PMID(sorted ascending)
typing of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from live broilers and retail broiler meat by flaa-rflp, mlst, pfge and rep-pcr.we analyzed 100 campylobacter spp. isolates (c. jejuni and c. coli) from grenada, puerto rico and alabama, which were collected from live broilers or retail broiler meat. we analyzed these isolates with four molecular typing methods: restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flaa gene (flaa-rflp), multilocus sequence typing (mlst), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and automated repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-pcr) using the diversilab system. all me ...201021130125
prevalence and risk factors associated with campylobacter infections in broiler flocks in shiraz, southern iran.campylobacter species are among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis in many countries, and poultry meat is considered as a major source of human campylobacteriosis. the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of infection by campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in broiler flocks in shiraz and to investigate the possible risk factors for the campylobacter infections in this area. for detection of campylobacter, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mpcr ...201021131089
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of campylobacter spp. isolated from conventional and antimicrobial-free swine production systems from different u.s. regions.we conducted a study to compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of campylobacter isolated from 34 farm-slaughter pair cohorts of pigs raised in conventional and antimicrobial-free (abf) production systems. isolates originated from four different states of two geographic regions (region 1--ohio and michigan; region 2--wisconsin and iowa). a total of 838 fecal and 1173 carcass samples were examined. campylobacter isolates were speciated using multiplex polymerase chain reaction ...201021133777
in vitro activity and single-step mutational analysis of rifamycin sv tested against enteropathogens associated with traveler's diarrhea and clostridium difficile.rifamycin sv is a broad-spectrum, poorly absorbed antimicrobial agent that, when coupled with mmx technology, is being targeted for the oral treatment of traveler's diarrhea (td) and clostridium difficile-associated disease (cdad). rifamycin sv was tested for activity against 911 td-associated enteropathogens and 30 c. difficile isolates collected from several global surveillance studies. rifamycin sv demonstrated similar antimicrobial activity levels against the enterobacteriaceae, with mic₅₀ v ...201021149623
in vitro activity and single-step mutational analysis of rifamycin sv tested against enteropathogens associated with traveler's diarrhea and clostridium difficile.rifamycin sv is a broad-spectrum, poorly absorbed antimicrobial agent that, when coupled with mmx technology, is being targeted for the oral treatment of traveler's diarrhea (td) and clostridium difficile-associated disease (cdad). rifamycin sv was tested for activity against 911 td-associated enteropathogens and 30 c. difficile isolates collected from several global surveillance studies. rifamycin sv demonstrated similar antimicrobial activity levels against the enterobacteriaceae, with mic₅₀ v ...201021149623
drinking water as the source of campylobacter coli infection in grandparent heavy breeders.the aim of the present study was the molecular identification of a common source of infection of campylobacter coli in two grandparent breeder farms. campylobacter jejuni and c. coli were isolated from well water and cloacal swabs from grandparent chickens. colonies were genotyped using restriction fragment length polymorphism-flaa gene, pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multi-locus sequence typing. the same genotype of c. coli was found in both farms and in the well from which drinking water ...201021154058
novel glycosylation sites localized in campylobacter jejuni flagellin flaa by liquid chromatography electron capture dissociation tandem mass spectrometry.glycosylation of flagellin in campylobacter jejuni is essential for motility and virulence. it is well-known that flagellin from c. jejuni 81-176 is glycosylated by pseudaminic acid and its acetamidino derivative, and that campylobactor coli vc167 flagellin is glycosylated by legionaminic acid and its derivatives. recently, it was shown, by use of a metabolomics approach, that c. jejuni 11168 is glycosylated by dimethyl glyceric acid derivatives of pseudaminic acid, but the sites of glycosylatio ...201121158479
novel glycosylation sites localized in campylobacter jejuni flagellin flaa by liquid chromatography electron capture dissociation tandem mass spectrometry.glycosylation of flagellin in campylobacter jejuni is essential for motility and virulence. it is well-known that flagellin from c. jejuni 81-176 is glycosylated by pseudaminic acid and its acetamidino derivative, and that campylobactor coli vc167 flagellin is glycosylated by legionaminic acid and its derivatives. recently, it was shown, by use of a metabolomics approach, that c. jejuni 11168 is glycosylated by dimethyl glyceric acid derivatives of pseudaminic acid, but the sites of glycosylatio ...201121158479
evaluation of salmonella-vectored campylobacter peptide epitopes for reduction of campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and is often linked to contaminated poultry products. live salmonella vectors expressing three linear peptide epitopes from campylobacter proteins cj0113 (omp18/cjad), cj0982c (cjaa), and cj0420 (ace393) were administered to chicks by oral gavage on the day of hatch, and the chicks were challenged with campylobacter jejuni on day 21. all three candidate vaccines produced consistent humoral immune responses with high levels o ...201021177910
evaluation of salmonella-vectored campylobacter peptide epitopes for reduction of campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and is often linked to contaminated poultry products. live salmonella vectors expressing three linear peptide epitopes from campylobacter proteins cj0113 (omp18/cjad), cj0982c (cjaa), and cj0420 (ace393) were administered to chicks by oral gavage on the day of hatch, and the chicks were challenged with campylobacter jejuni on day 21. all three candidate vaccines produced consistent humoral immune responses with high levels o ...201021177910
evolution of an agriculture-associated disease causing campylobacter coli clade: evidence from national surveillance data in scotland.the common zoonotic pathogen campylobacter coli is an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide but its evolution is incompletely understood. using multilocus sequence type (mlst) data of 7 housekeeping genes from a national survey of campylobacter in scotland (2005/6), and a combined population genetic-phylogenetics approach, we investigated the evolutionary history of c. coli. genealogical reconstruction of isolates from clinical infection, farm animals and the environment, reveal ...201021179537
