TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
dexamethasone intravitreal implants in the management of tubercular multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis.continuous progression of lesions despite an adequate treatment has been described in tubercular multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis. reported treatments for this paradoxical response include systemic steroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and intravitreal methotrexate. we describe the use of dexamethasone intravitreal implants in a patient presenting with this condition.201627576870
surveillance of infectious diseases by the sentinel laboratory network in belgium: 30 years of continuous 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. during the study period of 30 years (1983-2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. this resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. during this period, adaptations to data collecti ...201627571203
how do biting disease vectors behaviourally respond to host availability?ecological theory predicts a diverse range of functional responses of species to resource availability; but in the context of human blood consumption by disease vectors, a simplistic, linear response is ubiquitously assumed. a simple and flexible model formulation is presented that extends the holling's types to account for a wider range of qualitatively distinct behaviours, and used to examine the impact of different vector responses to the relative availability of multiple blood-host species.201627562086
coinfection of chlamydiae and other bacteria in reactive arthritis and spondyloarthritis: need for future research.reactive (inflammatory) arthritis has been known for many years to follow genital infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen chlamydia trachomatis in some individuals. recent studies from several groups have demonstrated that a related bacterium, the respiratory pathogen chlamydia pneumoniae, can elicit a similar arthritis. studies of these organisms, and of a set of gastrointestinal pathogens also associated with engendering inflammatory arthritis, have been relatively extensive. howev ...201627681924
severe babesia microti infection in an immunocompetent host in pennsylvania.babesiosis, due to infection by a tick-borne protozoan (predominantly babesia microti in north america), is an emerging health risk that is expanding into new areas and may be unfamiliar to clinicians in locations not previously considered endemic. manifestations of infection can range from asymptomatic to life threatening, with severe disease more likely in those who have had a splenectomy, are immunocompromised, have chronic medical conditions, or are over 50 years of age. in this article, we ...201627656660
lyme disease presenting with multiple cranial nerve deficits: report of a case.lyme disease is a tick-transmitted multisystem inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. with more than 25,000 cdc reported cases annually, it has become the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. we report a case of 38-year-old man with lyme disease presenting with simultaneous palsy of 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves.201627635267
2-cys peroxiredoxin is required in successful blood-feeding, reproduction, and antioxidant response in the hard tick haemaphysalis longicornis.ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods that feed on vertebrate blood that contains iron. ticks also concentrate host blood with iron; this concentration of the blood leads to high levels of iron in ticks. the host-derived iron reacts with oxygen in the tick body and this may generate high levels of reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide (h2o2). high levels of h2o2 cause oxidative stress in organisms and therefore, antioxidant responses are necessary to regulate h2o2. here, we ...201627542835
chlamydia-like organisms (clos) in finnish ixodes ricinus ticks and human skin.ticks carry several human pathogenic microbes including borreliae and flavivirus causing tick-born encephalitis. ticks can also carry dna of chlamydia-like organisms (clos). the purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of clos in ticks and skin biopsies taken from individuals with suspected tick bite. dna from clos was detected by pan-chlamydiales-pcr in 40% of adult ticks from southwestern finland. the estimated minimal infection rate for nymphs and larvae (studied in pools) was ...201627681922
first human case of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection acquired in the netherlands, july july 2016, the first autochthonous case of tick-borne encephalitis was diagnosed in the netherlands, five days after a report that tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) had been found in dutch ticks. a person in their 60s without recent travel history suffered from neurological symptoms after a tick bite. tbev serology was positive and the tick was positive in tbev qrt-pcr. tbev infection should be considered in patients with compatible symptoms in the netherlands.201627562931
human exposure to anaplasma phagocytophilum in two cities of northwestern morocco.anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. epidemiological data are available in several regions of the usa, europe and asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as north africa. blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific a. phagocytophilum igg. two dilutions were used to assess ...201627532208
how rheumatoid arthritis can result from provocation of the immune system by microorganisms and viruses.the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (ra), similar to development of a majority of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, is largely due to an inappropriate or inadequate immune response to environmental challenges. among these challenges, infectious agents are the undisputed leaders. since the 1870s, an impressive list of microorganisms suspected of provoking ra has formed, and the list is still growing. although a definite causative link between a specific infectious agent and the disease ...201627582741
concomitant appearance of morphea and vitiligo in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis. 201627605907
tick-borne encephalitis: what travelers should know when visiting an endemic country.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) is an acute febrile illness with neurological manifestations that is prevalent in forested areas of moderate climate in europe and asia. tbe virus is transmitted by ticks and rarely by unpasteurized milk and dairy products. the disease burden is attributed mainly to resulting long-term disability, especially in individuals over 50 y of age. currently, there is no causative treatment, but a very effective vaccination is available with a good safety profile. the vacci ...201627715427
