding of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli among feral pigs in texas.the population and range of feral pigs in the united states are rapidly expanding, yet key knowledge gaps exist regarding their role in the ecology and transmission of foodborne pathogens. our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli shedding among feral pigs throughout texas and to identify risk factors for positive status. faecal samples were collected from feral pigs in texas from february 2014 through may 2015, and target organisms were detect ...201728834190
survival of selected foodborne pathogens on dry cured pork loins.the safety of ready-to-eat products such as cured pork loins must be guaranteed by the food industry. in the present study, the efficacy of the dry curing process of pork loins obtained from free-range pigs in the reduction of three of the most important foodborne pathogens is analysed. a total of 28 pork loin segments, with an average weight of 0.57±0.12kg, were divided into four groups with three being inoculated by immersion with 7logcfu/ml of either salmonella typhimurium, campylobacter coli ...201728759797
cardamom, cumin, and dill weed essential oils: chemical compositions, antimicrobial activities, and mechanisms of action against campylobacter spp.natural antimicrobials as well as essential oils (eos) have gained interest to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms and to control food borne diseases. campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causative agents of gastroenteritis. in this study, cardamom, cumin, and dill weed eos were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by using agar-well diffusion and broth microdilution methods, along with the mechanisms of antimicrobial action. che ...201728714890
genetic diversity of thermotolerant campylobacter spp. isolates from different stages of the poultry meat supply chain in argentina.the objective of this study was to investigate a clonal relationship among thermotolerant campylobacter spp. isolates from different stages of the poultry meat supply chain in argentina. a total of 128 thermotolerant campylobacter spp. (89 c. jejuni and 39 c. coli) isolates from six poultry meat chains were examined. these isolates were from: a) hens from breeder flocks, b) chickens on the farm (at ages 1 wk and 5 wk), c) chicken carcasses in the slaughterhouse, and d) chicken carcasses in the r ...201728712509
no clear differences between organic or conventional pig farms in the genetic diversity or virulence of campylobacter coli isolates.to evaluate the impact of pig farm management on the genetic diversity and on the virulence of campylobacter coli, we characterized isolates from 19 organic pig farms (62 isolates) and from 24 conventional pig farms (58 isolates). the 120 c. coli isolates were typed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and multilocus sequence typing (mlst) and the presence of nine virulence genes was screened using real-time pcr. the capacity of adhesion and invasion of 61 isolates (32 from organic and ...201728694791
a study on campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli through commercial broiler production chains in thailand: antimicrobial resistance, the characterization of dna gyrase subunit a mutation, and genetic diversity by flagellin a gene restriction fragment length polymorphism.contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the main source of human campylobacteriosis. during september 2014 and february 2015, breeder flocks, hatcheries, and broiler farms from two chicken production chains were investigated chronologically. five commercial breeder flocks (breeder flocks 1-5), two hatcheries (hatcheries a and b), and five broiler flocks (broiler flocks 1-5) were sampled in this study. campylobacter colonization of both breeder and broiler flocks was determined from cloacal swab ...201728665716
campylobacter species isolated from pigs in grenada exhibited novel clones: genotypes and antimicrobial resistance profiles of sequence types.infections caused by campylobacter species pose a severe threat to public health worldwide. however, in grenada, the occurrence and characteristics of campylobacter in food animals, including pigs, remain mostly unknown. in this study, we identified the sequence types (sts) of campylobacter from young healthy pigs in grenada and compared the results with previous studies in grenada and other countries. antimicrobial resistance patterns and diversity of the campylobacter clones were evaluated. ni ...201728650672
impact of built-up-litter and commercial antimicrobials on salmonella and campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses processed at a pilot mobile poultry-processing unit.the small-scale mobile poultry-processing unit (mppu) produced raw poultry products are of particular food safety concern due to exemption of usda poultry products inspection act. limited studies reported the microbial quality and safety of mppu-processed poultry carcasses. this study evaluated the salmonella and campylobacter prevalence in broiler ceca and on mppu-processed carcasses and efficacy of commercial antimicrobials against campylobacter jejuni on broilers. in study i, straight-run hub ...201728649571
