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second-generation tetracyclines, a dermatologic overview: clinical uses and pharmacology.tetracycline and its derivatives are frequently used in the treatment of acne, soft tissue bacterial infections, lyme disease (borreliosis), chlamydial-infections, and respiratory tract infections. several pharmacologic and microbiological properties of these antibiotics make them particularly suitable for such uses. first-generation tetracyclines have long been in use; however, the second-generation tetracyclines minocycline, doxycycline hyclate, and doxycycline monohydrate have also become wid ...19911764965
lyme disease in south carolina. 19911766246
lyme disease. 19911769773
rectal infusion and aspiration of material through the guts of ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae).a technique for inoculating and removing substances via the anus of vector ticks was devised to define features of vector competence precisely. calibrated inocula (greater than 5 nanoliter) containing aqueous dye and polystyrene beads as well as infectious agents were infused into the rectal sacs of ticks using glass microcapillary pipettes placed within the expanded anal orifice. the guts of preadult and adult ticks, ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, dermacentor variabilis (s ...19911770516
ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in kansas: a new distribution record.the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, previously known to occur only in the extreme southeastern corner of kansas, has been collected in douglas and jefferson counties in the northeast. the new collections extend the northern range of this species in kansas by approximately 240 km. the role of i. scapularis as a vector of the lyme borreliosis spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, makes this a noteworthy extension of its known range. the proximity of these new collection sites to large centers ...19911770524
[the modification of a medium for culturing and isolating the causative agent of lyme disease].possible use of three types of media (prepared on the basis of 199, rpmi and mem, the rest of receipt being recommended for bsk-ii) for cultivation of the agent of lyme's disease is reviewed. the most satisfactory borrelia burgdorferi growth has been noted on the medium with base 199. using the same medium 5 spirochaete isolates have been obtained from 10 passages of the material from 41 ticks, ixodes persulcatus sch. and i. ricinus l. the results seem promising for further studies on the elabor ...19911770889
perspective on the development of vaccines against lyme disease.lyme disease, the multisystem illness caused by the tick-borne spirochaete, borrelia burgdorferi, has emerged as a threat to public health worldwide. it is a particularly vexing problem in the united states where it is growing in range and intensity. in fact, in some hyperendemic regions of new york and new england, lyme disease is now such a threat that it interferes with all sorts of outdoor activities, and has even led to depreciation of real estate values. family dogs in these areas seem to ...19911771965
[incidence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in small animal practice in north bavaria].with help of indirect immunofluorescent assay antibodies were detected to borrelia burgdorferi, agent of lyme borreliosis in 46 (35.5%) serum samples of 130 randomly selected dogs of a small animal practice in northern bavaria. a positive reaction of the indirect immunofluorescent assay was demonstrated in 15 cases in a serum dilution of 1:64, in 9 cases in a serum dilution of 1:128, in 5 cases in a serum dilution of 1:256, in 2 cases in a serum dilution of 1:512, in 3 cases in a serum dilution ...19911772393
clinical aspects of localized and systemic scleroderma.a number of reports of potential etiologic agents of localized and systemic scleroderma appeared in the past year, including alterations in tryptophan metabolism, use of appetite suppressants, and exposure to silicone. an infectious agent, borrelia burgdorferi, was found not to be implicated in localized scleroderma. the improvement in outcome of systemic scleroderma complicated by renovascular hypertension was highlighted in several papers, as was the emerging importance of cardiac and pulmonar ...19911772753
ixodes (pholeoixodes) hexagonus, an efficient vector of borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory.borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al. was first isolated from the midgut of ixodes dammini spielman et al. in the u.s.a. and from the midgut of i.ricinus (l.) in europe. i.ricinus was considered to be the only tick vector of this borrelia, in europe, until i.hexagonus leach, the hedgehog tick, was found to harbour spirochaetes. this paper reports an evaluation of the vector competence of i.hexagonus for the spirochaete b.burgdorferi. transovarial and trans-stadial survival were demonstrated and th ...19911773121