two different virulence-related regulatory pathways in borrelia burgdorferi are directly affected by osmotic fluxes in the blood meal of feeding ixodes ticks.lyme disease, caused by borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. effective colonization (acquisition phase) of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. successful transmission (transmission phase) to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a ...201627525653
cancrum oris (noma): the role of nutrition in management.cancrum oris (noma) is caused by the spirochete borrelia vincenti in association with anaerobic bacteria, commonly a member of the fusobacteria. the disease occurs in deprived and undernourished individuals with poor hygiene. we present a case of clinically diagnosed cancrum oris in a 2-year old child in sub-saharan africa that was conservatively managed by wound care and hyperalimentation. as the underlying factor and cause of mortality from noma is the immune depression of malnutrition, the ro ...201628053869
cancrum oris (noma): the role of nutrition in management.cancrum oris (noma) is caused by the spirochete borrelia vincenti in association with anaerobic bacteria, commonly a member of the fusobacteria. the disease occurs in deprived and undernourished individuals with poor hygiene. we present a case of clinically diagnosed cancrum oris in a 2-year old child in sub-saharan africa that was conservatively managed by wound care and hyperalimentation. as the underlying factor and cause of mortality from noma is the immune depression of malnutrition, the ro ...201628053869
the role of catheter angiography in the diagnosis of central nervous system vasculitis.central nervous system vasculitis (cnsv) is a rare disorder, the pathophysiology of which is not fully understood. it involves a combination of inflammation and thrombosis. cnsv is most commonly associated with headache, gradual changes in mental status, and focal neurological symptoms. diagnosis requires the effective use of history, laboratory testing, imaging, and biopsy. catheter angiography can be a powerful tool in the diagnosis when common and low-frequency angiographic manifestations of ...201627781050
bunyaviruses are common in male and female ixodes scapularis ticks in central pennsylvania.the blacklegged tick ixodes scapularis is widely distributed in the united states and transmits multiple pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals. recently, several novel viruses in the family bunyaviridae (south bay virus (sbv) and blacklegged tick phlebovirus (btpv)) were identified infecting female i. scapularis ticks collected in new york state. we used metagenomic sequencing to investigate the distribution of viruses infecting male and female i. scapularis ticks collected in centr ...201627602290
the skin microbiome: is it affected by uv-induced immune suppression?human skin apart from functioning as a physical barricade to stop the entry of pathogens, also hosts innumerable commensal organisms. the skin cells and the immune system constantly interact with microbes, to maintain cutaneous homeostasis, despite the challenges offered by various environmental factors. a major environmental factor affecting the skin is ultraviolet radiation (uv-r) from sunlight. uv-r is well known to modulate the immune system, which can be both beneficial and deleterious. by ...201627559331
interaction of staphylococcus aureus persister cells with the host when in a persister state and following awakening.persister cells, a tolerant cell sub-population, are commonly associated with chronic and recurrent infections. however, little is known about their ability to actually initiate or establish an infection, become virulent and cause pathogenicity within a host. here we investigated whether staphylococcus aureus persister cells initiate an infection and are recognized by macrophages, while in a persister cell status, and upon awakening due to exposure to cis-2-decenoic acid (cis-da). our results sh ...201627506163
microglial priming and alzheimer's disease: a possible role for (early) immune challenges and epigenetics?neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to alzheimer's disease (ad) pathogenesis that is, to a large extent, mediated by microglia. given the tight interaction between the immune system and the brain, peripheral immune challenges can profoundly affect brain function. indeed, both preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that an aberrant inflammatory response can elicit behavioral impairments and cognitive deficits, especially when the brain is in a vulnerable state, e.g., during early ...201627555812
bacterial amyloid and dna are important constituents of senile plaques: further evidence of the spirochetal and biofilm nature of senile has long been known that spirochetes form clumps or micro colonies in vitro and in vivo. cortical spirochetal colonies in syphilitic dementia were considered as reproductive centers for spirochetes. historic and recent data demonstrate that senile plaques in alzheimer's disease (ad) are made up by spirochetes. spirochetes, are able to form biofilm in vitro. senile plaques are also reported to contain elements of biofilm constituents. we expected that aβpp and aβ (the main components of senile ...201627314530
systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticides: a review of the efficacy against ticks and fleas on dogs.acaricidal (tick) and insecticidal (flea) efficacy of systemically and cutaneously distributed ectoparasiticide products for dogs are compared based on permethrin and fluralaner as representative molecules. results of efficacy studies against fleas and ticks are reviewed that show generally good to excellent results. both externally and systemically distributed treatments have benefits and weaknesses in potentially preventing pathogen transmission by these arthropod vectors.four general properti ...201627502490
investigating the potential role of non-vls genes on linear plasmid 28-1 in virulence and persistence by borrelia burgdorferi.the lp28-1 plasmid is required for persistent infection by the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. mutational studies on this plasmid have shown that the vls locus is important for antigenic variation of the vlse lipoprotein that leads to immune evasion and persistence. however, it is still unknown whether the vls system is the only genetic locus on this plasmid necessary for long-term infection, and thus the potential role of non-vls genes on lp28-1 in virulence and persistence is ye ...201627502325
multiple independent transmission cycles of a tick-borne pathogen within a local host community.many pathogens are maintained by multiple host species and involve multiple strains with potentially different phenotypic characteristics. disentangling transmission patterns in such systems is often challenging, yet investigating how different host species contribute to transmission is crucial to properly assess and manage disease risk. we aim to reveal transmission cycles of bacteria within the borrelia burgdorferi species complex, which include lyme disease agents. we characterized borrelia g ...201627498685
