PMID(sorted ascending)
dogs as sentinels for lyme disease in investigation of the relationship between incident human cases of lyme disease and seroprevalence of antibodies to b. burgdorferi in dogs was undertaken in order to determine whether dogs might serve as sentinels for lyme disease.19911951802
cognitive functioning in late lyme borreliosis.lyme borreliosis, a tick-borne multisystem disease, may cause a variety of neurologic complications, including meningoencephalitis and encephalopathy. to evaluate neurobehavioral function following treated lyme borreliosis, 15 patients with lyme disease and complaints of persistent cognitive difficulty a mean of 6.7 months following antibiotic treatment underwent neuropsychological evaluation and were compared with 10 healthy controls, matched in aggregate for age and education, who underwent th ...19911953395
protection of mice from lyme borreliosis by oral vaccination with escherichia coli expressing ospa.mice immunized with recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa) in freund's adjuvant or with intraperitoneal injections of live escherichia coli expressing ospa have been shown to be protected from infection with borrelia burgdorferi. to investigate the efficacy of oral vaccination, c3h/he mice were inoculated with 10(8) live e. coli expressing recombinant ospa by gavage and boosted in a similar manner on days 10, 20, 30, and 40. the animals developed serum igg antibodies to ospa by immunoblot an ...19911955724
false positive serologic tests for lyme disease after varicella infection. 19911961232
tick-borne zoonoses: lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and rocky mountain spotted fever.the primary health risk for veterinary staff and companion pet owners is exposure to ticks in the wooded/pasture areas or to ticks brought indoors by their pets. there are no proven cases of direct animal to human transmission for lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, or rocky mountain spotted fever. direct inoculation of blood from a bacteremic animal, eg, by needle stick is a theoretical, but, so far, undocumented health risk. however, veterinarians should record needle sticks or other inoculation-type ...19911962008
sequestration of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in immune complexes in seronegative lyme find out whether apparent seronegativity in patients strongly suspected of having lyme disease can be due to sequestration of antibodies in immune complexes, such complexes were isolated and tested for antibody to borrelia burgdorferi. in a blinded analysis the antibody was detected in all 10 seronegative lyme disease patients with erythema chronicum migrans (ecm), in none of 19 patients with other diseases, and in 4 of 12 seronegative patients who probably had lyme disease but had no ecm. th ...19901967770
lack of transmission of borrelia burgdorferi by blood transfusion. 19901968566
detection of borrelia burgdorferi infection in ixodes dammini ticks with the polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amplify dna sequences of the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, and was applied to the detection of the spirochete in its tick vector. the target for pcr amplification was the osp-a gene of strain b31; analysis of isolates from different geographical areas indicated that this gene could be used to identify most north american isolates. these methods were extended to the analysis of colony-derived and field-collected ixodes dammi ...19901969867
antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in guillain-barré syndrome. 19901971906
borrelia burgdorferi elisa titres in children with recent mumps meningitis. 19901975314
borrelia burgdorferi and tropical spastic paraparesis. 19901978014
amoxycillin plus probenecid versus doxycycline for treatment of erythema migrans borreliosis.72 adults with erythema migrans (early lyme borreliosis) were enrolled in a randomised prospective trial comparing amoxycillin 500 mg plus probenecid 500 mg three times a day with doxycycline 100 mg twice a day for 21 days. these antibiotic regimens were chosen because of the known in-vitro sensitivity of borrelia burgdorferi, the antibiotic tissue penetration, the pharmacokinetics of the drugs, and because the organism can disseminate early in the course of infection. 72 patients were evaluable ...19901978873
plasmid analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of chromosomal dna allow a distinction between borrelia burgdorferi strains.we examined the relationships of the genomes of five strains of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ticks, two from north america, including the type strain b31, and three from switzerland. we determined restriction fragment length polymorphisms by using eight cloned dna fragments as hybridization probes to genomic southern blots. two divergent patterns were observed, represented by b31 and one swiss strain on the one hand and the two other swiss strains on the other. the second american strain r ...19901979740
clinical implications of delayed growth of the lyme borreliosis spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi.lyme borreliosis, a spirochetal infection caused by borrelia burgdorferi, may become clinically active after a period of latency in the host. active cases of lyme disease may show clinical relapse following antibiotic therapy. the latency and relapse phenomena suggest that the lyme disease spirochete is capable of survival in the host for prolonged periods of time. we studied 63 patients with erythema migrans, the pathognomonic cutaneous lesion of lyme borreliosis, and examined in vitro cultures ...19901980573
