TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
the molecular biology of borrelia.borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of lyme disease, has two major outer-membrane proteins, ospa and ospb, which act as surface antigens. a 49-kilobase linear plasmid contains the genes that encode for these surface proteins. direct examination of denatured plasmid molecules has revealed single-stranded circles with a circumference of approximately 100 kilobases (about twice the length of the linear duplex molecule), a finding that indicates the plasmid strands have covalently closed ends. this form ...19892682959
neurologic manifestations of lyme disease, the new "great imitator".the causative agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, is a highly neurotropic organism that not only can produce symptomatic neurologic disease but also can exist dormant within the central nervous system (cns) for long periods. two distinct types of neuroborreliosis occur at different stages of lyme disease. second-stage lyme meningitis resembles aseptic meningitis and is often associated with facial palsies, peripheral nerve involvement, and/or radiculopathies. lyme meningitis may be the ...19892682960
immunologic aspects of lyme borreliosis.immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi infection are now well characterized. following infection there is an early t cell response and a more slowly evolving b cell response. igm antibodies appear first and are followed by igg and iga. early antibodies are primarily against a 41-kilodalton flagellum-associated antigen; responses to other spirochetal antigens develop later. serologic assays that use whole b. burgdorferi preparations are not always able to detect an early rise in antibodies abov ...19892682961
abnormalities of the nervous system in lyme disease: response to antimicrobial therapy.objective measures of neurologic function were used to assess response to treatment in patients with late lyme borreliosis. neurophysiologic evidence of peripheral neuropathy was present in 64 of 137 patients tested. measures of distal axon function (sensory amplitude and conduction velocity, motor terminal latency) were most affected. repeat studies following 60 patients receiving antimicrobial therapy demonstrated significant improvement in these values. before and after therapy 17 patients wi ...19892682962
isolation techniques for spirochetes and their sensitivity to antibiotics in vitro and in vivo.leptospira interrogans can be cultured from blood and cerebrospinal fluid during the first week of leptospirosis and from urine thereafter. studies of in vitro sensitivity indicate that these organisms are sensitive to most antibiotics. tetracycline and penicillin g are most often used clinically, although laboratory studies suggest that the bactericidal activity of penicillin g may be inadequate. treponema pallidum cannot be satisfactorily cultured. it is identified by dark-field microscopy. st ...19892682963
a clinical and sero-epidemiological study of 190 belgian patients suffering from lyme borreliosis.we present a sero-epidemiological study of 190 belgian cases of lyme borreliosis, a multisystemic disease caused by the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by a tick bite. the whole spectrum of clinical pictures was observed in these patients, including "erythema chronicum migrans" (63%), neurological involvement (47%) and arthritis (22%), frequently in combination. our results are compared to findings in other countries. among the 437 ixodes ricinus ticks collected in the sambre an ...19892683538
[lyme disease and borrelia burgdorferi infections in europe].lyme disease is endemic in europe. the strains of the causative agent, borrelia burgdorferi, seem to be antigenically more heterogeneous than the north american isolates. the only documented vector for this bacterium in europe is ixodes ricinus, but other vectors might be involved as observed in the united states. the tick hosts are not yet well documented in europe. human infection occurs principally during summer months. the clinical aspect of the disease has particular features in europe: at ...19892683896
cefotaxime vs penicillin g for acute neurologic manifestations in lyme borreliosis. a prospective randomized study.we randomly assigned 21 patients with painful lyme neuroborreliosis radiculitis (bannwarth's syndrome) and neuroborreliosis meningitis to a 10-day treatment with either penicillin g. 4 x 5 million u/d (n = 10) or cefotaxime sodium, 3 x 2 g/d (n = 11), intravenously. we were not able to demonstrate clinical differences between groups, either during the 10-day treatment period or at follow-up examination a mean of 7.7 months after antibiotic therapy. cerebrospinal fluid cefotaxime concentrations r ...19892684107
suspected lyme disease in a cow. 19892684126
class-specific and polyvalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in equids.class-specific and polyvalent elisa were developed to detect igm antibody or total immunoglobulins to borrelia burgdorferi in equine sera. analyses of 122 serum specimens, collected during 1985 from horses and ponies in tick-infested areas of connecticut, revealed igm antibody in 41 (34%) samples; titration end points ranged from 1:160 to 1:2,560. in polyvalent elisa, 73 (16%) of 454 serum specimens contained igm and/or igg antibody. seropositivity was highest (32%) for blood samples collected d ...19892684937
cross-reaction with borrelia burgdorferi antigen of sera from patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, syphilis, and leptospirosis.we have studied the cross-reaction with borrelia burgdorferi of sera positive for leptospirosis, syphilis, or human immunodeficiency virus by using the microimmunofluorescence test (micro-if). the percentage of sera reactive in the micro-if before absorption varied from 7 to 37% and was reduced to 3 to 8% after absorption with a commercial reiter treponemal antigen. the cross-reaction of sera positive for syphilis or human immunodeficiency virus was distinguished from the homologous reaction wit ...19892685016