host associations and seasonal abundance of immature ixodes persulcatus (acari: ixodidae) in a lyme-disease-endemic area in china.ticks of nine small mammal species were studied in an area of endemic lyme disease in hailin county, heilongjiang province, from 1 may to 10 october 1986. the bulk (93%) total small mammal captures were apodemus speciosus (45%), clethrionomys rufocanus (31%), a. agrarius (11%) and eutamias sibiricus; (5%): these host species accounted for 97% of the 162 ticks collected. ixodes persulcatus schulze were most abundant on e. sibiricus (0.64 larvae and 0.08 nymphs/squirrel), and less abundant on a. a ...19911773682
immune response to the lyme spirochete borrelia burgdorferi affected by ethanol consumption.rats fed excessive amounts of ethanol developed marked hematologic and immunologic changes. these included a reversal of the normal lymphocyte to granulocyte ratio in the peripheral blood, lower spleen and lymph node weights and a greatly reduced capacity to express normal cell mediated immune functions, based on poor lymphocyte reactivity in vivo, and in vitro to t and b cell mitogens and borrelial antigens shortly after primary immunization with the bacterial spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. ...19911774157
amplification of borrelia burgdorferi dna in skin biopsies from patients with lyme disease.to determine whether the polymerase chain reaction could contribute to a better diagnosis of lyme disease, skin biopsy samples from patients suffering from erythema chronicum migrans or acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans were tested for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi by a polymerase chain reaction assay, which was specific for european strains. the spirochete could not be detected microscopically in any of the 15 biopsy samples obtained from nine patients. however, b. burgdorferi could be ...19911774243
110-kilodalton recombinant protein which is immunoreactive with sera from humans, dogs, and horses with lyme borreliosis.ecori-digested dna from borrelia burgdorferi was ligated into the dephosphorylated vector pwr590 and transformed into escherichia coli dh5 alpha. when the gene library was screened, 20 clones reacted with pooled dog sera with high titers (immunofluorescent antibody titer, greater than or equal to 1,280) to this spirochete. one clone expressed a 110-kda antigen that reacted strongly with the high-titered pooled sera from dogs with lyme borreliosis and serum from goats immunized with b. burgdorfer ...19911774245
adsorption and biotin-streptavidin amplification in serologic tests for diagnosis of lyme borreliosis.serum samples from persons with lyme borreliosis, periodontitis, or acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with and without adsorption and amplification procedures. when biotin and streptavidin reagents were used as an amplification procedure in elisa without the use of commercially prepared sorbent (treponema phagedenis biotype reiter), sensitivity increased. of the 85 serum samples collected from persons with erythema migrans but n ...19911774293
lyme disease assay which detects killed borrelia burgdorferi.we developed an in vitro assay showing that borrelia burgdorferi organisms were killed by serum from patients with lyme disease. twenty of 20 lyme disease serum samples caused b. burgdorferi killing in a range of 36 to 99% compared with the mean number of viable spirochetes when sera from 10 healthy individuals were used. the percentage of killing of b. burgdorferi increased with convalescent serum from patients with early lyme disease. the borreliacidal activity was detectable in some sera dilu ...19911774294
molecular and immunological analysis of a polymorphic periplasmic protein of borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of lyme disease, a tick-borne spirochetosis with a worldwide prevalence. to assist the categorization and typing of fresh isolates from global foci, we have identified a unique species-specific periplasmic protein (p22-a) conserved among all north american and european isolates examined. the gene encoding this antigen was cloned, and the recombinant was used to screen serum collected from experimentally infected animals. although antibodies were detect ...19911774319
[lyme arthritis in childhood: monarthritis of the knee joint, clinically indistinguishable from monarthritis of unknown origin].four children with monarthritis of the knee had no further manifestations of lyme borreliosis, but a positive antibody titer against borrelia burgdorferi as measured by elisa. about 3 years after antibiotic therapy none of the children had arthritis, but one suffered from fibromyalgia and another child had still a vigorous reactivity against borrelia burgdorferi antigens by elisa and immunoblot. in this study 4 out of 20 children with recently recognized arthritis had lyme arthritis which makes ...19911775141
spatial and temporal dispersion of immature ixodes dammini on peromyscus leucopus in northwestern illinois.infestation by immature ixodes dammini and infection by borrelia burgdorferi of the white-footed mouse peromyscus leucopus were studied in castle rock state park in northwestern illinois during june-october 1990. prevalence and intensity of infestation of larvae on mice were highest in august with a smaller peak in early june. the distribution of larvae on mice was highly aggregated during each of the sampling periods. aggregation appears to be the result of a series of nonrandom successful atta ...19911779300