[lyme disease (borreliosis): the epidemiological importance of animal vectors and reservoirs]. 20051983276
vector roles of fennoscandian mosquitoes attracted to mammals, birds and frogs.1. mosquitoes were sampled with five suction traps, from may to october 1983, at a forest site in south-central sweden. 2. twenty-three species of mosquitoes were identified among the total of 3108 females collected: 4% of them in an unbaited trap, 3% in a trap baited with two frogs, 24% with a guinea-pig, 28% with a hen and 40% in a trap baited with a rabbit. 3. the dominant species of culicidae trapped were 39% aedes communis (de geer), 21% ae. cinereus meigen, 14% coquillettidia richiardii (f ...19901983455
infectivity of borrelia burgdorferi correlates with resistance to elimination by phagocytic cells.the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, causes a disseminated infection in vivo, implying resistance to clearance by phagocytic cells. because b. burgdorferi loses its infectivity after in vitro cultivation, the relationships between serial passaging of the organism in vitro, its susceptibility to elimination by phagocytes, and its infectivity were examined. when three different high-passage strains were incubated for 4 h at 37 degrees c with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, macrop ...19911984461
from the centers for disease control. imported malaria associated with malariotherapy of lyme disease--new jersey. 19911984528
indigenous cases of lyme disease diagnosed in north carolina.between january 1984 and december 1989, 102 indigenous cases of lyme disease were reported in north carolina. lyme disease was reported in each of the three major geographic regions of the state: mountain, piedmont, and coastal plain. one or more diagnoses were made in 42 of 100 counties. patients ranged in age from 5 months to 78 years (median, 27 years); 58 patients (57%) reported a history of tick exposure within 1 month of the onset of symptoms. erythema migrans was reported by 93 patients ( ...19911986423
lyme disease in canada. 19911986831
identification of the lyme disease vector in canada. 19911986832
molecular detection of persistent borrelia burgdorferi in the urine of patients with active lyme disease.current diagnostic tests for lyme disease (ld) are dependent upon the host serologic response and are insensitive early in infection and, possibly, following antibiotic therapy. we cloned a library of borrelia burgdorferi 297 dna and studied one clone, ly-1, for its potential in diagnostic and pathogenic studies. using pulsed-field electrophoresis, we demonstrated that ly-1 is of chromosomal origin and estimated that the b. burgdorferi chromosome is approximately 1,100 kb in size. the 3.7-kb ly- ...19911987041
intracellular localization of borrelia burgdorferi within human endothelial cells.the later stages of infection by the lyme disease pathogen, borrelia burgdorferi, are characterized by the persistence of the organism in individuals possessing a strong anti-borrelia immune response. this suggests that the organism is sequestered in a tissue protected from the immune system of the host or there is a reservoir of the organism residing within the cells of the host. in this report, the ability of b. burgdorferi to gain entrance into human umbilical vein endothelial cells was explo ...19911987083
aseptic meningitis in the decennium of borrelia burgdorferi infection (lyme disease) 19911987547
lymphoproliferative responses to borrelia burgdorferi in lyme compare lymphocyte proliferative responses to borrelia burgdorferi in healthy controls and patients with lyme disease.19911987874
the prevalence and incidence of clinical and asymptomatic lyme borreliosis in a population at risk.a past history of clinical lyme borreliosis and the 6-month incidence of clinical and asymptomatic lyme borreliosis was studied prospectively in a high-risk population. in the spring, blood samples were drawn from 950 swiss orienteers, who also answered a questionnaire. igg anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies were detected by elisa. positive igg antibodies were seen in 248 (26.1%), in contrast to 3.9%-6.0% in two groups of controls (n = 101). of the orienteers, 1.9%-3.1% had a past history of d ...19911988513
randomized comparison of ceftriaxone and cefotaxime in lyme this prospective, randomized, open trial, 33 patients with lyme neuroborreliosis were assigned to a 10-day treatment with either ceftriaxone, 2 g intravenously (iv) every 24 h (n = 17), or cefotaxime, 2 g iv every 8 h (n = 16). of the 33 patients, 30 were eligible for analysis of therapeutic efficacy. neurologic symptoms improved or even subsided in 14 patients of the cefotaxime group and in 12 patients of the ceftriaxone group during the treatment period. at follow-up examinations after a me ...19911988514
infectivity of borrelia burgdorferi relative to route of inoculation and genotype in laboratory mice. 19911988530
joint manifestations of lyme disease in spain. 19911991226
retinal vasculitis with proliferative retinopathy in a patient with evidence of borrelia burgdorferi infection. 19911992748
peripheral ulcerative keratitis related to lyme disease. 19911992749
