status of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in illinois.ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin was found for the first time in illinois in november 1987, when two adult females were collected from two deer in jo daviess county in the northwestern corner of the state. in 1988, in a study of six state parks in northern illinois, questing adults and nymphs were encountered in one park in ogle county. during the firearm deer hunt in november 1988, adult female and male ticks were found in several counties, with a high rate of infestation (gr ...19902388231
intrinsic competence of three ixodid ticks (acari) as vectors of the lyme disease spirochete.we compared the intrinsic vector competence of ixodes dammini spielman et al., dermacentor variabilis (say), and amblyomma americanum (l.) for the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al.) on prudence island, rhode island, a lyme disease-endemic site where all three ticks occur together. natural and experimental spirochete infection rates were determined in those ticks and their degree of contact with white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), the principal reservoir host, was ...19902388239
computer simulation of rocky mountain spotted fever transmission by the american dog tick (acari: ixodidae).a computer model was developed for simulation of the transmission of rickettsia rickettsii, the causative agent of rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf), by the american dog tick, dermacentor variabilis (say). the model of rmsf was combined with a model for population dynamics of the american dog tick and included simulation of infection and transmission of rickettsiae between ticks and host mammals and transmission of rmsf to humans. the model simulated the effects of biotic and environmental var ...19902388242
the role of medium-sized mammals as reservoirs of borrelia burgdorferi in southern new york.the ability of raccoons (procyon lotor), striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) and opossums (didelphis virginiana) to serve as reservoirs of borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of lyme disease, was compared with that of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus). twenty-eight (28) medium-sized mammals and 34 white-footed mice were captured in westchester county, new york (usa) in summer 1986. animals were caged over pans of water for 1 to 2 days to recover engorged tick larvae (ixodes dammini) ...19902388356
[multiple sclerosis or lyme disease? a diagnosis problem of exclusion].there is no diagnostic biological marker in multiple sclerosis. thus, its diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. these criteria can also be found in other conditions. lyme disease is currently among them. in a late period of the disease demyelinating involvement of central nervous system can develop, and multiple sclerosis can be erroneously diagnosed. we have evaluated a series of 55 patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, and we have found evidence of infection by the causa ...19902388492
cloning and sequence analysis of linear plasmid telomeres of the bacterium borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease agent, has double-stranded linear plasmids with covalently closed ends. dna at the ends, or telomeres, of two linear plasmids of b. burgdorferi strain b31 was examined. telomeric sequences from both ends of a 16 kb linear plasmid and from one end of a 49 kb linear plasmid were cloned and sequenced. an 18 bp at-rich inverted repeat was found at each end of the 16 kb linear plasmid. the sequences of the two ends of this plasmid were different beyond these sho ...19902388560
lyme borreliosis-associated encephalopathy.borrelia burgdorferi infection (lyme disease) is frequently accompanied by cns dysfunction. particularly common is a mild confusional state, the mechanism of which is unknown. since cns infection with b burgdorferi is usually accompanied by intrathecal synthesis of specific antibody, we studied csf in 73 patients referred for presumed cns lyme, manifested primarily as this confusional state. of 30 seropositive patients evaluated, only 5 had intrathecal antibody production. seven seronegative pat ...19902392213
lyme disease. 19902392409
[determination of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi in patients with morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and erythema chronicum migrans].several cutaneous entities described in europe as chronic migrans erythema (cme), mild cutis lymphadenosis (mcl) and chronic atrophyc acrodermatitis (caa) constitute clinical manifestations of a borrellia burgdorferi. the presence of clinical and hystologic lesions similar to those of liquen esclerosus and atrophyc (lea) and localized esclerodermia (morphea) in patients with caa has driven to several authors to demonstrate the aethiologic participation of b. burgdorferi in patients carrying thos ...19902392594
spirochetal forms in the dermal lesions of morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus.morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus are cutaneous diseases that are manifest by an early edematous stage, followed later by sclerosis and atrophy. they share features with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans and erythema chronicum migrans, diseases that have been linked to infection by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. a modified silver stain was used to identify the presence of spirochetes in skin biopsy specimens of patients with morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. spirocheta ...19902393064
two genomic species in borrelia burgdorferi.a total of 13 borrelia burgdorferi strains (responsible for lyme borreliosis) and representatives of 3 other borrelia species (b. hermsii, b. parkeri, b. turicatae) associated with relapsing fever were studied by dna/dna hybridization and rrna gene-restriction patterns. two genomic dna hybridization groups were observed which could be differentiated by rrna gene-restriction patterns. moreover, the number and size of restriction fragments suggest the existence of a single set of 16 and 23 s rrna ...19902399368
detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna in museum specimens of ixodes dammini order to investigate the potential for borrelia burgdorferi infection before the recognition of lyme disease as a clinical entity, the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to examine museum specimens of ixodes dammini (deer ticks) for the presence of spirochete-specific dna sequences. one hundred and thirty-six archival tick specimens were obtained representing various continental u.s. locations; dna sequences characteristic of modern day isolates of b. burgdorferi were detected in 13 194 ...19902402635
comparison of indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western immunoblot for the diagnosis of lyme disease in dogs.enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (ifa), and western immunoblot were used to test serum samples from 128 dogs for the presence of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi. sera included 72 samples from dogs suspected of having lyme disease, 32 samples from dogs residing in areas in which lyme disease was not considered endemic, and 24 samples from dogs with clinical and serologic evidence of immune-mediated disease (n = 10), rocky mountain spotted fever ...19902405018
lyme disease.lyme disease is an infectious, immune-mediated, multisystem disease. recent epidemiologic data confirms that in the united states, lyme disease is spreading faster than any other infectious disease except aids. the bacteria that causes lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted to humans by the bite of the deer tick, ixodes dammini. if diagnosed and treated in its early stages, lyme disease is less likely to result in later cardiac, neurologic, and arthritic complications. arthritic comp ...19902407990
[recurrent and relapsing course of borreliosis of the nervous system].the clinical variability of chronic infections due to borrelia burgdorferi is greater than previously thought. three personal cases are presented in an overview, together with cases from the literature. chronic spastic para- and quadriparesis, transverse myelitis and recurrent hemiparesis have been noted in such cases. frequently, there is additional involvement of the cranial nerves. chronic polyneuritis, mononeuritis multiplex, as well as plexus neuritis can also occur. psychiatric manifestati ...19902408240
heterogeneity of major proteins in lyme disease borreliae: a molecular analysis of north american and european isolates.we examined 46 isolates of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease and related disorders, with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and monoclonal antibodies. our attention was on the ospa proteins, which are major proteins of the spirochete. there were at least four discernible phenotypes of the ospa protein. while 25 north american isolates were, with one exception, homogeneous in the type of ospa protein that they produced, 21 european isolates were heterogeneous in the types ...19852411827
antigen-specific proliferation of csf lymphocytes in lyme disease.the neurologic manifestations of lyme disease include meningitis, radiculoneuritis, and cranial neuritis. in two patients, we investigated the proliferative response of csf and peripheral blood lymphocytes to protein antigens derived from the lyme disease spirochete. the response of csf lymphocytes was 5 to 10 times greater than that of peripheral blood lymphocytes. in contrast, in the one patient studied, lectin-induced proliferation was less in csf than in peripheral blood. these findings show ...19852414686
lyme disease during pregnancy.lyme disease is an increasingly recognized tick-borne illness caused by a spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. because the etiologic agent of lyme disease is a spirochete, there has been concern about the effect of maternal lyme disease on pregnancy outcome. we reviewed cases of lyme disease in pregnant women who were identified before knowledge of the pregnancy outcomes. nineteen cases were identified with onset between 1976 and 1984. eight of the women were affected during the first trimester, se ...19862423719
erythema chronicum migrans of lyme disease: diagnosis by monoclonal antibodies.we demonstrated spirochetes from a skin lesion of the erythema chronicum migrans in a patient with lyme disease by the murine monoclonal antibody (h9724). frozen skin biopsy specimens reacted with murine monoclonal antibodies (h5332, h9724, and h4825) and were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. the spirochetes stained with monoclonal antibody h9724 and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated second antibody (goat antimouse igg). the antibody h9724 is specific for the periplasmic flagel ...19862426315
comparative prevalence of babesia microti and borrelia burgdorferi in four populations of ixodes dammini in eastern massachusetts.we determined the prevalence of babesia microti and borrelia burgdorferi in four populations of ixodes dammini in eastern massachusetts. the feulgen's reaction was more sensitive than the giemsa method for detecting salivarian babesia. a combination of darkfield and direct-fluorescent-antibody examination proved more sensitive than either method alone for detecting spirochetal infection. the prevalence of spirochetes was greater than the prevalence of babesia in each of the tick populations stud ...19862430433
acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans in association with lichen sclerosus et atrophicans: tubulo-interstitial nephritis and urinary excretion of spirochete-like organisms.we report about a 38-year-old male patient with coexisting acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, lichen sclerosus et atrophicans and recurrent diabetic metabolic disorders since 9 years. serologically igg antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi could be detected. moveless winded structures, morphologically resembling borreliae could be demonstrated in the urine sediment by dark field microscopy. additionally a tubulo-interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by the presence of a dysmorphic hematuria, ...19872436416