campylobacter coli in organic and conventional pig production in france and sweden: prevalence and antimicrobial resistance.the purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter coli in conventional and organic pigs from france and sweden. fecal or colon samples were collected at farms or at slaughterhouses and cultured for campylobacter. the minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin were determined by microdilution for a total of 263 french strains from 114 pigs from 50 diffe ...201728611754
irrigation water sources and time intervals as variables on the presence of campylobacter spp. and listeria monocytogenes on romaine lettuce grown in muck soil.irrigation water has been identified as a possible source of vegetable contamination by foodborne pathogens. risk management for pathogens such as campylobacter spp. and listeria monocytogenes in fields can be influenced by the source of the irrigation water and the time interval between last irrigation and harvest. plots of romaine lettuce were irrigated with manure-contaminated water or aerated pond water 21, 7, or 3 days prior to harvesting, and water and muck soil samples were collected at e ...201728604176
detection and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes in <i>campylobacter</i> spp. isolated from chickens and humans.campylobacter spp. are common pathogenic bacteria in both veterinary and human medicine. infections caused by campylobacter spp. are usually treated using antibiotics. however, the injudicious use of antibiotics has been proven to spearhead the emergence of antibiotic resistance. the purpose of this study was to detect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in campylobacter spp. isolated from chickens and human clinical cases in south africa. one hundred and sixty one isolates of campylob ...201728582978
dissemination of erm(b) and its associated multidrug-resistance genomic islands in campylobacter from 2013 to 2015.a total of 1372 campylobacter isolates (1107 campylobacter coli and 265 campylobacter jejuni) were obtained from 3462 samples collected from slaughterhouses and farms in three representative regions of china (shandong, guangdong, and shanghai) over three successive years (2013-2015). of these, 84 (84/1372, 6.1%) were erm(b)-positive, and all 84 positive isolates were identified as c. coli (83 chicken isolates and one swine isolate). the prevalence of erm(b) in campylobacter isolates was compared ...201728532801
prevalence of campylobacter species in wild birds of south korea.campylobacter species cause human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. they commonly inhabit intestines of avian species including wild birds. they might play a role in the spread of infections to humans and other bird species. the prevalence of campylobacter species in 2164 faecal samples of wild birds (representing 71 species and 28 families) captured across the korean peninsula was evaluated in this study. the overall prevalence was 15.3% (332/2164). bird species belonging to the family cha ...201728503965
novel sampling method for assessing human-pathogen interactions in the natural environment using boot socks and citizen scientists, with application to campylobacter seasonality.this paper introduces a novel method for sampling pathogens in natural environments. it uses fabric boot socks worn over walkers' shoes to allow the collection of composite samples over large areas. wide-area sampling is better suited to studies focusing on human exposure to pathogens (e.g., recreational walking). this sampling method is implemented using a citizen science approach: groups of three walkers wearing boot socks undertook one of six routes, 40 times over 16 months in the north west ...201728500040
identification and differentiation of campylobacter species by high-resolution melting curve analysis.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are the important food-born zoonotic pathogen, also are leading causes of human food borne illnesses worldwide. cadf gene is expressed in all c. jejuni and c. coli strains and mediates cell binding to the cell matrix protein, fibronectin. high-resolution melting (hrm) analysis is emerging as an efficient and robust method for discriminating dna sequence variants. the goal of this study was to apply hrm analysis to identification of c. jejuni and c. col ...201728478199
simultaneous identification of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter lari with smartcycler-based multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction.consumption of campylobacter contaminated food or water is a leading cause of human acute gastroenteritis. campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter lari account for over 95% of total campylobacter infections. a multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) for simultaneous identification of c. jejuni, c. coli, and c. lari was developed for use with the smartcycler ii system.201728440688
