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risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in reported campylobacter infections in southern alberta.we conducted a case-control study examining risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in campylobacter infections that were reported in 2004 and 2005 in two health regions in southern alberta. the study questionnaire included questions about recent travel and antibiotic use, food consumption frequency, use of household and personal hygiene products with antibacterial agents, contact with animals, and potential misuse of antibiotics. of the 210 patients who participated, 31.0% had ciprofloxacin-r ...200817678560
prevalence of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in chicken hybrids with different growth rates, reared according to conventional and "free-range" production methods. 200717682919
(e)-methylisoeugenol and elemicin: antibacterial components of daucus carota l. essential oil against campylobacter jejuni.the essential oil of wild daucus carota l. obtained from aerial parts at the end of the flowering stage (dceo) was reported as antimicrobial against the human enteropathogen campylobacter jejuni. the aim of the present study was to extend this analysis to other campylobacter species and to identify the active compounds of the essential oil, subjected to gc, gc-ms, and (13)c nmr analysis. a minimum inhibitory concentration assay was used to quantify the antimicrobial activity of dceo and the majo ...200717685629
crystal structure of the transcriptional regulator cmer from campylobacter jejuni.the cmeabc multidrug efflux pump, which belongs to the resistance-nodulation-division (rnd) family, recognizes and extrudes a broad range of antimicrobial agents and is essential for campylobacter jejuni colonization of the animal intestinal tract by mediating the efflux of bile acids. the expression of cmeabc is controlled by the transcriptional regulator cmer, whose open reading frame is located immediately upstream of the cmeabc operon. to understand the structural basis of cmer regulation, w ...200717686491
antimicrobial resistance of 114 porcine isolates of campylobacter coli.campylobacter species were isolated from 24 pig farms in 10 different regions of korea, and were assayed with regard to their susceptibility to eight antimicrobial agents. a total of 114 campylobacter isolates from 572 intestinal samples were all identified as c. coli via both classical methods and molecular methods, including 16s rdna sequence analysis and polymerase chain reactions (pcr) using specific primer sets for the hippuricase gene and the aspartokinase gene, designed to differentiate c ...200717716763
prevalence of resistance to 11 antimicrobials among campylobacter coill isolated from pigs on 80 grower-finisher farms in ontario.we carried out a cross-sectional study to investigate antimicrobial resistance patterns of campylobacter coli isolated from ontario grower-finisher pigs. from january to june 2004, 1200 samples were collected from 80 farms by obtaining a constant number (15) of fecal samples per farm. susceptibility of the isolates to 11 antimicrobial drugs was determined by the agar-dilution technique. the overall prevalence of resistance to 1 or more antimicrobials among the isolates was 99.2%. high levels of ...200717695593
genome dynamics of campylobacter jejuni in response to bacteriophage predation.campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of food-borne illness. although a natural reservoir of the pathogen is domestic poultry, the degree of genomic diversity exhibited by the species limits the application of epidemiological methods to trace specific infection sources. bacteriophage predation is a common burden placed upon c. jejuni populations in the avian gut, and we show that amongst c. jejuni that survive bacteriophage predation in broiler chickens are bacteriophage-resistant types that d ...200717722979
microbiological evaluation of the new vitek 2 neisseria-haemophilus identification card.vitek 2 is an automated identification system for diverse bacterial and fungal species. a new card (the neisseria-haemophilus [nh] card) for the identification of neisseria spp., haemophilus spp., and other fastidious gram-negative or gram-variable microorganisms has been developed, but its performance in a routine clinical laboratory has not yet been evaluated. in this study, a total of 188 bacterial strains belonging to the genera actinobacillus, campylobacter, capnocytophaga, cardiobacterium, ...200717728469
a collaborative study on a nordic standard protocol for detection and enumeration of thermotolerant campylobacter in food (nmkl 119, 3. ed., 2007).a nordic standard protocol for detection and enumeration of thermotolerant campylobacter in food has been elaborated (nmkl 119, 3. ed., 2007). performance and precision characteristics of this protocol were evaluated in a collaborative study with participation of 14 laboratories from seven european countries. the laboratories performed qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative analyses on samples of chicken meat, cut lettuce, and milk artificially inoculated with different concentrations i ...200717761333
development of macrolide-resistant campylobacter in broilers administered subtherapeutic or therapeutic concentrations of tylosin.the use of antimicrobials in food animal production, particularly those commonly used to treat infections in humans, has become a source of debate in recent years. however, limited data are available regarding the development of resistance following the subtherapeutic or therapeutic administration of antimicrobials in animal production. the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the administration of therapeutic and subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin on the erythromycin susc ...200717803155
high level of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chickens in estonia in 2005 and 2006.the development of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli is a matter of increasing concern. because campylobacteriosis is transmitted to humans usually via food of animal origin, the presence of antimicrobial-resistant campylobacters in broiler chickens has important public health implications. the aim of our study was to analyze resistance patterns of c. jejuni isolated from fecal samples collected at a large estonian chicken farm, from cecal contents collected ...200717803154
siderophore-based iron acquisition and pathogen control.high-affinity iron acquisition is mediated by siderophore-dependent pathways in the majority of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and fungi. considerable progress has been made in characterizing and understanding mechanisms of siderophore synthesis, secretion, iron scavenging, and siderophore-delivered iron uptake and its release. the regulation of siderophore pathways reveals multilayer networks at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. due to the key role of many siderophores ...200717804665
acute childhood diarrhoea in northern ghana: epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics.acute diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-saharan africa. its microbiological causes and clinico-epidemiological aspects were examined during the dry season 2005/6 in tamale, urban northern ghana.200717822541