isolation of the outer envelope from borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi consists of an inner protoplasmic cylinder, containing the genome and cytoplasmic elements, surrounded by a number of axial filaments, all completely encased within a multiple-layered outer envelope structure (oe). in this study, a sodium dodecyl sulfate-mediated technique was used to isolate the oe from borrelia burgdorferi in an attempt to better understand this structure in terms of its antigenic reactivity to lyme disease patient sera. electron microscopic evidence sugge ...19862437735
an ige response to spirochete antigen in patients with lyme disease.most but not all lyme disease patients produce specific ige antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi. development of ige antibodies paralleled that of other immunologic classes and appeared to be directed against a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 41,000. total serum ige levels in lyme disease patients were usually within the normal range in all stages of the disease. however, highly elevated total serum ige in certain patients were not correlated to any particular disease stage nor to specific ...19862437736
diagnosis of lyme disease by demonstration of spirochetes in tissue 14 patients with lyme disease skin biopsies, synovial specimens and a lymphnode showed lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, often perivascular. obliterative alterations of blood vessels and fibrinoid were characteristic for infection of synovium. spirochetes were demonstrated in all specimens by the bosma-steiner silver impregnation method. spirochetes were localized in dermal papilles and subepidermal zones of skin sections of ecma, in lymph vessels and collagen fibres. in synovia of patients with ...19862437737
polymorphisms of major surface proteins of borrelia burgdorferi.forty-five isolates of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, were examined with monoclonal antibodies directed against the surface proteins, ospa and ospb. eighteen of 21 strains of european origin could be distinguished from 24 north american strains on the basis of their reactivities with two antibodies, one specific for an ospa protein and one specific for an ospb protein. differences in antibody reactivities were associated with differences in the electrophoretic migrati ...19862437738
immunochemical and immunological analysis of european borrelia burgdorferi strains.borrelia burgdorferi strains (n = 23), isolated from patients (n = 8) and ticks (n = 14), were analyzed by sds page and western blotting with monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera (rabbit immune serum and sera from patients). testing the 23 strains by sds page 9 different patterns of major protein bands were observed. in contrast to us strains some of our strains showed only weak or negative reactivity with the ospa specific monoclonal antibody h5332. analysis with polyclonal sera gave furth ...19862437739
demonstration of spirochaetes in patients with lyme disease with a modified silver stain.spirochaetes were demonstrated in material from patients with lyme disease by short-time high-concentrate silver impregnation after treatment with amylase. removal of mucoid material was essential to visualise borrelia burgdorferi. lyme spirochaetes were demonstrated in material from 23 patients with lyme disease--erythema chronicum migrans (ecm) 10, lymphadenosis benigna cutis (labc) 7, arthritis 4 and bannwarth's syndrome 2. spirochaetes were localised in the subepidermal zone, peri- and intra ...19872438410
evidence for spirochetal origin of circumscribed scleroderma (morphea).acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) and morphea are clinically distinct skin diseases with some common features and possible coexistence. we found antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in eight of fifteen patients with morphea. six of them had igg antibodies and two both igg and igm antibodies. four of the eight seropositive and five of the seven seronegative patients had been treated with high dose penicillin previously. spirochetal organisms could be cultured in barbour-stoenner-kelly's med ...19872442935
a murine igm monoclonal antibody binds an antigenic determinant in outer surface protein a, an immunodominant basic protein of the lyme disease spirochete.a hybridoma cell line formed by the fusion of the p3x63-ag8.653 myeloma cell line with splenocytes from balb/c mice immunized with borrelia burgdorferi produced an igm monoclonal antibody (mab-11g1) with kappa-light chains which detected an antigenic determinant in a major spirochetal protein of m.w. approximately 31,000, also known as outer surface protein a (osp-a). apparent saturation was reached in approximately 35 min with 34 ng of mab-11g1 binding to 5 x 10(7) spirochetes giving an estimat ...19882447170
[primary lymphoma of the nervous system following radiculoneuritis caused by borrelia burgdorferi: study of a case].a 50-year-old man had a primary lymphoma of the central nervous system one year after a tick bite and a radiculoneuritis secondary to borrelia burgdorferi infection. determination of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi revealed increasing igm and igg titers, and the autopsy showed a primary b-cell immunoblastic lymphoma of the brain without evidence of extraneural lymphoproliferative disorder. lymphoma of the brain is a rare type of central nervous system cancer, and sporadic cases appear wi ...19882451279
biological activity of borrelia burgdorferi antigens.osp-a (approximately 31 kda) and flagellins (approximately 41 kda) are prominent antigens of borrelia burgdorferi. both osp-a and flagellins are immunogenic in patients and in experimentally infected mice and hamsters, but the kinetics of antibody formation to each vary considerably between the species. the role of eluted osp-a and flagellins in the cellular immune response, chemotaxigenesis, and cytoadherence was measured. eluted osp-a and flagellins stimulated the proliferation of normal and i ...19882461134
antigenic variability of borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi strains (six isolates from north america and 28 isolates from europe) were analyzed by physicochemical and immunological methods. by sds-page, all borrelia burgdorferi strains tested had two major proteins with constant molecular weights of 60 and 41 kda and one, two, or three variable low molecular weight proteins (ospa = 30-32 kda, ospb = 34-36 kda, pc = 21-22 kda). all combinations--except ospb alone or ospb/pc--were observed. borrelia burgdorferi strains were different f ...19882461135