are the current notification criteria for lyme borreliosis in norway suitable? results of an evaluation of lyme borreliosis surveillance in norway, 1995-2013.the approach to surveillance of lyme borreliosis varies between countries, depending on the purpose of the surveillance system and the notification criteria used, which prevents direct comparison of national data. in norway, lyme borreliosis is notifiable to the surveillance system for communicable diseases (msis). the current notification criteria include a combination of clinical and laboratory results for borrelia infection (excluding erythema migrans) but there are indications that these cri ...201627495236
molecular evidence of bartonella species in ixodid ticks and domestic animals in palestine.ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the gram-negative pathogen bartonella. here, we evaluated the presence of bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from palestine. we tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for bartonella using its-pcr. bartonella dna was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. none of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive f ...201627540374
a novel isothermal assay of borrelia burgdorferi by recombinase polymerase amplification with lateral flow detection.a novel isothermal detection for recombinase polymerase amplification with lateral flow (lf-rpa) was established for borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi) detection in this study. this assay with high sensitivity and specificity can get a visible result without any additional equipment in 30 min. we designed a pair of primers according to reca gene of b. burgdorferi strains and a methodology evaluation was performed. the results showed that the rpa assay based on the reca gene was successfully a ...201627527151
identification of a novel β-adrenergic octopamine receptor-like gene (βaor-like) and increased atp-binding cassette b10 (abcb10) expression in a rhipicephalus microplus cell line derived from acaricide-resistant ticks.the cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus is an economically important parasite of livestock. effective control of ticks using acaricides is threatened by the emergence of resistance to many existing compounds. several continuous r. microplus cell lines have been established and provide an under-utilised resource for studies into acaricide targets and potential genetic mutations associated with resistance. as a first step to genetic studies using these resources, this study aimed to de ...201627484910
human tick-borne encephalitis and characterization of virus from biting tick.we report a case of human tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) in which the tbe virus was isolated from the biting tick. viral growth and sequence were characterized and compared with those of a reference strain. virus isolation from ticks from patients with tbe may offer a new approach for studies of epidemiology and pathogenicity.201627434395
borrelia miyamotoi infection in patients from upper midwestern united states, 2014-2015.we confirmed borrelia miyamotoi infection in 7 patients who had contracted an illness while near la crosse, wisconsin, usa, an area where ixodes scapularis ticks are endemic. b. miyamatoi infection should now be considered among differential diagnoses for patients from the midwestern united states who have signs and symptoms suggestive of tickborne illness.201627434048
species interactions in occurrence data for a community of tick-transmitted pathogens.interactions between tick species, their realized range of hosts, the pathogens they carry and transmit, and the geographic distribution of species in the western palearctic were determined based on evidence published between 1970-2014. these relationships were linked to remotely sensed features of temperature and vegetation and used to extract the network of interactions among the organisms. the resulting datasets focused on niche overlap among ticks and hosts, species interactions, and the fra ...201627479213
passive surveillance of ixodes scapularis (say), their biting activity, and associated pathogens in massachusetts.a passive surveillance of tick-borne pathogens was conducted over a 7-year period (2006-2012), in which a total of 3551 ticks were submitted to the university of massachusetts for pcr testing. the vast majority of these ticks were ixodes scapularis from massachusetts (n = 2088) and hence were the focus of further analysis. two taqman duplex qpcr assays were developed to test i. scapularis ticks for the presence of three human pathogens: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesi ...201627248292
countrywide serological evaluation of canine prevalence for anaplasma spp., borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), dirofilaria immitis and ehrlichia canis in mexico.canine vector-borne diseases (cvbd) have become a major concern for canine and human public health. the aim of the study described here is to add epidemiological data regarding four pathogens responsible for cvbd, namely anaplasmosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis and ehrlichiosis in a national survey conducted in mexico.201627474020
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the sigmoid colon discovered on routine screening colonoscopy in patient with hepatitis c and helicobacter pylori infection.mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (malt) lymphoma is predominantly found in the stomach. rarely, it is found in the proximal colon and even less so in the sigmoid colon. we present a rare case of primary sigmoid colon malt lymphoma in a patient with concomitant helicobacter pylori and hepatitis c infection. we also review current imaging, staging, and therapeutic modalities. to our knowledge, this is the first sigmoid colon malt lymphoma reported in the united states.201627807552
cooperation of doxycycline with phytochemicals and micronutrients against active and persistent forms of borrelia sp.phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. a better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards borrelia sp. in this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-had, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins d3 and c were tested in ...201627570483
htra, a temperature- and stationary phase-activated protease involved in maturation of a key microbial virulence determinant, facilitates borrelia burgdorferi infection in mammalian hosts.high-temperature requirement protease a (htra) represents a family of serine proteases that play important roles in microbial biology. unlike the genomes of most organisms, that of borrelia burgdorferi notably encodes a single htra gene product, termed bbhtra. previous studies identified a few substrates of bbhtra; however, their physiological relevance could not be ascertained, as targeted deletion of the gene has not been successful. here we show that bbhtra transcripts are induced during spir ...201627271745