campylobacter and bacterial gastroenteritis. 200717846438
[multi-pcr identification and virulence genes detection of campylobacter jejuni isolated from china].this study was to simultaneously identify campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates in china by multi-pcr assay and to study the prevalence of six virulence and toxin genes on them.200717850712
quorum sensing: fact, fiction, and everything in between. 200717869606
[acute pancreatitis - association with a campylobacter coli-infection].a 37-year-old male presented with intermittent abdominal pain and 9 kg weight loss within 3 weeks. gastroscopy showed no pathological findings, coloscopy showed a colitis limited to the left flexure. histology revealed a sustained infectious enterocolitis. a culture of the patient's stool was positive for campylobacter coli. because of the recurrent abdominal discomfort and weight loss the patient was admitted to the hospital. ultrasound and multislice spiral computed tomography showed an acute ...200717874359
a possible mechanism of macrolide resistance among multiple resistant campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from thai children during 1991-2000.a total of 495 campylobacterjejuni and 122 c. coli isolated from thai children were screened for macrolide (erythromycin and azithromycin) resistance by disk diffusion assay. minimum inhibitory concentrations for erythromycin, azithromycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, streptomycin, gentamicin and chloramphenicol were further determined for these macrolide-resistant campylobacter isolates. presence of known point mutations resulting in reduced susceptibility to macrolides was inv ...200717877226
fla-dgge analysis of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in cecal samples of broilers without cultivation.in a commercial broiler flock during rearing multiple genotypes of campylobacter jejuni may be present as well as in gastrointestinal tracts of individual birds. the aim of this study was to optimize and apply a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis assay of the flagellin gene (fla-dgge) for analysis of c. jejuni and campylobacter coli in cecal samples of broilers without prior cultivation. one c. coli and 21 c. jejuni strains isolated from broiler flocks, of which 14 typed as unique by restri ...200817890022
composite sequence proteomic analysis of protein biomarkers of campylobacter coli, c. lari and c. concisus for bacterial identification.protein biomarkers observed in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra (maldi-tof-ms) of cell lysates of three strains of campylobacter coli, two strains of c. lari and one strain of c. concisus have been identified by 'bottom-up' proteomic techniques. the significant findings are as follows. first, the protein biomarkers identified were: phna-related protein, 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (dmpi)-related protein, nifu-like protein, cytochrome c, dna-binding pro ...200717893805
predictive model for inactivation of campylobacter spp. by heat and high hydrostatic pressure.campylobacter represents one of the leading causes of foodborne enteritis. poultry and its products frequently transmit the pathogen. the objective of the present study was to model predictively the short-term inactivation of campylobacter in a ready-to-eat poultry product to develop an economic high-pressure treatment. we inactivated baroresistant strains of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli, grown to stationary phase on nutrient agar and inoculated in poultry meat slurry, by heat and ...200717900078
prevalence and strain diversity of thermophilic campylobacters in cattle, sheep and swine farms.to determine prevalence and strain diversity of thermophilic campylobacters in healthy ruminants and swine.200717897201
multiplex pcr for direct identification of campylobacter spp. in human and chicken stools.differentiation between campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli is problematic in clinical specimens due to fastidious growth requirements and limited biochemical tests. this study describes a rapid, multiplex pcr protocol for the direct detection and differentiation of c. jejuni and c. coli in stools. an evaluation was carried out of this multiplex protocol based on the detection of cadf (genus specific), and hipo (c. jejuni) and asp (c. coli) genes, using stool from patients with campyloba ...200717893173
quantification and differentiation of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in raw chicken meats using a real-time pcr method.campylobacter species are one of the most common causes of bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. the consumption of foods contaminated with two campylobacter species, c. jejuni and c. coli, is usually associated with most of the infections in humans. in this study, a rapid, reliable, and sensitive multiplex real-time quantitative pcr was developed for the simultaneous detection, identification, and quantification of c. jejuni and c. coli. in addition, the developed method was applied to the 50 ...200717900077
spontaneous mutation frequency and emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.we analysed the contribution of spontaneous mutation frequency to the evolution of ciprofloxacin resistance and the diversity of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (qrdr) of gyra and in the intergenic region, cmer-cmea, of the cmeabc efflux pump in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.200717911389
campylobacter flagella: not just for motility.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are among the major causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. the motility imparted by the polar flagella of these pathogens is required for colonization of the mucus lining of the gastrointestinal tract. however, recent studies have revealed a more complex role for flagella in campylobacter pathogenesis that includes the ability to secrete non-flagellar proteins that modulate virulence and the co-regulation of secreted and non-secreted virulence factors ...200717920274
expanding the helicobacter pylori genetic toolbox: modification of an endogenous plasmid for use as a transcriptional reporter and complementation vector.helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen. however, the study of this organism is often limited by a relative shortage of genetic tools. in an effort to expand the methods available for genetic study, an endogenous h. pylori plasmid was modified for use as a transcriptional reporter and as a complementation vector. this was accomplished by addition of an escherichia coli origin of replication, a kanamycin resistance cassette, a promoterless gfpmut3 gene, and a functional multiple clonin ...200717921278
epidemiology, relative invasive ability, molecular characterization, and competitive performance of campylobacter jejuni strains in the chicken gut.one hundred forty-one campylobacter jejuni isolates from humans with diarrhea and 100 isolates from retailed poultry meat were differentiated by flaa typing. the bacteria were isolated in a specific geographical area (dunedin) in new zealand over a common time period. twenty nine flaa types were detected, one of which (flaa restriction fragment length polymorphism type 15 [flaa-15]) predominated among isolates from humans ( approximately 30% of isolates). this strain was of low prevalence (5% of ...200717921281