antigenic characteristics of borrelia burgdorferi isolates from ixodid ticks in california.twenty (1.4%) of 1,421 adult ixodes pacificus ticks and 2 (20%) of 10 adult ixodes neotomae ticks collected in five counties of northern california were found to contain spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence examination of their tissues with a polyvalent conjugate. borreliae isolated from the tissues of nine of these ticks (i. pacificus, 8; i. neotomae, 1) were identified as borrelia burgdorferi with specific monoclonal antibodies and characterized further by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresi ...19892685030
antibody testing in lyme disease. a comparison of results in four evaluate the interlaboratory and intralaboratory agreement in the performance of lyme disease serological testing, we sent serum specimens from 132 outdoor workers in new jersey to as many as four independent laboratories. these included one state department of health laboratory, one large commercial laboratory, and two research laboratories. the measurement of agreement employed, the kappa statistic, ranged from .45 to .53 among the four laboratories and from .50 to .54 within the commercial ...19892685383
cutaneous manifestations of lyme borreliosis.erythema migrans is the distinctive cutaneous marker of lyme borreliosis. the clinical picture is variable but at some point in its evolution, erythema migrans presents as a red, centrifugally expanding, annular plaque. erythema migrans may appear as a solitary lesion or in multiplicity. it may be accompanied by extra cutaneous signs and symptoms as fever, headache, musculoskeletal discomfort, and regional lymphadenopathy. the diagnosis of erythema migrans is based primarily on clinical findings ...19892685922
lyme disease in children.lyme disease is an increasing health risk for children. pediatricians should become familiar with the different clinical syndromes caused by the borrelia burgdorferi. appropriate antibiotic therapy must be initiated and follow-up of these children should be a part of the management as some may develop (tertiary) chronic borreliosis. lyme disease should be considered in the diagnostic work-up of heart block, childhood arthritis and in undiagnosed peripheral and central nervous system disease. ser ...19892685925
histopathology of clinical phases of human lyme disease.acute, subacute, or chronic persistent human lyme borreliosis is an inflammatory disorder composed pathologically of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, and mast cells. the lymphoplasmocellular infiltrates can at times be seen in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, myocardium, brain, autonomic ganglia, and peripheral nerves. the joints in arthritic cases have proliferative synovitis, fibrinaceous deposits, lymphoplasmocellular aggregates, and mast cells. varying degre ...19892685926
immunodiagnosis of lyme borreliosis.the clinical definition of lyme disease depends on the epidemiologic association of signs and symptoms with a measureable immune response to b. burgdorferi. the dependence on the demonstration of an immune response to b. burgdorferi has made the understanding of this systemic spirochetosis critical for the physician when making a diagnosis.19892685927
laboratory diagnosis of lyme disease.different techniques have been developed to aid in laboratory diagnosis of lyme disease. the detection of serum antibodies, in particular, is relied on heavily by the medical community and is currently the most practical means of confirming b. burgdorferi infections. although most assays may not detect low amounts of igm antibody during the initial weeks of infection, application of a capture elisa method has been reported to improve test sensitivity. antibodies to borrelia and treponema spiroch ...19892685928
preventing lyme disease.five species of ixodid ticks that frequently feed on humans, ixodes dammini, i. scapularis, i. pacificus i. ricinus, and i. persulcatus, are competent vectors of b. burgdorferi. collectively, these species are distributed over vast areas of north america, europe, and asia. lyme disease is becoming prevalent because of increased human exposure to infected ticks. chemical and environmental methods of controlling these ticks over large areas will be difficult because none of these species is concen ...19892685929
vector/host relationships of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi.lyme borreliosis is now occurring on several continents where its causative agent, borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained and transmitted by ticks of the "ixodes ricinus complex" namely i. dammini, i. pacificus, and possibly i. scapularis in north america, i. ricinus in europe, and i. persulcatus in asia. because all developmental stages of these ticks feed on a large variety of hosts including humans, the vector/host relationships of this spirochete is highly complex as indicated by the voluminous ...19892685930
lyme disease.neurological problems form an important part of the clinical spectrum of lyme disease. a triad of aseptic meningoencephalitis, cranial neuritis and peripheral neuritis is unique to the disease. however, the list of neurological manifestations described includes pseudotumour cerebri, hemiparesis, demyelinating disorders, optic atrophy, recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and purulent meningitis so that lyme disease must now be considered in the differential diagnosis of a wide range of neurological d ...19892686764