demonstration of antigen-specific t cells and histopathological alterations in mice experimentally inoculated with borrelia burgdorferi.antigen-specific t-cell responses and histopathological changes were studied in mice experimentally inoculated with borrelia burgdorferi b31. inbred mice with different h-2 haplotypes and/or different genetic backgrounds were inoculated with b. burgdorferi organisms and tested for antigen-specific t-cell responses in vivo (delayed-type hypersensitivity [dth]) and in vitro (t-cell proliferation). comparable dth responses were found after inoculation with either inactivated (in the presence of adj ...19892462540
isolation and characterization of borrelia burgdorferi-specific and autoreactive t-cell lines from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with lyme meningoradiculomyelitis. 19882462820
lyme disease.lyme disease is of interest to the neurologist and neuroscientist for a variety of reasons. as more arthropod hosts throughout the world are infected with the causative organism, borrelia burgdorferi, the illness in humans is becoming more prevalent; in addition, recognition of the disease in humans and susceptible animals is increasing. the neurological manifestations include acute and chronic forms, and it has become clear that b. burgdorferi has joined treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus ...19892472690
shared flagellar epitopes of borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia anserina.antigenic cross-reactivity between borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia anserina was studied using mouse immune sera and monoclonal antibodies. with immune sera, significant cross-reactivity between b. burgdorferi and b. anserina was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent assay. in immunoblots, most of the cross-reactivity was shown to be associated with the periplasmic flagella. using monoclonal antibodies in immunoblots, it was shown that b. burgdorferi and b. anserina shared at least two fla ...19892473569
immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi in patients with reactive reactive arthritis (rea), including reiter's syndrome, a close relationship between chronic enteric and genitourinary infections and the clinical features of enthesitis has been described. in contrast, in lyme arthritis, a distinct clinical entity, chronic infection with the tick-transmitted spirochete borrelia burgdorferi has been associated with the disease. in a prospective study, 51 patients with rea were tested for evidence of chlamydial and spirochetal infection. the presence of chlamyd ...19892476133
temporary pacing in complete heart block due to lyme disease: a case report.the authors present the case of a 44-year-old man who was admitted with complete heart block and signs of severe bradycardia. after steroid administration and temporary pacemaker treatment the complete heart block resolved. during this therapy transient st segment and t wave abnormalities occurred. the positive borrelia burgdorferi antibody titer arrived only after therapy had been completed. this is regarded as the first case of lyme carditis with complete heart block diagnosed in eastern europ ...19892476769
evidence for spirochetal origin of sudeck's atrophy (algodystrophy, reflex sympathetic dystrophy).four female patients with sudeck's atrophy (sa) were evaluated at our department. sera of all patients were investigated for antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi. in all patients elevated igg antibody titers and in one patient also elevated igm titer were found. in one patient structures identical with b. burgdorferi could be detected on histological sections from the skin of the affected limb. our data and those of other authors suggest that a spirochetal infection can be regarded as an impo ...19892476974
bilateral keratitis in lyme disease.lyme disease, caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, has ophthalmic manifestations. the authors describe two cases of lyme keratitis characterized by multiple focal, nebular opacities at varying levels of the stroma which may progress to edema, neovascularization, and scarring. close observation, in addition to systemic antibiotic therapy, may be sufficient if the visual axis is not involved, and the patient is asymptomatic.19892477779
molecular mimicry and lyme borreliosis: a shared antigenic determinant between borrelia burgdorferi and human tissue.the pathogenesis of chronic manifestations in lyme borreliosis, a disease induced by borrelia burgdorferi, is at present unresolved. by testing monoclonal antibodies directed against various borrelia antigens, we found an antigenic determinant shared by the 41 kda flagella protein and human tissue, especially prominent on myelinated fibers of human peripheral nerve, on nerve cells and axons of the central nervous system, as well as on certain epithelial cells (including joint synovia) and on hea ...19892481425
structural features of borrelia burgdorferi--the lyme disease spirochete: silver staining for nucleic acids.borrelia burgdorferi--the lyme disease spirochete--was grown in modified kelly medium and characterized by transmission and by scanning electron microscopy. using silver staining procedures which preferentially bind to nuclear components of eukaryotic cells, signal could be detected by backscattered electron imaging throughout the length of the prokaryotic spirochete. interestingly, however, the highest levels of backscattered signal were observed in naturally elaborated membrane blebs that were ...19892482525
[lymphocytic meningoradiculitis (bannwarth's syndrome). neurologic involvement of lyme disease].we describe a patient with lyme's disease who showed neurologic symptoms of meningoradiculitis (bannwarth's syndrome) and had no previous history of exposure to tick bite or chronic erythema migrans. he had longterm fever and bilateral facial paralysis. antibody titres for borrelia burgdorferi in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) were increased. the csf changes showed an intrathecal production of immunoglobulins (presence of plasmatic cells and immunoblasts; igg-csf: igg-serum ratio much highe ...19892490177