diurnal dynamic behavior of microglia in response to infected bacteria through the udp-p2y6 receptor has long been believed that microglia morphologically transform into the activated state by retracting their long processes and consuming pathogens when bacteria infect into the brain parenchyma. in the present study, however, we showed for the first time that murine cortical microglia extend their processes towards focally injected porphyromonas gingivalis. this p. gingivalis-induced microglial process extension was significantly increased during the light (sleeping) phase than the dark (wak ...201627445174
the exposed proteomes of brachyspira hyodysenteriae and b. pilosicoli.brachyspira hyodysenteriae and brachyspira pilosicoli are well-known intestinal pathogens in pigs. b. hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a disease with an important impact on pig production while b. pilosicoli is responsible of a milder diarrheal disease in these animals, porcine intestinal spirochetosis. recent sequencing projects have provided information for the genome of these species facilitating the search of vaccine candidates using reverse vaccinology approaches. h ...201627493641
vaccines and immunization strategies for dengue prevention.dengue is currently the most significant arboviral disease afflicting tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. dengue vaccines, such as the multivalent attenuated, chimeric, dna and inactivated vaccines, have been developed to prevent dengue infection in humans, and they function predominantly by stimulating immune responses against the dengue virus (denv) envelope (e) and nonstructural-1 proteins (ns1). of these vaccines, a live attenuated chimeric tetravalent denv vaccine developed by sa ...201627436365
cholangiocarcinoma associated with limbic encephalitis and early cerebral abnormalities detected by 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-d-glucose integrated with computed tomography-positron emission tomography: a case report.limbic encephalitis was originally described as a rare clinical neuropathological entity involving seizures and neuropsychological disturbances. in this report, we describe cerebral patterns visualized by positron emission tomography in a patient with limbic encephalitis and cholangiocarcinoma. to our knowledge, there is no other description in the literature of cerebral positron emission tomography findings in the setting of limbic encephalitis and subsequent diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.201627439460
16s rrna amplicon sequencing for epidemiological surveys of bacteria in wildlife.the human impact on natural habitats is increasing the complexity of human-wildlife interactions and leading to the emergence of infectious diseases worldwide. highly successful synanthropic wildlife species, such as rodents, will undoubtedly play an increasingly important role in transmitting zoonotic diseases. we investigated the potential for recent developments in 16s rrna amplicon sequencing to facilitate the multiplexing of the large numbers of samples needed to improve our understanding o ...201627822541
allosteric regulation of fibronectin/α5β1 interaction by fibronectin-binding mscramms.adherence of microbes to host tissues is a hallmark of infectious disease and is often mediated by a class of adhesins termed mscramms (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules). numerous pathogens express mscramms that specifically bind the heterodimeric human glycoprotein fibronectin (fn). in addition to roles in adhesion, fn-binding mscramms exploit physiological fn functions. for example, several pathogens can invade host cells by a mechanism whereby mscramm-bound f ...201627434228
interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.cattle are the reservoir hosts of leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other leptospira species such as l. kirschneri, and leptospira interrogans. as a reservoir host, cattle shed leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or net formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of leptospira. humans, comp ...201627486445
antibody profile to borrelia burgdorferi in veterinarians from nuevo león, mexico, a non-endemic area of this zoonosis.lyme disease is a tick-borne disease caused by infections with borrelia. persons infected with borrelia can be asymptomatic or can develop disseminated disease. diagnosis and recognition of groups at risk of infection with borrelia burgdorferi is of great interest to contemporary rheumatology. there are a few reports about borrelia infection in mexico, including lymphocytoma cases positive to b. burgdorferi sensu stricto by pcr and a patient with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. veterinarian ...201627504018
multilocus sequence typing of pathogenic treponemes isolated from cloven-hoofed animals and comparison to treponemes isolated from humans.treponema species are implicated in many diseases of humans and animals. digital dermatitis (dd) treponemes are reported to cause severe lesions in cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, and wild elk, causing substantial global animal welfare issues and economic losses. the fastidiousness of these spirochetes has previously precluded studies investigating within-phylogroup genetic diversity. an archive of treponemes that we isolated enabled multilocus sequence typing to quantify the diversity and populatio ...201627208135
vectors as epidemiological sentinels: patterns of within-tick borrelia burgdorferi diversity.hosts including humans, other vertebrates, and arthropods, are frequently infected with heterogeneous populations of pathogens. within-host pathogen diversity has major implications for human health, epidemiology, and pathogen evolution. however, pathogen diversity within-hosts is difficult to characterize and little is known about the levels and sources of within-host diversity maintained in natural populations of disease vectors. here, we examine genomic variation of the lyme disease bacteria, ...201627414806
consensus computational network analysis for identifying candidate outer membrane proteins from borrelia spirochetes.similar to gram-negative organisms, borrelia spirochetes are dual-membrane organisms with both an inner and outer membrane. although the outer membrane contains integral membrane proteins, few of the borrelial outer membrane proteins (omps) have been identified and characterized to date. therefore, we utilized a consensus computational network analysis to identify novel borrelial omps.201627400788
immunomodulatory effects of tick saliva on dermal cells exposed to borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease.the prolonged feeding process of ixodid ticks, in combination with bacterial transmission, should lead to a robust inflammatory response at the blood-feeding site. yet, factors present in tick saliva may down-regulate such responses, which may be beneficial to spirochete transmission. the primary goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that tick saliva, in the context of borrelia burgdorferi, can have widespread effects on the production of immune mediators in skin.201627391120