lyme arthritis.evanescent arthralgias and myalgias are common early symptoms of lyme disease. transient, intermittent episodes of monoarticular, oligoarticular, or sometimes migratory polyarticular arthritis, lasting weeks to months, with disease-free intervals, are frequently observed in untreated patients with erythema chronicum migrans. a minority of patients develop chronic joint involvement, most commonly affecting the knee. antibiotic therapy given during erythema chronicum migrans is often protective wi ...19892686765
orthopaedic complications of lyme disease in children.lyme disease is transmitted by the tick ixodes dammini ("deer tick") or a related ixodid tick. early diagnosis of children with lyme disease is difficult because the bite of the ixodid tick often goes unnoticed. furthermore, erythema chronicum migrans, the characteristic rash of the disease, occurs in less than 50% of cases. however, an awareness of orthopaedic complications of lyme disease may facilitate an early diagnosis of this disease. orthopaedic complications of lyme disease include those ...19892686766
antibiotic treatment of lyme borreliosis.unlike most bacterial infections, where diagnosis is by identification of the causal organism, diagnosis of infection by borrelia burgdorferi (lyme's borreliosis) relies mostly upon indirect techniques. this situation has some short-comings. as long as no technology permits a microbiological diagnosis of this infection, controversy will exist as to the clinical symptoms and the criteria for the cure of the disease. despite the lack of consensus upon both the clinical definition and the treatment ...19892686769
comparative evaluation of three products for the detection of borrelia burgdorferi antibody in human serum.eighty human serum specimens tested concomitantly by immunoblot and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed jointly at the university of connecticut school of medicine and the connecticut agricultural experiment station were used to evaluate three commercially available diagnostic products for lyme borreliosis. the sources of the kits were hillcrest biologicals, cypress, calif.; whittaker bioproducts, walkersville, md.; and cambridge bioscience, worcester, mass. when compared with western ...19892687323
[borrelia burgdorferi from ixodes ricinus ticks on ameland].ixodes ricinus ticks collected from the north sea island of ameland, the netherlands, were screened for the presence of borrelia spirochaetes. the present authors used ifat on tick gut preparations and identified borrelia in 31 per cent of the adult ticks and 16 per cent of the nymphs collected from the dunes and 45 per cent of the nymphs collected from the forests. in vitro cultivation of borrelia sp. isolated from the adult ticks and its subsequent recognition by b. burgdorferi-specific monocl ...19892688191
[negativity of borrelia burgdorferi serology in scleroderma en plaques].the occurrence of morphea has been attributed to borrelia, burgdorferi infection, but the relationship between localised scleroderma and borreliosis remains controverted. antibodies directed against b. burgdorferi were looked for in 21 patients (18 female and 3 male, aged from 8 to 63 years) whose disease had been present for 6 weeks to 13 years. one patient had a single morphea, two had monomelic scleroderma and 18 had multiple localised morpheas. the search for antibodies was conducted in thes ...19892688515
[a review of lyme disease].lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by certain ixodid ticks. the illness usually occurs in stages with many different clinical manifestations. the disease starts with a typical cutaneous lesion called erythema cronicum migrans, that usually develops at the site of the tick bite. after weeks or months, some patients develop neurological abnormalities, particularly meningitis, cranial nerve paralysis, peripheral radiculoneuritis, or card ...19892690198
the pathologist's view of lyme disease.lyme disease is a multisystem disease caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans primarily through ixodid ticks. the clinical spectrum of the disease is continuing to expand while in its wake the pathology and histopathologic manifestations are being uncovered. we review the pathology of lyme disease in man beginning with the tick bite. we present the pathologic changes of the rash, erythema migrans, as well as the neurologic, cardiac, and arthritic changes of the ...19892690468
pathogenesis of lyme disease.the etiology and pathogenesis of lyme disease are reviewed and the value of the condition as a human model for an infectious etiology of rheumatic disease is discussed. similarities between lyme disease and rheumatoid arthritis are considered.19892692132
[diagnostic possibilities and limitations in lyme borreliosis].in switzerland 5-35% of ixodes ricinus ticks are infested with borrelia burgdorferi (b.b.). there is a high risk of transmission of this infectious agent from any tick bite and 4-5% of affected subjects subsequently contract evident lyme borreliosis. however, both tick bite and erythema chronicum migrans are unreliable diagnostic pointers as they are not usually found in the history of lyme borreliosis patients. similarly, an increased titer of antibodies against b.b. is not evidence of lyme bor ...19892692151
[serodiagnosis of lyme borreliosis: antibody titer and specificity in the ift and western blot].out of 334 sera from healthy persons from northern bavaria 6% reacted positive in the indirect immunofluorescence test (ift, titre greater than or equal to 1:64). the percentage of positive cases in patients with erythema chronicum migrans (ecm), meningoradiculitis (m. bannwarth), or acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) was 43, 83 and 78%, respectively. in other patients with less characteristic symptoms in which an infection with b. burgdorferi was suspected the number of positive cases wa ...19892693341
