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[a case of cranial polyneuropathy presenting with prominent facial diplegia, elevated serum borrelia burgdorferi antibody and lymphocytic pleocytosis].a 54 year-old male patient developed acute cranial polyneuropathy including prominent facial diplegia and radicular++-neuritis. he was proven to have lymphocytic pleocytosis, and elevated serum borrelia burgdorferi antibody to x800 (normal; less than x200). a diagnosis of typical early neuro-borreliosis was made after these clinical and laboratory findings. this case is the first neuro-borreliosis showing the triad of neurological manifestations (meningitis, cranial neuritis, radicular++-neuriti ...19902242636
[the taxonomic aspects of the transmission of the causative agent of lyme disease].according to world literature data 17 species of ixodid ticks have been studied for natural infection with the lyme disease agent. analysis of the data on the level of the infection, transovarial and transphase transmission has shown that main biological vectors of borrelia burgdorferi are the species of the subgenus ixodes s. str. - i. ricinus, i. persulcatus (eurasia), i. dammini, i. pacificus (north america). potential vectors are i. scapularis, i. dentatus, amblyomma americanum, dermacentor ...19902259524
an increased prevalence of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in ankylosing spondylitis: fact or artefact? 19902259885
lyme disease in dogs and cats. 19902264252
[serologic studies of the occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi in domestic animals in berlin (west)].the prevalence of b. burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis in humans, was determined in domestic animals living in berlin. 189 dogs, 29 cats, 224 horses and 194 cows were investigated. using the indirect immunofluorescence test (ift) 5.8% of the dogs and 24.5% of the cows investigated showed a positive reaction at titres of 1:128 or higher. horses and cats gave negative results. elisa was more sensitive than ift. 10.1% of the dogs, 16.1% of the horses and 66% of the local cows sho ...19902268252
human intravenous immunoglobulin modulates monokine production in vitro.the effects of human immunoglobulin preparations for intravenous use (ivig) on in vitro-induced monokine production were studied. individual peripheral blood monocytes, obtained from healthy blood donors, which produced interleukin-6 (il-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) after in vitro stimulation, were identified by cytokine-specific monoclonal antibodies (mab) and indirect immunofluorescence technique. lipopylosaccharide (lps) or borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes (bb) were used to ...19902269476
[a case of multiple cerebral palsy manifesting facial paralysis and positive borrelia burgdorferi antibody]. 19902269822
[serodiagnosis in dermatological diseases in borrelia burgdorferi infections].185 patients with dermatological symptoms of borrelia burgdorferi infection (erythema migrans, lymphadenosis cutis benigna, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans) and morphea were examined for borrelia burgdorferi antibodies; in addition, sera from 173 patients were tested for exclusion of borrelia infection. commercially available immunofluorescence tests and enzyme immunoassays supplied by four different companies were evaluated. to investigate the specificity of these assays, sera of 34 patient ...19902272826
[lyme disease].lyme disease is a multisystem disorder caused by a tick-transmitted spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. clinical manifestations typically begin with characteristic skin lesions, erythema (chronicum) migrans. weeks to months later, some patients develop the second stage of the illness characterized by neurologic abnormalities, migratory joint pain, cardiac involvement. months to years later, in many patients the disease progresses to the third stage of manifestation such as chronic arthritis, chron ...19902273565
lyme disease: neurologic and ophthalmic manifestations.lyme disease is tick-borne infection which produces early and late manifestations in many organ systems. prominent symptoms and signs occur in skin, heart, joints and nervous system. many ocular and neuro-ophthalmic abnormalities recently have been attributed to lyme disease, but some cases have not been well established as direct sequelae. this review of the contemporary state of knowledge about lyme disease was undertaken so that more rigorous criteria can be applied in future diagnosis.19902274849
[hypertension in borrelia infections].a patient with severe hypertension caused by borrelia burgdorferi-encephalitis is reported. the patient recovered from all symptoms following treatment with high dose cefuroxime. the diagnosis was not established until lumbar puncture was performed.19902275047
long-term persistence of specific t- and b-lymphocyte responses to borrelia burgdorferi following untreated neuroborreliosis.follow-up studies on 56 patients who suffered from antibiotically untreated, acute, monophasic neuroborreliosis five to 23 years ago revealed significant positive levels of igg antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi (bb) in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) of 20 patients (ift, elisa, bb-specific igg western blot, bb-specific ief-igg immunoblot). nine of 10 tested patients had a definitely positive t-cell proliferative response to whole b. burgdorferi, with a mean (+/- -sem) stimulation index ...19902276818
[polymerase chain reaction in the demonstration of borrelia burgdorferi dna].borrelia burgdorferi is the etiological agent of lyme disease. certain diagnostic problems associated with lyme disease could be solved if a sensitive detection method were available for the pathogen: the polymerase chain reaction for the sensitive detection of borrelia burgdorferi is a possible candidate. the latest methods for the amplification of borrelia burgdorferi dna are discussed. in particular, a method for the amplification of a borrelia burgdorferi flagellin (41 kda antigen) gene segm ...19902276912