immunological properties of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from the ixodes ovatus in shizuoka, japan.three strains of spirochetes (ika1 to 3) were isolated from the midgut of ixodes ovatus collected in the ikawa region of the northern part of shizuoka, japan. these isolates had eight flagella, and their size and other morphological features were similar to borrelia burgdorferi. they showed similar motility and reacted with monoclonal antibody (mab) h9724 against borrelial flagella and with mab h5332 against the outer surface protein a. these strains showed similar sds-page profiles to that of b ...19911779892
[study on the elimination of bacteria from the cultures of lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi)].contaminated cultures of strains h11, h20 from ticks, and strain r9 from patient were purified by antisera for bacteria, chemicals, filtration dilution and animal inoculation. most of bacteria were eliminated after adding antisera into contaminated strains h11, h20. the preliminarily decontaminated cultures of strains h11, h20 or those with a few bacteria such as strain r9 could be completely purified by filtration, chemicals, dilution, or animal inoculation, but filtration is the simplest and t ...19911782662
[topics on lyme disease]. 19911783847
an indirect microhemagglutination test for lyme disease.we have developed an indirect microhemagglutination test (imha) for detecting antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi using formalin-fixed chicken erythrocytes sensitized with a sonicated extract of the bacteria. the specificity of imha for lyme disease was compared with that of a conventional indirect immunoperoxidase technique (ip) using sera from the patients with syphilis, randomly-chosen outpatients unrelated to lyme disease, and from normal individuals. the imha was more specific than ip, givin ...19911784260
electrocardiographic findings in children with lyme disease.the incidence of cardiac involvement in lyme disease (ld) has been estimated to be 4 to 10% in adults, with conduction and rhythm disturbances noted most frequently. to assess the frequency of electrocardiographic abnormalities in children with ld, we prospectively performed 12-lead electrocardiograms in 32 randomly selected children presenting with ld between may and september 1989. no patient had symptoms of cardiac involvement. using defined diagnostic criteria, combining symptoms, signs, ser ...19911788119
[risk of infection with borrelia burgdorferi in an area endemic for lyme disease].the results of the study of the prevalence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi in three categories of subjects from the endemic region of lyme disease in the northeast croatia are reported. the study comprised 265 subjects: 97 living in the rural region, 51 forest rangers working in this region and 117 members of the yugoslav people's army who spent a certain period of time in this region. positive titer of specific antibodies were found in 11.3% of local inhabitants, 25.5% forest rangers ...19911788965
borrelia burgdorferi: another cause of foodborne illness?borrelia burgdorferi was identified as the etiological agent of lyme disease in 1982. this gram-negative spirochete is classified in the order spirochaetales and the family spirochaetaceae. the pathogen is fastidious, microaerophilic, mesophilic and metabolises glucose through the embden-meyerhof pathway. a generation time of 11 to 12 h at 37 degrees c in barbour-stoenner-kelly medium has been reported. lyme disease, named after lyme in connecticut, is distributed globally. it is the most common ...19911790102
antibiotic prophylaxis of lyme disease following recognized tick bite. bacterial zoonoses branch, division of vector-borne infectious diseases national center for infectious diseases, centers for disease control. 19911790707
lyme disease and skeletal tuberculosis. 19911791116
lyme disease in israel. 19911791231
absence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in multiple sclerosis. 19911792860
an outer surface protein is a major t cell antigen in experimental lyme disease in cb6f1 mice. 19911793226
autoimmunity associated with infection: leprosy, acute rheumatic fever and lyme disease.this review examines the links between autoimmunity and three common infectious diseases. these disorders are associated with a variety of clinical and serological autoimmune phenomena. in addition they might conceivably trigger autoimmune diseases themselves. mechanisms that may be responsible for these links, including molecular mimicry, are explored.19911793538
effects of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies and plasma reagin on the serologic assay for lyme disease.rheumatoid factor (rf), antinuclear antibodies (ana) and the presence of other spirochetal infections have been reported to be the source of false positive serologic tests of lyme disease. to evaluate this, we studied their effect upon the lyme assay in use in our clinical laboratory. of 64 rapid plasma reagin (rpr) test positive sera, 2 had positive lyme antibody tests, not statistically different than controls. of 43 rf positive sera, 2 had positive lyme tests, no different than controls, and ...19911795317
