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frequency and spatial distribution of environmental campylobacter spp.humans are exposed to campylobacter spp. in a range of sources via both food and environmental pathways. for this study, we explored the frequency and distribution of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in a 10- by 10-km square rural area of cheshire, united kingdom. the area contains approximately 70, mainly dairy, farms and is used extensively for outdoor recreational activities. campylobacter spp. were isolated from a range of environmental samples by use of a systematic sampling grid. livestock ...200415528512
detection of campylobacter spp. in chicken fecal samples by real-time pcr.a real-time pcr assay for detecting thermophilic campylobacter spp. directly in chicken feces has been developed. dna was isolated from fecal material by using magnetic beads followed by pcr with a prealiquoted pcr mixture, which had been stored at -18 degrees c. campylobacter could be detected in less than 4 h, with a detection limit of 100 to 150 cfu/ml, in a fecal suspension. a bacterial internal control was added before dna extraction to control both dna isolation and the presence of pcr inh ...200415528705
antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter strains isolated from french broilers before and after antimicrobial growth promoter bans.the antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter strains isolated from standard and free-range broilers in 1992-1996 and 2001-2002 was studied.200415537699
campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., isolated from marine mammals.phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed on four campylobacter-like organisms recovered from three seals and a porpoise. comparative 16s rrna gene sequencing studies demonstrated that the organisms represent a hitherto unknown subline within the genus campylobacter, associated with a subcluster containing campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and campylobacter lari. dna-dna hybridization studies confirmed that the bacteria belonged to a single species, for which the name campylobact ...200415545485
pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay for detection of gyra mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in campylobacter coli.a fragment of the gyra gene was sequenced from 34 isolates of campylobacter coli, including 23 isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. all ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates examined by dna sequencing carried a point mutation at position thr-86 on the gyra gene product, involving the replacement of thr-86 by ile. a combined pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using rsai was developed to detect this mutation.200415561873
regional risks and seasonality in travel-associated campylobacteriosis.the epidemiology of travel-associated campylobacteriosis is still largely unclear, and various known risk factors could only explain limited proportions of the recorded cases.200415569393
characterization of lactobacillus coryniformis dsm 20001t surface protein cpf mediating coaggregation with and aggregation among pathogens.phenotypic characterization of aggregation phenotypes of lactobacillus coryniformis revealed that strain dsm 20001t coaggregated with escherichia coli k88, campylobacter coli, and campylobacter jejuni but not with other human pathogens. in addition, cells of these pathogens aggregated in the presence of the spent culture supernatant (scs) of strain dsm 20001t. cells of e. coli k88 remained viable in the coaggregates and aggregates for up to 24 h. both coaggregation and aggregation (co/aggregatio ...200415574903
survival of cold-stressed campylobacter jejuni on ground chicken and chicken skin during frozen storage.campylobacter jejuni is prevalent in poultry, but the effect of combined refrigerated and frozen storage on its survival, conditions relevant to poultry processing and storage, has not been evaluated. therefore, the effects of refrigeration at 4 degrees c, freezing at -20 degrees c, and a combination of refrigeration and freezing on the survival of c. jejuni in ground chicken and on chicken skin were examined. samples were enumerated using tryptic soy agar containing sheep's blood and modified c ...200415574906
differentiation of campylobacter coli, campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter lari, and campylobacter upsaliensis by a multiplex pcr developed from the nucleotide sequence of the lipid a gene lpxa.we describe a multiplex pcr assay to identify and discriminate between isolates of campylobacter coli, campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter lari, and campylobacter upsaliensis. the c. jejuni isolate f38011 lpxa gene, encoding a udp-n-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase, was identified by sequence analysis of an expression plasmid that restored wild-type lipopolysaccharide levels in escherichia coli strain sm105 [lpxa(ts)]. with oligonucleotide primers developed to the c. jejuni lpxa gene, nearly fu ...200415583280
characterization of campylobacter isolates recovered from clinically healthy pigs and from sporadic cases of campylobacteriosis in humans.campylobacter spp. were recovered from 660 (77.6%) of 850 swine cecal contents at the abattoir and from 24 (8.6%) of 278 specimens from sporadic cases of human diarrhea during the same period in the same geographical area. campylobacter coli represented 95.7% of campylobacter isolates recovered from pigs and 8.3% of those isolated from humans. genetic profiles were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) using kpni enzyme to characterize the isolates in combination with phenotypic ...200414968951
distribution and characterization of campylobacter spp. from russian poultry.the distribution of campylobacter spp. on 13 poultry farms (broiler chicken, quail, pheasant, peacock, and turkey) from eight regions (vladimir, vologda, voronezh, kaluga, liptsk, moscow, orenburg, and orel) in russia was surveyed. intestinal materials were plated onto campylobacter-selective medium and plates were incubated microaerobically at 42 degrees c for 24 or 48 h. identification was based on colonial morphology, microscopic examination, and biochemical tests; latex agglutination assays ...200414968953
optimization of pcr-based methods for rapid detection of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and yersinia enterocolitica serovar 0:3 in wastewater samples.pcr-based methods were evaluated for their adequacy to assess the removal of pathogens from wastewater samples. for the development and optimization of the methods, samples were taken at two different sites from two different constructed wetlands. campylobacter jejuni/coli and yersinia enterocolitica serogroup 0:3 were selected as model pathogens and enterococcus faecalis as a standard microbiological indicator. the chosen pcr protocols were optimized for wastewater dna extracts in order to obta ...200414975667