[prevalence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi among the population of seville].in order to determine the prevalence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi in the area of sevilla, we have studied 300 healthy subjects of different age and sex groups by means of iif. of the 300 studied sera, only 4% had antibodies at titers greater than or equal to 1:16, a fact that shows the low prevalence of antibodies against this microorganism in the area. such titers were mainly found among subjects over 40 years (p less than 0.001).19892490479
[new advances in rheumatology].(1) molecular pharmacology which is a starting to reach the market place, what is expected to be the next big step in the biotechnology revolution: the creation of complex compounds that are custom-designed to meet human needs. the new technology known as protein engineering promises to take us one step further by modifying natural proteins or by creating new ones especially by using somatic gene transfer and germ gene transfer and its influence on progeny. by doing this we hope to control some ...19892491405
autoimmunity in lyme disease: molecular cloning of antigens recognized by antibodies in the cerebrospinal inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (cns), oligoclonal bands of immunoglobulin with restricted heterogeneity can often be observed in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples. these antibodies can be directed against the disease inducing pathogen or might be autoreactive and involved in the process of brain inflammation and demyelination. we used a molecular biology approach to characterize these antibody responses in patients with lyme disease. this disorder is caused by infections w ...19892491615
another swedish family with complete properdin deficiency: association with fulminant meningococcal disease in one male family member.inherited deficiency of the complement component properdin is described in a swedish family without any previous history of meningococcal infections. the properdin-deficient index patient died from a fulminant infection caused by neisseria meningitidis serogroup y. family investigation revealed properdin deficiency in the patient's half-brother and in the maternal grandfather. the half-brother had a history of pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis probably caused by borrelia burgdorferi. opsonic ...19892502833
infected ticks feeding on persons in areas endemic for lyme disease and rocky mountain spotted fever. 19892507649
prevalence of antibody indicating lyme disease in farmers in wigtownshire. 19892510849
clinical and microbiologic findings in six patients with erythema migrans of lyme disease.the clinical course of six patients with erythema migrans of lyme disease was viewed in the context of antibiotic susceptibility studies of their own borrelia burgdorferi isolates. an initial poor response by two patients to antibiotic therapy suggested the possibility of b. burgdorferi resistance to these agents. minimum bactericidal concentration determinations of eight antimicrobial agents against these isolates did not support this suggestion.19892511231
comparison of western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of lyme borreliosis.the usefulness of western blot in the serological diagnosis of lyme borreliosis was evaluated compared with an elisa using a whole cell sonicate antigen. fifty-three of 68 (78%) patients with neuroborreliosis had positive igm and/or igg immunoblots and 40 of 68 (59%) had positive igm and/or igg elisa titers in serum. eight of 44 (18%) controls with meningitis/encephalitis of non-borrelia etiology had positive igm and/or igg immunoblots and 4 of 44 (9%) had positive igm and/or igg elisa titers in ...19892512131
prevalence of antibody indicating lyme disease in farmers in wigtownshire. 19892513072
prevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in forestry workers and blood donors from the same region in switzerland.sera from 259 forestry workers and 100 blood donors in the canton of solothurn, switzerland, were tested for igg antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in two eias using as antigen either sonic extract of whole organisms or purified flagella. applying a 95% specific cut-off value based on results in the sera of 100 blood donors, 86 (33%) and 91 (35%) of the forestry workers respectively showed an elevated specific igg level in the two eias. none of the 259 forestry workers had clinical signs of acti ...19892513202
a serological survey of ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia equi, rickettsia rickettsii, and borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in oklahoma.serum samples from 259 dogs were tested for antibodies to ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia equi, rickettsia rickettsii, and borrelia burgdorferi using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. the sera were obtained from submissions to the oklahoma animal disease diagnostic laboratory during a 14-month period from june 1986 through july 1987. the rate for positive antibody titers to e. canis was 53%, to e. equi was 33%, to r. rickettsii was 38%, and to b. burgdorferi was 18%. higher percentages of sera ...19892518693
[isolation of borrelia burgdorferi in the cerebrospinal fluid in a patient treated with penicillin]. 19892524738
ocular disease in caribbean patients with serologic evidence of lyme borreliosis.four patients from caribbean and central american countries with ocular disease and serologic evidence of lyme borreliosis are discussed. to our knowledge this is the first report of lyme disease from this geographic area. two patients exhibited ocular inflammatory disease, and two patients developed optic neuropathy. a brief discussion of lyme borreliosis, its serologic diagnosis, and its treatment is presented.19892526160
panuveitis with positive serological tests for syphilis and lyme disease.the treponema pallidum hemagglutination test and the fluorescent treponemal antigen absorption test are commonly considered highly specific serologic tests for syphilis. we describe a patient with panuveitis and a positive serologic result for syphilis; however, in the absence of clinical findings, additional tests for lyme disease (borreliosis) were positive as well, although by western blot test the diagnosis was tentative. the clinical appearance of the panuveitis was similar to that of syphi ...19892526161