lyme arthritis in the netherlands: a nationwide survey among rheumatologists.a nationwide survey among all 118 dutch rheumatologists (response rate 85%) yielded 42 patients with lyme arthritis. the arthritis was nonpersistent in all these patients. a tick bite was reported by 23 of these 42 patients (55%). erythema migrans was recalled by 19 patients (45%). cardiac manifestations occurred in 4 patients (9%) and neurologic symptoms in 14 patients (33%). by immunoabsorbent assay or immunofluorescence technique 37 patients (88%) had positive igg antibodies to borrelia burgd ...19911795318
[a description of a case of lyme disease in eastern siberia].a typical case of lyme's borreliosis with classical stage course has been described in a 56-year-old male residing in severobań≠kalsk. this case confirms the possibility of infestation with lyme's disease in the regions where ixodes ticks are widespread, as they are vectors of both tick-borne encephalitis virus and lyme's borreliosis.19911795690
lyme antibodies and lyme disease: when to measure and who to treat. 19911797295
lyme disease and infected ticks are spreading throughout new york state. 19911798631
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from a skin lesion in a patient with granuloma annulare. 19911800376
tracing the roots of borrelia burgdorferi. 19911800474
culture of borrelia burgdorferi on six solid media.six solid substrates were compared for their support of growth of ten isolates of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis. the following substrates with or without rabbit serum and bovine serum albumin were tested: bsk agar, bhiam agar, tarom agar, mem agar, mkp agar and pmr agar. after incubation in a candle jar and a gaspak for two to four weeks, borrelia colonies were counted and characterized. colony morphology was related more to the growth substrate than to the charac ...19911802702
neurological manifestations of lyme borreliosis.after the isolation of borrelia burgdorferi, the previously unknown causative agent of lyme disease, two neurological disorders, bannwarth's syndrome and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans-associated neuropathy, which have been known in europe for decades, gained new interest. with the availability of serodiagnostic tests, a chronic debilitating disorder--progressive borrelia encephalomyelitis--was found to be caused by chronic infection with b. burgdorferi. beside these typical manifestations, ...19911804127
[survey during 4 years of the infestation level of the tick ixodes ricinus (acari ixodidae) by borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme borreliosis, in 2 forests in brittany].the authors followed, during 4 years consecutively, from 1987 to 1990, by immunofluorescence, the frequency of b. burgdorferi in an amount of 677 nymphs of i. ricinus tick, collected fasting by flagging in 2 forests in brittany (france). percentages obtained in each of these forests do not reveal significative differencies statistically and seem to show a relative stability, from one year to the following, during the considered period, of the infestation levels in ticks.19911807855
serological survey for lyme disease in sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).seventy-six wild sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) from areas endemic for borrelia burgdorferi during 1988 to 1989 had the igg antibody to the bacteria in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the percentage of seropositive deer was 25.0% to strain ho14 and 22.4% to strain hp3, respectively. specific igg antibody titers were high in summer but low in winter. in summer, seropositive deer were 75.0%. similar results were obtained in serum specimens obtained monthly from 4 farmed deer. it was sugges ...19911808467
[lyme disease: epidemiology, clinical manifestations and biological diagnosis]. 19911808778
[the disease spectrum of borrelia burgdorferi (lyme borreliosis)]. 19911808888
antibody response against autologous and heterologous isolates of borrelia burgdorferi in four patients with lyme neuroborreliosis.serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples from four patients with lyme neuroborreliosis were analyzed for igm and igg antibodies by an indirect enzyme immunoassay with the four patients' own csf isolate of borrelia burgdorferi and two tick isolates, strains stg152 and b31, as antigens. no major differences in the antibody response were found comparing autologous and heterologous strains as sonicate antigens, although a tendency towards a stronger response to the autologous isolates was noted i ...19911810726
health departments in the u.s. 1920-1988: statements of mission with special reference to the role of c.-e.a. winslow.the mission of local health departments in the u.s. is traced from the 1920s to the present through examination of official promulgations of the american public health association and other organizations. as the communicable diseases came under general control, this mission was conceived more broadly. nevertheless, in effect their public health role was diminished due to the rapid ascendancy of private and not-for-profit medical care, which consistently sought to keep public health out of potent ...20101814060