occurrence of campylobacter jejuni in pets living with human patients infected with c. jejuni.campylobacter jejuni was recovered from four dogs (11%) and four cats (33%) living with danish human patients infected with c. jejuni. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) analysis revealed the occurrence of the same quinolone-resistant strain in a girl and her dog. c. jejuni isolates with closely related (>95% similarity) pfge profiles occurred in humans and pets from different danish counties.200415004120
[the role of certain campylobacter types in the etiology of enterocolitis].in recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. nowadays, campylobacter jejuni (c. jejuni) is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. epidemiological differences of the infections caused by campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. due to the specificity, and the demanding features ...200415022385
emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in the native campylobacter coli population of pigs exposed to enrofloxacin.the effect of a single 5 day enrofloxacin treatment on the native campylobacter coli population in conventionally weaned 5-week-old pigs was investigated.materials: twelve pigs were split into two groups of six: one group was treated with a therapeutic dose (15 mg/pig/day) of enrofloxacin and the other remained untreated to act as the control. campylobacter coli were isolated from faecal samples and tested for ciprofloxacin resistance by measuring mic values. mutations in the quinolone resistanc ...200415028665
prevalence and characteristics of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli, salmonella spp. and campylobacter spp. isolated from slaughtered sheep in switzerland.caecum samples collected from 653 slaughtered sheep from two swiss abattoirs were examined. the aim of this study was: (i) to determine the prevalence of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec), salmonella spp. and campylobacter spp.; (ii) to further characterize isolated strains; and (iii) to discuss the results obtained with their relevance to food safety. the percentage of samples testing positive for stec by a polymerase chain reaction was 29.9%. the prevalence of positive salmonella s ...200415033267
development of a multiplex microarray microsystem.a hybrid multiplex microarray microsystem has been developed that consists of 32 individually addressable array reaction chambers, supporting the use of multichannel pipettes for addition of up to 8 samples simultaneously. discrimination between campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli bacteria was observed in dna samples containing campylobacter spp., with the same specificity and sensitivity as when compared to a full-size microarray. the spinloaded multiplex microarray microsystem describe ...200415052357
direct quantification of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter lanienae in feces of cattle by real-time quantitative pcr.campylobacter species are fastidious to culture, and the ability to directly quantify biomass in microbiologically complex substrates using real-time quantitative (rtq) pcr may enhance our understanding of their biology and facilitate the development of efficacious mitigation strategies. this study reports the use of nested rtq-pcr to directly quantify campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter lanienae in cattle feces. for c. jejuni, the single-copy mapa gene was selected. for c. lanienae, the thre ...200415066825
bacterial pathogen incidences in sludge from swedish sewage treatment plants.this study surveyed the presence of bacterial pathogens in eight swedish sewage treatment plants (stps), with four different treatment methods, focusing on detection of zoonotic bacteria in raw and treated sludge. salmonella spp., listeria monocytogenes, campylobacter coli and jejuni, escherichia coli o157 and indicator bacteria were investigated. samplings were performed from july 2000 to june 2002, resulting in 64 raw sludge samples and 69 treated sludge samples. the samples from raw sludge (6 ...200415087179
relative contribution of target gene mutation and efflux to fluoroquinolone and erythromycin resistance, in french poultry and pig isolates of campylobacter coli.thirty-eight avian and swine french isolates of campylobacter coli were studied for their mechanisms of co-resistance to fluoroquinolones and erythromycin. a thr86ile modification of gyra, responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance, was found in all the strains. two different levels of resistance to erythromycin (mic of 8-16 or >/=256 mg/l) were observed. a a2075g mutation in the 23s rrna genes was found only in the highly-resistant strains. phe-arg-beta-naphthylamide, an efflux pump inhibitor, ...200415120725
dual control of helicobacter pylori heat shock gene transcription by hspr and hrca.the hspr repressor regulates transcription of the groesl, hrca-grpe-dnak, and cbpa-hspr-orf operons of helicobacter pylori. here we show that two of the hspr-regulated operons, namely, the groesl and dnak operons, encoding the major cellular chaperone machineries are also regulated by the h. pylori homologue of the hrca repressor. similarly to the hspr mutation, deletion of the hrca gene also leads to complete derepression of the pgro and phrc promoters. the presence of both hspr and hrca is the ...200415126455
molecular characterization of class 1 integrons from irish thermophilic campylobacter spp.in this study a large random collection (n = 378) of irish thermophilic campylobacter isolates were investigated for the presence of integrons, genetic elements associated with the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance.200415128721
longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in denmark.the campylobacter excretion patterns of 26 domestic pet dogs were described in a longitudinal study. the dogs entered the study between 3 and 8 months of age and were monitored until 2 years of age. they were tested monthly for campylobacter carriage in stool samples that were cultured on the campylobacter-selective media cat and modified ccda agar at 37 and 42 degrees c. this study comprised 366 fecal swab samples, of which 278 (76.2%) were found to be campylobacter positive, with the following ...200415131162
use of the omp50 gene for identification of campylobacter species by pcr.we studied the prevalence of the omp50 gene and the omp50 protein in campylobacter strains. immunodetection assays and dna-dna hybridizations showed that most c. coli strains tested were negative and most c. jejuni and c. lari strains tested were positive. a pcr assay was developed, using the omp50 gene as a species-specific target. we propose a combination of a hippurate test and an omp50 assay to perform identification of campylobacter species.200415131219
sensitive and specific detection of yersinia pseudotuberculosis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method able to detect yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains in 30 min by using six primers designed by targeting the inv gene. this method is more sensitive than pcr and might be a useful tool for detecting and identifying y. pseudotuberculosis.200415528740