the acute aseptic meningitis syndrome.the acute aseptic meningitis syndrome is an entity that presents a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. although many infectious and noninfectious etiologies exist for this syndrome, viruses, especially nonpolio enteroviruses, are the classic and most important agents encountered. the incidence of polio and mumps meningitis has declined dramatically in the vaccine era, but recently described pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus and borrelia burgdorferi (lyme disease agent) are now i ...19902277191
infectious but nonpathogenic isolate of borrelia burgdorferi.we document for the first time an infectious but nonarthritogenic variant of borrelia burgdorferi. strain 25015, previously isolated from an ixodes dammini larva collected in upstate new york, was infectious but failed to produce arthritis or carditis in laboratory rats and mice. by contrast, pathogenic strain n40 invariably caused arthritis. this nonarthritogenic variant, with proteins with molecular weights different from those of the standard b31 strain, was frequently isolated from normal jo ...19902280000
host-dependent differences in feeding and reproduction of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae).the frequencies with which adult ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman and corwin feed upon white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), raccoons (procyon lotor), opossums (didelphis virginiana), and domestic cats were compared in a wooded site in northeastern united states. by combining estimates of the quantity of ticks feeding on each host species with host densities, we derived the relative contribution made by each kind of host to the feeding of the tick population. to compare engorgeme ...19902280395
cerebrospinal fluid immune complexes in patients exposed to borrelia burgdorferi: detection of borrelia-specific and -nonspecific complexes.we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (csf) from 32 patients with neurological symptoms and evidence of borrelia burgdorferi infection (29 were seropositive as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 2 were cell-mediated immune positive, and 1 had been seropositive as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 9 months previously). csf immune complexes were found in 22 (69%) of 32 patients; in 18, there was sufficient sample to isolate immune complexes. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, i ...19902285261
lyme borreliosis: aspects of tick-borne borrelia burgdorferi infection from a dermatologic viewpoint.during this decade, lyme borreliosis has emerged as an important health problem, especially in europe and in the united states, and there has been an explosive growth of knowledge about this condition. the true incidence of lxodes-borne borrelial infection is probably increasing, at least in parts of the world, but the reported increase is also partly attributable to a greater recognition and awareness of this infection. this paper reviews the basic knowledge about borrelia burgdorferi, its vect ...19902285572
isolation of an outer membrane protein complex from borrelia burgdorferi by n-butanol extraction and high-performance ion-exchange chromatography.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, expresses two major membrane proteins, designated outer surface proteins a and b, which are of antigenic relevance, especially in the chronic phase of lyme disease. both proteins exhibit strain-related molecular weight variation. a method is described for obtaining these proteins from the bacterial membrane, without the use of detergents, by a combination of n-butanol extraction and cation-exchange chromatography on a mono s fast protein ...19902286640
[oculomotor paralysis and lyme disease].lyme disease is an infectious multi system disorder caused by the spirochète borrelia burgdorferi. neurologic syndromes occurring during the second stage of the illness are common and the neurologic feature is extremely variable. we report a case of lyme disease with diplopia. in contrast with most reported cases of ocular motor involvement in lyme disease, no other systemic symptoms were detected. the serodiagnosis, although mildly positive, was confirmed by western blot antibodies analysis and ...19902290005
prevalence of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.lyme arthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (jra) share a number of clinical features. our study was performed in order to determine the prevalence of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in 50 children with jra who reside in a nonendemic area. three patients were weakly reactive and one patient was reactive when tested using an enzyme immunoassay to detect serum antibody to b. burgdorferi. no patient, however, had definitive serologic evidence of b. burgdorferi infection by western blot analys ...19902290160
[a clinico-serological study of lyme disease in the northwestern ussr].to reveal clinical signs and symptoms of lyme's disease in the population of the endemic area, clinical and serological examinations of 416 persons have been performed. preliminary screening, using indirect immunofluorescence, has revealed in 230 persons (group i) antibodies to the agent of the disease at a titre of greater than or equal to 1:20. group ii consisted of 186 patients who had not been serologically examined. lyme's disease diagnosed in most cases by erythema annulare was found in 8 ...19902290396
lyme disease in a shimla boy.a patient with lyme disease is described. he presented with meningitis-like picture, arthritis, and carditis (congestive cardiac failure and variable av blocks without valvular lesions). borrelia was present in the peripheral blood smear.19902292560
the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi seropositivity in an area endemic for lyme disease.we conducted a seroprevalence survey of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in west central wisconsin, an area endemic for lyme disease. one hundred and thirty-seven of 153 patients having blood drawn at the eau claire family medicine clinic and the associated rural augusta practice participated in the study and were tested for the presence of antibodies to b burgdorferi and questioned about lyme disease risk factors. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that 15 (10.9%) of the 137 persons ...19902293487
borrelia lymphocytoma: a possible north american case.borrelia lymphocytoma is a rare dermatologic manifestation of lyme disease, thus far reported only in european patients. a possible north american case is presented and the significance of the first north american case is discussed.19902293488