diversity of campylobacter coli genotypes in the lower porcine gastrointestinal tract at time of slaughter.to compare the genotypes of campylobacter coli obtained from the rectal and ileal samples of pigs at the time of slaughter.200717922816
characterization of campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected campylobacter penner serotypes.the predominant food borne pathogen in the western world today is campylobacter. campylobacter specific bacteriophages (phages) have been proposed as an alternative agent for reducing the burden of campylobacter in broilers. one concern in relation to phage biocontrol is the narrow host range often displayed by phages. to identify the potential of phages as a campylobacter reducing agent we needed to determine their infectivity on a panel of isolates representing the campylobacter strains found ...200717945022
development of a multiplex pcr assay for identification of campylobacter coli, campylobacter fetus, campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter lari and campylobacter upsaliensis.a multiplex pcr assay has been developed for the identification of the six common campylobacter taxa associated with human gastroenteritis and/or septicaemia, namely campylobacter coli, campylobacter fetus, campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter lari and campylobacter upsaliensis. the assay was developed using a combination of newly designed and published primers. it provided a specific pcr product for each of the five campylobacter species and ...200717965346
effects of short-chain nitrocompounds against campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in vitro.effects of 2-nitro-1-propanol, 2-nitroethanol, nitroethane, and 2-nitro-methyl-propionate (0, 10, and 20 mm) on growth of campylobacter jejuni were tested during culture in bolton broth adjusted to ph 5.6, 7.0, or 8.2. the nitrocompounds were similarly tested against c. coli but at ph 8.2 only. viable cell counts measured during incubation revealed main effects (p < 0.05) of all nitrocompounds on the survivability of c. jejuni. an effect of ph (p < 0.05) on the survivability of c. jejuni during ...200717995842
wide geographical distribution of internationally rare campylobacter clones within new zealand.during the southern hemisphere winter of 2006 new zealand experienced a significant increase in the number of reported cases of campylobacter infection. in total, 112 campylobacter isolates from eight district health boards (dhbs) located across new zealand were submitted for pfge, mlst and penner serotyping analysis. distinct clusters of campylobacter isolates were identified, several of which were composed of isolates from up to five different dhbs located on both the north and south islands o ...200818028582
wide geographical distribution of internationally rare campylobacter clones within new zealand.during the southern hemisphere winter of 2006 new zealand experienced a significant increase in the number of reported cases of campylobacter infection. in total, 112 campylobacter isolates from eight district health boards (dhbs) located across new zealand were submitted for pfge, mlst and penner serotyping analysis. distinct clusters of campylobacter isolates were identified, several of which were composed of isolates from up to five different dhbs located on both the north and south islands o ...200818028582
sexual dimorphism in campylobacteriosis.sexual dimorphism in infectious diseases whereby disease incidence is more prevalent in one gender has been reported repeatedly in the scientific literature. both behavioural and physiological differences have been suggested as a cause of this gender bias but there is a paucity of data to support either of these viewpoints. here it is hypothesized that for campylobacteriosis physiological factors play an important role in the higher incidence in males. we demonstrate in the human population (fro ...200818062834
sexual dimorphism in campylobacteriosis.sexual dimorphism in infectious diseases whereby disease incidence is more prevalent in one gender has been reported repeatedly in the scientific literature. both behavioural and physiological differences have been suggested as a cause of this gender bias but there is a paucity of data to support either of these viewpoints. here it is hypothesized that for campylobacteriosis physiological factors play an important role in the higher incidence in males. we demonstrate in the human population (fro ...200818062834
antibiotic resistance and resistance mechanisms in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world and infections with these organisms occur more frequently than do infections due to salmonella species, shigella species, or escherichia coli 0157:h7. the incidence of human campylobacter infections has increased markedly in both developed and developing countries worldwide and, more significantly, so has the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant campylobacte ...200718031331
gastrointestinal disease in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques is characterized by proinflammatory dysregulation of the interleukin-6-janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription3 pathway.gastrointestinal disease and inflammation are common sequelae of human and simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) infection. nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that lead to gastrointestinal dysfunction remain unclear. we investigated regulation of the interleukin (il)-6-jak-stat3 pathway in jejunum and colon, collected at necropsy, from 10 siv-infected macaques with diarrhea (group 1), 10 non-siv-infected macaques with diarrhea (group 2), and 7 control uninfected macaques (group 3). all group 1 ...200718055558
production of a monoclonal antibody specific for the major outer membrane protein of campylobacter jejuni and characterization of the epitope.campylobacter species are important enteric pathogens causing disease in humans and animals. there is a lack of a good immunological test that can be used routinely to separate campylobacter jejuni from other campylobacter species. we produced monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the major outer membrane protein (momp) of c. jejuni using recombinant momp as the antigen. one mab, designated mab5c4 and of the immunoglobulin g1 isotype, was found to be potentially specific for c. jejuni. d ...200818065632
production of a monoclonal antibody specific for the major outer membrane protein of campylobacter jejuni and characterization of the epitope.campylobacter species are important enteric pathogens causing disease in humans and animals. there is a lack of a good immunological test that can be used routinely to separate campylobacter jejuni from other campylobacter species. we produced monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the major outer membrane protein (momp) of c. jejuni using recombinant momp as the antigen. one mab, designated mab5c4 and of the immunoglobulin g1 isotype, was found to be potentially specific for c. jejuni. d ...200818065632