gastroenteritis in nf-kappab-deficient mice is produced with wild-type camplyobacter jejuni but not with c. jejuni lacking cytolethal distending toxin despite persistent colonization with both strains.campylobacter jejuni continues to be a leading cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. however, because there are no readily available animal models to study the pathogenesis of c. jejuni-related diseases, the significance of potential virulence factors, such as cytolethal distending toxin (cdt), in vivo are poorly understood. mice deficient in nf-kappab subunits (p50(-/-) p65(+/-)) in a c57bl/129 background are particularly susceptible to colitis induced by another enterohepatic microaerobe, he ...200414742559
genotypic and antibiotic susceptibility characteristics of a campylobacter coli population isolated from dairy farmland in the united kingdom.campylobacter infections are the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans, and nearly 8% of such infections are caused by campylobacter coli. most studies have concentrated on campylobacter jejuni, frequently isolated from intensively farmed poultry and livestock production units, and few studies have examined the spread and relatedness of campylobacter across a range of geographical and host boundaries. systematic sampling of a 100-km2 area of mixed farmland in northwest england yield ...200414766560
comparison of survival of campylobacter jejuni in the phyllosphere with that in the rhizosphere of spinach and radish plants.campylobacter jejuni has been isolated previously from market produce and has caused gastroenteritis outbreaks linked to produce. we have tested the ability of this human pathogen to utilize organic compounds that are present in leaf and root exudates and to survive in the plant environment under various conditions. carbon utilization profiles revealed that c. jejuni can utilize many organic acids and amino acids available on leaves and roots. despite the presence of suitable substrates in the p ...200414766604
simultaneous presence of multiple campylobacter species in dogs.the prevalence of coinfection of campylobacter species in dogs was determined using four isolation methods. in 26% of the positive-testing stools, multiple campylobacter species were identified. the use of multiple isolation methods as well as the time lapse between sampling and processing are important for detection of coinfection.200414766860
campylobacter spp., giardia spp., cryptosporidium spp., noroviruses, and indicator organisms in surface water in southwestern finland, 2000-2001.a total of 139 surface water samples from seven lakes and 15 rivers in southwestern finland were analyzed during five consecutive seasons from autumn 2000 to autumn 2001 for the presence of various enteropathogens (campylobacter spp., giardia spp., cryptosporidium spp., and noroviruses) and fecal indicators (thermotolerant coliforms, escherichia coli, clostridium perfringens, and f-rna bacteriophages) and for physicochemical parameters (turbidity and temperature); this was the first such systema ...200414711629
fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains and its relationship with host specificity, serotyping, and phage typing.fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (faflp) analysis was applied to 276 campylobacter jejuni strains and 87 campylobacter coli strains isolated from humans, pigs, cattle, poultry, and retail meats to investigate whether certain faflp genotypes of c. jejuni and c. coli are associated with a particular host and to determine the degree of association between faflp-defined genotypes and heat-stable serotypes and/or phage types. within c. coli, the poultry strains clustered separately ...200414715757
l-serine catabolism via an oxygen-labile l-serine dehydratase is essential for colonization of the avian gut by campylobacter jejuni.campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic, asaccharolytic bacterium. the identity of the carbon and energy sources used by c. jejuni in vivo is unknown, but the genome sequence of strain nctc11168 indicates the presence of genes for catabolism of a limited range of amino acids, including serine. specific omission of l-serine from a defined medium containing a mixture of amino acids led to a dramatic decrease in cell yields. as c. jejuni does not have a biosynthetic serine requirement, this suppo ...200414688104
phase and antigenic variation in bacteria.phase and antigenic variation result in a heterogenic phenotype of a clonal bacterial population, in which individual cells either express the phase-variable protein(s) or not, or express one of multiple antigenic forms of the protein, respectively. this form of regulation has been identified mainly, but by no means exclusively, for a wide variety of surface structures in animal pathogens and is implicated as a virulence strategy. this review provides an overview of the many bacterial proteins a ...200415258095
comparison of electrolyzed oxidizing water with other antimicrobial interventions to reduce pathogens on fresh pork.to date, the effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing (eo) water against bacteria associated with fresh pork has not been determined. using a hand-held, food-grade garden sprayer, distilled water (w), chlorinated water (cl; 25 ppm), 2% lactic acid (la), acidic eo water (eoa), or "aged" acidic eo water (aeoa; stored at 4 °c for 24 h) was sprayed (15 s) onto pork bellies inoculated with feces containing listeria monocytogenes (lm), salmonella typhimurium (st), and campylobacter coli (cc). remaining ...200422062415
cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the major cell-associated phospholipase a of legionella pneumophila, plab, exhibiting hemolytic activity.legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of legionnaires' disease, is an intracellular pathogen of amoebae, macrophages, and epithelial cells. the pathology of legionella infections involves alveolar cell destruction, and several proteins of l. pneumophila are known to contribute to this ability. by screening a genomic library of l. pneumophila, we found an additional l. pneumophila gene, plab, which coded for a hemolytic activity and contained a lipase consensus motif in its deduced protein ...200415102773
[incidence of the virulence markers iam in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains isolated from poultry carcases].previously found dna sequence (iam), correlated with the invasiveness of campylobacter strains, became a starting point for present investigation. main goal of this study was to isolate number of campylobacter strains from chicken carcasses, to determine their taxonomic position and to establish the presence of iam sequence in their genoms. it was found, that invasion associated marker is present in all campylobacter coli strains and in majority but not all campylobacter jejuni. this may confirm ...200419097580
origin and evolution of the archaeo-eukaryotic primase superfamily and related palm-domain proteins: structural insights and new members.we report an in-depth computational study of the protein sequences and structures of the superfamily of archaeo-eukaryotic primases (aeps). this analysis greatly expands the range of diversity of the aeps and reveals the unique active site shared by all members of this superfamily. in particular, it is shown that eukaryotic nucleo-cytoplasmic large dna viruses, including poxviruses, asfarviruses, iridoviruses, phycodnaviruses and the mimivirus, encode aeps of a distinct family, which also includ ...200516027112