passive immunization prevents induction of lyme arthritis in lsh hamsters.we determined that sera obtained from hamsters infected with borrelia burgdorferi could prevent the induction of lyme arthritis. when irradiated hamsters were administered immune serum and subsequently challenged with b. burgdorferi, no evidence of infection was detected. recipients failed to develop swelling of the hind paws, and no histopathologic changes were detected. in addition, b. burgdorferi was not recovered from tissues of hamsters that were passively immunized. by contrast, irradiated ...19902294046
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from the myocardium of a patient with longstanding cardiomyopathy. 19902294450
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from the blood of seven patients with lyme disease.borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, has rarely been successfully cultured from blood. we report on seven patients from westchester county, new york, with b. burgdorferi bacteremia diagnosed between april 1987 and august 1987.19902294761
borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti: efficiency of transmission from reservoirs to vector ticks (ixodes dammini).in endemic regions, peromyscus leucopus, the mouse reservoir of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi) and the piroplasm causing human babesiosis (babesia microti), is nearly universally infected with both agents. paradoxically, spirochetal infection is nearly twice as prevalent as is babesial infection in populations of field-collected nymphal ixodes dammini, the tick vector. in the laboratory, a similarly disproportionate rate of infection was observed among nymphal ticks, feeding ...19902295326
cross-antigenicity between the major surface proteins (ospa and ospb) and other proteins of borrelia burgdorferi.two of the major surface ag of borrelia burgdorferi, the 31-kda ospa and 34-kda ospb proteins, are encoded by a 49-kb plasmid. in this study, mab and monospecific polyclonal antibodies were used to define cross-antigenicity of the ospa and ospb protein to each other and to other lower molecular mass proteins by western blot analysis. two mab studied, 105.5 and 184.1, were directed predominantly against the 31-kda ospa protein. however, each also reacted with other minor bands, though with differ ...19902295795
lyme disease in childhood: clinical and epidemiologic features of ninety cases.in 1982 and 1983 practicing pediatricians in a lyme disease-endemic county, reported 90 cases of lyme disease among children 19 years of age and younger (median age, 9 years). three-fourths of the children had initial symptom onset in the summer months, with peak incidence in july. infection occurred twice as often in boys than in girls, and tick bites were recalled by less than half (49%) of the children or parents. erythema chronicum migrans was present in two-thirds (67%) of the cases with me ...19902300409
susceptibility of the western fence lizard (sceloporus occidentalis) to the lyme borreliosis spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi).attempts to infect juvenile and adult western fence lizards (sceloporus occidentalis) with the lyme borreliosis spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi) were largely unsuccessful. spirochetes could not be isolated from the blood and various tissues of 14 lizards 21-32 days after they had been inoculated ip (n = 8) or sc (n = 6) with 10(6) or 10(8) b. burgdorferi representing 3 tick isolates, although 1 lizard apparently developed a transitory spirochetemia lasting 2 days. similarly, spirochetes could n ...19902301709
cross-reactive idiotypes in sera from patients with leprosy, lupus and lyme disease and from healthy individuals.monoclonal igm autoantibodies have previously been generated from a patient with lepromatous leprosy. polyclonal anti-idiotypes raised against two of these monoclonal antibodies (8e7 and th9) were used in an immunoassay to detect the presence of idiotype in human serum. the anti-idiotypes recognize different but overlapping sets of idiotypic determinants, some of which are present on antibodies which bind to mycobacterium leprae. sera were tested from 16 individuals with leprosy, 45 with systemi ...19902302837
bird-feeding ticks transstadially transmit borrelia burgdorferi that infect syrian hamsters.bird-feeding ixodes dammini ticks were documented for the first time to successfully molt and transstadially pass borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes that were indistinguishable by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the type b31 strain. forty-six of 73 blood-engorged larvae and 50 of 66 fully-fed nymphs, removed from wild-caught birds, successfully molted. borreliae were isolated from 21 of 78 partially- and fully-fed larvae off birds, including six specimens that molted ...19902304189
potential for lyme disease in maine: deer survey of distribution of ixodes dammini, the tick vector.a survey of deer brought to tagging stations at 24 sites in main revealed the presence of the deer tick, ixodes dammini, on 5.1 percent of deer. ticks were found almost exclusively on deer from southwest coastal sites in the state. the potential for endemic lyme disease in coastal maine merits further study.19902305920
survival of borrelia burgdorferi in different electroporation buffers.electroporation consists in the application of an electric field through a cell membrane until the membrane itself develops transient pores. this technique has been used to insert external macromolecules into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. in this study we investigated the survival ratio of borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease spirochete, under different electroporation conditions.19902308532
isolation, preliminary chemical characterization, and biological activity of borrelia burgdorferi peptidoglycan.peptidoglycan (pg), an essential cell wall polymer of most bacteria, has been isolated from many species of spirochetes. our interest in the host response to borrelia burgdorferi led us to isolate and characterize its pg. extracted cells were solubilized with warm 1% sds followed by digestion with proteases. amino acid analysis of the isolated pg demonstrated the presence of alanine, glycine, glutamic acid, and ornithine as occurs in other spirochetes and bacteria. intense erythematous reactions ...19902310405
detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna by the polymerase chain reaction.dna amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to detect dna of the lyme disease spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi. primers that specify the amplification of a 145 basepair dna fragment of the ospa gene of b. burgdorferi were used. the amplification product was detected by gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining or by hybridization to a radiolabelled oligonucleotide probe. the hybridization method was found to be more sensitive. as little as 50 fg of purified b. burgd ...19902314397
simultaneous ehrlichiosis and lyme disease. 19902314951
possible lyme meningitis.lyme disease was first recognized in 1975 because of a cluster of patients with arthritis in the vicinity of lyme, connecticut. subsequently the arthritis was linked with erythema chronicum migrans (88%), cardiac (8%), and nervous system diseases (11%). by 1983, the etiology of the disease had been confirmed as an infection caused by a spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted to man by the bite of a tick, ixodes dammini. then it became apparent that this was the same disease reported as far ...19902316438
systemic disease in peromyscus leucopus associated with borrelia burgdorferi infection.sixteen wild peromyscus leucopus, trapped for the establishment of a breeding colony, developed signs of neurological damage (trembling, incoordination, circling, head tilt, and lameness of the rear legs) 2-47 days after capture in southern wisconsin. spirochetes were cultured from the brain of 5/11 mice, and borrelia burgdorferi was cultured from 1 brain. a spirochete was isolated from the bladder of 1 mouse. the spirochete was identified by fluorescent antibody staining with the monoclonal ant ...19902316794
thermoregulation of protein synthesis in borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease, infects humans via the bite of a tick. the microbe survives in at least two vastly different environments: an arthropod vector and a warm-blooded host. we examined protein synthesis in b. burgdorferi b31 in response to sudden heat stress, which is similar to that which occurs during the transmission from vector to host. proteins synthesized after shifts from 28 degrees c to higher temperatures and in pulse-chase experiments were labele ...19902318529
borrelia burgdorferi contains repeated dna sequences that are species specific and plasmid associated.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis, contains linear and supercoiled circular (sc) plasmids. because sc plasmids are present in multiple copies, these plasmids were examined for species-specific sequences that could serve as high-copy-number target dnas for a diagnostic probe. three ecori fragments (4.3, 4.2, and 3.5 kilobase pairs [kb]) that hybridized with multiple dna fragments from b. burgdorferi were identified and cloned from a sc plasmid-enriched fraction. the 4. ...19902318533
immunogenic integral membrane proteins of borrelia burgdorferi are lipoproteins.the pathogenic spirochete borrelia burgdorferi contains a set of integral membrane proteins which were selectively extracted into the detergent phase upon solubilization of intact b. burgdorferi with the nonionic detergent triton x-114. virtually all of these hydrophobic proteins were recognized by antibodies in pooled sera from patients with chronic lyme arthritis, demonstrating that proteins partitioning into the detergent phase of triton x-114 encompass the major b. burgdorferi immunogens. fu ...19902318538
borrelia burgdorferi and ixodes dammini prevalent in the greater philadelphia area. 19902319174
borrelia burgdorferi myelitis presenting as a partial stiff man syndrome.eight weeks after a tick bite, a 33-year-old male patient presented with stiffness of one leg together with spasmodic painful jerks resembling stiff man syndrome. isolated myelitis of lumbosacral segments of the spinal cord, apparently confined to the grey matter, was diagnosed and its spirochaetal aetiology confirmed by serology and csf findings. oligoclonal igg bands in csf specific for borrelia burgdorferi were found. thus, there is evidence that b. burgdorferi ist able to cause a localized m ...19902319268
incidence of tick-bite in man in aland islands: reference to the spread of lyme borreliosis.the common tick ixodes ricinus is a vector both for the virus of tick-borne viral encephalitis (kumlinge disease, kd) and of borrelia burgdorferi (lyme borreliosis, lb). bites of the tick are believed to be common in aland, an island province of finland in the baltic sea. kd has been seen there for many years, and cases of lb have been diagnosed lately. the purpose of this study was to find the incidence of tick-bite among the population with possible implications for the spread of lb. a questio ...19902320965
lyme disease in outdoor workers: risk factors, preventive measures, and tick removal methods.a statewide cross-sectional study of risk factors for seropositivity for antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in outdoor workers in new jersey was performed in september and october 1988. the crude odds ratio associated with exposure to ticks on the primary state job was 2.2 (95% confidence interval (ci) 0.7-9.0). after adjustment for multiple confounding variables with logistic regression, the adjusted occupational tick exposure odds ratio was 5.1 (95% ci 1.1-23.6). additional analyses revealed tha ...19902321630
[meningo-encephalomyelitis in lyme disease].a case of isolated central nervous system involvement in lyme disease is described. a 13 year-old boy developed progressive spastic quadraparesis, chronic lymphocytic meningitis with a low csf glucose concentration and demyelinating lesions of the white matter on mri. the diagnosis was proved serologically by high antibody titers against borrelia burgdorferi (bb) in the serum (1:5, 120) and csf (1:1,280). there was evidence of specific intrathecal immune response against the bb antigen. the pati ...19902322077