description and burden of travel-related cases caused by enteropathogens reported in a canadian community.risk of infections by enteropathogens among individuals traveling outside their country of residence is considered important. such travel-related cases (trc) have been poorly estimated and described in canada.201021199137
successful treatment of cryptosporidiosis in 2 common marmosets (callithrix jacchus) by using paromomycin.two pair-housed, 1-y-old common marmosets (callithrix jacchus) had intermittent loose feces and weight loss for approximately 2 mo. cryptosporidum parvum was identified by elisa in the feces of both animals. cbc and blood chemistry values, including liver enzymes, were within normal range. both marmosets were treated with the antibiotic paromomycin (15 mg/kg po) twice daily for 28 d. resolution of clinical signs coincided with treatment. three follow-up samples, taken 2 wk apart after treatment ...201021205457
new methods for detection of campylobacters in stool samples in comparison to culture.campylobacter species, especially campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli, are a major cause of human bacterial enteritis. current detection in stools is done essentially by culture on selective and nonselective media with filtration. these methods were compared to 2 molecular biology methods, an in-house real-time pcr and a multiplex pcr named seeplex diarrhea ace detection, and 3 immunoenzymatic methods, premier campy, ridascreen campylobacter, and immunocard stat!campy. out of 242 stool s ...201121209172
influence of tetracycline resistance on the transport of manure-derived escherichia coli in saturated porous this research, tetracycline resistant (tet(r)) and tetracycline susceptible (tet(s)) escherichia coli isolates were retrieved from dairy manure and the influence of tetracycline resistance on the transport of e. coli in saturated porous media was investigated through laboratory column transport experiments. experimental results showed that tet(r)e. coli strains had higher mobility than the tet(s) strains in saturated porous media. measurements of cell surface properties suggested that tet(r)e ...201021211813
influence of tetracycline resistance on the transport of manure-derived escherichia coli in saturated porous this research, tetracycline resistant (tet(r)) and tetracycline susceptible (tet(s)) escherichia coli isolates were retrieved from dairy manure and the influence of tetracycline resistance on the transport of e. coli in saturated porous media was investigated through laboratory column transport experiments. experimental results showed that tet(r)e. coli strains had higher mobility than the tet(s) strains in saturated porous media. measurements of cell surface properties suggested that tet(r)e ...201021211813
introgression in the genus campylobacter: generation and spread of mosaic alleles.horizontal genetic exchange strongly influences the evolution of many bacteria, substantially contributing to difficulties in defining their position in taxonomic groups. in particular, how clusters of related bacterial genotypes - currently classified as microbiological species - evolve and are maintained remains controversial. the nature and magnitude of gene exchange between two closely related (approx. 15 % nucleotide divergence) microbiologically defined species, campylobacter jejuni and ca ...201121212120
detection, isolation, and characterization of helicobacter species from the gastrointestinal tract of the brushtail possum.the presence of helicobacter species in australian marsupials was examined systematically using microscopy, culture, and pcr in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (git) and in the liver of brushtail possums (btps) (trichosurus vulpecula), a common australian marsupial that feeds on eucalyptus leaves. the spatial distribution of helicobacter species in the git sections also was examined microscopically in silver-stained sections and by fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) using a ...201121216901
arcobacter population dynamics in pigs on farrow-to-finish farms.healthy pigs are an important reservoir for the emerging human pathogen arcobacter which can result in contamination of porcine carcasses and pork and the spread of arcobacters into the environment. up to now, the excretion of arcobacters by pigs has been studied, but information about the transmission routes in fattening pigs is lacking. the present study aimed to elucidate the arcobacter population dynamics in pigs during the fattening period on four farrow-to-finish farms. on each farm, 30 cl ...201121216902
in vivo recognition of the feca3 target promoter by helicobacter pylori helicobacter pylori, the transcriptional regulator hpnikr represses transcription of the feca3 gene by binding to two adjacent operators spanning a region of almost 80 nucleotides along the feca3 promoter in a nickel-dependent manner. by employing hydroxyl radical footprinting, we mapped the protected nucleotides within each operator. three short sequences rich in a and t nucleotides were identified within each operator, comprising just 24 bases for both operators, with 4 or 5 protected bases ...201121216998
adherence, invasion, toxigenic, and chemotactic properties of mexican campylobacter determine the virulence factors of mexican wild-type strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli, 31 wild-type strains were isolated from food and from humans. the production of cytolethal distending toxin and the adherence and invasion capabilities of these strains were assayed in vero cells. hard agar plugs with repellents and attractants were used to examine chemotaxis. mueller-hinton agar with supplements was used for motility analysis and to measure hemolytic activity. nine st ...201021219724
do patients with recurrent episodes of campylobacteriosis differ from those with a single disease event?although campylobacter is the leading cause of reported bacterial gastro-enteritis in industrialized countries, little is known on its recurrence. the objective of this study is to describe the risk and the patient characteristics of recurrent episodes of human campylobacteriosis reported in quebec.201121226938
taxonomy, epidemiology, and clinical relevance of the genus arcobacter.the genus arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. the complete genomes of arcobacte ...201121233511
survival of escherichia coli, enterococci, and campylobacter spp. in sheep feces on pastures.the survival of enteric bacteria in 10 freshly collected sheep fecal samples on pastures was measured in each of four seasons. ten freshly collected feces were placed on pasture, and concentrations of escherichia coli, enterococci, and campylobacter spp. were monitored until exhaustion of the fecal samples. in all four seasons, there was an increase in enterococcal concentrations by up to 3 orders of magnitude, with peak concentrations recorded between 11 and 28 days after deposition. e. coli co ...201121239546
persistence of free-living protozoan communities across rearing cycles in commercial poultry houses.the introduction and survival of zoonotic bacterial pathogens in poultry farming have been linked to bacterial association with free-living protozoa. to date, however, no information is available on the persistence of protozoan communities in these environments across consecutive rearing cycles and how it is affected by farm- and habitat-specific characteristics and management strategies. we therefore investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of free-living protozoa in three habitats (pipel ...201121239551