identification, functional characterization and regulon prediction of a novel two component system comprising bas0540-bas0541 of bacillus anthracis.two component systems (tcss) can be envisaged as complex molecular devices that help the bacteria to sense its environment and respond aptly. 41 tcss are predicted in bacillus anthracis, a potential bioterrorism agent, of which only four have been studied so far. thus, the intricate signaling network contributed by tcss remains largely unmapped in b. anthracis and needs comprehensive exploration. in this study, we functionally characterized one such system composed of bas0540 (response regulator ...201627392063
evaluation of a protective effect of in ovo delivered campylobacter jejuni omvs.campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of a food-borne gastroenteritis in the developed world, with poultry being the main source of infection. campylobacter jejuni, like other gram-negative bacteria, constitutively releases outer membrane vesicles (omvs). omvs are highly immunogenic, can be taken up by mammalian cells, and are easily modifiable by recombinant engineering. we have tested their usefulness for an oral (in ovo) vaccination of chickens. four groups of 18-day-old chicken em ...201627383607
evaluation of commercially available chikungunya virus immunoglobulin m detection assays.commercial chikungunya virus (chikv)-specific igm detection kits were evaluated at the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc), the public health agency of canada national microbiology laboratory, and the caribbean public health agency (carpha). the euroimmun anti-chikv igm elisa kit had ≥ 95% concordance with all three reference laboratory results. the limit of detection for low chik igm+ samples, as measured by serial dilution of seven sera up to 1:12,800 ranged from 1:800 to 1:3,200. ...201626976887
immunoglobulin m for acute infection: true or false?immunoglobulin m (igm) tests have clear clinical utility but also suffer disproportionately from false-positive results, which in turn can lead to misdiagnoses, inappropriate therapy, and premature closure of a diagnostic workup. despite numerous reports in the literature, many clinicians and laboratorians remain unaware of this issue. in this brief review, a series of virology case examples is presented. however, a false-positive igm can occur with any pathogen. thus, when an accurate diagnosis ...201627193039
newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for development of human and veterinary vaccines.viral vaccine vectors have shown to be effective in inducing a robust immune response against the vaccine antigen. newcastle disease virus (ndv), an avian paramyxovirus, is a promising vaccine vector against human and veterinary pathogens. avirulent ndv strains lasota and b1 have long track records of safety and efficacy. therefore, use of these strains as vaccine vectors is highly safe in avian and non-avian species. ndv replicates efficiently in the respiratory track of the host and induces st ...201627384578
the anti-borreliae efficacy of phytochemicals and micronutrients: an update.naturally occurring substances have been used for centuries to fight against various pathogens. they serve as a source for new chemical entities or provide options to already existing therapeutics. while there is an increasing interest in studying antimicrobial properties of naturally derived agents, little is known about their effects against borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative pathogens of lyme disease. a better understanding of this aspect could advance knowledge about pathophysiol ...201627536352
comparative genomics reveals multiple pathways to mutualism for tick-borne pathogens.multiple important human and livestock pathogens employ ticks as their primary host vectors. it is not currently known whether this means of infecting a host arose once or many times during evolution.201627368698
molecular and cellular mechanisms of antitumor immune response activation by dendritic cells.dendritic cells (dcs) play a crucial role in the initiation and regulation of the antitumor immune response. already , dc-based antitumor vaccines have been thoroughly explored both in animal tumor models and in clinical trials. dc-based vaccines are commonly produced from dc progenitors isolated from peripheral blood or bone marrow by culturing in the presence of cytokines, followed by loading the dcs with tumor-specific antigens, such as dna, rna, viral vectors, or a tumor cell lysate. however ...201627795841
lichen sclerosus associated with localized scleroderma: dermoscopy contribution.lichen sclerosus is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis with preferential involvement of the urogenital region. the extragenital involvement is uncommon and is characterized by small rounded macules or papules, pearly white in color. the coexistence of lichen sclerosus and scleroderma plaques in most cases with extragenital location has been reported in the literature. we report a case of lichen sclerosus associated with scleroderma in children, highlighting the importance of dermoscopy in diagn ...201627579757
health technology assessment of pathogen reduction technologies applied to plasma for clinical use.although existing clinical evidence shows that the transfusion of blood components is becoming increasingly safe, the risk of transmission of known and unknown pathogens, new pathogens or re-emerging pathogens still persists. pathogen reduction technologies may offer a new approach to increase blood safety. the study is the output of collaboration between the italian national blood centre and the post-graduate school of health economics and management, catholic university of the sacred heart, ro ...201627403740
parasitic infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.parasitic infections are rarely documented in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. however they may be responsible for fatal complications that are only diagnosed at autopsy. increased awareness of the possibility of parasitic diseases both in autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant patients is relevant not only for implementing preventive measures but also for performing an early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy for these unrecognized but fatal infectious complication ...201627413527
current guidelines, common clinical pitfalls, and future directions for laboratory diagnosis of lyme disease, united the united states, lyme disease is caused by borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks. patients with an erythema migrans lesion and epidemiologic risk can receive a diagnosis without laboratory testing. for all other patients, laboratory testing is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, but proper interpretation depends on symptoms and timing of illness. the recommended laboratory test in the united states is 2-tiered serologic analysis consisting of an enzyme-linked i ...201627314832