resistance of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts to the cytolethal distending toxin of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a typical member of this gram-negative bacterium holotoxin family that targets a wide spectrum of eukarytotic cells, typically causing cell cycle arrest at either the g(1) or g(2)/m phase of the cell cycle. in view of the possible role of the cdt as a prominent a. actinomycetemcomitans virulence factor in periodontal diseases, we have examined the effects of the toxin on primary cultures of human periodontal ligamen ...200516018764
antimicrobial resistance patterns of campylobacter from feedlot cattle*.this study examined 448 campylobacter strains isolated in 1999 and 2000 from us feedlot cattle for resistance to 12 antimicrobials.200516033459
development of real-time pcr and hybridization methods for detection and identification of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in pig faecal samples.to develop a real-time (rt) pcr for species differentiation of thermophilic campylobacter and to develop a method for assessing co-colonization of pigs by campylobacter spp.200516033460
real-time pcr screening for 16s rrna mutations associated with resistance to tetracycline in helicobacter pylori.the effectiveness of recommended first-line therapies for helicobacter pylori infections is decreasing due to the occurrence of resistance to metronidazole and/or clarithromycin. quadruple therapies, which include tetracycline and a bismuth salt, are useful alternative regimens. however, resistance to tetracycline, mainly caused by mutations in the 16s rrna genes (rrna and rrnb) affecting nucleotides 926 to 928, are already emerging and can impair the efficacies of such second-line regimens. her ...200516048919
role of efflux pumps and topoisomerase mutations in fluoroquinolone resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli.point mutations in the topoisomerase (dna gyrase a) gene are known to be associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in campylobacter. recent studies have shown that an efflux pump encoded by cmeabc is also involved in decreased susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones, as well as other antimicrobials. genome analysis suggests that campylobacter jejuni contains at least nine other putative efflux pumps. using insertional inactivation and site-directed mutagenesis, we investigated the potential contri ...200516048946
etiology of diarrhea in young children in denmark: a case-control study.infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in young children. to clarify the infectious etiology of diarrhea in danish children less than 5 years of age, we conducted a 2-year prospective case-control study. stools from 424 children with diarrhea and 870 asymptomatic age-matched controls were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms. rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and norovirus and sapovirus wer ...200516081890
genetic diversity of campylobacter sp. isolates from retail chicken products and humans with gastroenteritis in central michigan.multilocus sequencing was used to compare campylobacter sp. strains isolated from retail chicken products and humans with gastroenteritis in central michigan. sequence comparisons demonstrated overlapping diversity between chicken and human isolates. campylobacter jejuni isolates from clinical sources had a greater diversity of flagellin alleles and a higher rate of quinolone resistance than isolates from retail chicken products.200516081984
inhibition of clostridium perfringens by a novel strain of bacillus subtilis isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of healthy chickens.the objectives of this study were to isolate beneficial strains of microorganisms from the gastrointestinal tracts of healthy chickens and to screen them against clostridium perfringens, a causative agent of necrotic enteritis in poultry. one of the bacteria isolated, a strain of bacillus subtilis, was found to possess an anticlostridial factor that could inhibit the c. perfringens atcc 13124 used in this study. the anticlostridial factor produced by b. subtilis pb6 was found to be fully or part ...200516085801
discrimination of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus pcr types of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ft-ir) has been used together with pattern recognition methodology to study isolates belonging to the species campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni and to compare ft-ir typing schemes with established genomic profiles based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus pcr (eric-pcr). seventeen isolates were cultivated under standardized conditions for 2, 3, and 4 days to study variability and improve reproducibility. eric-pcr profiles and ft-i ...200516085819
news and notes: an atypical campylobacter coli exhibiting unusual morphology.campylobacter coli cells are characterized by a comma, or spiral shape, and a single polar flagellum. here we report stable spontaneous changes in morphology to an aflagellated straight rod. the ability to colonize the chick cecum was lost. the atypical cells were compared with the original c. coli 67 culture from which they were derived, with pcr, riboprinting, and pfge.200516091850
a newly constructed primer pair for the pcr amplification, cloning and sequencing of the flagellin (flaa) gene from isolatesof urease-negative campylobacter lari.a newly constructed primer pair (lari-af/lari-ar) designed to generate a product of the flagellin (flaa) gene for urease-negative campylobacter lari produced a pcr amplicon of about 1700 bp for 16 isolates from 7 seagulls, 5 humans, 3 food animals and one mussel in japan and northern ireland. nucleotide sequencing and alignments of the flaa amplicons from these isolates demonstrated that the deduced amino acid sequences of the possible open reading frame were 564-572 amino acid residues in lengt ...200516096687
campylobacter spp., salmonella spp., verocytotoxic escherichia coli, and antibiotic resistance in indicator organisms in wild cervids.faecal samples were collected, as part of the national health surveillance program for cervids (hop) in norway, from wild red deer, roe deer, moose and reindeer during ordinary hunting seasons from 2001 to 2003. samples from a total of 618 animals were examined for verocytotoxic e. coli (vtec); 611 animals for salmonella and 324 animals for campylobacter. a total of 50 samples were cultivated from each cervid species in order to isolate the indicator bacterial species e. coli and enterococcus fa ...200516108210