cationic antigens as mediators of inflammation.electrical charge is an important determinant of antigen deposition in tissue. cationic antigens can bind to anionic sites found in many organs. the major focus of interest has been the renal glomerulus and the articular joint. experimental models of immune complex glomerulonephritis and allergic arthritis were established with chemically cationized proteins. more recently the concept has been extended to natural cationic proteins and human disease. the histones were shown to be potent initiator ...19911993113
geographical and temporal distribution of babesial infection in connecticut.human babesiosis was first recognized in connecticut in 1989, nearly 15 years after lyme disease, a similarly transmitted spirochetosis, was detected in the state. to determine the seroprevalence for the babesial pathogen and whether it was recently introduced, we used an indirect immunofluorescence assay to test for babesia microti antibody in 1,285 connecticut residents. four groups were studied: i, people seropositive for lyme disease, tested from 1986 to 1989; ii, randomly selected outpatien ...19911993742
interlaboratory comparison of titers of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi and evaluation of a commercial assay using canine sera.sixty canine serum samples were sent to 10 different diagnostic laboratories for anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody analysis. all laboratories knew of the study prior to receiving the samples. agreement among all laboratories for all interpretations was 91% (546 of 600 samples). there was complete agreement among all the laboratories for only 32 (53%) of the samples. most of the disagreements were due to differences reported by either one (15 samples) or two (7 samples) laboratories per sample. ...19911993751
improved immunoglobulin m serodiagnosis in lyme borreliosis by using a mu-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with biotinylated borrelia burgdorferi flagella.a mu-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of serum immunoglobulin m (igm) antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi by using biotinylated purified b. burgdorferi flagella was developed. the diagnostic performance of the mu-capture elisa was compared with that of a conventional indirect elisa. sera from untreated patients with erythema migrans (n = 50), neuroborreliosis (n = 100), and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca; n = 48) were investigated. the cutoff of the elisas ...19911993753
validity of western immunoblot band patterns in the serodiagnosis of lyme borreliosis.serodiagnosis of lyme disease is hampered by low specificity of the standard assays currently used. the western immunoblot has therefore been proposed as a potential confirmatory test. for the present report, the method was evaluated by testing sera from patients with clinically defined early- and late-stage borreliosis. in early-stage borreliosis, the 41,000-molecular-weight flagellin protein (41k) of borrelia burgdorferi was the major antigen detected by antibodies in sera, but the specificity ...19911993754
lyme disease: recommendations for diagnosis and treatment.the incidence and the endemic range of lyme disease in the united states have increased steadily since the disease was originally recognized in lyme, connecticut, in 1975. because of the varied clinical manifestations of this illness and the use of unstandardized serologic testing methods, diagnosis is often uncertain and treatment outcomes are often difficult to evaluate. the antibiotic regimens that are commonly used in clinical practice have changed rapidly. they show much regional variation ...20061994795
diagnosis of lyme disease based on dermatologic manifestations.lyme disease, or lyme borreliosis, is an infection caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, which is most commonly transmitted to humans by a tick bite. characterized by early and late phases, lyme disease is a multisystem illness involving the skin, heart, joints, and nervous system. diagnosis is based predominantly on clinical manifestations, the most specific being dermatologic. thus, recognizing the dermatologic manifestations of lyme disease is important for diagnosis and institution ...19911994797
antiborrelial activity of serum from rats injected with the lyme disease spirochete.the functional properties of humoral factors generated in rats immunized against borrelia burgdorferi were investigated. after lewis strain rats were injected intraperitoneally with live b. burgdorferi or in the footpad with dead borreliae incorporated in complete freund's adjuvant, they produced high-titered antisera. at a dilution of less than or equal to 1:10, sera from immunized or infected rats but not control sera inhibited growth of b. burgdorferi in vitro. neutralization of growth of thr ...19911995740
lyme disease in south america? 19911995748
application of the microcapsule agglutination test to serologic studies of an early stage of lyme disease in japan. 19911995749
[first isolation of borrelia burgdorferi (lyme spirochaeta) from ticks in hungary].31 field collected ixodes ricinus adult ticks were investigated for the lyme-disease spirochete. 5/31 ixodes ricinus contained borrelia burgdorferi. the spirochete was successfully cultivated in four cases, and they were found in two ticks by immunofluorescence technique and dark field microscopy, as well. two of the isolated strains were tested by western blot. the antigen pattern in both strains showed marked bands in 41 and 60 kd antigen, but only a week band appeared at 32 kd, with the lack ...19911996203
