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borrelia burgdorferi elisa titres in children with recent mumps meningitis. 19901975314
borrelia burgdorferi and tropical spastic paraparesis. 19901978014
amoxycillin plus probenecid versus doxycycline for treatment of erythema migrans borreliosis.72 adults with erythema migrans (early lyme borreliosis) were enrolled in a randomised prospective trial comparing amoxycillin 500 mg plus probenecid 500 mg three times a day with doxycycline 100 mg twice a day for 21 days. these antibiotic regimens were chosen because of the known in-vitro sensitivity of borrelia burgdorferi, the antibiotic tissue penetration, the pharmacokinetics of the drugs, and because the organism can disseminate early in the course of infection. 72 patients were evaluable ...19901978873
plasmid analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of chromosomal dna allow a distinction between borrelia burgdorferi strains.we examined the relationships of the genomes of five strains of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ticks, two from north america, including the type strain b31, and three from switzerland. we determined restriction fragment length polymorphisms by using eight cloned dna fragments as hybridization probes to genomic southern blots. two divergent patterns were observed, represented by b31 and one swiss strain on the one hand and the two other swiss strains on the other. the second american strain r ...19901979740
clinical implications of delayed growth of the lyme borreliosis spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi.lyme borreliosis, a spirochetal infection caused by borrelia burgdorferi, may become clinically active after a period of latency in the host. active cases of lyme disease may show clinical relapse following antibiotic therapy. the latency and relapse phenomena suggest that the lyme disease spirochete is capable of survival in the host for prolonged periods of time. we studied 63 patients with erythema migrans, the pathognomonic cutaneous lesion of lyme borreliosis, and examined in vitro cultures ...19901980573
vector roles of fennoscandian mosquitoes attracted to mammals, birds and frogs.1. mosquitoes were sampled with five suction traps, from may to october 1983, at a forest site in south-central sweden. 2. twenty-three species of mosquitoes were identified among the total of 3108 females collected: 4% of them in an unbaited trap, 3% in a trap baited with two frogs, 24% with a guinea-pig, 28% with a hen and 40% in a trap baited with a rabbit. 3. the dominant species of culicidae trapped were 39% aedes communis (de geer), 21% ae. cinereus meigen, 14% coquillettidia richiardii (f ...19901983455
infectivity of borrelia burgdorferi correlates with resistance to elimination by phagocytic cells.the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, causes a disseminated infection in vivo, implying resistance to clearance by phagocytic cells. because b. burgdorferi loses its infectivity after in vitro cultivation, the relationships between serial passaging of the organism in vitro, its susceptibility to elimination by phagocytes, and its infectivity were examined. when three different high-passage strains were incubated for 4 h at 37 degrees c with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, macrop ...19911984461
from the centers for disease control. imported malaria associated with malariotherapy of lyme disease--new jersey. 19911984528
molecular detection of persistent borrelia burgdorferi in the urine of patients with active lyme disease.current diagnostic tests for lyme disease (ld) are dependent upon the host serologic response and are insensitive early in infection and, possibly, following antibiotic therapy. we cloned a library of borrelia burgdorferi 297 dna and studied one clone, ly-1, for its potential in diagnostic and pathogenic studies. using pulsed-field electrophoresis, we demonstrated that ly-1 is of chromosomal origin and estimated that the b. burgdorferi chromosome is approximately 1,100 kb in size. the 3.7-kb ly- ...19911987041
intracellular localization of borrelia burgdorferi within human endothelial cells.the later stages of infection by the lyme disease pathogen, borrelia burgdorferi, are characterized by the persistence of the organism in individuals possessing a strong anti-borrelia immune response. this suggests that the organism is sequestered in a tissue protected from the immune system of the host or there is a reservoir of the organism residing within the cells of the host. in this report, the ability of b. burgdorferi to gain entrance into human umbilical vein endothelial cells was explo ...19911987083
aseptic meningitis in the decennium of borrelia burgdorferi infection (lyme disease) 19911987547
lymphoproliferative responses to borrelia burgdorferi in lyme disease.to compare lymphocyte proliferative responses to borrelia burgdorferi in healthy controls and patients with lyme disease.19911987874
the prevalence and incidence of clinical and asymptomatic lyme borreliosis in a population at risk.a past history of clinical lyme borreliosis and the 6-month incidence of clinical and asymptomatic lyme borreliosis was studied prospectively in a high-risk population. in the spring, blood samples were drawn from 950 swiss orienteers, who also answered a questionnaire. igg anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies were detected by elisa. positive igg antibodies were seen in 248 (26.1%), in contrast to 3.9%-6.0% in two groups of controls (n = 101). of the orienteers, 1.9%-3.1% had a past history of d ...19911988513
randomized comparison of ceftriaxone and cefotaxime in lyme neuroborreliosis.in this prospective, randomized, open trial, 33 patients with lyme neuroborreliosis were assigned to a 10-day treatment with either ceftriaxone, 2 g intravenously (iv) every 24 h (n = 17), or cefotaxime, 2 g iv every 8 h (n = 16). of the 33 patients, 30 were eligible for analysis of therapeutic efficacy. neurologic symptoms improved or even subsided in 14 patients of the cefotaxime group and in 12 patients of the ceftriaxone group during the treatment period. at follow-up examinations after a me ...19911988514
infectivity of borrelia burgdorferi relative to route of inoculation and genotype in laboratory mice. 19911988530