microbial diagnostic microarray for food- and water-borne pathogens.a microbial diagnostic microarray for the detection of the most relevant bacterial food- and water-borne pathogens and indicator organisms was developed and thoroughly validated. the microarray platform based on sequence-specific end labelling of oligonucleotides and the pyhylogenetically robust gyrb marker gene allowed a highly specific (resolution on genus/species level) and sensitive (0.1% relative and 10(4) cfu absolute detection sensitivity) detection of the target pathogens. validation was ...201021255342
neurologic symptoms associated with raising poultry and swine among participants in the agricultural health study.guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) is the leading cause of acute peripheral neuropathy worldwide, often associated with recent foodborne infection with campylobacter jejuni. in this cross-sectional analysis of data from the agricultural health study, we tested whether swine and poultry exposure were associated with increased prevalence of gbs-like neurologic symptoms.201121270654
campylobacter troglodytis sp. nov., isolated from feces of human-habituated wild chimpanzees (pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in tanzania.the transmission of simian immunodeficiency and ebola viruses to humans in recent years has heightened awareness of the public health significance of zoonotic diseases of primate origin, particularly from chimpanzees. in this study, we analyzed 71 fecal samples collected from 2 different wild chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) populations with different histories in relation to their proximity to humans. campylobacter spp. were detected by culture in 19/56 (34%) group 1 (human habituated for research ...201121278267
epidemiological association of different campylobacter jejuni groups with metabolism-associated genetic this study, multilocus sequence typing (mlst) was combined with the genetic detection of six genetic markers, ansb, dmsa, ggt, cj1585c, cjj81176-1367/71 (cj1365c), and the two-gene marker tlp7 (cj0951c plus cj0952c), to assess if their presence correlated with different c. jejuni clonal groups. using a collection of 266 c. jejuni isolates from (in decreasing order of sample size) humans, chickens, cattle, and turkeys, it was further investigated whether the resulting genotypes correlated with ...201121278270
role of the pjm1 plasmid-encoded transport proteins fatb, c and d in ferric anguibactin uptake in the fish pathogen vibrio anguillarum.vibrio anguillarum serotype o1 is part of the natural flora in the aquatic habitat, but under certain circumstances it can cause terminal haemorrhagic septicemia in marine and fresh water fish due to the action of the anguibactin iron uptake system encoded by the virulence plasmid pjm1. this plasmid harbours the genes for the biosynthesis of the siderophore anguibactin and the ferric anguibactin transport proteins fatd, c, b and a encoded in the iron transport operon. the fata protein is the out ...201021304833
a novel immunity system for bacterial nucleic acid degrading toxins and its recruitment in various eukaryotic and dna viral systems.the use of nucleases as toxins for defense, offense or addiction of selfish elements is widely encountered across all life forms. using sensitive sequence profile analysis methods, we characterize a novel superfamily (the sukh superfamily) that unites a diverse group of proteins including smi1/knr4, pgs2, fbxo3, skip16, syd, herpesviral us22, irs1 and trs1, and their bacterial homologs. using contextual analysis we present evidence that the bacterial members of this superfamily are potential imm ...201121306995
prevalence of putative virulence markers in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from hospitalized children, raw chicken, and raw beef in tehran, iran.the incidence of the virulence-associated genes cdta, cdtb, cdtc, cadf, dnaj, racr, and plda has been investigated in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli collected from raw chicken and beef from retailers in tehran, iran, and from hospitalized children (age, =14 years) suffering from diarrhea. campylobacter spp. were collectively identified by morphological and biochemical methods. campylobacter jejuni and c. coli were discriminated from other campylobacter spp. by amplification of a spe ...201121326356
a charcoal- and blood-free enrichment broth for isolation and pcr detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in chicken.the microaerophilic nature of campylobacter and its requirement of ~5% o(2) for growth have complicated its recovery from foods. the addition to the enrichment media of oxygen quenchers such as charcoal or blood could interfere with pcr for its detection. in this study, a two-step simple aerobic method for campylobacter detection is proposed. a modification of the tran blood-free enrichment broth (bfeb), in which charcoal was excluded from the medium (m-bfeb), was compared with the original form ...201121333141
evolution of the oligopeptide transporter family.the oligopeptide transporter (opt) family of peptide and iron-siderophore transporters includes members from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but with restricted distribution in the latter domain. eukaryotic members were found only in fungi and plants with a single slime mold homologue clustering with the fungal proteins. all functionally characterized eukaryotic peptide transporters segregate from the known iron-siderophore transporters on a phylogenetic tree. prokaryotic members are widespread, ...201121347612
detection and genotypic differentiation of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains from laying hens by multiplex pcr and total, 26 campylobacter (c.) strains, isolated from liver, spleen, caecal or jejunal content of laying hens from different flocks were examined. in these flocks a drop in egg production, an increasing mortality and livers with whitish-grey lesions as post-mortem finding were observed. suspected campylobacter colonies were differentiated using a modified m-pcr in 13 campylobacter jejuni and 13 campylobacter coli strains. all isolates were characterised by typing of the flaa and flab gene each ...201121349563
antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter coli isolated from pigs in two provinces of china.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of campylobacter coli isolated from swine in china. a total of 190 c. coli isolates obtained from two slaughter houses and ten conventional pig farms in shandong (sd, n=95) and ningxia (nx, n=95) provinces were tested for their susceptibility to 14 antimicrobials. a high prevalence (>95%) of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline-resistant strains was observed in both sd and nx. the erythromycin an ...201121349598