role of poultry meat in sporadic campylobacter infections in bosnia and herzegovina: laboratory-based study.to investigate genetic diversity and specificity of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains isolated from humans, retail poultry meat, and live farm chickens in zenica-doboj canton, bosnia and herzegovina, and identify the role of poultry meat in sporadic campylobacter infections.200718074419
survey of campylobacter jejuni in stray cats in southern italy.to evaluate the presence of thermotolerant campylobacter spp. in stray cats in southern italy.200818069980
lack of response of int-407 cells to the presence of non-culturable campylobacter jejuni.many contradictory articles on the infectivity of non-culturable campylobacter jejuni can be found. we studied the effect of non-culturable c. jejuni in an in vitro assay. to prevent the potential effect of a few culturable bacteria in the non-culturable suspension, int-407 cells, which mimic the outer cell layer in the small intestines, were exposed to culturable c. jejuni suspensions with or without non-culturable c. jejuni. the number of bacteria adhering to and/or invading int-407 cells and ...200818081950
lack of response of int-407 cells to the presence of non-culturable campylobacter jejuni.many contradictory articles on the infectivity of non-culturable campylobacter jejuni can be found. we studied the effect of non-culturable c. jejuni in an in vitro assay. to prevent the potential effect of a few culturable bacteria in the non-culturable suspension, int-407 cells, which mimic the outer cell layer in the small intestines, were exposed to culturable c. jejuni suspensions with or without non-culturable c. jejuni. the number of bacteria adhering to and/or invading int-407 cells and ...200818081950
characterization of two putative cytochrome c peroxidases of campylobacter jejuni involved in promoting commensal colonization of poultry.campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans throughout the world, but infection of animals, especially poultry, results in a commensal colonization of the intestines. we previously found that a mutant lacking doca, which encodes a putative cytochrome c peroxidase (ccp), demonstrates up to a 10(5)-fold reduction in colonization of the chick cecum compared to wild-type c. jejuni strain 81-176. predictions from genomic sequences identified cjj0382 as a second locu ...200818086814
characterization of two putative cytochrome c peroxidases of campylobacter jejuni involved in promoting commensal colonization of poultry.campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans throughout the world, but infection of animals, especially poultry, results in a commensal colonization of the intestines. we previously found that a mutant lacking doca, which encodes a putative cytochrome c peroxidase (ccp), demonstrates up to a 10(5)-fold reduction in colonization of the chick cecum compared to wild-type c. jejuni strain 81-176. predictions from genomic sequences identified cjj0382 as a second locu ...200818086814
pulsed-plasma gas-discharge inactivation of microbial pathogens in chilled poultry wash water.a pulsed-plasma gas-discharge (ppgd) system was developed for the novel decontamination of chilled poultry wash water. treatment of poultry wash water in the plasma generation chamber for up to 24 s at 4 degrees c reduced escherichia coli nctc 9001, campylobacter jejuni atcc 33560, campylobacter coli atcc 33559, listeria monocytogenes nctc 9863, salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis atcc 4931, and s. enterica serovar typhimurium atcc 14028 populations to non-detectable levels (< or = 8 log cfu ...200718095434
the complete genome sequence and analysis of the epsilonproteobacterium arcobacter butzleri.arcobacter butzleri is a member of the epsilon subdivision of the proteobacteria and a close taxonomic relative of established pathogens, such as campylobacter jejuni and helicobacter pylori. here we present the complete genome sequence of the human clinical isolate, a. butzleri strain rm4018.200718159241
retrospective study of campylobacter infection in a zoological collection.little is known about the epidemiology of campylobacter spp. in wild animal populations. however, zoological collections can provide valuable insights. using records from the zoological society of london whipsnade zoo compiled between 1990 and 2003, the roles of a range of biotic and abiotic factors associated with the occurrence of campylobacteriosis were investigated. the occurrence of campylobacteriosis varied widely across host taxonomic orders. furthermore, in mammals, a combination of chan ...200818165368
retrospective study of campylobacter infection in a zoological collection.little is known about the epidemiology of campylobacter spp. in wild animal populations. however, zoological collections can provide valuable insights. using records from the zoological society of london whipsnade zoo compiled between 1990 and 2003, the roles of a range of biotic and abiotic factors associated with the occurrence of campylobacteriosis were investigated. the occurrence of campylobacteriosis varied widely across host taxonomic orders. furthermore, in mammals, a combination of chan ...200818165368
role of campylobacter jejuni respiratory oxidases and reductases in host colonization.campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of human food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis. the c. jejuni genome sequence predicts a branched electron transport chain capable of utilizing multiple electron acceptors. mutants were constructed by disrupting the coding regions of the respiratory enzymes nitrate reductase (napa::cm), nitrite reductase (nrfa::cm), dimethyl sulfoxide, and trimethylamine n-oxide reductase (termed cj0264::cm) and the two terminal oxidases, a cyanide-insensitive oxidase (cy ...200818192421
the origin of a novel gene through overprinting in escherichia coli.overlapped genes originate by a) loss of a stop codon among contiguous genes coded in different frames; b) shift to an upstream initiation codon of one of the contiguous genes; or c) by overprinting, whereby a novel open reading frame originates through point mutation inside an existing gene. although overlapped genes are common in viruses, it is not clear whether overprinting has led to new genes in prokaryotes.200818226237
functional characterization and mutagenesis of the proposed behavioral sensor tlpd of helicobacter pylori.helicobacter pylori requires flagellar motility and chemotaxis to establish and maintain chronic infection of the human stomach. the ph gradient in the stomach mucus is essential for bacterial orientation and guides the bacterium toward a narrow layer of the mucus, suggesting that h. pylori is capable of energy sensing or taxis. in the present study, h. pylori wild-type behavior in a temporal swimming assay could be altered by electron transport inhibitors, indicating that a connection between m ...200818245281