retinal vasculitis with proliferative retinopathy in a patient with evidence of borrelia burgdorferi infection. 19911992748
cationic antigens as mediators of inflammation.electrical charge is an important determinant of antigen deposition in tissue. cationic antigens can bind to anionic sites found in many organs. the major focus of interest has been the renal glomerulus and the articular joint. experimental models of immune complex glomerulonephritis and allergic arthritis were established with chemically cationized proteins. more recently the concept has been extended to natural cationic proteins and human disease. the histones were shown to be potent initiator ...19911993113
geographical and temporal distribution of babesial infection in connecticut.human babesiosis was first recognized in connecticut in 1989, nearly 15 years after lyme disease, a similarly transmitted spirochetosis, was detected in the state. to determine the seroprevalence for the babesial pathogen and whether it was recently introduced, we used an indirect immunofluorescence assay to test for babesia microti antibody in 1,285 connecticut residents. four groups were studied: i, people seropositive for lyme disease, tested from 1986 to 1989; ii, randomly selected outpatien ...19911993742
interlaboratory comparison of titers of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi and evaluation of a commercial assay using canine sera.sixty canine serum samples were sent to 10 different diagnostic laboratories for anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody analysis. all laboratories knew of the study prior to receiving the samples. agreement among all laboratories for all interpretations was 91% (546 of 600 samples). there was complete agreement among all the laboratories for only 32 (53%) of the samples. most of the disagreements were due to differences reported by either one (15 samples) or two (7 samples) laboratories per sample. ...19911993751
improved immunoglobulin m serodiagnosis in lyme borreliosis by using a mu-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with biotinylated borrelia burgdorferi flagella.a mu-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of serum immunoglobulin m (igm) antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi by using biotinylated purified b. burgdorferi flagella was developed. the diagnostic performance of the mu-capture elisa was compared with that of a conventional indirect elisa. sera from untreated patients with erythema migrans (n = 50), neuroborreliosis (n = 100), and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca; n = 48) were investigated. the cutoff of the elisas ...19911993753
validity of western immunoblot band patterns in the serodiagnosis of lyme borreliosis.serodiagnosis of lyme disease is hampered by low specificity of the standard assays currently used. the western immunoblot has therefore been proposed as a potential confirmatory test. for the present report, the method was evaluated by testing sera from patients with clinically defined early- and late-stage borreliosis. in early-stage borreliosis, the 41,000-molecular-weight flagellin protein (41k) of borrelia burgdorferi was the major antigen detected by antibodies in sera, but the specificity ...19911993754
diagnosis of lyme disease based on dermatologic manifestations.lyme disease, or lyme borreliosis, is an infection caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, which is most commonly transmitted to humans by a tick bite. characterized by early and late phases, lyme disease is a multisystem illness involving the skin, heart, joints, and nervous system. diagnosis is based predominantly on clinical manifestations, the most specific being dermatologic. thus, recognizing the dermatologic manifestations of lyme disease is important for diagnosis and institution ...19911994797
antiborrelial activity of serum from rats injected with the lyme disease spirochete.the functional properties of humoral factors generated in rats immunized against borrelia burgdorferi were investigated. after lewis strain rats were injected intraperitoneally with live b. burgdorferi or in the footpad with dead borreliae incorporated in complete freund's adjuvant, they produced high-titered antisera. at a dilution of less than or equal to 1:10, sera from immunized or infected rats but not control sera inhibited growth of b. burgdorferi in vitro. neutralization of growth of thr ...19911995740
[first isolation of borrelia burgdorferi (lyme spirochaeta) from ticks in hungary].31 field collected ixodes ricinus adult ticks were investigated for the lyme-disease spirochete. 5/31 ixodes ricinus contained borrelia burgdorferi. the spirochete was successfully cultivated in four cases, and they were found in two ticks by immunofluorescence technique and dark field microscopy, as well. two of the isolated strains were tested by western blot. the antigen pattern in both strains showed marked bands in 41 and 60 kd antigen, but only a week band appeared at 32 kd, with the lack ...19911996203
lyme arthritis: oligoclonal anti-borrelia burgdorferi igg antibodies occur in joint fluid and serum.the antibody response to borrelia (b.) burgdorferi, and to measles virus as control antigen, was analysed by agarose isoelectric focusing (aif) and immunoblot of joint fluid and serum from 10 patients with lyme arthritis and 10 controls with rheumatoid arthritis. among the lyme arthritis patients, six had oligoclonal anti-b. burgdorferi igg antibody bands in joint fluid and corresponding serum, one patient had oligoclonal antibody bands in joint fluid only and also an elevated b. burgdorferi-spe ...19911996408
hosts on which nymphal ixodes ricinus most abundantly feed.to identify hosts that may serve as european reservoirs for the agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, we determined whether nymphal ixodes ricinus feed mainly on particular mice (apodemus flavicollis or a. agrarius), voles (clethrionomys glareolus) or on sand lizards (lacerta agilis) and whether the abundance of these hosts corresponds to the seasonal activity of the subadult stages of the vector tick. in all sites, the mice appeared most heavily infested by larvae; at least seven parasit ...19911996733
anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody response over the course of lyme neuroborreliosis.characteristic findings on examination of cerebrospinal fluid (csf) in lyme neuroborreliosis include mononuclear pleocytosis, oligoclonal immunoglobulin g (igg) bands, and evidence for local production of specific antibodies. we utilized an immunospot assay to detect cells secreting anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies of different isotypes over the course of disease. such cells were detected in csf from 13 consecutive patients with neuroborreliosis examined before treatment. igg antibody-secret ...19911997408
complete heart block in an adolescent caused by lyme disease. a common--and reversible--disorder.a 20-year-old university of delaware student developed a vague systemic disorder one week after camping in a maryland state park known to be endemic with the tick ixodes dammini, the vector for lyme disease. light-headedness developed and an electrocardiogram revealed complete heart block. lyme disease was confirmed by the characteristic erythema migrans rash and lyme serologies.19912001770
heat shock response of spirochetes.we examined the heat shock response of the pathogenic spirochetes treponema pallidum, borrelia burgdorferi, and leptospira interrogans and certain saprophytic spirochetes. cellular proteins synthesized after shifts to higher temperatures were [35s]methionine labeled and analyzed by gel electrophoresis and fluorography. only t. pallidum failed to exhibit an obvious heat shock response. groel and dnak homologs were identified in the various species, although these proteins were not thermoinducible ...19912004832
antibody to a 39-kilodalton borrelia burgdorferi antigen (p39) as a marker for infection in experimentally and naturally inoculated animals.borrelia burgdorferi expresses a conserved, species-specific 39-kda protein (p39) that can stimulate antibodies during human infection. to confirm that anti-p39 antibodies are produced consistently in animals exposed to infectious spirochetes, white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, and laboratory white mice, mus musculus (strain balb/c), were experimentally inoculated with either infectious or noninfectious b. burgdorferi and the antibody response to p39 was determined by immunoblot at 21 days ...19912007630
survey for ixodes spp. and borrelia burgdorferi in southeastern wisconsin and northeastern illinois.forested areas adjacent to milwaukee, wis., and chicago, ill., were investigated for rodents and ticks infected with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus or peromyscus maniculatus), meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus), and eastern chipmunks (tamias striatus) were captured; and specimens from these animals were cultured for b. burgdorferi to define whether the midwestern lyme disease area currently encompasses these large metropolita ...19912007650
chronic neurologic manifestations of lyme disease. 19912008190
duration of adult female ixodes dammini attachment and transmission of borrelia burgdorferi, with description of a needle aspiration isolation method.the relationship between the attachment duration of adult female ixodes dammini and the transmission of borrelia burgdorferi was studied. sixteen rabbits were exposed to spirochete-infected female ticks for specified intervals. all five rabbits exposed to ticks that fed to repletion (greater than 120 h) became infected, as did two of three exposed for 48 h. in contrast, five rabbits exposed to a cumulative total of 53 infected female i. dammini for 36 h failed to become infected, as did three ra ...19912010643
parasitic and phoretic arthropods of sylvatic and commensal white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) in central tennessee, with notes on lyme disease.sixteen species of parasitic or phoretic arthropods were collected from 56 white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, live-trapped in central tennessee from april through november 1987. arthropod infestation was compared for mice taken from sylvatic (woodland) versus commensal (household) habitats. three species were recorded from hosts in both habitats: the sucking louse hoplopleura hesperomydis, the flea epitedia wenmanni, and the laelapid mite androlaelaps casalis. twelve of the 13 remaining art ...19912010854
relative infectivity of borrelia burgdorferi in lewis rats by various routes of inoculation.various routes of borrelia burgdorferi infection were studied in laboratory rats. three-week-old lewis rats were inoculated either intradermally (i.d.), intraperitoneally (i.p.), or oronasally (o.n.) with serial 10-fold dilutions of b. burgdorferi. thirty days later, groups of rats were killed and serology, splenic culture, and histology were used to evaluate infection. rats were successfully infected i.d. with 10(2-4) organisms or i.p. with 10(4-5) organisms. neither three-day-old nor three-wee ...19912012256
t cell proliferation induced by borrelia burgdorferi in patients with lyme borreliosis. autologous serum required for optimum stimulation.the cellular immune response to borrelia burgdorferi was studied in 24 patients with seropositive and seronegative lyme borreliosis, 30 patients with arthritides of different origin (non-lyme arthritides), and 20 normal blood donors. by far, the strongest t cell stimulation was induced by incubation with autologous serum; there was a significantly lower response or no response after incubation with allogeneic or heterologous sera. in patients with lyme borreliosis, including seronegative patient ...19912012626
lyme disease and localized scleroderma--no evidence for a common aetiology. 19912012951
canine haemobartonellosis, canine hepatozoonosis, and feline cytauxzoonosis.although lyme borreliosis (lyme disease), ehrlichiosis, rocky mountain spotted fever, and babesiosis occur more frequently in dogs or cats, from a clinical standpoint, other tick-borne diseases such as canine haemobartonellosis, canine hepatozoonosis, and feline cytauxzoonosis are just as important to recognize. information concerning these less common tick-borne diseases are discussed, including their causative agents and their relationship to disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and pre ...19912014617