clinical features and treatment of lyme disease.lyme disease is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, which is carried by infected ticks. this disorder has a variable clinical course with multisystem manifestations, including dermatologic, neurologic, cardiac, and rheumatologic abnormalities. although lyme disease has been commonly associated with stages, the utility of staging may be limited due to the inconsistency of clinical manifestations among patients. furthermore, stages may overlap as a result of the acute and chronic phases ...19892694112
linear chromosome of borrelia burgdorferi.the dna organization of several european and american isolates of borrelia burgdorferi, the aetiological agent of lyme disease, was analysed in pulse-field agarose gel electrophoresis. the results of in situ cell lysis in agarose plugs demonstrated a unique arrangement for the dna of this spirochete. the chromosome of borrelia behaved as a eukaryotic linear chromosome with a size of around 1,000 kb. the genome also comprised several circular and linear plasmids which varied in size from 15 to 60 ...19892696058
[lyme disease].lyme disease, which is caused by the tick-borne spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, usually begins with a characteristic skin lesion erythema chronicum migrans (ecm), that may be followed by neurological or cardiac abnormalities and is accompanied by malaise, fatigue, fever, myalgia, headache, lymphadenopathy and is often followed by arthritis. the disease takes its name from lyme, connecticut, where the full spectrum of illness was first described in 1975. it is known to be a multisystemic infecti ...19892696864
lyme disease--a new disease in southern africa?lyme disease is a recently-described zoonotic disease occurring widely in the u.s.a., europe and asia. the causative organism, borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted predominantly by ticks of the genus ixodes and infects a wide host range. the infection in humans causes the human disease syndrome erythema chronicum migrans resulting in arthritis, neurological symptoms and/or cardiac abnormalities. similar clinical signs have been described in domestic animals. the status of lyme disease in souther ...19892699499
the cutaneous manifestations of human lyme disease: a widening spectrum. 19892701793
penetration of endothelial cell monolayers by borrelia burgdorferi.the ability of borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease, to penetrate cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers was investigated. after 4 h of coincubation, approximately 7.7% of added bacteria passed through the host cell monolayers. electron microscopy revealed that the borreliae entered the endothelial cells and suggested that the organisms penetrated the host monolayers primarily by passing through them.19892707862
ultrastructure of borrelia burgdorferi in tissues of patients with lyme disease.spirochetal organisms were sought in 18 skin and 4 synovial membrane specimens obtained by biopsy from 22 lyme disease patients. the presence of spirochetes in body tissues was histologically demonstrated in one patient with lymphadenosis benigna cutis, one patient with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans and in one patient with active arthritis. the organisms were 5-30 microns long and 0.12-0.25 microns thick, had 8 or 11 flagella arising from both ends of the body, and their ultrastructure was ...19892709313
competence of a rabbit-feeding ixodes (acari: ixodidae) as a vector of the lyme disease spirochete.we compared the development of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt and brenner, in subadult rabbit-feeding ixodes dentatus marx with that in mouse-feeding i. dammini spielman, clifford, piesman and corwin. rabbits were infected with spirochetes by the bites of i. dammini that had been infected naturally in a zoönotic site. larval ticks of both species were permitted to engorge simultaneously on each of these infected hosts. spirochetes were presen ...19892709387
seronegative lyme disease. 19892710208
[atrioventricular block in lyme carditis].lyme disease, due to infection with borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by ticks, is most frequently manifested by arthritis and neurological complications. in approximately 8% of cases, however, carditis, usually reflected in av block, is the leading symptom. the case histories of 2 males and 1 female aged 23 to 37 years with av block caused by borrelia burgdorferi are presented. main symptoms were exertional dyspnea, palpitations, dizziness and syncope. one patient was treated with diclofenac and ...19892711158
serosurvey for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in danish estimate the regional presence of b. burgdorferi we performed a serosurvey for antibodies to b. burgdorferi in 205 healthy dogs from representative areas of denmark. blood samples were collected from november 1986 to march 1987. twenty dogs bred for research purposes served as negative controls. igg-antibodies to the b. burgdorferi strain dk-ecm 1 were measured by indirect immunofluorescens assay. antibody titers ranged from nonreactive to 640. in 33 dogs (16.1%) titres were greater than or e ...19892713138
genetic and antigenic characterization of borrelia coriaceae, putative agent of epizootic bovine abortion.borrelia coriaceae was characterized genetically and antigenically by utilizing the following techniques: restriction endonuclease analysis, southern blotting and genomic hybridization, pulsed-field electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunoblotting. the b. coriaceae genome revealed unique and characteristic banding patterns both by agarose gel electrophoresis and by hybridization when compared with several borrelia burgdorferi isolates. pulsed-field g ...19892715314