identification of a new family of enzymes with potential o-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase activity in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.the metabolism of the rigid bacterial cell wall heteropolymer peptidoglycan is a dynamic process requiring continuous biosynthesis and maintenance involving the coordination of both lytic and synthetic enzymes. the o-acetylation of peptidoglycan has been proposed to provide one level of control on these activities as this modification inhibits the action of the major endogenous lytic enzymes, the lytic transglycosylases. the o-acetylation of peptidoglycan also inhibits the activity of the lysozy ...200516111493
does age acquired immunity confer selective protection to common serotypes of campylobacter jejuni?campylobacter infection is a major cause of bacterial gastrointestinal disease. exposure to campylobacter is known to produce an immune response in humans that can prevent future symptomatic infections. further, studies of the general population have shown that seroprevalence to campylobacter increases with age.200516117832
[antimicrobial susceptibility of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from human diarrheic samples].one hundred forty-seven campylobacter were isolated using 3,204 samples taken from sporadic diarrheic patients from january 2001 to december 2003. the detection rate of campylobacter in 16 to 30 year old patients (12.9%, 83/641) was significantly higher than that in patients less than 16 years of age, 5%, (29/1,155) (p < 0.001) and more than 30 years of age, 2.5% (35/1,408) (p < 0.001), respectively. the highest detection rate was obtained from the stool of males in the 16 to 30 year old range d ...200515977557
macrolide resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli: molecular mechanism and stability of the resistance phenotype.a collection of 23 macrolide-resistant campylobacter isolates from different geographic areas was investigated to determine the mechanism and stability of macrolide resistance. the isolates were identified as campylobacter jejuni or campylobacter coli based on the results of the hippurate biochemical test in addition to five pcr-based genotypic methods. three point mutations at two positions within the peptidyl transferase region in domain v of the 23s rrna gene were identified. about 78% of the ...200515980346
strain persistence and fluctuation of multiple-antibiotic resistant campylobacter coli colonizing turkeys over successive production cycles.the dynamics of colonization of turkeys by thermophilic campylobacters that are resistant to multiple antibiotics is poorly understood. in this study, we monitored cecal colonization of turkeys by campylobacter over three successive production cycles at the same farm. campylobacter isolated from the ceca was predominantly c. coli in all three flocks. isolates with two distinct fla types that represented a single clonal group based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and that were resistant to mu ...200515992304
further characterization of campylobacter isolated from u.s. dairy cows.the objective of the present study was to compare polymerase chain reaction (pcr) identification with ribotype results and to use pulsed field electrophoresis (pfge) to correlate genotypic patterns with antibiotic resistance of campylobacter isolated from lactating dairy cows in the united states. thirty isolates were studied. twenty-seven of the isolates were identified by pcr as campylobacter jejuni and three were identified as campylobacter coli. genotypic patterns of 15 isolates were determi ...200515992313
effects of subtherapeutic administration of antimicrobial agents to beef cattle on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter hyointestinalis.the influence of antimicrobial agents on the development of antimicrobial resistance (amr) in campylobacter isolates recovered from 300 beef cattle maintained in an experimental feedlot was monitored over a 315-day period (11 sample times). groups of calves were assigned to one of the following antimicrobial treatments: chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (cs), chlortetracycline alone (ct), virginiamycin, monensin, tylosin phosphate, and no antimicrobial agent (i.e., control treatment). in tota ...200516000800
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter spp. and salmonella serovars in organic chickens from maryland retail stores.retail organic (n = 198) and conventional (n = 61) chickens were analyzed. most organic (76%) and conventional (74%) chickens were contaminated with campylobacters. salmonellae were recovered from 61% of organic and 44% of conventional chickens. all salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium isolates from conventional chickens were resistant to five or more antimicrobials, whereas most s. enterica serovar typhimurium isolates (79%) from organic chickens were susceptible to 17 antimicrobials tested.200516000828
advantages of peptide nucleic acid oligonucleotides for sensitive site directed 16s rrna fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) detection of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli and campylobacter lari.traditionally fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) has been performed with labeled dna oligonucleotide probes. here we present for the first time a high affinity peptide nucleic acid (pna) oligonucleotide sequence for detecting thermotolerant campylobacter spp. using fish. thermotolerant campylobacter spp, including the species campylobacter coli, campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter lari, are important food and water borne pathogens. the designed pna probe (cje195) bound with higher affi ...200516009278
rapid decay of salmonella flagella antibodies during human gastroenteritis: a follow up study.an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) based on salmonella re-polymerized flagella was employed to measure levels of immunoglobulin (ig) g, igm and iga antibodies in sera from 303 danish patients diagnosed with either salmonella enteritidis or salmonella typhimurium. the antibody-levels were assessed at one, three and six months after onset of salmonellosis, and sera from a control-group of 170 healthy blood donors were additionally analysed in order to establish cut-off values fo ...200516009280
[establishment of immunomagnetic capture-fluorescent pcr detection method for campylobacter jejuni].in order to develop a rapid method which can check campylobacter jejuni in animal and poultry foods nicely, an immunomagnetic capture-fluorescent pcr (imc-fpcr) method was established in this paper. the reported method involves isolation of the target pathogen by immunocapture prior to the fluorescent pcr step, therefore the immunomagnetic-beads for campylobacter were developed, and two groups of primer/probe, which targeted for the species special sequence of flaa gene and hipo gene for campylo ...200516013502
campylobacter in food animals and humans in northern thailand.cross-sectional, longitudinal, and case-control studies were conducted to describe the epidemiology of campylobacter in chickens, swine, dairy cows, farm workers, nonfarm residents, and children with diarrhea. samples were collected in chiang mai and lamphung provinces of northern thailand from 2000 through 2003. a total of 2,360 samples were processed. results from the cross-sectional study indicated that the prevalences of campylobacter in chickens at the farm, slaughterhouse, and market were ...200516355821