[the borrelia titer in ent diseases].in 139 patients with facial paralysis, sudden hearing loss, vertigo, and lymphadenitis of the head and neck, the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi serum antibodies was examined with the help of immunofluorescence assays for igg- and igm-antibodies, immunofluorescence assays after absorption of cross-reacting antibodies with treponema phagedenis, elisa, and western blot. six out of 22 patients with facial paralysis, 11 out of 72 with hearing loss, eight out of 45 with vertigo, and five out of 25 ...19902322358
cultivation and characterization of spirochetes from cerebrospinal fluid of patients with lyme borreliosis.attempts were made to culture spirochetes from cerebrospinal fluid samples of 105 patients suspected of having lyme borreliosis with neurological complications. at the final evaluation, only 38 patients fulfilled the criteria of neuroborreliosis. spirochetes were cultured from cerebrospinal fluid samples of four of these patients. all four patients had pleocytosis in their cerebrospinal fluid and a history of neurological symptoms of only 4 to 10 days in duration. two of them had no detectable a ...19902324275
detection of antibodies in late lyme disease. 19902324533
htlv-i-associated myelopathy, tropical spastic paraparesis, and borrelia burgdorferi. 19902327742
serologic tests for antibody to borrelia burgdorferi. another pandora's box for medicine? 19902327834
persistence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in dogs of new york and connecticut.multiple blood samples were obtained from privately owned dogs living in tick-infested areas of new york (westchester county) and connecticut, where lyme disease in human beings has been reported. of the 175 dogs examined, 127 (72.6%) had limb/joint disorder, whereas the remaining 48 dogs were considered healthy. results of analysis of 419 serum samples revealed igm antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in healthy and lame dogs during all seasons. prevalence of seropositivity was significantly (p les ...19902329074
growth kinetics of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi) in vector ticks (ixodes dammini).lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi) multiplied rapidly in larval ixodes dammini, reaching a mean density of 2,735 spirochetes/tick on day 15 post-repletion. a 5-fold drop in spirochete levels occurred during the subsequent premolting period. recently molted nymphs contained a mean of less than 300 spirochetes/tick. following nymphal repletion, spirochete multiplication renewed, reaching a mean abundance of 61,275 spirochetes/nymph on day 75 post-repletion. a 10-fold drop in spirochet ...19902331043
[a case of "neuralgic amyotrophy" with elevated serum antibody titer against borrelia burgdorferi].a 39-year-old man experienced an abrupt onset of right back pain. the pain improved spontaneously, but weakness of the right upper extremity developed. the weakness deteriorated during the next month, and he was admitted to our hospital. neurological examination disclosed impairment of superficial sensation in his right upper extremity. blood examination showed no abnormal data. the cerebrospinal fluid was normal. neuroradiological findings were also negative. electrophysiological examinations w ...19902331826
serologic survey for borrelia burgdorferi antibody in horses referred to a mid-atlantic veterinary teaching hospital.blood samples obtained from 13 of 100 (13%) and 6 of 91 (7%) horses at the george d. widener hospital for large animals in the months of june and october, respectively, had antibody to borrelia burgdorferi as determined by elisa. horses from the states of new york, maryland, delaware, new jersey, and pennsylvania were seropositive for b burgdorferi. the frequency of antibody response in horses from new jersey was greater (p less than 0.05) than the frequency of antibody response in horses from p ...19902332371
dna and protein analyses of tick-derived isolates of borrelia burgdorferi from california.nine isolates of borrelia burgdorferi from ixodid ticks collected in northern california were characterized. restriction endonuclease analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and western blot (immunoblot) analysis were used in this study. four isolates were very similar to each other. the others shared some similarities but were classified as having unique genotypes. a strain from an ixodes neotomae tick displayed the greatest genetic and antigenic diversity when compared to the isolates coll ...19902332468
interaction between borrelia burgdorferi and endothelium in vitro.during the pathogenesis of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi spreads hematogenously from the site of a tick bite to several tissues throughout the body. the specific mechanism of spirochete emigration is presently unknown. using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we found that borrelia burgdorferi bound to the endothelial cells and to the subendothelial matrix. low passage isolates adhered 22-30-fold greater than a strain maintained in culture continuously. spirochete binding to s ...19902332509
host-seeking behavior of adult ixodes pacificus (acari: ixodidae) as determined by flagging vegetation.diurnal host-seeking by adults of the western black-legged tick, ixodes pacificus cooley & kohls in relation to vegetative habitat type and meterological factors was investigated at a coastal and an inland site in northern california. host-seeking behavior and relative tick abundance were determined with a tick drag method from late fall to midwinter 1987-1988. at the inland site, tick abundance usually was significantly greater in chaparral-grassland ecotones than in adjoining dense chaparral o ...19902332872
subadult ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) on rodents in berlin, west germany.to identify hosts that may serve as reservoirs for the agent of lyme disease in central europe, we determined whether ixodes ricinus l. feed most frequently on certain rodents and whether the abundance of these hosts corresponds to the season of feeding activity of the tick in four sites in berlin, federal republic of germany. in addition, we correlated abundance of i. ricinus with that of particular rodent hosts. two small rodents were more abundant than any others; a mouse, apodemus flavicolli ...19902332880
immunologic reactivity against borrelia burgdorferi in patients with motor neuron disease.of 19 unselected patients with the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als) living in suffolk county, new york (an area of high lyme disease prevalence), 9 had serologic evidence of exposure to borrelia burgdorferi; 4 of 38 matched controls were seropositive. eight of 9 seropositive patients were male (8 of 12 male patients vs 2 of 24 controls). rates of seropositivity were lower among patients with als from nonendemic areas. all patients had typical als; none had typical lyme disease. c ...19902334308