canine lyme borreliosis.lyme borreliosis is now the most commonly reported tick-transmitted disease in humans and is an important disease in dogs. case reports of canine lyme borreliosis have appeared in the literature during the last 6 years, but a complete description of the disease still is not available. until an accurate diagnostic scheme is developed, the disease will remain incompletely understood. a nonlocalizing polyarthropathy is the most commonly described clinical manifestation of canine lyme borreliosis, b ...19912014626
a mouse model for borrelia burgdorferi infection: approach to a vaccine against lyme disease.lyme disease is the most common vector-transmitted illness in the usa and europe. the pathogen, borrelia burgdorferi, causes a complex spectrum of disease that affects the skin, joints, nervous system and heart. patients in the early stages of the disease can often be successfully treated with antibiotics but this becomes less reliable as the disease progresses. the specific immune responses that are detectable in patients with lyme disease are not sufficient to protect against illness; a vaccin ...19912015043
brown-séquard syndrome caused by borrelia burgdorferi.we report the case of a patient with brown-séquard syndrome resulting from borrelia burgdorferi infection. antibiotic treatment led to complete recovery.19912015831
immunologic and structural characterization of the dominant 66- to 73-kda antigens of borrelia burgdorferi.the 66- to 73-kda proteins of borrelia burgdorferi are dominant immunogens and expressed in all strains of b. burgdorferi. the humoral response to these ag occurs relatively early during the course of infection. two-dimensional western blot analysis of this group of ag revealed them to consist of a tetrad of proteins with apparent molecular mass of 66, 68, 71, and 73 kda. furthermore, in this study we demonstrate the 66-kda protein to be a potent inducer of lymphoproliferation in the patient imm ...19912016526
characterization of an immunoreactive 93-kda core protein of borrelia burgdorferi with a human igg monoclonal antibody.lyme borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the tick-borne spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, which carries the potential for chronic infection. ag on the etiologic borrelia are currently being defined structurally and their ability to elicit immune responses delineated. ebv can be used to immortalize human b. burgdorferi-specific b cells from infected donors and generate antibodies against antigenic epitopes encountered in natural infection. a human mab secreting ebv-transformed b cell li ...19912016542
re: "lyme disease in outdoor workers: risk factors, preventive measures, and tick removal methods". 19912018031
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with lyme borreliosis. 19912020305
[bilateral leber's neuroretinitis stellata in borrelia burgdorferi seroconversion].we report on a 22-year-old white female with bilateral leber's stellate neuroretinitis occurring 5 weeks after a viral-like illness. serological tests revealed a seroconversion for borrelia burgdorferi indicating an etiological connection. during therapy with 200 mg doxycycline daily for 2 weeks on systemically steroids the optic disc swelling and macular star figure resolved. visual acuity improved from 0.4 to 1.0 in this time period. it is important that the ophthalmologist should consider lym ...19912023374
comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to an indirect immunofluorescence assay for the detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in the dog.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was compared to an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) for detection of igg antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in dog sera. the concordance of the two tests was 93.5% for sera from dogs from maryland (n = 93), 98.0% for sera from dogs from north carolina (n = 446), and 97.2% for the combined sample groups (n = 539). twenty-five of the 27 samples with discordant or low positive results were tested, and showed immunoblot reactions to 1 to 10 differe ...19912024439
infections of the central nervous system.acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has had a major impact on all aspects of clinical neuroscience in the past few years. thus understanding acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its associated complications within the nervous system was a major component of this review of the past year's radiologic literature of infection in the central nervous system. particular topics discussed include the appearance of primary human immunodeficiency virus infection of the brain as well as toxoplasmosis, cryp ...19912025502
multifocal conduction block in a patient with borrelia burgdorferi infection. 19912027353
frequency and clinical significance of lyme seropositivity in patients with isolated optic neuritis.we evaluated antibody reactivity against borrelia burgdorferi in 20 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed isolated optic neuritis who resided in a region endemic for lyme disease. four (20%) patients had positive serology. all three patients who had follow-up serologies showed rising convalescent levels of borrelia-specific igm. one patient refused lumbar puncture, one had normal csf constituents except for an elevated lyme antibody index, and two had csf lymphocytic pleocytosis that remaine ...19912027487
use of peroxidase-labelled antigen for the detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in human and animal sera.we have developed a modified elisa for the detection of anti-borrelia burgdorferi (bb) antibodies based on a peroxidase enzyme labelled antigen (elat). microtiter plates were coated with antigen of bb. the immunoglobulins of the serum samples were bound to the antigen and specific antibodies were detected by an enzyme labelled antigen. the test principle facilitates the recognition of specific antibodies in different collectives of human and animal sera. we performed epidemiological studies with ...19912028231
lyme disease: a proposed ecological index to assess areas of risk in the northeastern united states.recent public awareness has resulted in a demand for information about ways to reduce the risk of acquiring lyme disease.19912029039