pulsed field gel electrophoresis typing of human and retail foodstuff campylobacters: an irish perspective.campylobacter enteritis is a zoonosis, an infectious disease transmissible under normal conditions from vertebrate animals to man, presenting a major global public health burden. in this study, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) was employed to identify common genotypes in a collection of 600 campylobacter isolates in order to investigate if profiles obtained from retail samples of foodstuffs matched genotypes causing illness in the community in ireland. the campylobacters were isolated fro ...201021356447
high prevalence of intestinal carriage of campylobacter coli in patients with primary antibody deficiencies: a silent infection that could shift to a life-threatening condition. 201121358549
comparison of cape town and skirrow's campylobacter isolation protocols in humans and broilers in morogoro, tanzania.comparison of cape town and skirrow's protocols used in isolation of campylobacter in humans and broilers was carried out in a cross-sectional study in morogoro, tanzania. a total of 176 and 158 human stool and broiler intestinal samples were collected, respectively. while human stool samples were collected from selected health centers, broiler intestinal samples were obtained from selected farms and chicken markets. samples were inoculated and cultured in duplicate using two protocols and preva ...201121359592
characterization of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains isolated in the region of nis, serbia.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli represent one of the main causes of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. although the disease is usually mild and self-limiting, severe chronic sequelae may occur, such as reactive arthritis, guillain-barré and miller fisher syndromes. serotyping is used as an epidemiological marker, while post-infective polyneuropathies are associated with several o serotypes.201021361150
change is good: variations in common biological mechanisms in the epsilonproteobacterial genera campylobacter and helicobacter.microbial evolution and subsequent species diversification enable bacterial organisms to perform common biological processes by a variety of means. the epsilonproteobacteria are a diverse class of prokaryotes that thrive in diverse habitats. many of these environmental niches are labeled as extreme, whereas other niches include various sites within human, animal, and insect hosts. some epsilonproteobacteria, such as campylobacter jejuni and helicobacter pylori, are common pathogens of humans tha ...201121372321
related antimicrobial resistance genes detected in different bacterial species co-isolated from swine fecal samples.a potential factor leading to the spread of antimicrobial resistance (ar) in bacteria is the horizontal transfer of resistance genes between bacteria in animals or their environment. to investigate this, swine fecal samples were collected on-farm and cultured for escherichia coli, salmonella enterica, campylobacter spp., and enterococcus spp. which are all commonly found in swine. forty-nine of the samples from which all four bacteria were recovered were selected yielding a total of 196 isolates ...201121385089
fitness cost of fluoroquinolone resistance in campylobacter coli and campylobacter this study, the fitness cost of fluoroquinolone resistance was evaluated in vitro, on food matrices, and in vivo, using campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni in vitro selected mutants. in vitro, the growth rate of the susceptible (wild type) and resistant (mutant) strains did not differ when cultured separately. however, by conducting sequential passages of mixed cultures, the ratio of the resistant mutant to the susceptible strain decreased for c. coli but not for c. jejuni. when the w ...201121388301
automated identification of medically important bacteria by 16s rrna gene sequencing using a novel comprehensive database, 16spathdb.despite the increasing use of 16s rrna gene sequencing, interpretation of 16s rrna gene sequence results is one of the most difficult problems faced by clinical microbiologists and technicians. to overcome the problems we encountered in the existing databases during 16s rrna gene sequence interpretation, we built a comprehensive database, 16spathdb ( based on the 16s rrna gene sequences of all medically important bacteria listed in the manual of clinical microbiology ...201121389154
longitudinal on-farm study of the development of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter coli from pigs before and after danofloxacin and tylosin treatments.effects of danofloxacin or consecutive fluoroquinolone and macrolide treatments on resistance development in campylobacter have remained uncharacterised. therefore we analysed the development of resistance in porcine campylobacter coli before and after danofloxacin and tylosin treatments at a farrowing farm. danofloxacin-treated (n=12, group a) and control pigs (n=15, group b) were subsequently treated with tylosin and sampled longitudinally. c. coli were isolated and susceptibilities to ciprofl ...201121397412
comparative genotypic and pathogenic examination of campylobacter concisus isolates from diarrheic and non-diarrheic humans.campylobacter concisus is an emerging enteric pathogen, yet it is commonly isolated from feces and the oral cavities of healthy individuals. this genetically complex species is comprised of several distinct genomospecies which may vary in pathogenic potential.201121406111
eleutherine americana: a candidate for the control of campylobacter species.the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of selected thai medicinal plants (rhodomyrtus tomentosa (aiton) hassk., quercus infectoria g. olivier, and eleutherine americana merr.) against campylobacter spp. was investigated. sixty-five campylobacter, including 39 isolates from humans and 26 isolates from chicken samples, were tested. reference campylobacter spp. that are commonly encountered in gastroenteritis were included. the ethanolic extract of e. americana demonstrated good antibacte ...201121406364
etiology of diarrhea in young children and patterns of antibiotic resistance in cambodia.little is known about diarrhea etiology and antibiotic resistance in developing countries where diarrhea is a major public health problem.201121412204
campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes in common teals (anas crecca).to evaluate the presence of campylobacter spp. and related cdt genes, cloacal swabs were collected from 70 common teals (anas crecca) and analyzed by culture methods and polymerase chain reaction. in addition, c. jejuni were examined also for the presence of wlan gene. this is believed to be the first report of campylobacter spp. in common teal and our results confirm the very common occurrence of c. jejuni (n=40) and c. coli (n=13) in waterfowls. furthermore, the cdt genes were frequently prese ...201121450419
influence of season and geography on campylobacter jejuni and c. coli subtypes in housed broiler flocks reared in great britain.geographical and seasonal variation in the incidence and prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and c. coli in housed broiler flocks reared in great britain in 2004 to 2006 was investigated in this study. ceca (30) from 797 flocks, not subject to prior partial depopulation and reared on 211 farms, were examined individually for the presence of campylobacter spp. the best-fitting climatic factors explained approximately 46% of the prevalence of campylobacter-colonized flocks at slaughter and consiste ...201121460110