characterization of a cmeabc operon in a quinolone-resistant campylobacter coli isolate of irish origin.in this study, a tripartite-operon-encoding efflux system together with its regulatory gene was characterized in an irish campylobacter coli isolate cit-382 showing high-level resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. sequence comparisons revealed significant homology between c. coli and the cmeabc operon of campylobacter jejuni. conservation of functional sequence domains and motifs were noted among c. coli and similar operons in unrelated organisms. a transcriptional regulatory gene cmer ...200516359189
stable accumulation of sigma54 in helicobacter pylori requires the novel protein hp0958.several flagellar genes in helicobacter pylori are dependent on sigma(54) (rpon) for their expression. these genes encode components of the basal body, the hook protein, and a minor flagellin, flab. a protein-protein interaction map for h. pylori constructed from a high-throughput screen of a yeast two-hybrid assay (http://pim.hybrigenics.com/pimriderext/common/) revealed interactions between sigma(54) and the conserved hypothetical protein hp0958. to see if hp0958 influences sigma(54) function, ...200515968056
identification and characterization of neub3 from campylobacter jejuni as a pseudaminic acid synthase.campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli are the main causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide, and helicobacter pylori is known to cause duodenal ulcers. in all of these pathogenic organisms, the flagellin proteins are heavily glycosylated with a 2-keto-3-deoxy acid, pseudaminic acid (5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-l-glycero-l-manno-nonulosonic acid). the presence of pseudaminic acid is required for the proper development of the flagella and is thereby necessary for motility in, and invasi ...200516120604
campylobacter coli: prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in antimicrobial-free (abf) swine production systems.to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species in swine reared in the intensive and extensive antimicrobial-free (abf) production systems at farm and slaughter. in the abf system, antimicrobials are neither used for growth promotion nor therapeutic purposes.200516120624
involvement of the cmeabc efflux pump in the macrolide resistance of campylobacter coli.this study was conducted to examine the role of the cmeabc efflux pump in decreasing the susceptibility of campylobacter coli to macrolides and ketolides in the context of absence or presence of mutations in the 23s rrna genes.200516157618
factors affecting the pressure resistance of some campylobacter species.to compare pressure resistance between strains of campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter coli, campylobacter lari and campylobacter fetus, and to investigate the effect of suspending medium on pressure resistance of sensitive and more resistant strains.200516162138
mortality following campylobacter infection: a registry-based linkage study.campylobacteriosis is one of the most commonly identified causes of bacterial diarrheal disease and a common cause of gastroenteritis in travellers from developed nations. despite the widespread occurrence, there is little information on campylobacter mortality.200516162289
agricultural antibiotics and human health. 200515984910
multiplex pcr for identification of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni from pure cultures and directly on stool samples.a multiplex-pcr method, specifically designed for application in routine diagnostic laboratories, was developed for the detection of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni. primers were directed towards the following loci: the hippuricase gene (hipo) characteristic of c. jejuni, a sequence partly covering an aspartokinase gene characteristic of c. coli, and a universal 16s rdna gene sequence serving as an internal positive control for the pcr. the method was tested on 47 c. coli strains and ...200516192435
quantification of campylobacter spp. in chicken rinse samples by using flotation prior to real-time pcr.real-time pcr is fast, sensitive, specific, and can deliver quantitative data; however, two disadvantages are that this technology is sensitive to inhibition by food and that it does not distinguish between dna originating from viable, viable nonculturable (vnc), and dead cells. for this reason, real-time pcr has been combined with a novel discontinuous buoyant density gradient method, called flotation, in order to allow detection of only viable and vnc cells of thermotolerant campylobacters in ...200516204485
quantifying transmission of campylobacter spp. among broilers.campylobacter species are frequently identified as a cause of human gastroenteritis, often from eating or mishandling contaminated poultry products. quantitative knowledge of transmission of campylobacter in broiler flocks is necessary, as this may help to determine the moment of introduction of campylobacter in broiler flocks more precisely. the aim of this study was to determine the transmission rate parameter in broiler flocks. four experiments were performed, each with four campylobacter-ino ...200516204486
genomic diversity of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni isolates recovered from free-range broiler farms and comparison with isolates of various origins.in many industrialized countries, the incidence of campylobacteriosis exceeds that of salmonellosis. campylobacter bacteria are transmitted to humans mainly in food, especially poultry meat products. total prevention of campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks is the best way to reduce (or eliminate) the contamination of poultry products. the aim of this study was to establish the sources and routes of contamination of broilers at the farm level. molecular typing methods (dna macrorestrictio ...200516204541
speciation of campylobacter coli, c. jejuni, c. helveticus, c. lari, c. sputorum, and c. upsaliensis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.multiple strains of campylobacter coli, c. jejuni, c. helveticus, c. lari, c. sputorum, and c. upsaliensis isolated from animal, clinical, or food samples have been analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms). whole bacterial cells were harvested from colonies or confluent growth on agar and transferred directly into solvent and then to a spot of dried 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (matrix). multiple ions in the 5,000- to 15,000-da m ...200516204551
differentiation of campylobacter populations as demonstrated by flagellin short variable region sequences.the dna sequence of the flaa short variable region (svr) was used to analyze a random population of campylobacter isolates to investigate the weakly clonal population structure of members of the genus. the svr sequence from 197 strains of c. jejuni and c. coli isolated from humans, bovine, swine, and chickens identified a group of 43 strains containing disparate short variable region sequences compared to the rest of the population. this group contains both c. jejuni and c. coli strains but disp ...200516204559