lauric acid as feed additive - an approach to reducing campylobacter spp. in broiler meat.the increasing prevalence of campylobacter spp. within broiler populations is a major problem for food safety and consumer protection worldwide. in vitro studies could already demonstrate that campylobacter spp. are susceptible to lauric acid. the purpose of this study was to examine in vivo the influence of lauric acid as a feed additive on slaughter parameters, muscle fatty acid profile, meat quality traits and the reduction of campylobacter coli in inoculated meat of ross 308 (r308) and hubba ...201728419122
postchill antimicrobial treatments to control salmonella, listeria, and campylobacter contamination on chicken skin used in ground chicken.ground poultry products are frequently contaminated with foodborne pathogens. with the potential for increased regulatory scrutiny, it is important to use sufficient intervention strategies to control pathogen levels effectively. a large proportion of the bacteria introduced to ground chicken are likely to come from broiler skin, which is added to achieve target fat content and maintain product texture and taste. in this research, antimicrobials, including 50 ppm of chlorine and 1,200 ppm of per ...201728414258
the current state of macrolide resistance in campylobacter spp.: trends and impacts of resistance mechanisms.campylobacter spp., especially campylobacter jejuni and c. coli, are leading bacterial foodborne pathogens worldwide. in the united states, an estimated 0.8 million cases of campylobacteriosis occur annually, mostly involving c. jejuni campylobacteriosis is generally self-limiting, but in severe cases, treatment with antibiotics may be mandated. the increasing incidence of fluoroquinolone resistance in campylobacter has rendered macrolides such as erythromycin and azithromycin the drugs of choic ...201728411226
emergence of a plasmid-borne multidrug resistance gene cfr(c) in foodborne pathogen campylobacter.to identify and characterize a novel cfr variant that recently emerged and confers multidrug resistance in campylobacter , a major foodborne pathogen.201728186558
restriction glycosylases: involvement of endonuclease activities in the restriction process.all restriction enzymes examined are phosphodiesterases generating 3΄-oh and 5΄-p ends, but one restriction enzyme (restriction glycosylase) excises unmethylated bases from its recognition sequence. whether its restriction activity involves endonucleolytic cleavage remains unclear. one report on this enzyme, r.pabi from a hyperthermophile, ascribed the breakage to high temperature while another showed its weak ap lyase activity generates atypical ends. here, we addressed this issue in mesophiles ...201728180312
monitoring of virulence genes, drug-resistance in campylobacter coli isolated from golden retrievers.the investigation was performed on 75 of golden retriever puppies. faecal samples were collected on the 42 day of the puppies life (control). probiotic preparation was administered on 43 day of the puppies life and 10 days after the application of the probiotic, faecal samples were collected again (on 53 day of puppies life). all isolates of campylobacter coli isolated prior to the administration of the probiotic were found to contain the cadf gene responsible for adhesion, as well as, the flaa ...201628520333
prevalence and risk factors for thermotolerant species of campylobacter in poultry meat at retail in europe.the thermotolerant species campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, campylobacter lari and campylobacter upsaliensis are the causative agents of the human illness called campylobacteriosis. this infection represents a threat for the health of consumers in europe. it is well known that poultry meat is an important food vehicle of campylobacter infection. as emerged from the reported scientific literature published between 2006 and 2016, poultry meat sold at retail level in europe represents an i ...201728854745
high rates of contamination of poultry meat products with drug resistant campylobacter in metro manila, philippines.a total of 265 chicken parts were collected from 15 wet markets and 15 supermarkets in metro manila, philippines. campylobacter spp. was isolated on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar plates and identified through biochemical tests and pcr amplification of genus and species specific genes. antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined following clinical and laboratory standards institute protocols. two hundred seven (78%) campylobacter spp. were isolated. c. jejuni and c. coli ...201627795478
next generation sequencing-based multigene panel for high throughput detection of food-borne pathogens.contamination of food by chemicals or pathogenic bacteria may cause particular illnesses that are linked to food consumption, commonly referred to as foodborne diseases. bacteria are present in/on various foods products, such as fruits, vegetables and ready-to-eat products. bacteria that cause foodborne diseases are known as foodborne pathogens (fbps). accurate detection methods that are able to reveal the presence of fbps in food matrices are in constant demand, in order to ensure safe foods wi ...201728578266
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