[treatment of borrelia burgdorferi infection]. 19912029560
lyme borreliosis: host responses to borrelia burgdorferi.the chronic inflammatory condition that develops after infection by b. burgdorferi is a complex process resulting from host responses to a limited number of organisms. amplification mechanisms driven by potent proinflammatory molecules, i.e., il-1, may explain the vigorous response to a paucity of organisms. spirochete dissemination to distant locations involves adherence to and penetration across endothelium and may be facilitated by host responses that increase vessel permeability. the apparen ...19912030671
borrelia burgdorferi-associated cutaneous b cell lymphoma: clinical and immunohistologic characterization of four cases.four patients with low-grade malignant b cell lymphoma of the skin in association with chronic borrelia burgdorferi infection are presented. plaque-shaped or nodular erythematous lesions with ill-defined borders were seen. clinical progression was slow; the skin tumors occurred for up to 7 to 15 years. extracutaneous involvement was found in only one case. immunohistologic investigations showed an expression of b cell markers with restriction to only one light chain type and absence of t cell an ...19912033136
lymphadenosis benigna cutis resulting from borrelia infection (borrelia lymphocytoma).swelling and erythema of the right pinna developed in a 7-year-old girl. six months later a biopsy specimen showed a dense, diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate involving most of the dermis except for a thin grenz zone. the appearance was consistent with lymphocytoma cutis. she had been bitten by a tick on the right ear in switzerland 6 weeks before the onset of the lesion. serologic tests by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for borrelia burgdorferi, done 6 and 11 months after the bite, yielded ...19912033141
complement-mediated killing of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. role of antibody in formation of an effective membrane attack complex.lyme disease is a multisystemic illness caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. in the absence of specific antibody, the spirochete is resistant to the bactericidal activity of c, despite the capacity of b. burgdorferi to activate both c pathways. we examined the mechanism of serum resistance by measuring the deposition of c3 and terminal c components on b. burgdorferi in the presence and absence of immune igg. in normal human serum antibody-sensitized borreliae bound similar amounts of c ...19912033266
landscape ecology of lyme disease in a residential area of westchester county, new york.the landscape ecology of lyme disease was studied in 1989 on 67 residences in an endemic area of armonk, westchester county, a northern suburb of new york city. four main habitat types were defined, and each property was surveyed for immature and adult lxodes dammini ticks; 98.6% of 1,790 ticks collected were i. dammini. overall, 67.3% were collected from woods, 21.6% from ecotone (unmaintained edge), 9.1% from ornamental vegetation, and 2% from lawns. larval ticks were concentrated in woods, bu ...19912035514
cloning of the reca gene from a free-living leptospire and distribution of reca-like protein among spirochetes.a recombinant plasmid carrying the reca gene of leptospira biflexa serovar patoc was isolated from a cosmid library of genomic dna by complementation of an escherichia coli reca mutation. the cloned serovar patoc reca gene efficiently restored resistance to uv radiation and methyl methanesulfonate. recombination proficiency was also restored, as measured by the formation of lac+ recombinants from duplicated mutant lacz genes. additionally, the cloned reca gene increased the spontaneous and mitom ...19912036006
the laboratory diagnosis of lyme disease.growing awareness of lyme disease, caused by the tickborne spirochete borrelia burgdorferi has led to a marked increase in laboratory procedures to help in its diagnosis. despite the frequent ordering of serologic tests specific for lyme disease, there remains confusion in the accurate interpretation of these tests. because of the important cutaneous manifestations of b burgdorferi infection, dermatologists should understand the role of the laboratory in borrelia-related conditions. this article ...19912036035
mapping antibody-binding domains of the major outer surface membrane protein (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi.the major outer surface membrane protein of borrelia burgdorferi, ospa, is one of several antigens recognized by sera from some patients in the chronic phase of lyme borreliosis. we have expressed the ospa open reading frame in escherichia coli and generated a series of deletion constructs of the gene and expressed them as trpe fusion proteins in e. coli. these constructs were used to identify antibody-binding sites of both rabbit antiserum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against ...19912037351
characterization of the protective antibody response to borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected lsh hamsters.we show that serum obtained from normal hamsters infected with borrelia burgdorferi can confer complete protection on irradiated recipients challenged with the lyme spirochete. borreliacidal activity was detected 7 days after infection, peaked at weeks 3 to 5, and thereafter decreased. relatively high borreliacidal activity was detected in immune serum at weeks 3 and 5 of infection. the borreliacidal activity did not correlate with antibody used for the serodiagnosis of lyme disease, which remai ...19912037352
further characterization of a potent immunogen and the chromosomal gene encoding it in the lyme disease agent, borrelia burgdorferi.further characterization of a previously reported 83-kda antigen of borrelia burgdorferi and the gene encoding it is reported. the dna sequence of the gene and the amino acid sequence of the protein were determined. on the basis of the amino acid content, the actual size of the antigen was determined to be 79.8 kda, rather than 83 kda as previously reported. the expression of the antigen in several representative north american and european b. burgdorferi isolates was demonstrated. the conservat ...19912037367