lyme arthritis: oligoclonal anti-borrelia burgdorferi igg antibodies occur in joint fluid and serum.the antibody response to borrelia (b.) burgdorferi, and to measles virus as control antigen, was analysed by agarose isoelectric focusing (aif) and immunoblot of joint fluid and serum from 10 patients with lyme arthritis and 10 controls with rheumatoid arthritis. among the lyme arthritis patients, six had oligoclonal anti-b. burgdorferi igg antibody bands in joint fluid and corresponding serum, one patient had oligoclonal antibody bands in joint fluid only and also an elevated b. burgdorferi-spe ...19911996408
hosts on which nymphal ixodes ricinus most abundantly identify hosts that may serve as european reservoirs for the agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, we determined whether nymphal ixodes ricinus feed mainly on particular mice (apodemus flavicollis or a. agrarius), voles (clethrionomys glareolus) or on sand lizards (lacerta agilis) and whether the abundance of these hosts corresponds to the seasonal activity of the subadult stages of the vector tick. in all sites, the mice appeared most heavily infested by larvae; at least seven parasit ...19911996733
anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody response over the course of lyme neuroborreliosis.characteristic findings on examination of cerebrospinal fluid (csf) in lyme neuroborreliosis include mononuclear pleocytosis, oligoclonal immunoglobulin g (igg) bands, and evidence for local production of specific antibodies. we utilized an immunospot assay to detect cells secreting anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies of different isotypes over the course of disease. such cells were detected in csf from 13 consecutive patients with neuroborreliosis examined before treatment. igg antibody-secret ...19911997408
lyme disease. 19911997796
complete heart block in an adolescent caused by lyme disease. a common--and reversible--disorder.a 20-year-old university of delaware student developed a vague systemic disorder one week after camping in a maryland state park known to be endemic with the tick ixodes dammini, the vector for lyme disease. light-headedness developed and an electrocardiogram revealed complete heart block. lyme disease was confirmed by the characteristic erythema migrans rash and lyme serologies.19912001770
heat shock response of spirochetes.we examined the heat shock response of the pathogenic spirochetes treponema pallidum, borrelia burgdorferi, and leptospira interrogans and certain saprophytic spirochetes. cellular proteins synthesized after shifts to higher temperatures were [35s]methionine labeled and analyzed by gel electrophoresis and fluorography. only t. pallidum failed to exhibit an obvious heat shock response. groel and dnak homologs were identified in the various species, although these proteins were not thermoinducible ...19912004832
treatment of lyme disease. 20042005549
lyme disease: clinical features, classification, and epidemiology in the upper midwest.lyme disease can be classified using the terminology of syphilis. in this series of 95 cases from the upper midwest, early cases, defined as an illness of less than 2 months, were more likely to have lived in or recently visited a highly endemic area. unlike late cases, early cases presented entirely in the nonwinter months (p less than .001). early disease was further subdivided into primary and secondary disease. ninety percent of primary and 43% of secondary cases had erythema migrans, while ...19912005778
antibody to a 39-kilodalton borrelia burgdorferi antigen (p39) as a marker for infection in experimentally and naturally inoculated animals.borrelia burgdorferi expresses a conserved, species-specific 39-kda protein (p39) that can stimulate antibodies during human infection. to confirm that anti-p39 antibodies are produced consistently in animals exposed to infectious spirochetes, white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, and laboratory white mice, mus musculus (strain balb/c), were experimentally inoculated with either infectious or noninfectious b. burgdorferi and the antibody response to p39 was determined by immunoblot at 21 days ...19912007630
survey for ixodes spp. and borrelia burgdorferi in southeastern wisconsin and northeastern illinois.forested areas adjacent to milwaukee, wis., and chicago, ill., were investigated for rodents and ticks infected with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus or peromyscus maniculatus), meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus), and eastern chipmunks (tamias striatus) were captured; and specimens from these animals were cultured for b. burgdorferi to define whether the midwestern lyme disease area currently encompasses these large metropolita ...19912007650
chronic neurologic manifestations of lyme disease. 19912008190
duration of adult female ixodes dammini attachment and transmission of borrelia burgdorferi, with description of a needle aspiration isolation method.the relationship between the attachment duration of adult female ixodes dammini and the transmission of borrelia burgdorferi was studied. sixteen rabbits were exposed to spirochete-infected female ticks for specified intervals. all five rabbits exposed to ticks that fed to repletion (greater than 120 h) became infected, as did two of three exposed for 48 h. in contrast, five rabbits exposed to a cumulative total of 53 infected female i. dammini for 36 h failed to become infected, as did three ra ...19912010643