the prevalence of lyme disease in a nonendemic area. a comparative serologic study in a south florida eye clinic population.serologic tests for lyme borreliosis and for syphilis were performed on 75 patients seen in a 1-week period at the bascom palmer eye institute in miami. the incident of syphilis was 8% and of lyme borreliosis 3% in this study in a nonendemic area. the most common cause for a high titer serologic response for lyme borreliosis in this group was a prior treponema pallidum infection. the importance of getting vdrl, fta-abs, lyme ifa, and lyme elisa tests in all suspected cases was emphasized.19892529271
reversible horner's syndrome and lyme disease.neurologic manifestations of lyme disease are common, often debilitating, and potentially treatable. we document a case of borrelia infection of the nervous system manifesting as a reversible horner's syndrome. the search for lyme disease should be part of the evaluation of an isolated central or preganglionic horner's syndrome or any unexplained pupillary abnormality.19892531158
lyme neuroborreliosis: central nervous system manifestations.we evaluated 85 patients with serologic evidence of borrelia burgdorferi infection. manifestations included encephalopathy (41), neuropathy (27), meningitis (2), multiple sclerosis (ms) (6), and psychiatric disorders (3). we performed lumbar punctures in 53, brain mri in 33, and evoked potentials (eps) in 33. only patients with an ms-like illness had abnormal eps, elevated igg index, and oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid. twelve of 18 patients with encephalopathy, meningitis, or focal ...19892542840
comparative antimicrobial activity of the new macrolides against borrelia burgdorferi.the in vitro and in vivo activity of the new macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxythromycin was compared with that of erythromycin against borrelia burgdorferi. in in vitro tests using ten clinical isolates all macrolides were highly active against borrelia burgdorferi (mic90 0.015-0.06 micrograms/ml). azithromycin was more potent than the other macrolides in experimental animal infection, eradicating the organism in all animals tested at a dosage of 8 mg/kg.19892550233
treatment of lyme borreliosis.the infectious process of lyme disease can appear as chronic dermatologic, rheumatologic, or neurologic. to rationally select a treatment regimen, the physician must have an appreciation of the clinical manifestations of the illness and of the systemic nature of the infection. the authors discuss the proper treatment protocols for each stage in the progression of lyme disease.19892555849
restriction endonuclease analysis of four borrelia burgdorferi strains.a restriction endonuclease analysis was performed on four strains of borrelia burgdorferi: one isolated from man (sf), one from ixodes dammini (b31) and two from i. ricinus (bits in italy and b45 in germany). digestion by taq i and hae iii gave the best resolution of the dna fragments. three different restriction patterns were obtained: bits and b45 showed only one band difference. these results correlate with the reactivity of the four strains with monoclonal antibodies.19892560664
hearing impairment in patients with antibody production against borrelia burgdorferi antigen.this study aimed to evaluate the extent to which hearing disorders may be a result of tick-borne borrelia burgdorferi infection. 98 patients with different patterns of hearing dysfunction were studied. the patients had a history of sudden hearing loss, disorders similar to menière's disease, or hearing loss in combination with acute facial palsy or with vertigo. serum antibodies against the b burgdorferi antigen were determined during the acute and convalescent periods. 17 patients (17%) showed ...19892563002
lyme disease: prevalence and clinical importance of borrelia burgdorferi specific igg in forestry workers.41 forestry workers, who had a high occupational risk of tick-bites, were screened for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi by elisa and western blotting techniques, and questioned about possible symptoms of lyme disease. antibodies were detected in 10 of the 40 men who had been bitten by ticks. definite symptoms of lyme disease, in the form of erythema migrans, were reported by only 2 workers and none had a history of neurological illness.19892563850
antibodies to the borrelia burgdorferi flagellum in patients with scleroderma, granuloma annulare and porphyria cutanea is generally accepted that cutaneous lyme borreliosis comprises erythema chronicum migrans, lymphadenosis benigna cutis, and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. in recent years the tick-borne spirochete borrelia burgdorferi has been associated with a number of other cutaneous disorders. we therefore investigated sera from 175 patients with localized scleroderma (morphea) (n = 64), systemic sclerosis (n = 74), granuloma annulare (n = 16) and porphyria cutanea tarda (n = 21) with the new, high ...19892564227
borrelia burgdorferi infection in uk workers at risk of tick bites. 19892564599
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi isolates by restriction endonuclease analysis and dna hybridization.genomes of several borrelia burgdorferi isolates from north america and europe were characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis and dna hybridization using labeled b. burgdorferi whole-cell dna (strain atcc 35210). several different restriction and homology patterns were observed among these isolates, indicating genotypic heterogeneity within this genus and species. it was concluded from this study that restriction endonuclease analysis of b. burgdorferi whole-cell dna may be a reliable a ...19892566622