aids and sjogren's syndrome.hiv infection can produce a clinical syndrome and immunologic changes similar to those seen in ss. hiv infection can occasionally result in an ss-like disease but without the formation of antibodies to ro(ss-a) or la(ss-b). could this mean that a retrovirus yet to be discovered is responsible for the autoimmune exocrinopathy known as ss? evidence to date is circumstantial, based on antibodies to a retroviral protein (p24). the idea that retroviruses act in a genetically susceptible host to cause ...19911814527
global climate change and infectious diseases.the effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. these mosquitoes transmit dengue v ...19911820262
retinal vasculitis in lyme borreliosis.three patients with retinal vasculitis are reported who were found to be seroreactive for lyme borreliosis. careful investigation revealed no other apparent etiology for the angiitis, and improvement of the retinal vasculitis on tetracycline therapy was documented by fluorescein angiography in one of them. two cases of retinal vasculitis were presented at the international conference on lyme borreliosis in stockholm 18-21 june 1990, and two cases of cerebral vasculitis due to borrelia burgdorfer ...19911827466
recombinant outer surface protein a from borrelia burgdorferi induces antibodies protective against spirochetal infection in mice.the outer surface protein a (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi was isolated in its native form from strains zs7 and b31 and as a recombinant protein from strain zs7. amino acid sequence analysis of internal peptides of native ospa (strain zs7) revealed identity with the sequence deduced from the ospa gene. repeated immunization of c57bl/6 and c.b-17 mice with any of the three ospa structures resulted in the generation of monospecific hyperimmune sera reactive with both native and recombinant ospa. u ...19911829104
[polymorphism of clinical manifestations of lyme disease].the paper describes a clinical picture of a new transmissible disease which got widespread in the middle zone of russia. it is caused by a tick-borne organism pertaining to new pathogenic species of borrelia. early in its onset lyme borrelia (lb) infection presented with tick-borne erythema, followed by neurological and cardiac complications eventuating in locomotor disturbances. altogether 118 patients at various stages of the disease were examined and treated. wide-spectrum antibiotics proved ...19911830912
borrelia burgdorferi activates a t helper type 1-like t cell subset in lyme arthritis.18 cloned t cell lines reactive with borrelia burgdorferi proteins, all cd3+4+8-tcr-alpha/beta+ and restricted by hla class ii proteins, were isolated from four patients with chronic lyme arthritis. analysis of these t cell clones indicated that the t cell response to the lyme disease spirochete is not oligoclonally restricted; yet all produced the same pattern of lymphokines, resembling that of murine type 1 t helper cells, after antigen-specific or nonspecific stimulation. therefore, a subset ...19911831490
lyme disease.lyme disease, also known as lyme borreliosis, is at present the most common arthropod-borne infectious disease in europe and the united states. it is caused by the bacterial spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to the human primarily in the spring, summer and early fall by the tick ixodes dammini or deer tick. signs and symptoms of infection are many and misdiagnosis often occurs. if not treated with antibiotics in early stages neurological complications can occur. health care provide ...19911833479
[african lyme disease]. 19911837372
[the basic epidemiological traits of lyme disease in the northwestern ussr].dissemination, season variability, ways of infection, as well as main carriers of lyme's disease and tick-borne encephalitis, reasons for the population contact with natural foci and ticks, age and socially professional status were shown to be extremely similar in patients with borreliosis and encephalitis in leningrad province. this fact indicates principal similarity of basic epidemiological properties in two etiologically different infections. a much higher morbidity level is characteristic o ...19911837580
[3m fast-lyme test in the diagnosis of lyme disease in poland]. 19911843814
lyme disease surveillance in california. 19911848737
lyme disease control in face of tick phobia.lyme disease, the subject of recent public awareness and fear, not only can be controlled through medical means but also can be effectively prevented with environmental techniques and common sense safety precautions. understanding the origin of the disease and its carriers will aid physicians in calming patient fears and reinforcing preventive measures.19911852447
[neurological aspects of borreliosis. a discovery due to lyme disease]. 19911853128
anti-tick saliva antibody: a biologic marker of tick exposure that is a risk factor for lyme disease seropositivity.anti-tick saliva antibody (atsa) has potential as a biologic marker of exposure to tick bites. in 1989, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 304 outdoor workers in monmouth county, new jersey, to evaluate associations between self-reported tick exposure, atsa status, and lyme disease antibody status. atsa levels 1) were correlated with an index of tick exposure on the basis of three self-reported measures of tick exposure and outdoor hours worked per week (p = 0.01); 2) were consistently high ...19911853864