serodiagnosis of erythema migrans and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans by the borrelia burgdorferi flagellum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the diagnostic performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using purified borrelia burgdorferi flagella as test antigen was compared with that of a b. burgdorferi sonic extract elisa. we tested sera from 200 healthy controls, 107 patients with erythema migrans (em), 50 patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca), and 98 patients with various dermatological disorders without clinical evidence of active lyme borreliosis. the flagellum elisa was significantly more sensit ...19892715325
lagomorphs as sentinels for surveillance of borreliosis in the far western united states.brush rabbits (sylvilagus bachmani) and black-tailed jackrabbits (lepus californicus) from california (usa) were assayed for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis. significant antibody titers were detected in 90% (range, 67 to 100%) of brush rabbits from four of six localities, and in 90% of jackrabbits from a single locality, in northern california. one of the populations of brush rabbits that did not yield seropositive individuals inhabited an oceanic isla ...19892716099
[bilateral acute confluent disseminated choroiditis in borrelia burgdorferi infection].two patients with bilateral extensive confluent choroidal lesions, exudative retinal detachments, positive lyme serology and a typical history are documented: a 32-year-old woman presented 14 days after a "flu-like" illness with bilateral acute extensive choroidal lesions and exudative retinal detachments (od from 5 to 8:30 o'clock, os from 5 to 8 o'clock, both including the macula) accompanied by a mild lymphocytic meningitis. the laboratory work-up revealed increased serum and csf titers of an ...19892716229
[lyme borreliosis--the most frequent cause of acute peripheral facial paralysis in childhood].a prospective hospital-based multicentre study in lower saxony allowed to investigate the frequency of acute peripheral facial palsy due to lyme borreliosis and its clinical and laboratory characteristics. diagnosis of lyme borreliosis was based on detection of igm antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi in serum and csf as well, using an igm capture elisa. between june 1986 and october 1987 27 consecutive cases with acute peripheral facial palsy were studied. lyme borreliosis is the main cause ...19892716745
histopathology of lyme arthritis in lsh hamsters.the authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with borrelia burgdorferi. nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with b. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. this acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and per ...19892719078
characterization of the first tick isolate of borrelia burgdorferi from italy.we report on the first isolation of a spirochetal organism from ixodes ricinus ticks of the trieste area (northern italy) which was identified as borrelia burgdorferi by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies directed against the ospa and flagella proteins.19892719854
borrelia burgdorferi infections. 19892721239
[acute multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy with inflammatory csf findings. a special form of borreliosis?].a 24-year-old woman with acute multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy in both eyes had no signs or symptoms other than the impaired vision. visual evoked potentials demonstrated prolonged latency. lumbar csf showed inflammatory changes. serum antibody titres against borrelia burgdorferi were markedly elevated. cortisone treatment was without success, but intravenous penicillin quickly brought about improvement in vision. borrelia infection may thus have been the cause of the multifocal placoi ...19892721383
[prognosis of peripheral facial paralysis in lyme borreliosis (garin-bujadoux, bannwarth meningopolyradiculitis)].meningopolyradiculitis (garin-bujadoux syndrome, bannwarth syndrome) is the second stage of lyme disease, a tick-borne borrelia infection. almost 60% of these patients develop an acute peripheral facial paresis. the disease can be differentiated from bell's palsy only by finding the specific borrelia antibodies in serum and csf. other cranial nerve lesions can be found besides facial paresis. the follow-up of seven borrelia-infected patients is described: one showed bilateral, the others unilate ...19892722577
borrelia burgdorferi infection in horses. 19892722625
the ominous spread of borrelia burgdorferi infection. 19892722627
ocular manifestations of lyme disease.the incidence of lyme disease has been increasing at alarming rates in recent years. being the most commonly reported tickborne bacterial disease in the united states, it now outnumbers rocky mountain spotted fever by a ratio of almost 2:1. it is a multisystem illness and can manifest itself with dermatologic, neurologic, cardiac and rheumatologic involvement. the ocular complications of lyme disease can present as one of the more ominous signs during the course of the illness. the detection of ...19892723324
habitat distribution of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) an lyme disease spirochetes on fire island, new york.the distributions of ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman, and corwin and lyme disease spirochetes were studied on fire island, n.y. adult ticks were more common in high-shrub habitats (shrubby vegetation greater than or equal to 1 m high) than in grassy and lowshrub habitats (vegetation less than 1 m) in spring and fall. in the fall, adults were also common in the woods. adults were more abundant on narrow trails than in nearby vegetation. during the summer, questing nymphs and larvae wer ...19892724316