microbial efflux pump inhibition: tactics and strategies.traditional antimicrobials are increasingly suffering from the emergence of multidrug resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. to overcome these deficiencies, a range of novel approaches to control microbial infections are under investigation as potential alternative treatments. multidrug efflux is a key target of these efforts. efflux mechanisms are broadly recognized as major components of resistance to many classes of chemotherapeutic agents as well as antimicrobials. efflux occurs due to ...201121470111
diarrheagenic pathogens in polymicrobial infections.during systematic active surveillance of the causes of diarrhea in patients admitted to the infectious diseases and beliaghata general hospital in kolkata, india, we looked for 26 known gastrointestinal pathogens in fecal samples from 2,748 patients. samples from about one-third (29%) of the patients contained multiple pathogens. polymicrobial infections frequently contained vibrio cholerae o1 and rotavirus. when these agents were present, some co-infecting agents were found significantly less o ...201121470448
efficacy of uv light treatment for the microbiological decontamination of chicken, associated packaging, and contact surfaces.uv light was investigated for the decontamination of raw chicken, associated packaging, and contact surfaces. the uv susceptibilities of a number of campylobacter isolates (seven campylobacter jejuni isolates and three campylobacter coli isolates), escherichia coli atcc 25922, and salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis atcc 10376 in liquid media were also investigated. from an initial level of 7 log cfu/ml, no viable campylobacter cells were detected following exposure to the most intense uv do ...201121477470
antimicrobial resistance and molecular subtyping of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from retail meats.campylobacter isolates (n = 297; 202 c. jejuni and 95 c. coli isolates) recovered from 2,513 retail meat samples (chicken breasts, ground turkey, ground beef, and pork chops) were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility. the isolates were further analyzed for genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) using smai and kpni restriction enzymes, and a subset of isolates (n = 174) were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (mlst). the resistance most frequently observed was tha ...201121477476
l-fucose utilization provides campylobacter jejuni with a competitive advantage.campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent gastrointestinal pathogen in humans and a common commensal of poultry. when colonizing its hosts, c. jejuni comes into contact with intestinal carbohydrates, including l-fucose, released from mucin glycoproteins. several strains of c. jejuni possess a genomic island (cj0480c-cj0490) that is up-regulated in the presence of both l-fucose and mucin and allows for the utilization of l-fucose as a substrate for growth. strains possessing this genomic island show in ...201121482772
occurrence of thermotolerant campylobacter spp. on eggshells: a missing link for food-borne infections?we analyzed the prevalence of thermotolerant campylobacter spp. compared that of to salmonella spp. in raw yolk and on eggshells. a total of 2,710 eggs were investigated for each bacterium. viable bacteria were found in 4.1% (campylobacter spp.) and 1.1% (salmonella spp.) of the eggshell samples, whereas the egg yolk samples were negative for both bacteria.201121498761
campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, and cytolethal distending toxin genes in laying no data are available on the prevalence of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes carried by campylobacter spp. in laying hens, this study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the prevalence of both campylobacter spp. and cdt genes in 1680 laying hens from four different farms. the samples were analyzed by culture methods and by polymerase chain reaction. campylobacter spp. were isolated from 1097/1680 cloacal swabs. among the isolates, 913 were identified as campylobacter jejuni whereas 3 ...201121500644
prevalence and risk factors for campylobacter spp. in chicken broiler flocks in reunion island (indian ocean).our objectives were to determine campylobacter prevalence in broiler chicken flocks in reunion island and to define specific practices associated with the presence of campylobacter spp. infection in reunionese broiler flocks. fifty broiler flocks were studied in reunion island from may 2007 to february 2009. a questionnaire was submitted to the farmers and samples of fresh droppings were collected to assess the flock's campylobacter status. fifty four percent of the flocks were infected by campy ...201121511349
differentiation of campylobacter species by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.abstract the genus campylobacter contains several, widespread pathogens causing food-borne diseases of zoonotic nature in humans. in case of outbreaks, the differentiation of closely related campylobacter is essential for epidemiological studies, which investigate the routes of geographical spread and ways of transmission. recent advances in mass spectrometry (ms) have shown that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (maldi-tof) ms is a valuable tool for speciation of bacter ...201121524195
cytolethal distending toxin: a conserved bacterial genotoxin that blocks cell cycle progression, leading to apoptosis of a broad range of mammalian cell lineages.cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) is a heterotrimeric ab-type genotoxin produced by several clinically important gram-negative mucocutaneous bacterial pathogens. irrespective of the bacterial species of origin, cdt causes characteristic and irreversible cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a broad range of cultured mammalian cell lineages. the active subunit cdtb has structural homology with the phosphodiesterase family of enzymes including mammalian dnase i, and alone is necessary and sufficient ...201121565933
campylobacter contamination of broiler caeca and carcasses at the slaughterhouse and correlation with salmonella order to estimate the prevalence of campylobacter spp. and salmonella spp. on broiler chicken carcasses and the prevalence of campylobacter spp. in caeca, 58 french slaughterhouses were investigated in 2008. enumeration of campylobacter spp. was also performed in order to study the relation between caeca and carcass contamination. a pool of 10 caeca and one carcass were collected from 425 different batches over a 12-month period in 2008. salmonella was isolated on 32 carcasses leading to a pr ...201121569927
influence of cell surface hydrophobicity on attachment of campylobacter to abiotic surfaces.this work aimed to investigate the influence of physicochemical properties and prior mode of growth (planktonic or sessile culture) on attachment of 13 campylobacter jejuni strains and 5 campylobacter coli strains isolated from chicken samples to three abiotic surfaces: stainless steel, glass and polyurethane. water contact angle and zeta potential measurements indicated that the strains varied with respect to surface hydrophobicity (17.6 ± 1.5 to 53.0 ± 2.3°) and surface charge (-3.3 ± 0.4 to - ...201121569937