delineation of campylobacter concisus genomospecies by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and correlation of results with clinical data.campylobacter concisus has been as frequently isolated from human diarrhea as the important enteropathogen campylobacter jejuni, but it also occurs in the feces of healthy individuals. the role of c. concisus in human disease has been difficult to determine, since the species comprises at least two phenotypically indistinguishable but genetically distinct taxa (i.e., genomospecies) that may vary in pathogenicity. we examined 62 c. concisus strains by amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) ...200516207968
comparative phylogenomics of the food-borne pathogen campylobacter jejuni reveals genetic markers predictive of infection source.campylobacter jejuni is the predominant cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, but traditional typing methods are unable to discriminate strains from different sources that cause disease in humans. we report the use of genomotyping (whole-genome comparisons of microbes using dna microarrays) combined with bayesian-based algorithms to model the phylogeny of this major food-borne pathogen. in this study 111 c. jejuni strains were examined by genomotyping isolates from humans with a spectrum ...200516230626
the heterogeneity of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli strains isolated from healthy cattle.to identify campylobacters isolated from clinically healthy cattle at species level by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-pcr). the heterogeneity among campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates was also investigated by using a restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of flagellin (flaa) gene.200516238642
dissimilatory metabolism of nitrogen oxides in bacteria: comparative reconstruction of transcriptional networks.bacterial response to nitric oxide (no) is of major importance since no is an obligatory intermediate of the nitrogen cycle. transcriptional regulation of the dissimilatory nitric oxides metabolism in bacteria is diverse and involves fnr-like transcription factors hcpr, dnr, and nnrr; two-component systems narxl and narqp; no-responsive activator norr; and nitrite-sensitive repressor nsrr. using comparative genomics approaches, we predict dna-binding motifs for these transcriptional factors and ...200516261196
campylobacter coli in swine production: antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and molecular epidemiology.the aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance, to evaluate and compare the use of two genotyping methods for molecular epidemiology purposes, and to determine the genotypic diversity of campylobacter coli of porcine origin. a total of 100 c. coli isolates from swine were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobials using the agar dilution method and genotyped using two high-resolution fingerprinting approaches: multilocus sequence typing (mlst) and pulsed-field gel electroph ...200516272508
microbial health risk posed by table eggs in trinidad.a survey of the microbial quality of table eggs sold in trinidad was conducted. for 23 poultry layer farms each visited twice approximately 1 month apart, 25 pooled eggs constituted a composite sample, for 14 shopping malls each visited twice approximately 1 month apart, six pooled eggs made a composite sample and for a total of 102 other retailers across the country each visited once over a 4-month period, six pooled eggs constituted a composite sample. swabs of egg shells and egg content were ...200516274501
the importance of campylobacter coli in human campylobacteriosis: prevalence and genetic characterization.the primary aim of this study was to detect and genotype campylobacter coli strains from humans over a period of one year from november 2002 to october 2003. campylobacter spp. were isolated from patients with symptoms of enteric infection. amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis was used to identify the genetic diversity of c. coli strains by cluster analysis. a total of 18.6% of all campylobacter isolates were identified as c. coli. these data show, that c. coli is indeed of imp ...200516274505
sequence typing and comparison of population biology of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni.a multilocus sequence typing (mlst) scheme that uses the same loci as a previously described system for campylobacter jejuni was developed for campylobacter coli. the c. coli-specific primers were validated with 53 isolates from humans, chickens, and pigs, together with 15 penner serotype reference isolates. the nucleotide sequence of the flaa short variable region (svr) was determined for each isolate. these sequence data were compared to equivalent information for 17 c. jejuni isolates represe ...200515634992
rapid detection and differentiation of pathogenic campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli by real-time pcr.a two-tube real-time assay, developed in a lightcycler, was used to detect, identify and differentiate campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli from all other pathogenic members of the family campylobacteriaceae. in the first assay, continuous monitoring of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (fret) signal acquired from the hybridisation of two adjacent fluoroprobes, a specific fitc probe 5'-gtgctagcttgctagaacttagaga-fitc-3') and a universal downstream probe cy5 (5'-cy5-aggtgitgcatggit ...200515636755
temperature-driven campylobacter seasonality in england and wales.campylobacter incidence in england and wales between 1990 and 1999 was examined in conjunction with weather conditions. over the 10-year interval, the average annual rate was determined to be 78.4 +/- 15.0 cases per 100,000, with an upward trend. rates were higher in males than in females, regardless of age, and highest in children less than 5 years old. major regional differences were detected, with the highest rates in wales and the southwest and the lowest in the southeast. the disease displa ...200515640174
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic campylobacter spp. from cattle farms in washington state.the prevalence of thermophilic campylobacter spp. was investigated in cattle on washington state farms. a total of 350 thermophilic campylobacter isolates were isolated from 686 cattle sampled on 15 farms (eight dairies, two calf rearer farms, two feedlots, and three beef cow-calf ranches). isolate species were identified with a combination of phenotypic tests, hipo colony blot hybridization, and multiplex lpxa pcr. breakpoint resistance to four antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, ery ...200515640184
characterization of cytolethal distending toxin of campylobacter species isolated from captive macaque monkeys.an association between certain campylobacter species and enterocolitis in humans and nonhuman primates is well established, but the association between cytolethal distending toxin and disease is incompletely understood. the purpose of the present study was to examine campylobacter species isolated from captive conventionally raised macaque monkeys for the presence of the cdtb gene and for cytolethal distending toxin activity. the identity of each isolate was confirmed on the basis of phenotypic ...200515695658