host associations of ticks (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing medium-sized mammals in a lyme disease endemic area of southern new york.ticks of eight medium-sized mammal species were studied in an area of endemic lyme disease in westchester county, n.y., from 1 april 1984 to 31 march 1985. most (81%) of the 266 total mammal captures were raccoon, procyon lotor (l.) (47%), opossum, didelphis virginiana (kerr) (19%), and striped skunk, mephitis mephitis schreber (15%); these host species accounted for 91% of the 1,519 ticks collected. although the total number of ticks was rather evenly distributed among these mammals, species co ...19892724317
treatment of lyme disease. 19892725419
borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in multiple sclerosis patients.lyme disease is said to produce a late syndrome resembling multiple sclerosis. we analyzed serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in 100 patients referred for possible ms. all lived in an area endemic for lyme disease. only 1 of 89 definite ms patients and 2 of 11 non-ms patients were antibody positive. infection with borrelia burgdorferi is rare in ms, and lyme disease is unlikely to play a significant role in the differential diagnosis of ms.19892725867
nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding the borrelia burgdorferi flagellin. 19892726494
[clinical characteristics of tick-borne spirochete infection (lyme disease)].a total of 54 patients with tick-borne annular erythema (tae) were investigated. in 41 patients different nervous system involvement signs were observed: radicular syndrome, serose meningitis, limbs paresis. epidemiological and clinical signs of tae in the ussr are much like those of laim disease in usa and western europe. laboratory investigations that were performed in 13 tae patients have detected antibodies to the infecting agent of the laim disease in 8. treatment with broad spectrum antibi ...19892728715
lyme disease keratitis. 19892729417
extrapyramidal features in central lyme borreliosis.we report 5 cases with an extrapyramidal syndrome resulting from borrelia burgdorferi encephalitis which responded to antibiotic treatment. the acute onset of extrapyramidal features together with diffuse pain can be the leading symptoms of central borreliosis.19892731563
demonstration of spirochetes in cardiac biopsies of patients with lyme disease.cardiac involvement occurring early in borrelia burgdorferi infection is a clinical manifestation of human lyme disease. therefore, two patients with acute complete atrioventricular heart blocks and unexplained recurrent dizziness were studied. both patients had significantly elevated serum titers of igm and igg antibodies to b. burgdorferi. right ventricular subendocardial biopsies showed dense infiltrates consisting of lymphocytes and plasma cells. silver staining revealed spirochetes characte ...19892732509
ingestion of lyme disease spirochetes by ticks feeding on infected hosts. 19892732513
identification and characterization of an endoflagellar antigen of borrelia burgdorferi.the 41-kd antigen of borrelia burgdorferi is an immunodominant protein that is recognized early by antibodies in sera from lyme disease patients and known to be associated with the endoflagella. we identified the 41-kd endoflagellar antigen to be a single polypeptide with an apparent isoelectric point (pi) of 6.5 by two-dimensional (2-d) electrophoresis. this polypeptide, which we designated p41f alpha, was heavily labeled by 125i in 2-d autoradiographs of b. burgdorferi whole-cell lysates and w ...19892738156
[articular involvement in swiss patients with a borrelia burgdorferi infection--report of 8 cases].eight cases of lyme's arthritis are reported. in four of them, they are related to an erythema chronicum migrans, in two to an acrodermatitis atrophicans. in two cases, there was no cutaneous manifestation, but the serology was strongly positive for borrelia burgdorferi, and there was rapid relief of the pain with antibiotic therapy. it is suggested that lyme's arthritis is not rare in switzerland and that it must be searched for in every case of arthritis of unknown etiology, especially when th ...19892740677
[lyme disease: epidemiology].lyme disease, known primarily from north america, with three main foci in the united states, and from temperate europe, particularly in france, seems to be increasing in incidence. wherever it is known to exist, it has become the most prevalent tick-borne disease of man. the natural cycle of the etiologic agent, borrelia burgdorferi, involves ticks as vectors and wild rodents as reservoirs. in infected areas, everyone walking or, especially, working in forested areas is at risk of tick bites, es ...19892740780
lyme-borreliosis and possible association with hla-antigens.the frequencies of hla a, b, c and dr antigens were evaluated in 220 persons from west germany with inapparent and manifest borrelia burgdorferi infections. thirty-seven forest workers showing elevated antibody titres against borrelia burgdorferi had asymptomatic infection, and are described as stage 0. one hundred and eighty-three patients presented with the clinical stages 1-3 of the infection. control persons (n = 655) were typed in the same time period and by identical staff. hla cw3 was pre ...19892741164