real-time pcr approach for detection of environmental sources of campylobacter strains colonizing broiler flocks.reducing colonization of poultry flocks by campylobacter spp. is a key strategy in the control and prevention human campylobacteriosis. horizontal transmission of campylobacters, from in and around the farm, is the presumed route of flock colonization. however, the identification and prioritization of sources are confounded by the ubiquitous nature of these organisms in the environment, their poor rates of recovery by standard culture methods, and the need for cost-effective and timely methods f ...200818203857
risk factors for infection with campylobacter jejuni flaa genotypes.we aimed to explore campylobacter genotype-specific risk factors in australia. isolates collected prospectively from cases recruited into a case-control study were genotyped using flaa restriction fragment-length polymorphism typing (flaa genotyping). exposure information for cases and controls was collected by telephone interview. risk factors were examined for major flaa genotypes using logistic and multinomial regression. five flaa genotypes accounted for 325 of 590 (55%) cases - flaa-6b (n=1 ...200818205975
campylobacter jejuni survives within epithelial cells by avoiding delivery to lysosomes.campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea world-wide, although relatively little is know about its mechanisms of pathogenicity. this bacterium can gain entry into intestinal epithelial cells, which is thought to be important for its ability to persistently infect and cause disease. we found that c. jejuni is able to survive within intestinal epithelial cells. however, recovery of intracellular bacteria required pre-culturing under oxygen-limiting conditions, suggesti ...200818225954
development of a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based species-specific multiplex pcr assay for the detection and identification of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and campylobacter fetus.a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based species-specific multiplex pcr assay for the detection of cdta, cdtb or cdtc gene of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli or campylobacter fetus, respectively, was developed and evaluated with 76 campylobacter strains belonging to seven different species and 131 other bacterial strains of eight different genera. the cdta, cdtb or cdtc gene of c. jejuni, c. coli or c. fetus, respectively, could be successfully amplified using the corresponding se ...200818248435
development and evaluation of immunochromatographic assay for simple and rapid detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in human stool specimens.an immunochromatographic assay (campy-ica) using a newly generated single monoclonal antibody against a 15-kda cell surface protein of campylobacter jejuni was developed. when cell suspensions of 86 c. jejuni strains and 27 campylobacter coli strains were treated with a commercially available bacterial protein extraction reagent and the resulting extracts were tested with the campy-ica, they all yielded positive results. the minimum detectable limits for the c. jejuni strains ranged from 1.8 x 1 ...200818256225
a temperature-regulated campylobacter jejuni gluconate dehydrogenase is involved in respiration-dependent energy conservation and chicken colonization.campylobacter jejuni is a gastrointestinal pathogen of humans but can asymptomatically colonize the avian gut. c. jejuni therefore grows at both 37 degrees c and 42 degrees c, the internal temperatures of humans and birds respectively. microarray and proteomic studies on temperature regulation in c. jejuni strain 81-176 revealed the upregulation at 42 degrees c of two proteins, cj0414 and cj0415, orthologous to gluconate dehydrogenase (gadh) from pectobacterium cypripedii. 81-176 demonstrated ga ...200818284594
development of a strain-specific molecular method for quantitating individual campylobacter strains in mixed populations.the identification of sites resulting in cross-contamination of poultry flocks in the abattoir and determination of the survival and persistence of campylobacters at these sites are essential for the development of intervention strategies aimed at reducing the microbial burden on poultry at retail. a novel molecule-based method, using strain- and genus-specific oligonucleotide probes, was developed to detect and enumerate specific campylobacter strains in mixed populations. strain-specific oligo ...200818281428
prevalence of virulence genes and cytolethal distending toxin production in campylobacter jejuni isolates from diarrheal patients in bangladesh.from 300 stool samples, 58 campylobacter strains were isolated by standard microbiological and biochemical methods. of these, 40 strains were identified as campylobacter jejuni and 5 as campylobacter coli. the presence of flaa (100%), cadf (100%), racr (100%), dnaj (100%), plda (100%), ciab (95%), virb11 (0%), ceue (82.5%), cdta (97.5%), cdtb (97.5%), cdtc (97.5%), and wlan (7.5%) genes was detected in c. jejuni by pcr. all c. jejuni strains but one produced cytolethal distending toxin in a hela ...200818287317
differences in virulence attributes between cytolethal distending toxin positive and negative campylobacter jejuni strains.campylobacter jejuni is a common gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen. although cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) is proposed to be an important virulence determinant of this pathogen, how cdt(+) and cdt(-) strains differ in their biological properties remains largely unknown. the virulence properties of cdt(+) and cdt(-) strains were studied on hela cells and in the suckling mouse model. presence of the cdtb gene in campylobacter species was determined by pcr. five each of cdt(+) and cdt(-) c. j ...200818287287
comparative performance of different pcr assays for the identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.the sensitivity and specificity of 7 pcr assays described for the identification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli were examined using alkaline cell lysates from a collection of 100 well characterized reference strains of c. jejuni, c. coli, campylobacter lari and related campylobacter, helicobacter and arcobacter species. based on a preliminary evaluation, one multiplex test was excluded from further evaluation. the various assays differed considerably in sensitivity and specificit ...200818272350
high-resolution genotyping of campylobacter species by use of pcr and high-throughput mass spectrometry.in this work we report on a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based technique for the rapid high-resolution identification of campylobacter jejuni strain types. this method readily distinguishes c. jejuni from c. coli, has a resolving power comparable to that of multilocus sequence typing (mlst), is applicable to mixtures, and is highly automated. the strain typing approach is based on high-performance mass spectrometry, which "weighs" pcr amplicons with enough mass accuracy to unambiguously det ...200818272701
antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter spp. isolated from broiler flocks in iceland 2001-2005.minimum inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobial agents were determined for one campylobacter sp. isolate from each of the 362 campylobacter-positive commercial chicken flocks in iceland in the years 2001-2005. of all isolates tested, 6.9% were resistant, although none were multiresistant. resistance to ampicillin was most commonly observed (3.6%) followed by resistance to enrofloxacin (3%), nalidixic acid (1.9%), and oxytetracyclin (0.3%), with cross-resistance between enrofloxacin and na ...200818321203
antimicrobial drug resistance as determined by the e-test in campylobacter jejuni, c. coli, and c. lari isolates from the ceca of broiler and layer chickens in grenada.one hundred and twenty five chickens from grenada, consisting of 77 broilers and 48 layers were examined for carriage of thermophilic campylobacters in their ceca by culture. seventy nine percent of chickens were positive for campylobacters, with an isolation rate of 93.5% for broilers and 56.3% for layers, the difference being significant. sixty-four pure cultures comprising 39 campylobacter coli, 21 campylobacter jejuni, and 4 campyilobacter lari isolates were tested for their resistance again ...200918329712
prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens in a population of zoo animals.faecal prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens, including campylobacter, escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella, shigella, yersinia, as well as arcobacter, were examined in 317 faecal specimens from 44 animal species in belfast zoological gardens, during july-september 2006. thermophilic campylobacters including campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and campylobacter lari, were the most frequently isolated pathogens, where members of this genus were isolated from 11 animal species (1 ...200818331520
evaluation of 16s rrna gene-based pcr assays for genus-level identification of helicobacter species.the inclusivity, exclusivity, and detection limit of six 16s rrna gene-based helicobacter genus-specific pcr assays were examined. five out of six assays were 100% inclusive, but the tests varied considerably in their exclusivity (9.1 to 95.5%). the clinical detection limit varied between 10(3) and 1 viable bacterial cell per reaction mixture.200818337392
development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and simple detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the rapid and simple detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. the assay provides a specific lamp product for each of these two species. the assay correctly identified 65 c. jejuni and 45 c. coli strains, but not 75 non-c. jejuni/coli strains. the sensitivity of the lamp assay for c. jejuni and c. coli in spiked human stool specimens was 5.6 x 10(3) c.f.u. g(-1) (1.4 c.f.u. per test tube) and 4.8 x 10(3) c.f.u ...200818349363
sequence variability of campylobacter temperate bacteriophages.prophages integrated within the chromosomes of campylobacter jejuni isolates have been demonstrated very recently. prior work with campylobacter temperate bacteriophages, as well as evidence from prophages in other enteric bacteria, suggests these prophages might have a role in the biology and virulence of the organism. however, very little is known about the genetic variability of campylobacter prophages which, if present, could lead to differential phenotypes in isolates carrying the phages ve ...200818366706
comparison of antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from humans and chicken carcasses in poland.campylobacter-associated gastroenteritis remains an important cause of morbidity worldwide, and some evidence suggests that poultry is an important source of this foodborne infection in humans. this study was conducted to analyze the prevalence and genetic background of resistance of 149 campylobacter jejuni and 54 campylobacter coli strains isolated from broiler chicken carcasses and from stool samples of infected children in poland from 2003 through 2005. nearly all isolates were susceptible t ...200818389707
harmonised monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in salmonella and campylobacter isolates from food animals in the european union.many member states of the european union (eu) currently monitor antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic agents, including salmonella and campylobacter. according to directive 2003/99/ec, member states shall ensure that the monitoring provides comparable data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. the european commission asked the european food safety authority to prepare detailed specifications for harmonised schemes for monitoring antimicrobial resistance. the objective of these specificat ...200818397331
convergence of campylobacter species: implications for bacterial evolution.the nature of species boundaries in bacteria remains controversial. in particular, the mechanisms of bacterial speciation and maintenance in the face of frequent genetic exchange are poorly understood. here, we report patterns of genetic exchange that show two closely related zoonotic pathogenic species, campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli, are converging as a consequence of recent changes in gene flow. population expansion into a novel ecological niche generated by human activity is the ...200818403712
campylobacter infection of broiler chickens in a free-range environment.campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with contaminated chicken meat considered to represent a major source of human infection. biosecurity measures can reduce c. jejuni shedding rates of housed chickens, but the increasing popularity of free-range and organic meat raises the question of whether the welfare benefits of extensive production are compatible with food safety. the widespread assumption that the free-range environment contaminates extens ...200818412548
[enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis].campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are the bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis commonly reported worldwide. the serodiagnosis of campylobacter infections is not routinely done in poland so the aim of this study was to evaluation of elisa in the diagnosis ofcampylobacteriosis. serum samples obtained from 145 patients with gastroenteritis were tested by elisa with 7 different heat-stable antigens of c. jejuni and one of c. coli and by the commercial virion/serion elisa with purified ...200718416128
longitudinal study of the molecular epidemiology of campylobacter jejuni in cattle on dairy farms.multilocus sequence typing (mlst), an accurate and phylogenetically robust characterization method for population studies of campylobacter, was applied to campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 297) from the fecal samples of cattle from five dairy farms in cheshire, united kingdom, collected throughout 2003. the population dynamics of the c. jejuni strains, as identified by the occurrence of sequence types and clonal complexes, demonstrated variations within and between cattle populations over time. ...200818424539