parasitic and phoretic arthropods of sylvatic and commensal white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) in central tennessee, with notes on lyme disease.sixteen species of parasitic or phoretic arthropods were collected from 56 white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, live-trapped in central tennessee from april through november 1987. arthropod infestation was compared for mice taken from sylvatic (woodland) versus commensal (household) habitats. three species were recorded from hosts in both habitats: the sucking louse hoplopleura hesperomydis, the flea epitedia wenmanni, and the laelapid mite androlaelaps casalis. twelve of the 13 remaining art ...19912010854
irreversible complete heart block in lyme disease. 19912012098
relative infectivity of borrelia burgdorferi in lewis rats by various routes of inoculation.various routes of borrelia burgdorferi infection were studied in laboratory rats. three-week-old lewis rats were inoculated either intradermally (i.d.), intraperitoneally (i.p.), or oronasally (o.n.) with serial 10-fold dilutions of b. burgdorferi. thirty days later, groups of rats were killed and serology, splenic culture, and histology were used to evaluate infection. rats were successfully infected i.d. with 10(2-4) organisms or i.p. with 10(4-5) organisms. neither three-day-old nor three-wee ...19912012256
t cell proliferation induced by borrelia burgdorferi in patients with lyme borreliosis. autologous serum required for optimum stimulation.the cellular immune response to borrelia burgdorferi was studied in 24 patients with seropositive and seronegative lyme borreliosis, 30 patients with arthritides of different origin (non-lyme arthritides), and 20 normal blood donors. by far, the strongest t cell stimulation was induced by incubation with autologous serum; there was a significantly lower response or no response after incubation with allogeneic or heterologous sera. in patients with lyme borreliosis, including seronegative patient ...19912012626
lyme disease and localized scleroderma--no evidence for a common aetiology. 19912012951
lyme disease. first reported case in sicily.recently many cases of lyme disease have been described in italy. the patients come prevalently from friuli venezia giulia and the eastern ligurian coast. isolated cases have been diagnosed in other parts of northern italy and in the central regions. we describe the first sicilian case, concluding that lyme borreliosis may well be widely distributed in our country.19912013515
lyme disease: a review with emphasis on the pregnant woman. 19912014072
canine haemobartonellosis, canine hepatozoonosis, and feline cytauxzoonosis.although lyme borreliosis (lyme disease), ehrlichiosis, rocky mountain spotted fever, and babesiosis occur more frequently in dogs or cats, from a clinical standpoint, other tick-borne diseases such as canine haemobartonellosis, canine hepatozoonosis, and feline cytauxzoonosis are just as important to recognize. information concerning these less common tick-borne diseases are discussed, including their causative agents and their relationship to disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and pre ...19912014617
canine lyme borreliosis.lyme borreliosis is now the most commonly reported tick-transmitted disease in humans and is an important disease in dogs. case reports of canine lyme borreliosis have appeared in the literature during the last 6 years, but a complete description of the disease still is not available. until an accurate diagnostic scheme is developed, the disease will remain incompletely understood. a nonlocalizing polyarthropathy is the most commonly described clinical manifestation of canine lyme borreliosis, b ...19912014626
thyrotoxicosis resembles lyme disease. 19912014961
a mouse model for borrelia burgdorferi infection: approach to a vaccine against lyme disease.lyme disease is the most common vector-transmitted illness in the usa and europe. the pathogen, borrelia burgdorferi, causes a complex spectrum of disease that affects the skin, joints, nervous system and heart. patients in the early stages of the disease can often be successfully treated with antibiotics but this becomes less reliable as the disease progresses. the specific immune responses that are detectable in patients with lyme disease are not sufficient to protect against illness; a vaccin ...19912015043
brown-séquard syndrome caused by borrelia burgdorferi.we report the case of a patient with brown-séquard syndrome resulting from borrelia burgdorferi infection. antibiotic treatment led to complete recovery.19912015831
immunologic and structural characterization of the dominant 66- to 73-kda antigens of borrelia burgdorferi.the 66- to 73-kda proteins of borrelia burgdorferi are dominant immunogens and expressed in all strains of b. burgdorferi. the humoral response to these ag occurs relatively early during the course of infection. two-dimensional western blot analysis of this group of ag revealed them to consist of a tetrad of proteins with apparent molecular mass of 66, 68, 71, and 73 kda. furthermore, in this study we demonstrate the 66-kda protein to be a potent inducer of lymphoproliferation in the patient imm ...19912016526