epidemiologic features of campylobacter infection among cats in the upper midwestern united states.to describe the epidemiologic features of campylobacter infection among cats in the minneapolis-saint paul metropolitan area.200515742694
tetracycline resistance of australian campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolates.tetracycline resistance in campylobacter is encoded by the tet(o) gene and is usually associated with conjugative plasmids. little was known about tetracycline resistance in australian campylobacter species, therefore we investigated this resistance in 41 campylobacter jejuni and five campylobacter coli strains from humans and healthy chickens.200515743900
enumeration and diversity of campylobacters and bacteriophages isolated during the rearing cycles of free-range and organic chickens.campylobacters and campylobacter-specific bacteriophages were isolated and enumerated during the rearing cycle of free-range (56 days) and organic chickens (73 days) at 3-day intervals from hatching until slaughter. in both flocks campylobacter jejuni was the initial colonizer but campylobacter coli was detected more frequently from 5 weeks of age. the diversity of the campylobacter isolates was examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of smai-digested genomic dna and antimicrobial resistanc ...200515746327
establishment of a universal size standard strain for use with the pulsenet standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols: converting the national databases to the new size standard.the pulsenet national database, established by the centers for disease control and prevention in 1996, consists of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) patterns obtained from isolates of food-borne pathogens (currently escherichia coli o157:h7, salmonella, shigella, and listeria) and textual information about the isolates. electronic images and accompanying text are submitted from over 60 u.s. public health and food regulatory agency laboratories. the pfge patterns are generated according to ...200515750058
the occurrence of campylobacter subtypes in environmental reservoirs and potential transmission routes.to identify potential reservoirs and transmission routes of human pathogenic campylobacter spp.200515752345
could flies explain the elusive epidemiology of campylobacteriosis?unlike salmonellosis with well-known routes of transmission, the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis is still largely unclear. known risk factors such as ingestion of contaminated food and water, direct contact with infected animals and outdoor swimming could at most only explain half the recorded cases.200515752427
fly transmission of campylobacter.an annual increase in campylobacter infection in england and wales begins in may and reaches a maximum in early june. this increase occurs in all age groups and is seen in all geographic areas. examination of risk factors that might explain this seasonal increase identifies flies as a potential source of infection. the observed pattern of infection is hypothesized to reflect an annual epidemic caused by direct or indirect contamination of people by small quantities of infected material carried b ...200515757548
development of a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer pcr to identify the main pathogenic campylobacter spp.a simple real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (fret) pcr, targeting the gyra gene outside the quinolone resistance-determining region, was developed to identify campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli. these species were distinguished easily, as the corresponding melting points showed a difference of 15 degrees c. a second assay using the same biprobe and pcr conditions, but different pcr primers, was also developed to identify the less frequently encountered campylobacter fetus. ...200515760424
mixed diarrhoeal infection caused by vibrio cholerae and several other enteric pathogens in a 4-year-old child returning to germany from pakistan.we report a mixed enteric infection in a 4-y-old child who returned from pakistan with fever, vomiting and profuse diarrhoea leading to severe dehydration. vibrio cholerae o1, salmonella paratyphi a and campylobacter coli were cultured from stool. furthermore, giardia lamblia antigen and hepatitis a rna were detected. this is the first paediatric cholera case seen in frankfurt/main.200515764195
detection of mutations associated with macrolide resistance in thermophilic campylobacter spp. by real-time pcr.two point mutations (a2074c and a2075g) in the 23s rrna gene of campylobacter coli and c. jejuni are associated with erythromycin resistance. a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer pcr assay using a melting curve analysis was developed to identify these two point mutations and the wild-type genotype in thermophilic campylobacter species such as c. coli, c. jejuni, and c. lari. concerning these species, 141 strains were tested and a result obtained in 140 (99.3%). a single genotype wa ...200515770093
one-year (2003) nationwide pork carcass microbiological baseline data survey in taiwan.from january through december 2003, swab samples from 1,650 pork carcasses were collected from 39 slaughter plants in taiwan. these samples were analyzed for the prevalence of indicator microorganisms and specific pathogens. viable aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, and escherichia coli were recovered from 100, 95.3, and 87.5% of these carcasses, respectively. of those carcasses that harbored bacteria, the mean aerobic plate, total coliform, and escherichia coli counts were 4.0, 0.6, and 0.1 log ...200515771166
prevalence of campylobacter, salmonella, and escherichia coli on the external packaging of raw meat.during september and october 2002, 3,662 prepackaged raw meat samples were collected to evaluate the extent and nature of microbiological contamination on external surfaces of the packaging, which could potentially cross-contaminate ready-to-eat foods during and after purchase. salmonella was detected on two (<1%) samples of external packaging (both from raw chicken), and campylobacter was detected on 41 (1.1%) samples of external packaging. the external packaging of game fowl exhibited the high ...200515771168
pcr identification of campylobacter coli and campylobacter jejuni by partial sequencing of virulence genes.the objective of this study was to utilize a multiplex pcr assay for concurrent detection of campylobacter spp. and c. coli or c. jejuni, using probes derived from genes cadf and ceue and an undefined virulence gene. a total of 97 campylobacter strains, isolated from turkey litter (n=74), chicken livers (n=15) and clinical (n=8) samples, were speciated using the pcr-based assay. pcr amplification of the isolates identified a 400-bp cadf gene, conserved in campylobacter species, an 894-bp ceue ge ...200515797819
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