metagenome of the gut of a malnourished child.abstract: background: malnutrition, a major health problem, affects a significant proportion of preschool children in developing countries. the devastating consequences of malnutrition include diarrhoea, malabsorption, increased intestinal permeability and suboptimal immune response etc. nutritional interventions and dietary solutions have not been effective for treatment of malnutrition till date. metagenomic procedures allow one to access the complex cross-talk between the gut and its microbia ...201121599906
rapid identification and quantification of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni by real-time pcr in pure cultures and in complex samples.abstract: background: campylobacter spp., especially campylobacter jejuni (c. jejuni) and campylobacter coli (c. coli), are recognized as the leading human foodborne pathogens in developed countries. livestock animals carrying campylobacter pose an important risk for human contamination. pigs are known to be frequently colonized with campylobacter, especially c. coli, and to excrete high numbers of this pathogen in their faeces. molecular tools, notably real-time pcr, provide an effective, rapid ...201121600037
flagellar glycosylation in burkholderia pseudomallei and burkholderia thailandensis.glycosylation of proteins is known to impart novel physical properties and biological roles to proteins from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. in this study, gel based glycoproteomics were used to identify glycoproteins of the potential bio-threat agent burkholderia pseudomallei and the closely related but non-pathogenic b. thailandensis. top-down and bottom-up ms analysis identified that the flagellin proteins of both species were post-translationally modified by novel glycans. analysis of prote ...201121602339
screening of australian plants for antimicrobial activity against campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of acute enteritis in humans, with symptoms such as diarrhoea, fever and abdominal cramps. in this study, 115 extracts from 109 australian plant species were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against two c. jejuni strains using an in vitro broth microdilution assay. among the plants tested, 107 (93%) extracts showed activity at a concentration between 32 and 1024 µg/ml against at least one c. jejuni strain. seventeen plant extracts were ...201121604309
the utility of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) following introduction for routine laboratory bacterial identification.maldi-tof ms was evaluated prospectively in a diagnostic laboratory. 927 organisms were tested in triplicate; 2351/2781 (85%) species and 2681/2781 (96%) genus identifications were correct. known issues such as the misidentification of α-haemolytic streptococci as streptococcus pneumonia were easily corrected. identifications cost $aud0.45 per isolate and were available in minutes. maldi-tof ms is rapid, accurate and inexpensive.201121632894
blastocystis sp. subtype 4 is common in danish blastocystis-positive patients presenting with acute diarrhea.abstract. fecal samples from 444 danish patients presenting with acute diarrhea were tested for blastocystis and positive samples were subtyped to investigate the prevalence and subtype distribution of blastocystis in this patient group. a total of 25 patients (5.6%) were positive, and 19 of these patients (76.0%) were positive for blastocystis sp. st4. because the relative prevalence of st4 in other patients presenting with other types of diarrhea (persistent, travel-related, and human immunode ...201121633023
molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates of poultry, swine, and cattle origin collected from slaughterhouses in hungary.campylobacter spp. are the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in hungary, and the aim of this study was to identify the distribution, genotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter species in the most important food-producing animals at the time of slaughter during 2008 and 2009. of 1,110 samples, 266 were identified as campylobacter coli (23.9%) and 143 as c. jejuni (12.9%) by real-time pcr. resistance to enrofloxacin-ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was significant, especia ...201121669066
genome sequence of campylobacter jejuni strain 327, a strain isolated from a turkey slaughterhouse.campylobacter is one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis and has a high prevalence in poultry. campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni 327 is a subspecies of the genus campylobacter of the family campylobacteraceae in the phylum proteobacteria. the microaerophilic, spiral shaped, catalase positive bacterium obtains energy from the metabolism of amino acids and krebs cycle intermediates. strain 327 was isolated from a turkey slaughter production line and is considered environmentally s ...201121677848
allelic diversity and population structure of bacillus sphaericus as revealed by multilocus sequence typing.the genetic diversity of 35 bacillus sphaericus strains was analyzed by a newly developed multilocus sequence typing (mlst) scheme, toxin gene pool survey, and mosquito bioassay. the results demonstrated that strains assigned to the same sequence type (st) had the same occurrence of toxin genes. further sequence analysis revealed that toxic strains presented a nearly clonal population structure, whereas nontoxic strains had a high level of heterogeneity and were significantly distinct from toxic ...201121685170
structure and mechanism of rnd-type multidrug efflux pumps. 201121692366
Occurrence of virulence genes among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from domestic animals and children.The presence of the flaA, cadF, cdtB and iam genes of Campylobacter spp. was determined with the PCR method. The materials to investigate were 56 C. jejuni and 23 C. coli strains isolated from clinical samples (children and domestic animals). It was found that all of the Campylobacter spp. isolates from children with diarrhoea and domestic animals had cadF gene, responsible for adherence. The flaA gene was present in all Campylobacter spp. isolates derived from children and cats. Occurrence of f ...201121721403
hygienic quality and antibiotic resistance profile of sliced order to investigate the microbiological quality of different meat products on the greek market, 200 samples were collected from the following preparations: boiled turkey (n=50), boiled pork ham (n=50), smoked turkey (n=50) and smoked pork ham (n=50). in all cold meat preparations clostridium perfringens vegetative and spore forms, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli and other clostridium sp lec(-), as well as lactobacillus, bacillus sp. and salmonella sp. were recovered. for instance bac ...201121722746