meningoradiculoneuritis mimicking vertebral disc herniation. a "neurosurgical" complication of lyme-borreliosis.we report on 3 patients with meningoradiculoneuritis (mrn) due to lyme-borreliosis (lb), which presented clinically as vertebral disc herniation. in 2 cases the underlying infection was discovered only after unsuccessful neurosurgical treatment. in the differential diagnosis between mrn and disc herniation the following criteria are suggestive of mrn and should raise suspicion of a non-discogenic aetiology: history of tick bite or erythema chronicum migrans, fever or general malaise, mono- or ol ...19892741734
central nervous system manifestations of lyme disease.we studied six patients with central nervous system manifestations of lyme disease. weeks to years after the initial infection, behavioral changes, ataxia, and/or weakness in bulbar or peripheral muscles developed. four of the six patients had a lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid, and two of them had magnetic resonance imaging scans suggestive of demyelination. in a patient with a subacute encephalitis, a brain biopsy specimen showed microgliosis without an inflammatory infiltrat ...19892742551
treatment of clothing with a permethrin spray for personal protection against the western black-legged tick, ixodes pacificus (acari: ixodidae).the synthetic pyrethroid, permethrin, when applied to clothing with a pressurized spray at an application rate estimated previously to be 4 micrograms a.i./cm2, was found to be 100% effective for personal protection against all three parasitic stages of the western black-legged tick, ixodes pacificus cooley and kohls. this tick has been implicated as the primary vector of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi) to humans in the far-western united states. periods of exposure to permeth ...19892743839
concurrent neuroborreliosis and alzheimer's disease: analysis of the evidence.several recent reports have claimed a possible association between borrelia burgdorferi infection and alzheimer's disease (ad). herein, we describe our search for additional evidence of neuroborreliosis in ad. brain tissue from neuropathologically confirmed cases of ad was cultured for b burgdorferi using standard microbiologic methods. material derived from culture was further examined using electron microscopy, direct immunofluorescence and acridine orange fluorescence. previous studies have s ...19892744748
myositis caused by borrelia burgdorferi: report of four cases.myositis was proven histopathologically in 4 patients (age range 36-66 years) who suffered from early or late stages of borrelia burgdorferi infection. muscle weakness was present in 3 patients, 1 complaining of additional myalgias. one man came to medical attention because of skin discoloration and swelling of one leg. deep biopsy from skin, fascia and muscle revealed acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, panniculitis, fasciitis, and myositis, respectively. creatine kinase was slightly elevated ...19892746290
lyme disease in manitoba. 19892752450
distribution of the lyme disease agent in wildlife reservoirs in ontario. 19892752451
reinfection with borrelia burgdorferi. 19892758830
lyme disease. 19892758859
[unusual manifestations of lyme borreliosis. a contribution to the clinical spectrum of this disease group].since the discovery that em (erythema migrans), aca (acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans) and bl (borrelial lymphocytoma) have an infectious etiology, these syndromes have been receiving particular attention. this report describes four patients whose dermatological symptoms did not at first indicate borreliosis. in all four cases serological antibody tests proved that they were caused by borrelia burgdorferi. in two of these cases these findings were confirmed by bacterial cultures. the unusual ...19892759856
lameness and asymptomatic borrelia burgdorferi seropositivity in dogs. 19892760490
analysis of north american and european isolates of borrelia burgdorferi with antiserum to a recombinant antigen. 19892760492
adherence of the lyme disease spirochete to glial cells and cells of glial origin.lyme disease, a tick-borne spirochetosis caused by borrelia burgdorferi, produces protean neurologic manifestations, yet its neuropathogenesis is poorly understood. the affinity of the spirochete for cells of primary rat brain cultures and of the c6 glioma cell line was studied. b. burgdorferi adhered to both types of cells in a dose-dependent manner and exhibited an affinity for an extracellular matrix produced by the primary and by glioma cell cultures. adherence of the spirochetes to the glia ...19892760500
locked-in state in borrelia burgdorferi meningitis.the case is reported of a 28-year-old woman with persistent tetraplegia following acute meningitis due to borrelia burgdorferi infection. the patient developed erythema chronicum migrans before radicular pain occurred in the upper extremities. the poor clinical outcome was suggestive of pontine infarction due to vasculitis of branches of the basilar artery.19892760649
molecular analysis of linear plasmid-encoded major surface proteins, ospa and ospb, of the lyme disease spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi.the ospa and ospb genes encode the major outer membrane proteins of the lyme disease spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi. the deduced translation products from the ospa and ospb genes were: (ospa) 273 amino acids long with a molecular weight of 29,334, and (ospb) 296 amino acids long with a molecular weight of 31,739. the two osp proteins showed a great degree of sequence similarity indicating a recent evolutionary event. molecular analysis and sequence comparison of ospa and ospb with other protei ...19892761388