predominance of borrelia burgdorferi specific b cells in cerebrospinal fluid in neuroborreliosis.a nitrocellulose immunospot assay that allows the counting of cells secreting igg, iga, or igm antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi was used to compare b cell response to b burgdorferi at the cellular level in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and blood from patients with neuroborreliosis with that in patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis (am) or non-inflammatory neurological diseases. 13 of the 14 patients with untreated neuroborreliosis had csf cells secreting igg antibodies to b burgdorferi (mean 1 ...19892567872
diagnosis of lyme disease. 19892568526
acute neuroborreliosis in a patient previously infected with borrelia burgdorferi. 19892569580
antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in guillain-barré syndrome. 19892570981
borrelia burgdorferi infection and guillain-barré syndrome. 19892571897
antigenic heterogeneity of european borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from patients and ticks. 19852582217
a specific and sensitive assay for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi using the polymerase chain reaction.a highly specific and sensitive assay for borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, was developed using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the target dna sequence was of chromosomal origin and conserved, by hybridization analyses, among all strains of b. burgdorferi tested but was not present in the most closely related member of the genus, b. hermsii. the pcr assay developed from this sequence reacted with 17 of 18 strains of b. burgdorferi but not with any other borrelia spe ...19892584750
[life-threatening encephalomyelitis in the 2d stage of borrelia burgdorferi infection]. 19892586693
cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the outer surface protein a (ospa) of a european borrelia burgdorferi isolate. 19892587225
lyme disease vector, ixodes dammini, identified in quebec. 19892598289
[two cases of facial diplegia with elevated serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi].lyme disease, a tick-borne infection with spirochete named borrelia burgdorferi, is a complex multi-organ disorder involving neurological complication. recently, the existence of lyme disease was also recognized in middle japan. we described here two cases of facial diplegia with elevated serum antibodies to b. burgdorferi. case 1 was a 48 year-old man, who developed facial diplegia on april 29, 1987, and referred to our hospital on may 1. neurological examination showed facial diplegia in addit ...19892598542
[meningoencephalomyelitis caused by borrelia burgdorferi: a case without epidemiologic history or chronic migratory erythema].a patient is reported with meningoencephalomyelitis with polyradiculitis caused by borrelia burgdorferi infection. neurological features developed without previously known tick bite nor the characteristic skin lesion, chronic migratory erythema (cme). the vector of the disease (the tick ixodes ricinus) exists in spain, but only one case of meningopolyradiculitis with cme has been reported in asturias. our case stresses that b. burgdorferi infection should be suspected in cases of meningoencephal ...19892601480
the relevance of elevated borrelia burgdorferi titres in localized scleroderma.a 46-year-old man with a 2-year history of localized scleroderma of his right upper arm and elevated borrelia burgdorferi titres is described. the association of borrelia burgdorferi infection and localized scleroderma is discussed.19892605808
frequencies of borrelia burgdorferi-reactive t lymphocytes in lyme arthritis.using a limiting dilution system, frequencies of borrelia burgdorferi-reactive t cells were determined in the blood and synovial fluid of four patients with chronic lyme arthritis (la), one patient with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca), two patients with other inflammatory joint diseases, and two healthy individuals. b. burgdorferi-reactive precursor t cells ranged from 1/750 to 1/8220 in case of la and aca patients and from 1/820 to 1/31 400 in case of controls. in vivo activated b. bu ...19892609067
[lyme borreliosis with erythema chronicum migrans and garin-bujadoux-bannwarth meningopolyneuritis].a case report is given on a borrelia burgdorferi infection regarded to be typical because of its clinical course and the diagnosis lately made. the meningopolyneuritis was treated by use of corticosteroids before the serologic detection of lyme disease. 21 months after infection our patient died of a colon carcinoma. histological preparation of the brain showed a slight encephalitis we consider as third-stage lyme borreliosis. we conclude that antibacterial therapy is necessary in the management ...19892609703
[investigation of lyme disease in northeast of china].in 1987-1988, we conducted investigation of lyme disease in northeast of china. the disease was widespread in the forest areas of heilonjiang and jilin provinces where ixodes persulcatus population thrives. the disease occurred at daqing tree farm where 628 people were inquired and examined among them, 37 cases including 23 cases of ecm, 6 cases of neurological abnormalities, 7 cases of arthritis and 1 case of acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans were confirmed being lyme disease. the sera of pat ...19892611866
lyme disease vector, ixodes dammini, (the northern deer tick) identified in prince edward island. 19892611921
survival of borrelia burgdorferi in antibiotically treated patients with lyme borreliosis.the persistence of borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated with antibiotics is described. the diagnosis of lyme disease is based on clinical symptoms, epidemiology and specific igg and igm antibody titers to b. burgdorferi in serum. antibiotic therapy may abrogate the antibody response to the infection as shown in our patients. b. burgdorferi may persist as shown by positive culture in mkp-medium; patients may have subclinical or clinical disease without diagnostic antibody titers to b. burgdor ...19892613324
could borrelia burgdorferi be a causal agent of sarcoidosis?sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology, most commonly affecting young adults presenting most frequently with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, pulmonary infiltrations, skin or eye lesions (1). borrelia burgdorferi, the causal agent of lyme disease, could also be responsible for sarcoidosis. domestic animals may play a major role in transmitting the disease to humans. the modes of transmission to such animals and possible contact transmission to humans are still ob ...19892615685