[borrelia burgdorferi infection. ii. aspects of basic research, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy].in this review article, current thinking about the infection caused by borrelia burgdorferi is presented. the problems associated with diagnosis and treatment of borrelia burgdorferi infection are pointed out. a series of monoclonal antibodies recognizing borrelia burgdorferi-associated antigens is presented. in collaborative research projects these antibodies have been used for molecular biological (cloning and sequencing of borrelia burgdorferi antigens) and immunological (protection experimen ...19912037491
polymerase chain reaction analyses identify two distinct classes of borrelia burgdorferi.we sequenced homologous chromosomal loci from several north american and european isolates of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, as well as from the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia hermsii. inter- and intraspecies sequence comparisons permitted the design of b. burgdorferi-specific polymerase chain reaction primers that detected all strains tested (n = 31) from diverse geographical and biological origins. polymerase chain reaction "typing" with other unique sets of primers sub ...19912037670
cytotoxicity of borrelia burgdorferi for cultured rat glial cells.a cytotoxic effect, as measured by 51cr release, was detected after a 6-h incubation with two strains of borrelia burgdorferi with neonatal rat primary brain cultures and with astroglial enriched cultures derived from the primary rat brain cells. a low-passage strain, j31, induced a significantly greater cytotoxic effect than did strain b31 in long-term in vitro culture. live spirochetes and sonicates of both strains induced cytotoxicity, whereas heat-killed organisms did not. the degree of inju ...19912037801
vector competence of the australian paralysis tick, ixodes holocyclus, for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi.clinical and serologic evidence of lyme disease in australia, including the typical rash, erythema migrans, has been reported. the vector tick transmitting borrelia burgdorferi in australia, however, has not been determined. the australian paralysis tick, ixodes holocyclus, is a logical candidate vector of the lyme disease spirochete in australia; therefore, we tested the ability of i. holocyclus to acquire and maintain a north american isolate of b. burgdorferi. larval i. holocyclus ingested sp ...19912040556
otolaryngologic aspects of lyme disease.lyme disease is a systemic illness caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by the bite of a tick in the ixodes ricinus complex. while the illness is often associated with a characteristic rash, erythema migrans, patients may also present with a variety of complaints in the absence of the rash. the otolaryngologist may be called upon to see both groups of patients, with any number of signs and symptoms referable to the head and neck, including headache, neck pain, odynophagi ...19912041438
lyme disease: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.lyme disease, caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. the causative organism is transmitted through cutaneous inoculation by infected ixodid ticks. illness typically begins in the summer with the characteristic skin rash, erythema migrans, and associated flulike symptoms. weeks to months later, the majority of untreated individuals experience one or more manifestations of disseminated lyme disease, primarily involving the nervo ...19912042054
bacterial antibodies in ankylosing spondylitis.antibodies to salmonellae, yersiniae, campylobacter jejuni, borrelia burgdorferi, klebsiella pneumoniae, escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis and chlamydia trachomatis were measured by elisa in the sera of 99 patients with ankylosing spondylitis. increased prevalence of iga and igg class antibodies against k. pneumoniae and of iga class against e. coli was observed in ankylosing spondylitis. no clear correlation between the disease activity and occurrence of antibodies was revealed. the results a ...19912044228
lyme disease surveillance--united states, 1989-1990.surveillance for lyme disease (ld) was initiated by cdc in 1982 (1), and in january 1991, ld became nationally reportable (2). forty-six states reported cases in 1989 and 1990 (figure 1), but the occurrence in nature of the causative bacterium, borrelia burgdorferi, has not been documented in all of these states. from 1982 through 1989, the annual reported number of cases of ld increased 18-fold (from 497 to 8803, respectively) and from 1986 through 1989, nearly doubled each year (figure 2). the ...19912046649
cellular immune response to borrelia burgdorferi in patients with lyme borreliosis. 19912049046
a mouse model for borrelia burgdorferi infection: pathogenesis, immune response and protection.viable borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi) organisms induce a chronic infection associated with arthritis, carditis and hepatitis in severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice but not in most of the adult mice from the various immunocompetent inbred strains tested. furthermore, we have found that experimental inoculation of normal mice with b. burgdorferi organisms leads to the generation of antibodies and t cells specific for various spirochetal antigens including the outer surface proteins ...19912049047
lyme disease: a multifocal worldwide epidemic. 19912049148
[diagnosis of lyme disease]. 19912051808
[ixodes ricinus, a demonstrated vector of borrelia burgdorferi in spain]. 19912051824
the long-term course of lyme arthritis in children.the natural history of lyme disease is not completely known. we studied the long-term course of lyme arthritis in 46 children in whom the onset of the disease occurred between 1976 and 1979 and who received no antibiotic therapy for at least the first four years of the illness.19912052061
t cell responses to polypeptide fractions of borrelia burgdorferi in patients with lyme arthritis.among 6 patients with prolonged episodes of lyme arthritis, the mean response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) to all borrelia burgdorferi antigens (stimulation index [si] 46) was greater than that among 5 patients with brief attacks of lyme arthritis (si 13; p less than 0.1), as well as that among 7 control patients with rheumatoid arthritis and among 6 normal control subjects (in both instances si 3; p less than 0.05). in individual patients with brief episodes of lyme arthritis, pbl had ...19912053916