presumed masitinib-induced nephrotic syndrome and azotemia in a dog.masitinib mesylate is a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of nonresectable or recurrent, grade 2 or 3 mast cell tumors in dogs. this report describes nephrotic syndrome and acute kidney injury attributed to masitinib and illustrates the need for regular monitoring of serum creatinine concentration, urinalysis, and urine protein:creatinine ratio during its use.201627429464
exposure to vector-borne pathogens in candidate blood donor and free-roaming dogs of northeast italy.many vector-borne pathogens including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes occur in northeast italy, representing a potential threat to animal and human populations. little information is available on the circulation of the above vector-borne pathogens in dogs. this work aims to (i) assess exposure to and circulation of pathogens transmitted to dogs in northeast italy by ticks, sandflies, and mosquitoes, and (ii) drive blood donor screening at the newly established canine blood bank of the ...201627357128
tick-borne relapsing fever in the united states, tick-borne relapsing fever (tbrf) in dogs is caused by the spirochete bacteria borrelia turicatae and borrelia hermsii, transmitted by ornithodoros spp. ticks. the hallmark diagnostic feature of this infection is the visualization of numerous spirochetes during standard blood smear examination. although the course of spirochetemia has not been fully characterized in dogs, in humans infected with tbrf the episodes of spirochetemia and fever are intermittent.201627353196
antibodies in multiple sclerosis oligoclonal bands target debris. 201627357674
coxiella burnetii induces inflammatory interferon-like signature in plasmacytoid dendritic cells: a new feature of immune response in q fever.plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdcs) play a major role in antiviral immunity via the production of type i interferons (ifns). there is some evidence that pdcs interact with bacteria but it is not yet clear whether they are protective or contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. we wished to investigate whether coxiella burnetii, the agent of q fever, interacts with pdcs. the stimulation of pdcs with c. burnetii increased the expression of activation and migratory markers (cd86 and ccr7) as determine ...201627446817
borrelia sp. phylogenetically different from lyme disease- and relapsing fever-related borrelia spp. in amblyomma varanense from python reticulatus.species of the genus borrelia are causative agents of lyme disease and relapsing fever. lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. however, in some parts of the world lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever may be caused by novel borrelia genotypes. herein, we report the presence of a borrelia sp. in an amblyomma varanense collected from python reticulatus.201627342652
hyperglycemia impairs neutrophil-mediated bacterial clearance in mice infected with the lyme disease pathogen.insulin-insufficient type 1 diabetes is associated with attenuated bactericidal function of neutrophils, which are key mediators of innate immune responses to microbes as well as pathological inflammatory processes. neutrophils are central to immune responses to the lyme pathogen borrelia burgdorferi. the effect of hyperglycemia on host susceptibility to and outcomes of b. burgdorferi infection has not been examined. the present study investigated the impact of sustained obesity-independent hype ...201627340827
hereditary hemochromatosis predisposes mice to yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection even in the absence of the type iii secretion system.the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (hh) predisposes humans to serious disseminated infection with pathogenic yersinia as well as several other pathogens. recently, we showed that the iron-sulfur cluster coordinating transcription factor iscr is required for type iii secretion in y. pseudotuberculosis by direct control of the t3ss master regulator lcrf. in e. coli and yersinia, iscr levels are predicted to be regulated by iron bioavailability, oxygen tension, and oxidative stre ...201627446816
chloroplast genomes: diversity, evolution, and applications in genetic engineering.chloroplasts play a crucial role in sustaining life on earth. the availability of over 800 sequenced chloroplast genomes from a variety of land plants has enhanced our understanding of chloroplast biology, intracellular gene transfer, conservation, diversity, and the genetic basis by which chloroplast transgenes can be engineered to enhance plant agronomic traits or to produce high-value agricultural or biomedical products. in this review, we discuss the impact of chloroplast genome sequences on ...201627339192
retrospective evaluation of horses diagnosed with neuroborreliosis on postmortem examination: 16 cases (2004-2015).equine neuroborreliosis (nb), lyme disease, is difficult to diagnose and has limited description in the literature.201627327172
structures of the orthosomycin antibiotics avilamycin and evernimicin in complex with the bacterial 70s ribosome.the ribosome is one of the major targets for therapeutic antibiotics; however, the rise in multidrug resistance is a growing threat to the utility of our current arsenal. the orthosomycin antibiotics evernimicin (evn) and avilamycin (avi) target the ribosome and do not display cross-resistance with any other classes of antibiotics, suggesting that they bind to a unique site on the ribosome and may therefore represent an avenue for development of new antimicrobial agents. here we present cryo-em ...201627330110
detection of selected pathogens in ticks collected from cats and dogs in the wrocław agglomeration, south-west poland.tick-borne infections are no longer confined to rural areas, they are documented with increasing frequency in urban settlements across the world. they are known to cause diseases in humans as well as in their companion animals.201627329450
distinct oligoclonal band antibodies in multiple sclerosis recognize ubiquitous self-proteins.oligoclonal ig bands (ocbs) of the cerebrospinal fluid are a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (ms), a disabling inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (cns). ocbs are locally produced by clonally expanded antigen-experienced b cells and therefore are believed to hold an important clue to the pathogenesis. however, their target antigens have remained unknown, mainly because it was thus far not possible to isolate distinct ocbs against a background of polyclonal antibodies. to overcome t ...201627325759
fluorescent membrane markers elucidate the association of borrelia burgdorferi with tick cell lines.this study aimed to describe the association of borrelia burgdorferi s.s. with ixodid tick cell lines by flow cytometry and fluorescence and confocal microscopy. spirochetes were stained with a fluorescent membrane marker (pkh67 or pkh26), inoculated into 8 different tick cell lines and incubated at 30°c for 24 h. pkh efficiently stained b. burgdorferi without affecting bacterial viability or motility. among the tick cell lines tested, the rhipicephalus appendiculatus cell line ra243 achieved th ...201627332772