[lyme disease in khabarovsk territory].the natural foci of lyme's disease with the main vector ix. persulcatus tick have been detected in khabarovsk territory. five b. burgdorferi strains were isolated from the adult unfed ticks of this species, featuring 20% infection rate in the suburbs of khabarovsk. a wide spread of the infection in this territory is demonstrated. the authors describe the typical pattern of early stages of serologically documented disease.19892615716
lyme disease agent in egypt? 19892617612
[lymphadenosis benigna cutis of the mammary areola: lyme borreliosis?].this lesion began two months after a tick bite on the left breast, occurring during a trip in karst (highland behind the city of trieste). this area represents an ecological shell for ixodes ricinus, hard tick often infested with borrelia burgdorferi, the aetiological agent of lyme disease. some days after tick-bite, the patient developed a typical ecm of the left breast; this lesion resolved in two months. shortly after, an erythematous, infiltrated nodule appeared on the left areola; ist size ...19892620924
[eye manifestations in borreliosis--bilateral panuveitis with exudative retinal detachment].lyme disease, a tick-borne infection with the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, can lead to various different organ manifestations. severe ocular effects however, have until now been rare. the case of a 20-year-old woman is reported, who developed systemic illness (headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, diarrhea) and severe bilateral panuveitis with exudative retinal detachment about 2-3 weeks after several insect bites. the case history, clinical course, and serological examinations suggest an infec ...19892625295
prevalence of erythema migrans borreliosis in blood donors.european erythema migrans borreliosis and north american lyme disease are closely related to syphilis. this implicates a potential risk of infection for blood recipients. eighty-six of 3,157 blood donors tested showed igg-antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi. from among 47 persons of this group who could be examined, clinical signs of diseased skin, joints or nervous system, not diagnosed before, were found or could be suspected in 13 cases. since intrauterine transmission of borrelia infecti ...19892625363
[infantile sclero-atrophic lichen and infection caused by borrelia burgdorferi].the authors describe a study of 8 girls suffering from genital and perianal lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. following the most recent reports in literature, antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi have been looked for, and the patients have been treated with propicillin. the results are discussed.19892630434
a prospective study of tick bites in an endemic area for lyme disease. 19892642519
lyme disease: of ticks and titers. 19892644410
antibodies to borrelia sp. in wild foxes and coyotes from wisconsin and minnesota.serum samples from 93 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and nine gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) trapped in wisconsin and 23 coyotes (canis latrans) trapped in wisconsin and minnesota were tested for antibodies to borrelia sp. with an indirect fluorescent antibody test which used borrelia burgdorferi as the whole-cell antigen. seven red foxes (8%) and two coyotes (9%) had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:64. all the positive samples were from areas known to be endemic for human lyme dise ...19892644451
borrelia sp. infection in coyotes, black-tailed jack rabbits and desert cottontails in southern texas.coyotes (canis latrans) from southern texas were sampled for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi from 1980 to 1986; black-tailed jack rabbits (lepus californicus) and desert cottontails (sylvilagus audubonii) were sampled in 1986. coyote fetuses, adult coyote kidneys, and black-tailed jack rabbit and desert cottontail kidneys were cultured for b. burgdorferi in 1986. results of indirect immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) tests for b. burgdorferi in coyotes were as follows (number positive at a dilu ...19892644452
experimental inoculation of mallard ducks (anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos) with borrelia burgdorferi.birds have been incriminated as disseminaters of borrelia burgdorferi and have the potential to spread the organism over a wide geographic range. borrelia burgdorferi has been isolated from the liver and blood of passerine birds and from ixodes dammini removed from passerines. the objective of this study was to determine if waterfowl, specifically mallards (anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos), were susceptible to infection with b. burgdorferi. eight ducks were inoculated with b. burgdorferi; four ...19892644453
erythema migrans: a chronicle.arvid afzelius first described and named erythema migrans (em), a clinical entity that he assumed to be caused by an agent transmitted by the bite of a tick (ixodes reduvius). certain neurologic, cutaneous, and other syndromes observed in europe were recognized in the 1920s and 1930s to be disabling sequelae of em. in the 1940s and 1950s the effectiveness of penicillin as therapy for em was demonstrated. in 1968 the first patient with em and neurologic sequelae in north america benefited from tr ...19892644687
[incidence of the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi in arthropods (arthropoda) and antibodies in vertebrates (vertebrata)].the paper summarizes data on hitherto assembled findings of spirochaeta burgdorferi, the causal agent of lyme disease in arthropods and the incidence of antibodies in birds and mammals. the authors evaluate some vectors and reservoir animals, incl. possible carriers. borrelia burgdorferi was found so far in 30 species of arthropoda, 13 species of mites (acarina), 15 species of flies(diptera), two species of fleas (siphonaptera). the role of insects as vectors was not proved so far. antibodies we ...19892646031
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