lyme disease vector, ixodes dammini, identified in nova scotia. 19902334999
monoclonal antibodies specific for the outer surface protein a (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi prevent lyme borreliosis in severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice.we have recently shown that viable borrelia burgdorferi organisms induce a chronic infection associated with arthritis and carditis in severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice but not in immunocompetent mice. the disease is similar to that found in patients suffering from lyme disease. we now show that b. burgdorferi-specific immune mouse sera as well as a monoclonal antibody to the spirochetal outer surface antigen a (31 kda) but not monoclonal antibodies specific for the 41-kda antigenic c ...19902339119
["insect bite" and borrelia].a case of insect bite with a peculiar evolution is presented. the simultaneous inoculation of borrelia burgdorferi and the treatment are discussed.19902340942
the borrelia burgdorferi flagellum-associated 41-kilodalton antigen (flagellin): molecular cloning, expression, and amplification of the gene.monoclonal antibodies directed against the major borrelia burgdorferi flagellar protein, the 41-kilodalton (kda) protein flagellin, were used to monitor cloning and expression of the flagellin gene from a borrelia burgdorferi genomic library. the structure of the gene was analyzed, and recombinant nonfusion flagellin was produced in escherichia coli. a dna sequence analysis of the 41-kda flagellin gene revealed the presence of an open reading frame that encoded a protein having 336 amino acid re ...19902341173
lyme disease in the dog. 19902343513
borrelia burgdorferi in the central nervous system: experimental and clinical evidence for early invasion.intravenous injection into adult lewis rats of live borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of lyme disease, was followed by increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier. permeability was measured by the ratio of 125i-labeled albumin in cerebrospinal fluid to that in blood. permeability changes were dose-dependent, began 12 h after inoculation, and reversed within 1 week. only live, intravenously inoculated organisms produced impairment of the blood-brain barrier. a spirochetal strain-d ...19902345299
oligoclonal borrelia burgdorferi-specific igg antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid in lyme neuroborreliosis.cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and serum from 45 patients with lymphocytic meningoradiculitis were examined by isoelectric focusing combined with immunoblotting to detect borrelia burgdorferi-specific oligoclonal immunoglobulin g (igg) bands. in pretreatment samples, 35 patients (78%) showed b. burgdorferi-specific oligoclonal igg in csf indicative of intrathecal antibody production. at 2, 3-6, and 6 weeks after onset, respectively, such bands were present in 5 (42%) of 12, 21 (88%) of 24, and in all ...19902345300
evaluation of the intrathecal antibody response to borrelia burgdorferi as a diagnostic test for lyme neuroborreliosis.the intrathecal antibody response to borrelia burgdorferi was evaluated in american and west german patients with lyme neuroborreliosis. by an antibody capture enzyme immunoassay, 12 (92%) of 13 patients from the usa with lyme meningitis were found to have intrathecal antibody production to b. burgdorferi, usually of multiple isotypes, most commonly iga. of 12 patients with putative late central nervous system manifestations of lyme disease, 5 (42%) had local production of igg or iga spirochetal ...19902345301
false-positive igm antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in indirect elisa as a result of igm rheumatoid factor. 19902345309
summary of the first 100 patients seen at a lyme disease referral center.purpose and patients and methods: lyme disease is a major clinical problem in a number of endemic areas in the united states. in areas where anxiety about the disease is high, patients and physicians often ascribe clinical concerns to lyme disease. incorrect diagnosis often leads to unnecessary antibiotic treatment (often prolonged or repeated intravenous therapy). this report summarizes the cases of the first 100 patients referred to the lyme disease center at robert wood johnson medical school ...19902346158
persistent atrioventricular block in lyme borreliosis.cardiac manifestations are reported in 0.3%-4.0% of european patients with borrelia burgdorferi (b.b.) infection. usually symptoms disappear within 6 weeks. we report a case with persistent impairment of atrioventricular (av) conduction. diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of igm antibodies and increase of igg antibody titers against b.b. in serum, by isolation of the spirochete from skin biopsy material and by the typical clinical combination of erythema migrans, bannwarth syndrome (mening ...19902348647
analysis of supercoiled circular plasmids in infectious and non-infectious borrelia burgdorferi.linear plasmids are widely distributed in isolates of borrelia burgdorferi, but the prevalence of supercoiled circular (sc) plasmids has not been clearly established. enriching for sc plasmids on ethidium bromide density-gradients revealed that a low passage of strain sh-2-82 of b. burgdorferi has at least six sc plasmids (8.4, 8.8, 20, 26, 29 and 51 kb). in addition, several of the sc plasmids were observed by electron microscopy to form concatenated structures. because of the high incidence of ...19902348778
survival of borrelia burgdorferi in human blood stored under blood banking conditions.hematogenous dissemination of organisms occurs in many spirochetal diseases, including lyme disease and syphilis. although syphilis has been transmitted by transfusion, in the vast majority of cases, only fresh blood products were involved, in part because treponema pallidum survives poorly when refrigerated in citrated blood. because of the rising incidence of lyme disease in certain areas, whether its causative agent, borrelia burgdorferi, could survive under blood banking conditions was studi ...19902349627