megabase-sized linear dna in the bacterium borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease agent.using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis we examined the genome of borrelia burgdorferi, a eubacterium of the spirochete phylum and the agent of lyme disease. a population of this species' cells was lysed in situ in agarose blocks. an abundant dna form that behaved as a linear duplex molecule under different electrophoretic conditions was found. the estimated size of the molecule was 950 kilobases. dna from two other genera of spirochetes did not enter the gel under these conditions. these studies ...19892762306
late stage lyme borreliosis in children.these cases illustrate that late stage lyme borreliosis can occur in children without a history of tick bite or ecm; this disorder can manifest itself initially as a seventh cranial nerve palsy, heart block, or arthritis, and the arthritis syndrome can mimic oligoarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis depends upon clinical recognition. in the absence of ecm, tests for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi can provide an invaluable tool in assisting in the diagnos ...19892762902
complete heart block as the sole presentation of lyme disease.we report a case of lyme myocarditis presenting solely as complete heart block in a previously healthy 32-year-old white man. indium cardiac antimyosin scan showed diffuse uptake (2+, on a scale of 0 to 4+) during the acute phase of the illness. the electrocardiogram and the indium cardiac antimyosin scan were normal 6 weeks after completion of tetracycline and prednisone treatment. lyme carditis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of complete heart block of unclear origins, even ...19892764661
a tick, in time, may cause lyme (disease). 19892768012
ear punch biopsy method for detection and isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from ear punch biopsy method for the detection and isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from rodents was developed. the ear punch biopsy proved to be extremely sensitive, detecting spirochetes in 100% (11 of 11) of laboratory hamsters infected by tick bite and 95.8% (23 of 24) of hamsters infected by intraperitoneal inoculation. when cultured at 4 to 6 weeks postinfection, 92 to 100% of the ear punches taken from individual hamsters yielded viable spirochetes. b. burgdorferi was detected in sequentia ...19892768461
identification of borrelia burgdorferi and b. hermsii using dna hybridization probes.fragments of plasmid dna from borrelia burgdorferi and b. hermsii were cloned and tested for specificity as hybridization probes to identify these two species of pathogenic spirochetes. three fragments from the 49-kilobase-pair linear plasmid of b. burgdorferi were tested: a 500-base-pair (bp) hindiii fragment (probe 49a), a 445-bp psti-hindiii fragment (probe 3g), and a 320-bp hindiii fragment (probe 16h). when hybridized to purified dna or whole spirochetes, all of the probes distinguished b. ...19892768462
lyme disease in california: interrelationship of ixodes pacificus (acari: ixodidae), the western fence lizard (sceloporus occidentalis), and borrelia burgdorferi.the relationship of immature western black-legged ticks, ixodes pacificus cooley and kohls, to the western fence lizard, sceloporus occidentalis baird and girard, and to the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, was investigated in chaparral and woodland-grass habitats in northern california from 1984 to 1986. immature ticks were found on lizards in spring and summer, but the prevalence and abundance of ticks on this host were considerably greater in spring. the peak of larval abundance ...19892769705
[meningoradiculitis caused by borrelia burgdorferi]. 19892772302
[lyme disease with a 12-year course and serologic diagnosis]. 19892772332
survival of borrelia burgdorferi in blood products.the incidence of lyme disease is rapidly increasing in the united states. to assess the potential of transmission of the disease through blood transfusion, we studied the survival of borrelia burgdorferi in blood products under blood bank storage conditions. two units of whole blood, separated into red cells (rbcs), fresh-frozen plasma (ffp), and platelet concentrates (pcs), were inoculated with b. burgdorferi (strain b31) in concentrations of approximately 3000 organisms per ml of rbcs and ffp ...19892773025
lyme disease concurrent with human immunodeficiency virus infection. 19892773968
interstitial cystitis and borrelia burgdorferi. 19892774376
taking a second hard look at borrelia burgdorferi. 19892777700
rapid flow cytometric studies of borrelia burgdorferi phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.the interactions between a strain of borrelia burgdorferi and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were studied by flow cytometry in the presence of specific or non-specific opsonizing factors. the capacity of the borrelias to stimulate leukocyte metabolism was also investigated. the results indicated that a low phagocytosis by isolated purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes did occur in the presence or absence of specific antibodies. within whole blood the percentages of phagocytosting leukocytes ...19892777724
penetration of doxycycline into cerebrospinal fluid in patients treated for suspected lyme neuroborreliosis.twelve patients were treated orally with 100 mg of doxycycline twice a day (b.i.d.) and 10 patients were treated with 200 mg b.i.d. for suspected tick-borne neuroborreliosis (lyme borreliosis). at 5 to 8 days after the start of therapy, the mean concentrations in serum were 4.7 micrograms/ml for the doxycycline dose of 100 mg b.i.d. and 7.5 micrograms/ml for 200 mg b.i.d., 2 to 3 h after the last drug administration. the corresponding levels for cerebrospinal fluid were 0.6 and 1.1 micrograms/ml ...19892782858
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