detection of campylobacter concisus and other campylobacter species in colonic biopsies from adults with ulcerative colitis.the critical role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (uc) is well recognized, but an individual causative microorganism has not been singled out so far. campylobacter concisus and other non-jejuni species of campylobacter have been implicated as putative aetiological agents in inflammatory bowel disease in children, but such studies have not been addressed in adults. this study investigated the prevalence of campylobacter species in colonic biopsy samples from adults with uc a ...201121738679
niche segregation and genetic structure of campylobacter jejuni populations from wild and agricultural host species.bacterial populations can display high levels of genetic structuring but the forces that influence this are incompletely understood. here, by combining modelling approaches with multilocus sequence data for the zoonotic pathogen campylobacter, we investigated how ecological factors such as niche (host) separation relate to population structure. we analysed seven housekeeping genes from published c. jejuni and c. coli isolate collections from a range of food and wild animal sources as well as abi ...201121762392
temporal variation and host association in the campylobacter population in a longitudinal ruminant farm study.campylobacter jejuni and c. coli was quantified and typed using multi-locus sequence typing (mlst) from fecal samples collected from a mixed cattle and sheep farm during summer. cattle had a significantly higher prevalence than sheep (21.9 % (74/338) and 14.0 % (30/214), respectively) but both reduced over time. there were no differences in the average campylobacter concentrations shed between cattle (600 cfu g(-1)) and sheep (820 cfu g(-1)), although sheep did show a significant temporal reduct ...201121784915
genomic species are ecological species as revealed by comparative genomics in agrobacterium tumefaciens.the definition of bacterial species is based on genomic similarities, giving rise to the operational concept of genomic species, but the reasons of the occurrence of differentiated genomic species remains largely unknown. we used the agrobacterium tumefaciens species complex, and particularly the genomic species presently called genomovar g8, which includes the sequenced strain c58, to test the hypothesis of genomic species having specific ecological adaptations possibly involved in the speciati ...201121795751
campylobacter from sows in farrow-to-finish pig farms: risk indicators and genetic diversity.sows have been identified as a source of campylobacter contamination in piglets. we carried out a one-year study, in 2008, at 53 farrow-to-finish farms in brittany, france, to determine the proportion of sows excreting campylobacter. we also determined the genotypes of the campylobacter isolates. moreover, generalized estimating equations including repeated effects were used to assess the association between management practices and farm characteristics, and risk of campylobacter shedding by sow ...201121802224
genome and characterization of phages bcep22 and bcepil02, founders of a novel phage type in burkholderia cenocepacia.within the burkholderia cepacia complex (bcc), b. cenocepacia is the most common species associated with aggressive infections in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, causing disease that is often refractive to treatment by antibiotics. phage therapy may be a potential alternative form of treatment for these infections. here we describe the genome of the previously described therapeutic b. cenocepacia podophage bcepil02 and its close relative, bcep22. phage bcep22 was found to contain a circul ...201121804006
regulation of oxidative stress response by cosr, an essential response regulator in campylobacter jejuni.cosr (campylobacteroxidative stress regulator; cj0355c) is an ompr-type response regulator essential for the viability of campylobacter jejuni, a leading foodborne pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide. despite importance, the function of cosr remains completely unknown mainly because of cell death caused by its knockout mutation. to overcome this technical limitation, in this study, antisense technology was used to investigate the regulatory function of cosr by modulating the level o ...201121811584
the prevalence and genetic diversity of campylobacter spp. in domestic 'backyard' poultry in canterbury, new zealand.campylobacteriosis is the most commonly notified illness in new zealand. whilst the importance of commercial poultry in campylobacteriosis is well established, little is known about the possible role of chickens kept at home as a direct animal/faecal contact or consumption exposure pathway. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of campylobacter spp. in domestic backyard chicken flocks in the canterbury region of new zealand. poultry faecal samples were colle ...201121824372
sequencing and validation of the genome of a campylobacter concisus reveals intra-species diversity.campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen of the human gastrointestinal tract. its role in different diseases remains a subject of debate; this may be due to strain to strain genetic variation. here, we sequence and analyze the genome of a c. concisus from a biopsy of a child with crohn's disease (unswcd); the second such genome for this species. a 1.8 mb genome was assembled with paired-end reads from a next-generation sequencer. this genome is smaller than the 2.1 mb c. concisus reference ...201121829448
genetic instability of campylobacter coli in the digestive tract of experimentally infected pigs.campylobacter, a leading cause of food-borne illness worldwide, has a widespread distribution with a broad range of animal hosts and environmental reservoirs. the genetic description of bacterial strains is a powerful tool for epidemiological studies but can be impaired by the high genomic variability of campylobacter. our study aimed (i) at investigating the genotypic instability of campylobacter generated either in vitro by subculturing or after in vivo passage on specific pathogen-free pigs a ...201121831540
defining the causes of diarrhea: novel approaches.diarrheal disease causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, defining the microbiologic causes are challenging due to the large number of potential enteropathogens that require testing, insensitivity of existing conventional methods, the frequent occurrence of mixed infections, and high rates of background carriage in many communities.201121844805
inadequacies of minimum spanning trees in molecular epidemiology.minimum spanning trees (msts) are frequently used in molecular epidemiology research to estimate relationships among individual strains or isolates. nevertheless, there are significant caveats to mst algorithms that have been largely ignored in molecular epidemiology studies and that have the potential to confound or alter the interpretation of the results of those analyses. specifically, (i) presenting a single, arbitrarily selected mst illustrates only one of potentially many equally optimal s ...201121849692
analysis of caga in helicobacter pylori strains from colombian populations with contrasting gastric cancer risk reveals a biomarker for disease severity.helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, and the bacterial oncoprotein caga contributes to gastric carcinogenesis.201121859954