neutrophil chemotactic factors in synovial fluids of patients with lyme disease.we examined synovial fluid samples from 14 patients with lyme arthritis for the presence of neutrophil chemotactic factors. thirteen of the synovial fluids stimulated chemotaxis of normal human neutrophils. the chemotactic activity was heat-sensitive and was not inhibited by antibody to c5a or antibody to interleukin-8, or by a competitive inhibitor of the chemotactic peptide f-met-leu-phe. a culture supernatant of borrelia burgdorferi also contained neutrophil chemoattractants. chromatography d ...19912053924
persistent cardiac and urinary tract infections with borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected syrian hamsters.the heart can be severely affected in humans with lyme disease, causing conduction defects and, rarely, heart failure. although immunodeficient and young mice may develop cardiac lesions, cultivation of borrelia burgdorferi from cardiac tissues of experimentally infected animals has not been reported previously. we infected syrian hamsters with b. burgdorferi 297 and found a marked tropism of the spirochete for myocardial and urinary tract tissues. fifty-six of 57 hearts (98%) and 52 of 58 bladd ...19912056054
a flagella-less mutant of borrelia burgdorferi. structural, molecular, and in vitro functional characterization.a nonmotile mutant of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, was isolated and characterized. the mutant was compared with the wild-type predecessor as well as with a motile back-revertant of the same genetic background. the mutant lacked, by morphologic, biochemical, and immunologic criteria, the major structural protein of flagella, flagellin. this mutation was not associated with major dna rearrangements or with failure of transcription. an apparent consequence of a loss of ...19912056133
experimental acquisition of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, by larval ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) during partial blood meals.the duration of feeding by larval ixodes dammini was directly correlated with the proportion of larvae acquiring infection with the lyme disease spirochete. the infection rate of ticks attached to hosts for 8 h (1.4%) was much lower than ticks feeding to repletion (87.5%). infection was also detected in partially fed larvae dropping off dead animals. these partially fed larvae successfully reattached to rodents, fed to repletion, and molted to nymphs. partially fed larvae did not transmit borrel ...19912056507
[parsonage and turner syndrome. apropos of a case, with demonstration of borrelia burgdorferi infection]. 19912057735
[gonarthritis, lymphadenopathy and disseminated choroiditis as a primary manifestation of lyme borreliosis. case report and discussion of diagnostic possibilities in lyme borreliosis].a 26-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital because of bilateral gonarthritis, lymphadenopathy and disseminated chorioiditis as primary manifestation of lyme borreliosis. antibody titers against borrelia burgdorferi did not reach diagnostic levels as determined by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. however, diagnosis was established by the detection of igg and igm antibodies in western blot analysis, and by the demonstration of an enhanced t-cell proliferation to borrelia burgdo ...19912058316
dna homology comparison between american and european borrelia burgdorferi strains.seven strains of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ticks and from human beings in europe and u.s.a. were analyzed for dna restriction patterns with several enzymes and for dna homology in southern blot hybridizations. the restriction patterns showed a moderately high variability. in southern blot hybridization, strain b31 (u.s.a.) dna gave a strong signal with itself, strain bsf (u.s.a.) and alcaide (isolated in italy but presumably contracted in venezuela). strain b45 (f.r.g.) hybridized to it ...19912059479
erythema chronicum migrans, lyme disease, and other borrelioses. 19912061450
development of transplantable ascites tumours which continuously produce polyclonal antibodies in pristane primed balb/c mice immunized with bacterial antigens and complete freund's adjuvant.bacterial immunogens (whole cells of borrelia burgdorferi, elementary bodies of chlamydia trachomatis and purified proteins of 22 and 24 kda of borrelia hermsii) were emulsified with an excess of complete freund's adjuvant and injected (i.p.) on days 0, 7, 14 and 21, into balb/c mice treated with pristane on day 6. this procedure induced the development of antibody-producing ascites tumours which could be serially transplanted in pristane-conditioned mice. ascites tumours continued to yield a co ...19912061607
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from arthropods collected in texas.the texas department of health laboratory cultured arthropods from november 1988 through december 1989 in an attempt to isolate borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease. spirochetes were isolated from eight of 1,093 pools of arthropods cultured. the spirochetal isolates were from several tick and one flea species, including amblyomma americanum, a. maculatum, ixodes scapularis, and ctenocephalides felis. these 8 isolates reacted specifically when treated with monoclonal antibodi ...19912063950
[tick spirochetosis by borrelia burgdorferi in wild carnivores in france. results of serologic tests in 372 foxes].the authors made serological examination, by passive hemagglutination, of 378 wild carnivores killed in 17 departments of western, central and eastern parts of france: 372 of foxes, of which more than 90 per cent less than one year aged, 4 raccoon dogs and 2 lynx. in foxes, they found significative seropositivity (greater than or equal to 1/200) with mean frequencies of 12.77 per cent in young animals and 42.86 % in those of 1 year and more. according the parts of france, frequency is greatly va ...19912065402