characterization of an immunoreactive 93-kda core protein of borrelia burgdorferi with a human igg monoclonal antibody.lyme borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the tick-borne spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, which carries the potential for chronic infection. ag on the etiologic borrelia are currently being defined structurally and their ability to elicit immune responses delineated. ebv can be used to immortalize human b. burgdorferi-specific b cells from infected donors and generate antibodies against antigenic epitopes encountered in natural infection. a human mab secreting ebv-transformed b cell li ...19912016542
re: "lyme disease in outdoor workers: risk factors, preventive measures, and tick removal methods". 19912018031
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with lyme borreliosis. 19912020305
[bilateral leber's neuroretinitis stellata in borrelia burgdorferi seroconversion].we report on a 22-year-old white female with bilateral leber's stellate neuroretinitis occurring 5 weeks after a viral-like illness. serological tests revealed a seroconversion for borrelia burgdorferi indicating an etiological connection. during therapy with 200 mg doxycycline daily for 2 weeks on systemically steroids the optic disc swelling and macular star figure resolved. visual acuity improved from 0.4 to 1.0 in this time period. it is important that the ophthalmologist should consider lym ...19912023374
comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to an indirect immunofluorescence assay for the detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was compared to an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) for detection of igg antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in dog sera. the concordance of the two tests was 93.5% for sera from dogs from maryland (n = 93), 98.0% for sera from dogs from north carolina (n = 446), and 97.2% for the combined sample groups (n = 539). twenty-five of the 27 samples with discordant or low positive results were tested, and showed immunoblot reactions to 1 to 10 differe ...19912024439
infections of the central nervous system.acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has had a major impact on all aspects of clinical neuroscience in the past few years. thus understanding acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its associated complications within the nervous system was a major component of this review of the past year's radiologic literature of infection in the central nervous system. particular topics discussed include the appearance of primary human immunodeficiency virus infection of the brain as well as toxoplasmosis, cryp ...19912025502
multifocal conduction block in a patient with borrelia burgdorferi infection. 19912027353
frequency and clinical significance of lyme seropositivity in patients with isolated optic neuritis.we evaluated antibody reactivity against borrelia burgdorferi in 20 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed isolated optic neuritis who resided in a region endemic for lyme disease. four (20%) patients had positive serology. all three patients who had follow-up serologies showed rising convalescent levels of borrelia-specific igm. one patient refused lumbar puncture, one had normal csf constituents except for an elevated lyme antibody index, and two had csf lymphocytic pleocytosis that remaine ...19912027487
use of peroxidase-labelled antigen for the detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in human and animal sera.we have developed a modified elisa for the detection of anti-borrelia burgdorferi (bb) antibodies based on a peroxidase enzyme labelled antigen (elat). microtiter plates were coated with antigen of bb. the immunoglobulins of the serum samples were bound to the antigen and specific antibodies were detected by an enzyme labelled antigen. the test principle facilitates the recognition of specific antibodies in different collectives of human and animal sera. we performed epidemiological studies with ...19912028231
lyme disease: a proposed ecological index to assess areas of risk in the northeastern united states.recent public awareness has resulted in a demand for information about ways to reduce the risk of acquiring lyme disease.19912029039
[treatment of borrelia burgdorferi infection]. 19912029560
lyme disease now reportable in oklahoma, letter reminds mds. 19912030464
lyme borreliosis: host responses to borrelia burgdorferi.the chronic inflammatory condition that develops after infection by b. burgdorferi is a complex process resulting from host responses to a limited number of organisms. amplification mechanisms driven by potent proinflammatory molecules, i.e., il-1, may explain the vigorous response to a paucity of organisms. spirochete dissemination to distant locations involves adherence to and penetration across endothelium and may be facilitated by host responses that increase vessel permeability. the apparen ...19912030671
[indicators of articular cartilage degeneration in synovial fluid].detection of proteoglycans in biological fluids is a perspective method for the evaluation of the degree of catabolic processes in articular cartilage. the demand of accuracy and specificity of detection of substructures of the degradation products of the cartilaginous matrix, with the perspective of routine large scale examinations, restricts available possible methods practically only to the use of immunochemical methods. in the present investigation in the inhibitory elisa test polyclonal ant ...19912031318