the effect of chilling in cold air or ice water on the microbiological quality of broiler carcasses and the population of campylobacter.cold air or ice water can be used to chill poultry carcasses after slaughter. the objective of this study was to compare the effect of 2 chill methods on broiler carcass bacteria. broiler carcasses were cut in half along the dorsal-ventral midline; one half was subjected to an ice-water immersion chill in an agitated bath for 50 min, whereas the reciprocal half was subjected to an air chill in a 1 degrees c cold room for 150 min. total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, escherichia coli, and campyloba ...200818420993
comparison of campylobacter populations in wild geese with those in starlings and free-range poultry on the same farm.wild geese are a potential source of campylobacter infection for humans and farm animals and have been implicated in at least two large waterborne disease outbreaks. there have been few investigations into the population biology of campylobacter in geese, carriage rates are reported to vary (0 to 100%), and no genetic characterization of isolates has been performed. fecal samples collected from wild geese in oxfordshire, united kingdom, were culture positive for c. jejuni (50.2%) and c. coli (0. ...200818390684
comparative genomic analysis of clinical strains of campylobacter jejuni from south africa.campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis and is also associated with the post-infectious neuropathies, guillain-barré and miller fisher syndromes. in the cape town area of south africa, c. jejuni strains with penner heat-stable (hs) serotype hs:41 have been observed to be overrepresented among cases of guillain-barré syndrome. the present study examined the genetic content of a collection of 32 south african c. jejuni strains with different serotypes, including 13 hs:41 st ...200818431496
competing isogenic campylobacter strains exhibit variable population structures in vivo.consumption of poultry contaminated with campylobacter jejuni is a risk factor for human gastrointestinal disease. the rational development of control strategies for campylobacter within chickens requires an understanding of the colonization process at the molecular and population levels, both within and between hosts. experiments employing competing strains of campylobacter have been used to investigate colonization. implicit in these studies is the assumption that the behavior of competing str ...200818424530
the first report on campylobacter coli family outbreak detected in poland in 2006.a family outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by campylobacter coli occurred in may 2006 in bielsko-biala, in the south of poland. four members of a family had non-bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps. c. coli were isolated in three of the four patients. pfge and pcr-rflp-flaa patterns confirmed the link between cases, showing the usefulness of these methods in outbreak investigation. at the same time, the epidemiological and environmental investigations of this outbreak were very limited and did ...200818445405
detection of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from broiler chicken-related samples using bax pcr and conventional international organization for standardization culture.in this study, the conventional international organization for standardization (iso) culture method was compared with the dupont qualicon bax system, a high-throughput, rapid molecular assay that can be used to detect several bacterial species, including campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in diverse sample types. standard enrichment culture is a time-consuming process, taking up to 6 days to obtain a confirmed result. rapid molecular assays have been developed that provide results withi ...200818468043
performance of a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray for genotyping of campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is widespread in the environment and is the major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. in the present study we use microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (cgh), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and multilocus sequence typing (mlst) to analyze closely related c. jejuni isolates from chicken and human infection.200818462507
the omp50 gene is transcriptionally controlled by a temperature-dependent mechanism conserved among thermophilic campylobacter species.the thermophilic campylobacters are enteropathogenic for humans. we recently showed that omp50 is a campylobacter species-specific porin produced in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter lari but not in campylobacter coli. in the present study, we investigated regulation of the omp50 gene and found that its expression in c. jejuni was temperature-dependent, but independent of growth phase or medium viscosity. the use of rt-pcr and omp50::lacz fusions showed that growth temperature control occur ...200818485677
prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of fecal escherichia coil among pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms with different in-feed medication policies in ontario and british columbia.the main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in pigs on farms that medicated swine ration and those that did not. a total of 940 isolates of escherichia coli from 188 pooled fecal samples obtained from weaner and finisher pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish swine farms (34 farms used in-feed medication and 13 did not) were tested for susceptibility to 21 antimicrobials using a breakpoint concentration method. the prevalence of resistance var ...200818505210
antimicrobial use through feed, water, and injection in 20 swine farms in alberta and saskatchewan.antimicrobial resistance (amr) is an emerging animal welfare and public health issue linked to antimicrobial use (amu) in livestock. this study was conducted in 2004 on 20 swine farms in alberta and saskatchewan. on-farm records and questionnaires were used to retrospectively describe the antimicrobial exposures of pigs through feed, water, and injection. antimicrobial use in all production categories was described over 12 months. on-farm records and questionnaires provided sufficient data to de ...200818505203
identification of nine sequence types of the 16s rrna genes of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolated from broilers.campylobacter is the most commonly reported bacterial cause of enteritis in humans in the eu member states and other industrialized countries. one significant source of infection is broilers and consumption of undercooked broiler meat. campylobacter jejuni is the campylobacter sp. predominantly found in infected humans and colonized broilers. sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene is very useful for identification of bacteria to genus and species level. the objectives in this study were to deter ...200818492293
comparison of agar dilution and e-test for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of campylobacter coil isolates recovered from 80 ontario swine farms.the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement of the e-test for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of campylobacter coli using the agar dilution technique, which is the approved method. a convenience sample of 80 ontario swine farms was chosen for this study; each farm was visited from january to june 2004. a total of 233 isolates of c. coli were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials by agar dilution and the e-test. performance of the tests was evaluate ...200818505206