investigation of lyme disease in xinjiang.from april through july 1988, an epidemiological investigation on lyme disease was carried out in nalati xanyuan, xinjiang uygur autonomous region, china. of 150 ixodes persulcatus ticks examined by darkfield microscopy, 42 (28%) were found to have spirochetes. two strains of spirochetes were isolated from i. persulcatus with bsk medium. rabbits inoculated with the spirochetes showed erythema chronicum migrans at the sites of inoculation and the spirochetes were found in the cerebrospinal fluid ...19912065539
[immunohistochemistry of borrelia type spirochetes].we have looked for the presence of borrelias by immunohistochemistry in cutaneous biopsies taken from patients with positive borrelia serology. we used the monoclonal antibody "p41 borrelia burgdorferi flagellin". we found borrelias in the dermis of pick-herxheimer disease (3/3), erythema chronicum migrans (6/9), lymphocytoma (1/3), and morpheas (2/5). they were also seen in the vascular wall of hypodermal arterioles in a case of cutaneous periarteritis nodosa (1/2). treponema pallidum was not r ...19912069338
diagnosing lyme disease: often simple, often difficult.lyme disease has as its hallmark erythema migrans. however, it is only present in about one half of the patients who contract this disease. in its absence, the diagnosis of lyme disease may be difficult. it depends upon a compatible history of exposure and clinical signs and symptoms together with positive results of serologic testing. unfortunately, seronegativity for antibody to the pathogen may occur both during the first six weeks of infection and be chronic due to the reactive antibody bein ...19912070642
lyme disease during pregnancy.lyme disease, caused by infection with borrelia burgdorferi, can affect those exposed to a vector tick. pregnant women are no exception, and such infection places the fetus at risk. it is particularly important to recognize the disease early so that effective therapy may be instituted. although the present patient had a favorable outcome, not all do. clinical diagnosis is especially important since conventional laboratory tests may be inadequate or require lengthy periods of time before a positi ...19912070648
comparative in vitro and in vivo susceptibilities of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi to cefuroxime and other antimicrobial agents.the in vitro and in vivo susceptibilities of the lyme disease pathogen borrelia burgdorferi to cefuroxime were compared with those of several other antibiotics commonly used to treat this disease. cefuroxime demonstrated a higher mbc in vitro (1.0 microgram/ml) than ceftriaxone (0.08 microgram/ml) or erythromycin (0.32 microgram/ml), but the mbc was similar to that of amoxicillin (0.8 microgram/ml) and doxycycline (1.6 micrograms/ml). b. burgdorferi was considerably less susceptible to tetracycl ...19902073103
immunological differentiation between neuroborreliosis and multiple sclerosis.neuroborreliosis, a tick-borne spirochaetosis of the central nervous system, is diagnosed by the presence of intrathecally synthesized borrelia burgdorferi-specific antibodies. multiple sclerosis and neuroborreliosis can show similarities in clinical symptoms as well as lymphocytic cell reactions and oligoclonal bands in the isoelectric focusing of cerebrospinal fluid. to differentiate between multiple sclerosis and neuroborreliosis we tested intrathecally synthesized igm and virus antibodies. t ...19902074447
persistence of borrelia burgdorferi and histopathological alterations in experimentally infected animals. a comparison with histopathological findings in human lyme disease.gerbils appear to be susceptible to infection by human isolates of borrelia burgdorferi; we obtained 100% infection. isolation of the b. burgdorferi from different organs six months post infection causes a generalized infection thus demonstrating that borreliae persist in these animals for a long period. spirochetemia was present for 14 days, apparently in two intervals. the borrelia burgdorferi specific antibody titers increased with time after infection thus indicating the persistence of spiro ...19902076905
lyme disease in the highlands.serological results for borrelia burgdorferi were examined for one year. the results suggest a 'pocket' of infection in one highland general practice. in this practice, most of the patients had exposure to tick bites and rashes were frequent. there were difficulties in relating serological results to clinical features and management of some patients.19902077648
association of chronic lyme arthritis with hla-dr4 and hla-dr2 alleles.a small percentage of patients infected with borrelia burgdorferi have chronic lyme arthritis that does not respond to antibiotic therapy. to learn whether genetically determined variations in the host immune response might account for such outcomes, we determined the immunogenetic profiles of 130 patients with various manifestations of lyme disease.19902078208
[anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in chronic erythema migrans, benign lymphadenosis cutis, scleroderma and scleroatrophic lichen].fiftyone patients with a diagnosis of erythema chronicum migrans (ecm), lymphadenosis cutis benigna (labc), systemic progressive sclerosis, localized scleroderma and lichen sclerosus et atrophicans were investigated in order to obtain serological evaluation of borrelia burgdorferi circulating antibodies. in addition sera from 9 patients with pellagroid erythema, prurigo and panniculitis were performed: in these dermatoses there was no evidence of a possible borrelia relationship. indirect immuno ...19902079346
[false positive serological tests for borrelia burgdorferi in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome].serological tests for borrelia burgdorferi were carried out in a series of 27 patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (papls). the results showed a 14% prevalence of false positive lyme disease serology in this patient population. in patients with papls and false positive serologic tests for borrelia burgdorferi neurological involvement was significantly more common (p = 0.012, fisher's exact test) than in patients with papls without that finding. we insist on the possibility that patien ...19902082109
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