cases from the aerospace medicine residents' teaching file. case #42. an aviator with concentration deficit, lyme disease organic diagnostic evaluation, and a somatoform aviator with concentration deficit, lyme disease organic diagnostic evaluation, and a somatoform disorder. the clinical presentation, evaluation and diagnosis of an aviator being evaluated for vague cognitive deficits of episodic and long duration with a history of rigid ideation concerning lyme disease. the patient was diagnosed as having an atypical somatoform disorder. the aeromedical disposition of this patient is also presented.19912031643
borrelia burgdorferi-associated cutaneous b cell lymphoma: clinical and immunohistologic characterization of four cases.four patients with low-grade malignant b cell lymphoma of the skin in association with chronic borrelia burgdorferi infection are presented. plaque-shaped or nodular erythematous lesions with ill-defined borders were seen. clinical progression was slow; the skin tumors occurred for up to 7 to 15 years. extracutaneous involvement was found in only one case. immunohistologic investigations showed an expression of b cell markers with restriction to only one light chain type and absence of t cell an ...19912033136
lymphadenosis benigna cutis resulting from borrelia infection (borrelia lymphocytoma).swelling and erythema of the right pinna developed in a 7-year-old girl. six months later a biopsy specimen showed a dense, diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate involving most of the dermis except for a thin grenz zone. the appearance was consistent with lymphocytoma cutis. she had been bitten by a tick on the right ear in switzerland 6 weeks before the onset of the lesion. serologic tests by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for borrelia burgdorferi, done 6 and 11 months after the bite, yielded ...19912033141
complement-mediated killing of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. role of antibody in formation of an effective membrane attack complex.lyme disease is a multisystemic illness caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. in the absence of specific antibody, the spirochete is resistant to the bactericidal activity of c, despite the capacity of b. burgdorferi to activate both c pathways. we examined the mechanism of serum resistance by measuring the deposition of c3 and terminal c components on b. burgdorferi in the presence and absence of immune igg. in normal human serum antibody-sensitized borreliae bound similar amounts of c ...19912033266
lyme disease: the social construction of a new disease and its social consequences.american medical researchers who investigated lyme disease in the 1970s conceived of the disorder as a categorically new entity. other interpretations emphasizing the continuities between lyme disease and its epidemiological antecedents, nevertheless, were possible. clinicians, patients, and advocacy groups continue to contest the character, significance, and appropriate treatment of lyme disease. highly publicized discussions among the interested parties reflect american society's ongoing conce ...19912034186
landscape ecology of lyme disease in a residential area of westchester county, new york.the landscape ecology of lyme disease was studied in 1989 on 67 residences in an endemic area of armonk, westchester county, a northern suburb of new york city. four main habitat types were defined, and each property was surveyed for immature and adult lxodes dammini ticks; 98.6% of 1,790 ticks collected were i. dammini. overall, 67.3% were collected from woods, 21.6% from ecotone (unmaintained edge), 9.1% from ornamental vegetation, and 2% from lawns. larval ticks were concentrated in woods, bu ...19912035514
cloning of the reca gene from a free-living leptospire and distribution of reca-like protein among spirochetes.a recombinant plasmid carrying the reca gene of leptospira biflexa serovar patoc was isolated from a cosmid library of genomic dna by complementation of an escherichia coli reca mutation. the cloned serovar patoc reca gene efficiently restored resistance to uv radiation and methyl methanesulfonate. recombination proficiency was also restored, as measured by the formation of lac+ recombinants from duplicated mutant lacz genes. additionally, the cloned reca gene increased the spontaneous and mitom ...19912036006
the laboratory diagnosis of lyme disease.growing awareness of lyme disease, caused by the tickborne spirochete borrelia burgdorferi has led to a marked increase in laboratory procedures to help in its diagnosis. despite the frequent ordering of serologic tests specific for lyme disease, there remains confusion in the accurate interpretation of these tests. because of the important cutaneous manifestations of b burgdorferi infection, dermatologists should understand the role of the laboratory in borrelia-related conditions. this article ...19912036035
mapping antibody-binding domains of the major outer surface membrane protein (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi.the major outer surface membrane protein of borrelia burgdorferi, ospa, is one of several antigens recognized by sera from some patients in the chronic phase of lyme borreliosis. we have expressed the ospa open reading frame in escherichia coli and generated a series of deletion constructs of the gene and expressed them as trpe fusion proteins in e. coli. these constructs were used to identify antibody-binding sites of both rabbit antiserum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against ...19912037351