lyme disease update. 20071854408
[ticks and lyme disease]. 19911854837
[infection caused by borrelia burgdorferi in extremadura]. 19911854843
[study of cross reactions using serological techniques between borrelia burgdorferi and treponema pallidum]. 19911854844
foot and ankle disorders resulting from lyme disease.ten cases of lyme disease involving the foot and ankle are reported. onset of symptoms was months to years before diagnosis. a variety of clinical foot and ankle problems resulted. careful case histories and serologic testing resulted in proper diagnosis and treatment.20061855711
borreliacidal activity of sera from hamsters infected with the lyme disease spirochete.an in vitro borreliacidal assay that accurately reflects the levels of protective antibody determined by passive transfer of immunity studies was developed. borreliacidal antibody in sera obtained from normal hamsters infected with borrelia burgdorferi was readily detected. when immune serum containing complement was incubated with b. burgdorferi organisms, spirochetes were killed within 2 h. treating immune serum with anti-hamster immunoglobulin g abrogated the borreliacidal activity. killing o ...19911855973
characterization of borrelia coriaceae antigens with monoclonal antibodies.three monoclonal antibodies (f6f3, f6b11, and f6b3) were developed against borrelia coriaceae antigens. all three antibodies appeared to be specific for this species and did not cross-react with borrelia burgdorferi (strains b31 and irs), borrelia hermsii, borrelia anserina, leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, or treponema hyodysenteriae, as determined by indirect fluorescent antibody staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western immunoblot analysis. only one of these antibodies, f ...19911855995
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in patients with lyme disease by the polymerase chain reaction.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, was detected in patients' serum by dna amplification using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). b burgdorferi was pelleted from serum samples by centrifugation (10,000 x g for 10 minutes) and lysed by treatment with ammonium hydroxide (100 degrees c for 15 minutes). two pairs of "nested" pcr primers complementary to the gene encoding a major outer surface protein (osp a) of b burgdorferi were used in dna amplification under standard pcr ...19911856296
the epidemiology of lyme disease in kentucky, 1985-1990.lyme disease has become the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. to assess the extent of the disease in kentucky, all case reports were reviewed for 1985-1990. a total of 51 cases met the current case definition. epidemiologic features were similar to those reported nationally. although the recognized tick vectors for lyme disease have still not been identified in kentucky, physicians should educate their patients on the risk of lyme disease and measures to prevent tick bites. ...19911856584
[preventive use of antibiotics for internal medicine diseases].prevention of infection by the interniste is less explored than perioperative prophylaxis. basically, prophylaxis in internal medicine may be considered in the following situations: in case of chronic recurrent infections, in case of persisting infections, after contact with a dangerous microorganism, after contact with a potentially infectious vector, during bacteremia or in case of an anatomical defect. for some of these situations (malaria, tuberculosis, rheumatic fever) clear guidelines exis ...19911858063
[geographic distribution of lyme disease in mudanjiang].four forestry plant in mudanjiang with different geographic characteristics were investigated in 1989. 2178 people were inquired and examined. 74 cases including 54 of ecm, 12 of nervous system disorder and 8 of arthritis were confirmed as lyme disease. there were some patients at other places of forest areas of mudanjiang. the prevalence rate of lyme disease ranged from 1% to 4.5% at four plants with higher rate in mountainous area than in hilly land. it is first report that one strain of lyme ...19911863948
immune capture and detection of borrelia burgdorferi antigens in urine, blood, or tissues from infected ticks, mice, dogs, and humans.current biological and serological techniques for demonstrating infections by borrelia burgdorferi can be inconclusive. in order to monitor lyme borreliosis, we developed a rapid and sensitive assay for b. burgdorferi antigens in infected hosts. polyclonal rabbit antisera were raised against membrane vesicles and an 83-kda vesicle-associated protein band that was purified from in vitro b. burgdorferi cultures. immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies were recovered from these sera and tested for a spec ...19911864935