immunopathological features of canine myocarditis associated with leishmania infantum infection.myocarditis associated with infectious diseases may occur in dogs, including those caused by the protozoa neospora caninum, trypanosoma cruzi, babesia canis, and hepatozoon canis. however, although cardiac disease due to leishmania infection has also been documented, the immunopathological features of myocarditis have not been reported so far. the aim of this study was to examine the types of cellular infiltrates and expression of mhc classes i and ii in myocardial samples obtained at necropsy f ...201627413751
contrasting emergence of lyme disease across environmental changes are causing lyme disease to emerge in europe. the life cycle of ixodes ricinus, the tick vector of lyme disease, involves an ontogenetic niche shift, from the larval and nymphal stages utilizing a wide range of hosts, picking up the pathogens causing lyme disease from small vertebrates, to the adult stage depending on larger (non-transmission) hosts, typically deer. because of this complexity the role of different host species for emergence of lyme disease remains co ...201627306947
comparison of growth of borrelia afzelii, borrelia garinii, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto at five different temperatures.lyme borreliosis is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a fastidious bacterium that replicates slowly and requires special conditions to grow in the laboratory. borrelia isolation from clinical material is a golden standard for microbiological diagnosis of borrelial infection. important factors that affect in vitro borrelia growth are temperature of incubation and number of borrelia cells in the sample. the aim of the study was to assess the influence of temperature on borr ...201627310556
cxcl13 chemokine as a promising biomarker to diagnose neurosyphilis in hiv-negative patients.chemokine ligand 13 (cxcl13) is believed to play a role in the recruitment of b cells in the central nervous system during neuroinflammation. neurosyphilis is a group of clinical syndromes of the central nervous system caused by treponema pallidum (t. pallidum) infection. the relationship between cxcl13 and neurosyphilis still needs further study. in our study, csf and serum cxcl13 concentrations were detected among 40 neurosyphilis patients, 31 syphilis/non-neurosyphilis patients, 26 non-syphil ...201627376011
circular helix-like curve: an effective tool of biological sequence analysis and comparison.this paper constructed a novel injection from a dna sequence to a 3d graph, named circular helix-like curve (chc). the presented graphical representation is available for visualizing characterizations of a single dna sequence and identifying similarities and differences among several dnas. a 12-dimensional vector extracted from chc, as a numerical characterization of chc, was applied to analyze phylogenetic relationships of 11 species, 74 ribosomal rnas, 48 hepatitis e viruses, and 18 eutherian ...201627403205
novel borrelia species detected in echidna ticks, bothriocroton concolor, in date, little has been documented about microorganisms harboured within australian native ticks or their pathogenic potential. recently, a borrelia sp. related to the relapsing fever (rf) group was identified in a single tick removed from a wild echidna (tachyglossus aculeatus). the present study investigated the presence of borrelia in 97 bothriocroton concolor ticks parasitizing echidnas in queensland, new south wales, and victoria, australia, using nested pcr with borrelia-specific primers ...201627301754
seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer from texas.lyme disease is caused by the bacterial pathogen borrelia burgdorferi, and is transmitted by the tick-vector ixodes scapularis. it is the most prevalent arthropod-borne disease in the united states. to determine the seroprevalence of b. burgdorferi antibodies in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from texas, we analyzed serum samples (n = 1493) collected during the 2001-2015 hunting seasons, using indirect elisa. samples with higher sero-reactivity (0.803 and above) than the negative con ...201627366674
pilz domain protein flgz mediates cyclic di-gmp-dependent swarming motility control in pseudomonas aeruginosa.the second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-gmp) is an important regulator of motility in many bacterial species. in pseudomonas aeruginosa, elevated levels of c-di-gmp promote biofilm formation and repress flagellum-driven swarming motility. the rotation of p. aeruginosa's polar flagellum is controlled by two distinct stator complexes, motab, which cannot support swarming motility, and motcd, which promotes swarming motility. here we show that when c-di-gmp levels are elevated, swarming motil ...201627114465
acute borrelia infection inducing an apmppe-like picture.acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (apmppe) is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology affecting the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, and the choroid. although several etiological factors have been suggested, none has been confirmed. we report a case of apmppe associated with acute infection of borreliosis. a 30-year-old man presented with a decrease in vision in the right eye of about 1-week duration. his visual acuity in the right eye was 6/36. fundus exam reveal ...201627294731
the characterization of escherichia coli cpdb as a recombinant protein reveals that, besides having the expected 3´-nucleotidase and 2´,3´-cyclic mononucleotide phosphodiesterase activities, it is also active as cyclic dinucleotide phosphodiesterase.endogenous cyclic diadenylate phosphodiesterase activity was accidentally detected in lysates of escherichia coli bl21. since this kind of activity is uncommon in gram-negative bacteria, its identification was undertaken. after partial purification and analysis by denaturing gel electrophoresis, renatured activity correlated with a protein identified by fingerprinting as cpdb (cpdb gene product), which is annotated as 3´-nucleotidase / 2´,3´-cyclic-mononucleotide phosphodiesterase, and it is syn ...201627294396
inflammatory cardiomyopathy: a current view on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.inflammatory cardiomyopathy is defined as inflammation of the heart muscle associated with impaired function of the myocardium. in our region, its etiology is most often viral. viral infection is a possible trigger of immune and autoimmune mechanisms which contributed to the damage of myocardial function. myocarditis is considered the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. typical manifestation of this disease is heart failure, chest pain, or arrhythmias. the most important noninvasive dia ...201627382566