characterization of the protective antibody response to borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected lsh hamsters.we show that serum obtained from normal hamsters infected with borrelia burgdorferi can confer complete protection on irradiated recipients challenged with the lyme spirochete. borreliacidal activity was detected 7 days after infection, peaked at weeks 3 to 5, and thereafter decreased. relatively high borreliacidal activity was detected in immune serum at weeks 3 and 5 of infection. the borreliacidal activity did not correlate with antibody used for the serodiagnosis of lyme disease, which remai ...19912037352
further characterization of a potent immunogen and the chromosomal gene encoding it in the lyme disease agent, borrelia burgdorferi.further characterization of a previously reported 83-kda antigen of borrelia burgdorferi and the gene encoding it is reported. the dna sequence of the gene and the amino acid sequence of the protein were determined. on the basis of the amino acid content, the actual size of the antigen was determined to be 79.8 kda, rather than 83 kda as previously reported. the expression of the antigen in several representative north american and european b. burgdorferi isolates was demonstrated. the conservat ...19912037367
[borrelia burgdorferi infection. ii. aspects of basic research, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy].in this review article, current thinking about the infection caused by borrelia burgdorferi is presented. the problems associated with diagnosis and treatment of borrelia burgdorferi infection are pointed out. a series of monoclonal antibodies recognizing borrelia burgdorferi-associated antigens is presented. in collaborative research projects these antibodies have been used for molecular biological (cloning and sequencing of borrelia burgdorferi antigens) and immunological (protection experimen ...19912037491
polymerase chain reaction analyses identify two distinct classes of borrelia burgdorferi.we sequenced homologous chromosomal loci from several north american and european isolates of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, as well as from the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia hermsii. inter- and intraspecies sequence comparisons permitted the design of b. burgdorferi-specific polymerase chain reaction primers that detected all strains tested (n = 31) from diverse geographical and biological origins. polymerase chain reaction "typing" with other unique sets of primers sub ...19912037670
cytotoxicity of borrelia burgdorferi for cultured rat glial cells.a cytotoxic effect, as measured by 51cr release, was detected after a 6-h incubation with two strains of borrelia burgdorferi with neonatal rat primary brain cultures and with astroglial enriched cultures derived from the primary rat brain cells. a low-passage strain, j31, induced a significantly greater cytotoxic effect than did strain b31 in long-term in vitro culture. live spirochetes and sonicates of both strains induced cytotoxicity, whereas heat-killed organisms did not. the degree of inju ...19912037801
vector competence of the australian paralysis tick, ixodes holocyclus, for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi.clinical and serologic evidence of lyme disease in australia, including the typical rash, erythema migrans, has been reported. the vector tick transmitting borrelia burgdorferi in australia, however, has not been determined. the australian paralysis tick, ixodes holocyclus, is a logical candidate vector of the lyme disease spirochete in australia; therefore, we tested the ability of i. holocyclus to acquire and maintain a north american isolate of b. burgdorferi. larval i. holocyclus ingested sp ...19912040556
otolaryngologic aspects of lyme disease.lyme disease is a systemic illness caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by the bite of a tick in the ixodes ricinus complex. while the illness is often associated with a characteristic rash, erythema migrans, patients may also present with a variety of complaints in the absence of the rash. the otolaryngologist may be called upon to see both groups of patients, with any number of signs and symptoms referable to the head and neck, including headache, neck pain, odynophagi ...19912041438
lyme disease: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.lyme disease, caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. the causative organism is transmitted through cutaneous inoculation by infected ixodid ticks. illness typically begins in the summer with the characteristic skin rash, erythema migrans, and associated flulike symptoms. weeks to months later, the majority of untreated individuals experience one or more manifestations of disseminated lyme disease, primarily involving the nervo ...19912042054
complete heart block as the sole presentation of lyme disease. 19912043036
bacterial antibodies in ankylosing spondylitis.antibodies to salmonellae, yersiniae, campylobacter jejuni, borrelia burgdorferi, klebsiella pneumoniae, escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis and chlamydia trachomatis were measured by elisa in the sera of 99 patients with ankylosing spondylitis. increased prevalence of iga and igg class antibodies against k. pneumoniae and of iga class against e. coli was observed in ankylosing spondylitis. no clear correlation between the disease activity and occurrence of antibodies was revealed. the results a ...19912044228
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