[chronic atrophic acrodermatitis; a deceptive form of lyme borreliosis].acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) was diagnosed in 15 patients from the southern and eastern part of friesland (the netherlands). twelve patients had one leg affected; three had more than one extremity involved. frequent complaints were fatigue, paraesthesia, swelling and blue discoloration. the symptoms persisted for many years in most cases. the inflammatory stage was observed most frequently (13/15): violet-blue erythema, oedema, firm swelling and nodules. atrophy (4/15) was observed ...19911865945
[lyme borreliosis: should we prepare for an epidemic?].lyme borreliosis results from the persistent infection with a spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by ticks of the ixodes ricinus complex. the geographic distribution of these ticks depends on specific climatic and ecologic conditions. lyme borreliosis is a disease with protean manifestations whose distribution is world-wide. in north america, the disease usually begins between may and august with a characteristic rash, erythema chronicum migrans, accompanied by non specific or meningit ...19911866842
[isolation and characteristics of borrelia burgdorferi from ixodes persulcatus].we reported the detailed characteristics of lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi), strain h7, isolated from ixodes persulcatus in heilongjiang. cells of strain h7 were 9.8--26.5 microns long and 0.13--0.35 microns wide. there were 1--11 waves with a wavelength of 1.2--3.0 microns and an amplitude of 0.59--1.13 microns. direction of spires was left. seven flagella were inserted subterminally at each end of the cell and ends were pointed. 31 degrees c was the optimum cultural temperature ...19911866942
kinetics of borrelia burgdorferi dissemination and evolution of disease after intradermal inoculation of mice.borrelia burgdorferi dissemination to selected target organs was examined on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 15, 21, and 30 after intradermal inoculation of 4-week-old c3h mice. infection was determined by culture (blood, spleen, kidney, ear punch); polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for outer surface protein a (osp a) dna (ear punch); histology and spirochete histochemistry (spleen, kidney, skin, heart, joints); and osp a dna in situ hybridization (joints, heart). blood or spleen of most mice were culture ...19911867318
serodiagnosis of lyme disease. 19911867682
antibiotic treatment for pregnant victims of lyme disease. 20021867693
lyme disease: the picture in iowa.lyme disease in iowa increased sharply in 1989 and 1990, creating concern in iowans who spend considerable time out-of-doors. the authors review the history of lyme disease and its symptoms and present an update on the status of lyme disease and its tick vector in iowa.19911869426
the many faces and phases of borreliosis. i. lyme disease. 19911869661
absence of transplacental transmission of lyme disease spirochetes from reservoir mice (peromyscus leucopus) to their offspring.lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi) are naturally maintained in an enzootic cycle mainly by vector ticks (ixodes dammini) infesting white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus). suggestions that mice may become infected without exposure to ticks prompted a study to evaluate whether mice could transmit spirochetes transplacentally to their offspring. mice were live-captured in two massachusetts sites where lyme disease spirochetes are intensely enzootic. pregnant females were housed separa ...19911869842
the geographic spread and temporal increase of the lyme disease epidemic.to describe the temporal and geographic progression of the lyme disease epidemic in new york state from 1977 through 1989.19911870248
lyme disease. tracking an epidemic. 19911870256
[parasite fauna of red foxes in berlin (west)].the infestation with ecto- and endoparasites of red foxes in berlin (west) was investigated. as shown by post mortems of 100 animals (47 males and 53 females), none of them was found to be free of parasites. with regard to ectoparasites, 3 species of ixodes ticks, 7 flea species, one species of biting lice and mite species were demonstrated. the sarcoptic mange is often inducing the death of the foxes and is considered to be a limiting factor of the population increment. concerning endoparasites ...19911872791
diagnosis of lyme borreliosis by an enzyme immunoassay detecting immunoglobulin g reactive to purified borrelia burgdorferi cell components.an enzyme immunoassay (eia) developed for the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis was tested for its specificity and sensitivity in detecting igg antibodies in patients at various stages of the disease. the eia is based on a detergent extract of borrelia burgdorferi which contains 12 proteins of defined molecular weights from borrelia burgdorferi. the assay showed a specificity of 100% in control sera from 64 healthy individuals, using a cut-off optical density value of 0.13 (means +2- 3 sd). the sens ...19911874248
susceptibility of iron-loaded borrelia burgdorferi to killing by hydrogen peroxide and human polymorphonuclear leucocytes.borrelia burgdorferi grew more slowly in iron-depleted than in iron-sufficient media. the addition of increasing concentrations of iron stimulated borrelial growth and resulted in the intracellular accumulation of this element. compared with iron-starved borrelia, iron-enriched organisms showed enhanced sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. intracellular iron-content did not, however, influence susceptibility to killing by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes [corrected].19911874405