occurrence and genotypes of campylobacter in broiler flocks, other farm animals, and the environment during several rearing periods on selected poultry farms.on 15 swiss poultry farms, broiler flocks, other farm animals, and the environment were examined during consecutive rearing periods to investigate the occurrence and genetic diversity of campylobacter. of the 5154 collected samples, 311 (6%) from 14 farms were campylobacter positive by culture. amongst the positive samples, 228 tested positive for campylobacter jejuni and 92 for campylobacter coli. positive samples originated from broilers, the broiler houses, cattle, pigs, bantams, laying hens, ...200818508146
the campylobacter jejuni thiol peroxidases tpx and bcp both contribute to aerotolerance and peroxide-mediated stress resistance but have distinct substrate specificities.the microaerophilic food-borne pathogen campylobacter jejuni experiences variable oxygen concentrations during its life cycle, especially during transitions between the external environment and the avian or mammalian gut. single knockout mutations in either one of two related thiol peroxidase genes, tpx and bcp, resulted in normal microaerobic growth (10% [vol/vol] oxygen) but poorer growth than that of the wild type under high-aeration conditions (21% [vol/vol] oxygen). however, a tpx/bcp doubl ...200818515414
key role of mfd in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacter readily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. to understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of c. jejuni in th ...200818535657
tigecycline in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal and complicated skin and skin structure infections.tigecycline, a glycylcycline related to the tetracycline class of antibiotics, represents a new option for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal and complicated skin and skin structure infections. it displays favorable activity in vitro against the most common causative gram-positive, gram-negative and anaerobic pathogens. in addition, tigecycline demonstrates activity against drug-resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, a ...200718516315
ccaat/enhancer binding protein beta is a major mediator of inflammation and viral replication in the gastrointestinal tract of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques.the gastrointestinal tract (git) is a major target of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and simian immunodeficiency virus (siv). chronic git disease and inflammation are common sequelae to hiv/siv infection. nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms that cause and maintain git dysfunction remain unclear. we investigated the contribution of ccaat/enhancer-binding protein beta (c/ebpbeta) to git disease and viral replication in jejunum and colon collected at necropsy from 12 siv-infect ...200818535173
viral, bacterial and parasitic etiology of pediatric diarrhea in gaza, palestine.to determine the etiology of acute diarrhea in palestinian children under 5 years of age and to improve knowledge of the etiology of gastrointestinal pathogens using traditional and molecular diagnostic techniques.200818523397
helicobacter hepaticus hhgi1 is a pathogenicity island associated with typhlocolitis in b6.129-il10 tm1cgn mice.helicobacter hepaticus strain 3b1 (h. hepaticus) contains a genomic island of approximately 71 kb, hhgi1, with some of the common features shared among known bacterial pathogenicity islands. in this study, we characterized the pathogenic potential of hhgi1 by infecting b6.129-il10 tm1cgn (il10-/-) mice with an isogenic mutant (namely hhpaid1) lacking 19 predicted genes within hhgi1. in contrast to h. hepaticus (p<0.001), hhpaid1 did not cause typhlocolitis and hyperplasia in il10-/- mice. coloni ...200818538610
sensitive and rapid detection of cholera toxin-producing vibrio cholerae using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification.vibrio cholerae is widely acknowledged as one of the most important waterborne pathogen causing gastrointestinal disorders. cholera toxin (ct) is a major virulence determinant of v. cholerae. detection of ct-producing v. cholerae using conventional culture-, biochemical- and immunological-based assays is time-consuming and laborious, requiring more than three days. thus, we developed a novel and highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the sensitive and rapid detec ...200818547441
expression, purification, and structural characterization of cfra, a putative iron transporter from campylobacter jejuni.the gene for the campylobacter ferric receptor (cfra), a putative iron-siderophore transporter in the enteric food-borne pathogen campylobacter jejuni, was cloned, and the membrane protein was expressed in escherichia coli, affinity purified, and then reconstituted into model lipid membranes. fourier transform infrared spectra recorded from the membrane-reconstituted cfra are similar to spectra that have been recorded from other iron-siderophore transporters and are highly characteristic of a be ...200818556796
effect of putative efflux pump inhibitors and inducers on the antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.the cmeabc efflux pump plays an important role in the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. the aim of this investigation was to study the effect of putative efflux pump inhibitors, phenyl-arginine-beta-naphthylamide (pabetan) and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (nmp), as well as the effect of putative efflux pump inducers, sodium salicylate and sodium deoxycholate, on the mic levels of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, tetracycline and rifampicin for c. ...200818566143
influxed insects as vectors for campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in danish broiler houses.the vector potential of flies (diptera: brachycera) for spread of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli on 5 danish broiler farms was evaluated in a longitudinal field study from april to november 2004. first, the prevalence of c. jejuni- and c. coli-positive flies was determined in 2,816 flies captured from farm surroundings. each individual fly was macerated, preenriched in bolton broth for 24 h at 42 degrees c, streaked onto modified campylobater blood-free selective agar and incubated ...200818577626
multicenter evaluation of the new vitek 2 neisseria-haemophilus identification card.the new neisseria-haemophilus identification (nh) card for vitek 2 was compared with 16s rrna gene sequencing (16s) as the reference method for accurate identification of neisseria spp., haemophilus spp., and other fastidious gram-negative bacteria. testing was performed on the vitek 2 xl system with modified software at three clinical trial laboratories. reproducibility was determined with nine atcc quality control strains tested 20 times over a minimum of 10 days at all three sites. a challeng ...200818579712
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