[granulomatous thrombophlebitis in lyme borreliosis--case report].the presented case report shows a patient with lyme disease who also developed thrombophlebitis saltans. histopathologically we found a granulomatous perivasculitis, an immunohistological investigation showed deposits of igg, iga, igm, c3 and c4 in the vessels. antibody titers against borrelia burgdorferi were elevated, but no anti-cardiolipin antibodies were found. a pathogenetic correlation due to anti-phospholipid antibodies that have been found in thrombosis and borreliosis or a vasculitis v ...19902351413
serologic analyses of cottontail rabbits for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in cottontail rabbits captured in millbrook, n.y., and new york, n.y. five antigenically variable strains of b. burgdorferi were analyzed to determine the variability of serologic test results. in analyses of 79 serum samples, seropositivity ranged from 56% for a strain cultured from kidney tissues of a cottontail rabbit to 68% for a strain isolated from a larva of ixodes dentatus, a tick that parasit ...19902351732
histopathological findings in the central and peripheral nervous systems in neuroborreliosis. a report of three cases.very little is known about tissue changes and pathophysiological mechanisms in garin-boujadoux-bannwarth syndrome. we report histopathological findings in the central and peripheral nervous systems of three typical cases. in the acute stage of the disease mononuclear perivascular infiltrations with mainly t-helper cells were the prominent finding, whereas after treatment there was no vessel involvement. the fibre changes in the peripheral nervous system consisted of axonal degeneration. no borre ...19902355235
lyme disease in dogs. 19902356605
anti-tick antibodies: an epidemiologic tool in lyme disease research.in 1988, antibodies to arthropod (ixodes dammini, dermacentor variabilis, and aedes aegypti) salivary gland proteins and to borrelia burgdorferi were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 53 high-risk outdoor workers from the new jersey department of environmental protection. lyme disease seropositives had significantly higher anti-i. dammini antibody levels than seronegative controls (p = 0.006). anti-b. burgdorferi antibody (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and anti-i. dammini ant ...19902356814
articular involvement in european patients with lyme disease. a report of 32 italian patients.lyme disease (ld) is a well recognized multisystem disorder, caused by the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi. it involves the skin, nervous system and heart. arthritis is described in 50-60% of american patients but seems to be less common in europe. we studied the pattern of articular involvement in a group of 67 italian patients with ld. thirty-two (48%) of 67 had rheumatological manifestations. the prevalence of arthritis in our patients was 16/67 (24%), the remaining 16 experiencing only arth ...19902357498
reactivity of european and american isolates of borrelia burgdorferi with different monoclonal antibodies by means of a microimmunoblot technique.ten european and 3 north american isolates of borrelia burgdorferi were compared as to their reactivity with 9 mouse monoclonal antibodies (mma) to the type strain b. burgdorferi b31, and 1 mma directed against b. hermsii. a treponema pallidum strain was used for a genus-specific control. differences in the protein patterns of the european and the north american strains were mostly based on the absence of distinct ospa and ospb bands. the ospa mmas h 5332 and h 3ts were reactive with 3 european ...19902360965
[encephalomyelitis with elevated serum antibody against borrelia burgdorferi].a 60-year-old female was admitted because of intermittent fever, arthralgia, itching of whole body, pretibial edema, urinary incontinence, pain of both legs and gait disturbance, after an insect bite. on admission, she had fever of 38 degrees c, and nuchal pain and stiffness. neurological examination revealed spasticity of lower legs and increased deep tendon reflexes of all extremities. hyperesthesia and hyperalgesia were noted on c2-4 and l5-s5 areas. leukocyte count was 10,100/mm3 and crp was ...19902364635
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi proteins reactive with antibodies in synovial fluid of a patient with lyme arthritis.four borrelia burgdorferi proteins reactive with antibodies in the synovial fluid of a patient with lyme arthritis were characterized. homology between amino acid sequences of immunoreactive spirochetal proteins and human proteins, including members of the escherichia coli groel protein family, suggests that antigenic mimicry may play a role in the pathogenesis of lyme arthritis.19902365463
[the infectiousness of ixodes persulcatus ticks with the causative agents of lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis simultaneously].by means of individual bacteriological and virological investigations of adult ixodes persulcatus ticks and comparison of obtained results there has been established their simultaneous spontaneous infection with agents of lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis. a possible frequency of such mixed infection in these vectors is being discussed.19902367143
borrelia burgdorferi infection: should one treat before confirming clinical diagnosis? 19902370207
prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis and lyme borreliosis in a defined swedish population.sera from 346 individuals living on lisö, an area south of stockholm, endemic for tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) and lyme borreliosis, were tested for antibody activity to tbe-virus (tbev) and borrelia burgdorferi, using a sonicate antigen, by haemagglutination-inhibition and elisa, respectively. 10/346 (3%) individuals had a history of previous serologically confirmed tbe with encephalitic symptoms, and 33/346 (10%) had a history of previous erythema chronicum migrans (ecm). four individuals (1% ...19902371545
aspects of the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis.attempts were made to culture spirochetes from the cerebrospinal fluid of 105 patients with suspected lyme borreliosis with neurological complications. at the final evaluation, only 38 patients fulfilled the criteria of neuroborreliosis. spirochetes were cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid of four of these patients. all four had pleocytosis in their cerebrospinal fluid and a history of neurological symptoms of only four to ten days. two had no detectable antibodies in their cerebrospinal fluid ...19902371553