lyme disease: the bite of spring becomes the (diagnostic) menace of summer. 19911874652
lyme borreliosis: detecting the great imitator.lyme disease is a common inflammatory disease of north america. it is caused by the spirochetal bacterium borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by the bite of a small tick, ixodes dammini. the disease is inconsistent in its manifestation, mimicking a wide variety of maladies, many of which are noninfectious. currently, there is no practical means for detection of the presence of the organism, and serologic studies offer the best diagnostic aid. high titers of either immunoglobulin g (igg) o ...19911874654
wood rats and kangaroo rats: potential reservoirs of the lyme disease spirochete in california.the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, was isolated repeatedly from dusky-footed wood rats, neotoma fuscipes baird, and california kangaroo rats, dipodomys californicus merriam, in northern california. all animals were collected in a region endemic for lyme disease but for which the natural reservoir of b. burgdorferi was unknown. similar attempts to isolate spirochetes from lizards, other species of rodents, jack rabbits, and deer ...19911875357
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in cerebrospinal fluid by the polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amplify specific dna sequences from different clinical isolates of borrelia burgdorferi and from cerebrospinal fluid (csf) of two patients with lyme disease of the central nervous system. the amplification products were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualised by ethidium bromide staining. the definitive identification of amplified dna as a part of the b. burgdorferi flagellin gene was achieved by hybridisation to a 40-base ol ...19911875398
detecting the cause of lyme disease in australia. 19911875848
lyme disease. 19911877201
[the discover of lyme disease in fujian province].by means of indirect fluorescent antibody assay (ifa), borrelia burgdorferi b31 strain was used for antigen, to detect the 2579 serum specimens from forest area in 9 counties of fujian province, 47 cases in 8 counties were detected positive, positive rate was 1.82%. by epidemiological investigation, we found that peoples who infected with lyme disease, 91.67% of them (22/24) have been bited by ixodes, and 6 cases suffer typical clinical symptoms of lyme disease, 9 cases have the similar or somew ...19911878953
[the nervous system involvement in lyme disease]. 19911879245
borrelia burgdorferi and different types of morphea.thirty patients with different clinical manifestations of morphea (circumscribed scleroderma) were investigated for serum antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi determined by elisa and western blot analysis. forty-six percent of the patients were seropositive. western blots confirmed the elisa results in 10 of 25 patients (40%), showing a reactivity pattern which can be seen in the course of lyme borreliosis. in some cases the outcome after antibiotic treatment suggests a direct correlation bet ...19911879581
urticarial lesions and lyme disease. 19911880245
[studies on 15 seropositive cases to lyme disease using immunoperoxidase test in japan].the serological survey, analyzing sera which were obtained from lyme disease suspected subjects was performed using immunoperoxidase (ip) test between july, 1987 and february, 1989. fifteen seropositive subjects to borrelia burgdorferi have been found in this survey, and these cases were considered to be true lyme disease or highly suspected for this illness. most of these seropositive cases geographically occurred in northern part of japan, and both sexes and all age subjects were affected. in ...19911880440
use of western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to assist in the diagnosis of lyme disease.without evidence of erythema chronicum migrans, diagnostic confirmation of lyme disease may be difficult, particularly if there are conflicting laboratory results. often, for families and physicians, the clinical dilemma is whether fatigue, arthritis/arthralgias, a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and tick exposure, but no evidence of erythema chronicum migrans, are sufficient to diagnose and treat lyme disease. patients with discordant elisa and western blot (wb) assay result ...19911881724
detection of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi in patients with uveitis.we determined the antibody response against borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from japanese ixodes ovatus and ixodes persulcatus ticks by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay of serum specimens from 127 patients with uveitis. we examined samples of serum from japanese patients with unclassified uveitis, iridocyclitis caused by herpes zoster virus, behçet's disease, vogt-koyanagi-harada syndrome, sarcoidosis, or other conditions (sympathetic ophthalmia, posn ...19911882917
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