autophagy and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a review.the incidence of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (bladder cancer) remains high. while other solid organ malignancies have seen significant improvement in morbidity and mortality, there has been little change in bladder cancer mortality in the past few decades. the mortality is mainly driven by muscle invasive bladder cancer, but the cancer burden remains high even in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer due to high recurrence rates and risk of progression. while apoptosis deregulation h ...201627326411
texas occurrence of lyme disease and its neurological, lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borne disease in the united states and europe. the culprits behind lyme disease are the borrelia species of bacteria. in the usa, borrelia burgdorferi causes the majority of cases, while in europe and asia borrelia afzelii and borrelia garinii carry the greatest burden of disease. the clinical manifestations of lyme disease have been identified as early localized, early disseminated, and late chronic. the neurological effects of lyme disease ...201627478852
molecular detection of bartonella spp. in terrestrial leeches (haemadipsa rjukjuana) feeding on human and animal blood in gageo-do, republic of korea.leeches can transmit pathogens and are therefore potentially hazardous to human and animal health. however, only a few studies of diseases transmitted by land leeches have been reported. the purpose of the present study was to analyse which pathogens are carried in haemadipsa rjukjuana, the first recorded sanguivorous land leech in the republic of korea (rok).201627267358
calcium binding protects e-cadherin from cleavage by helicobacter pylori htra.the cell adhesion and tumor suppressor protein e-cadherin is an important factor in the establishment and maintenance of epithelial integrity. e-cadherin is a single transmembrane protein, which consists of an intracellular domain (ic), a transmembrane domain (td), and five extracellular domains (ec). ec domains form homophilic interactions in cis and trans that require calcium binding to the linker region between the ec domains. in our previous studies, we identified the serine protease high te ...201627274359
host-feeding patterns of mosquito species in germany.mosquito-borne pathogens are of growing importance in many countries of europe including germany. at the same time, the transmission cycles of most mosquito-borne pathogens (e.g. viruses or filarial parasites) are not completely understood. there is especially a lack of knowledge about the vector capacity of the different mosquito species, which is strongly influenced by their host-feeding patterns. while this kind of information is important to identify the relevant vector species, e.g. to dire ...201627259984
glycosaminoglycans and infection.glycosaminoglycans (gags) are complex linear polysaccharides expressed in intracellular compartments, at the cell surface, and in the extracellular environment where they interact with various molecules to regulate many cellular processes implicated in health and disease. subversion of gags is a pathogenic strategy shared by a wide variety of microbial pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. pathogens use gags at virtually every major portals of entry to promote their attac ...201627100505
dermacentor reticulatus: a vector on the rise.dermacentor reticulatus is a hard tick species with extraordinary biological features. it has a high reproduction rate, a rapid developmental cycle, and is also able to overcome years of unfavourable conditions. dermacentor reticulatus can survive under water for several months and is cold-hardy even compared to other tick species. it has a wide host range: over 60 different wild and domesticated hosts are known for the three active developmental stages. its high adaptiveness gives an edge to th ...201627251148
spatial scale modulates the strength of ecological processes driving disease distributions.humans are altering the distribution of species by changing the climate and disrupting biotic interactions and dispersal. a fundamental hypothesis in spatial ecology suggests that these effects are scale dependent; biotic interactions should shape distributions at local scales, whereas climate should dominate at regional scales. if so, common single-scale analyses might misestimate the impacts of anthropogenic modifications on biodiversity and the environment. however, large-scale datasets neces ...201627247398
toll-like receptor cascade and gene polymorphism in host-pathogen interaction in lyme disease.lyme disease (ld) risk occurs in north america and europe where the tick vectors of the causal agent borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are found. it is associated with local and systemic manifestations, and has persistent posttreatment health complications in some individuals. the innate immune system likely plays a critical role in both host defense against b. burgdorferi and disease severity. recognition of b. burgdorferi, activation of the innate immune system, production of proinflammatory cyt ...201627330321
novel detection of coxiella spp., theileria luwenshuni, and t. ovis endosymbionts in deer keds (lipoptena fortisetosa).we describe for the first time the detection of coxiella-like bacteria (clb), theileria luwenshuni, and t. ovis endosymbionts in blood-sucking deer keds. eight deer keds attached to a korean water deer were identified as lipoptena fortisetosa (diptera: hippoboscidae) by morphological and genetic analyses. among the endosymbionts assessed, clb, theileria luwenshuni, and t. ovis were identified in l. fortisetosa by pcr and nucleotide sequencing. based on phylogeny, clb 16s rrna sequences were clas ...201627244561
environmental factors influencing tick densities over seven years in a french suburban forest.worldwide changes in socio-economic and environmental factors and the global climate are recognised causes of variation in tick distribution and density. thus it is of great importance that new studies address the changing risk of infection for exposed populations. in europe, ixodes ricinus ticks are the most common vectors of several pathogens impacting veterinary and public health that have colonised suburban habitats.201627234215
efficacy of rintatolimod in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (cfs/me).chronic fatigue syndrome/ myalgic encephalomyelitis (cfs/me) is a poorly understood seriously debilitating disorder in which disabling fatigue is an universal symptom in combination with a variety of variable symptoms. the only drug in advanced clinical development is rintatolimod, a mismatched double stranded polymer of rna (dsrna). rintatolimod is a restricted toll-like receptor 3 (tlr3) agonist lacking activation of other primary cellular inducers of innate immunity (e.g.- cytosolic helicases ...201627045557
challenges with using names to link digital biodiversity information. 201627346955
detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in amblyomma americanum ticks in the southeastern united states: the case of selective compatibility. 201627222323
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