borrelia burgdorferi: survival in experimentally infected human blood processed for transfusion.the isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from blood raises the possibility of bloodborne transmission of lyme borreliosis through transfusions. to assess this possibility, the ability of b. burgdorferi to survive in human blood processed for transfusion was studied. human blood was inoculated with b. burgdorferi type strain b-31 (atcc 35210) at 0.2, 20, or 2000 viable cells/ml, processed by conventional blood banking procedures, stored at 4 degrees c, and cultured for b. burgdorferi at 12, 23, 36, ...19902373880
[occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes ricinus in the netherlands].in a 1989 surveillance to study the infection rate of ixodes ricinus ticks with borrelia burgdorferi, a total of 1838 nymphal and adult ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 20 locations in the netherlands. by means of a culture method using modified barbour-kelly-stoenner medium nymphs were examined in pools of 4 and adults were examined individually. with 63 out of 75 isolates propagation and serological identification were possible. all of these 63 isolates were identified as borrelia burg ...19902374615
lyme disease. employee education and treatment.lyme disease is a complex multisystem disorder that begins with the bite from the ixodes tick. the ixodes tick carries the spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, and infects humans with the spirochete. the initial symptoms of lyme disease are the erythema chronicum migrans, or "bull's eye" rash, and flu-like symptoms. stage iii of lyme disease can occur weeks to months after the initial infection when more serious complications may develop, such as neurologic, cardiac, or ophthalmologic problems. if ...19902375798
[infestation of ticks with borrelia burgdorferi and francisella tularensis in slovakia].examination of ticks for the presence of f. tularensis resulted in the isolation of 29 strains, predominantly from the species d. reticulatus (19x), further from i. ricinus (8x) and from h. concinna (2x). the results confirmed the activity of the known endemic focus in the area of podunajské biskupice and revealed three new foci in the localities smolenice (district of trnava), olichov (district of nitra), and plást'ovce (district of levice). in the focus of podunajské biskupice the mean infesta ...19902376012
[choriocapillaritis (so-called pigment epitheliitis) in borrelia burgdorferi seroconversion].a significant b. burgdorferi seroconversion with an igm of 1:80 was observed in a patient complaining of loss of vision in his right eye. the finding correlated morphologically with hyperpigmentation and depigmentation in the macular region, similar to pigment epitheliitis or choriocapillaritis. in the course of the following four weeks the igm decreased by four titer steps. the visual acuity of the patient's right eye recovered from 0.4 on admission to 1.0 on discharge. the angiogram did not re ...19902376946
simultaneous infection with an ehrlichia and borrelia burgdorferi in a child. 19902378481
cross-reactivity of nonspecific treponemal antibody in serologic tests for lyme disease.serum samples obtained from 59 persons who had acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, periodontitis, syphilis, or lyme disease were tested against treponema phagedenis biotype reiter, treponema denticola, treponema vincentii, and treponema scoliodontum by indirect fluorescent-antibody staining methods. although there were positive reactions for sera representing each of these study groups and for 20 (13%) of 156 samples collected from the general population (premarital screening for syphilis), ...19902380356
reactivity of human lyme borreliosis sera with a 39-kilodalton antigen specific to borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of lyme borreliosis, a spirochetal illness with a variety of acute clinical manifestations that may lead to debilitating neurological and arthritic complications. diagnosis is difficult because symptoms mimic a variety of unrelated clinical conditions, spirochetes cannot always be isolated from infected patients, and current serological tests are frequently inconclusive because of the presence of cross-reacting non-b. burgdorferi antibodies. to identif ...19902380361
the 83-kilodalton antigen of borrelia burgdorferi which stimulates immunoglobulin m (igm) and igg responses in infected hosts is expressed by a chromosomal gene.we report the cloning and characterization of a chromosomal gene from borrelia burgdorferi expressing an 83-kilodalton protein antigen in escherichia coli. the antigen reacted strongly with antisera from two human lyme disease patients. the chromosomal gene was expressed in a 6.5-kilobase-pair clai fragment cloned into a variable-reading-frame plasmid vector.19902380391
time of repletion of subadult ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on diverse hosts.for a comparison of the times of day at which the subadult stages of ixodes ricinus detach from nocturnal vs diurnal hosts, these ticks were placed on a variety of indigenous and experimental animals. the time of detachment appears to depend more on properties of the host than on the periodicity of tick behavior. ticks on rodents, regardless of host periodicity, tended to detach late in the afternoon; those on the hedgehog detached around midnight, and those on lizards and birds, during the morn ...19902381897
ceftriaxone therapy of chronic inflammatory arthritis. a double-blind placebo controlled trial.to determine whether chronic inflammatory arthritis may respond to antibiotic therapy (implying a bacterial origin), we conducted a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. sixty patients with inflammatory arthritis and antibody titers to borrelia burgdorferi 1:64 or more were randomized to receive placebo (n = 20) or 2 g/d of ceftriaxone intravenously (n = 40) for 2 weeks. two of 20 placebo- and 19 of 40 antibiotic-treated patients improved. at 1 month, the placebo-treated patients could elect t ...19902383162
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