does human bocavirus infection depend on helper viruses? a challenging case report.a case of severe diarrhoea associated with synergistic human bocavirus type 1 (hbov) and human herpes virus type 6 (hhv6) is reported. the case supports the hypotheses that hbov infection under clinical conditions may depend on helper viruses, or that hbov replicates by a mechanism that is atypical for parvoviruses, or that hbov infection can be specifically treated with cidofovir.201121871135
genetic organisation, mobility and predicted functions of genes on integrated, mobile genetic elements in sequenced strains of clostridium difficile.clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-associated diarrhoea in the us and europe. recently the incidence of c. difficile-associated disease has risen dramatically and concomitantly with the emergence of 'hypervirulent' strains associated with more severe disease and increased mortality. c. difficile contains numerous mobile genetic elements, resulting in the potential for a highly plastic genome. in the first sequenced strain, 630, there is one proven conjugative transposon (ctn) ...201121876735
genotypes and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter coli in fattening pigs.campylobacter coli is a food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide. the organism is a commensal in the intestine of many food production animals including fattening pigs. the role of the pig as a potential reservoir for c. coli affecting human either directly or via poultry has hardly been investigated and genetic characterization of porcine strains is needed to address this question. for this aim multilocus sequence typing (mlst) and flab typing was applied to 256 c. c ...201121899961
Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of major foodborne pathogens in imported seafood.Seafood is a leading commodity implicated in foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Seafood importation rose dramatically in the past 3 decades and now contributes to more than 80% of the total U.S. seafood supply. However, limited data are available on the microbiological safety of imported seafood. In this study, we obtained a total of 171 salmon, shrimp, and tilapia samples imported from 12 countries in three retail stores in Baton Rouge, LA. The total microbial population and the ...201121902913
helicobacter pylori exploits a unique repertoire of type iv secretion system components for pilus assembly at the bacteria-host cell interface.colonization of the human stomach by helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for development of gastric cancer. the h. pylori cag pathogenicity island (cag pai) encodes components of a type iv secretion system (t4ss) that translocates the bacterial oncoprotein caga into gastric epithelial cells, and cagl is a specialized component of the cag t4ss that binds the host receptor α5β1 integrin. here, we utilized a mass spectrometry-based approach to reveal co-purification of cagl, cagi (anoth ...201121909278
Ribosomal mutations as the main cause of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.The aim of this study was to examine macrolide resistance mutations in Campylobacter species. In 76 strains studied, point mutation A to G at position 2059 of the 23S rRNA gene was detected in 30 of the 33 erythromycin-resistant strains. An amino acid insertion in the ribosomal protein L22 was found in one resistant strain without a 23S rRNA mutation. The A2059G mutation is the main cause of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter species.201121911571
A Nationwide Study of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli bacteremia in Finland over a 10-year period, 1998-2007, with special reference to clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility.Campylobacter bacteremia is an uncommon condition, usually diagnosed in elderly and immunocompromised patients.201121921217
assessing sensitivity to antibacterial topoisomerase ii inhibitors.both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have two major classes of topoisomerases that make transient single- or double-strand cuts in dna. while these enzymes play critical roles in cellular processes, they are also important targets of therapeutic agents. this unit describes assays to use in characterizing topoisomerase ii-targeting agents in vitro and in bacterial cells. it provides protocols for characterizing the action of small molecules against bacterial type ii topoisomerases in vitro and the in ...200721948169
Genome and proteome of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophage NCTC 12673.Campylobacter jejuni continues to be the leading cause of bacterial food-borne illness worldwide, so improvements to current methods used for bacterial detection and disease prevention are needed. We describe here the genome and proteome of C. jejuni bacteriophage NCTC 12673 and the exploitation of its receptor-binding protein for specific bacterial detection. Remarkably, the 135-kb Myoviridae genome of NCTC 12673 differs greatly from any other proteobacterial phage genome described (including C ...201121965409
prevalence of campylobacter species in adult crohn's disease and the preferential colonization sites of campylobacter species in the human intestine.crohn's disease (cd) and ulcerative colitis (uc) are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd). a high prevalence of campylobacter concisus was previously detected in paediatric cd and adult uc. currently, the prevalence of c. concisus in adult cd and the preferential colonization sites of campylobacter species in the human intestine are unknown. in this study, we examined the prevalence of campylobacter species in biopsies collected from multiple anatomic sites of adult patients w ...201121966525
biosecurity-based interventions and strategies to reduce campylobacter spp. on poultry farms.the prevention and control of campylobacter colonization of poultry flocks are important public health strategies for the control of human campylobacteriosis. a critical review of the literature on interventions to control campylobacter in poultry on farms was undertaken using a systematic approach. although the focus of the review was on aspects appropriate to the united kingdom poultry industry, the research reviewed was gathered from worldwide literature. multiple electronic databases were em ...201121984249
campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review.campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. the organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. intestinal colonization results in healthy ...201121991264
effects of polyphosphate additives on the ph of processed chicken exudates and the survival of campylobacter.campylobacter spp. are nutritionally fastidious organisms that are sensitive to normal atmospheric oxygen levels and lack homologues of common cold shock genes. at first glance, these bacteria seem ill equipped to persist within food products under processing and storage conditions; however, they survive in numbers sufficient to cause the largest number of foodborne bacterial disease annually. a mechanism proposed to play a role in campylobacter survival is the addition of polyphosphate-contain ...201122004823
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