susceptibility of iron-loaded borrelia burgdorferi to killing by hydrogen peroxide and human polymorphonuclear leucocytes.borrelia burgdorferi grew more slowly in iron-depleted than in iron-sufficient media. the addition of increasing concentrations of iron stimulated borrelial growth and resulted in the intracellular accumulation of this element. compared with iron-starved borrelia, iron-enriched organisms showed enhanced sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. intracellular iron-content did not, however, influence susceptibility to killing by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes [corrected].19911874405
lyme borreliosis: detecting the great imitator.lyme disease is a common inflammatory disease of north america. it is caused by the spirochetal bacterium borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by the bite of a small tick, ixodes dammini. the disease is inconsistent in its manifestation, mimicking a wide variety of maladies, many of which are noninfectious. currently, there is no practical means for detection of the presence of the organism, and serologic studies offer the best diagnostic aid. high titers of either immunoglobulin g (igg) o ...19911874654
wood rats and kangaroo rats: potential reservoirs of the lyme disease spirochete in california.the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, was isolated repeatedly from dusky-footed wood rats, neotoma fuscipes baird, and california kangaroo rats, dipodomys californicus merriam, in northern california. all animals were collected in a region endemic for lyme disease but for which the natural reservoir of b. burgdorferi was unknown. similar attempts to isolate spirochetes from lizards, other species of rodents, jack rabbits, and deer ...19911875357
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in cerebrospinal fluid by the polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amplify specific dna sequences from different clinical isolates of borrelia burgdorferi and from cerebrospinal fluid (csf) of two patients with lyme disease of the central nervous system. the amplification products were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualised by ethidium bromide staining. the definitive identification of amplified dna as a part of the b. burgdorferi flagellin gene was achieved by hybridisation to a 40-base ol ...19911875398
detecting the cause of lyme disease in australia. 19911875848
[the discover of lyme disease in fujian province].by means of indirect fluorescent antibody assay (ifa), borrelia burgdorferi b31 strain was used for antigen, to detect the 2579 serum specimens from forest area in 9 counties of fujian province, 47 cases in 8 counties were detected positive, positive rate was 1.82%. by epidemiological investigation, we found that peoples who infected with lyme disease, 91.67% of them (22/24) have been bited by ixodes, and 6 cases suffer typical clinical symptoms of lyme disease, 9 cases have the similar or somew ...19911878953
borrelia burgdorferi and different types of morphea.thirty patients with different clinical manifestations of morphea (circumscribed scleroderma) were investigated for serum antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi determined by elisa and western blot analysis. forty-six percent of the patients were seropositive. western blots confirmed the elisa results in 10 of 25 patients (40%), showing a reactivity pattern which can be seen in the course of lyme borreliosis. in some cases the outcome after antibiotic treatment suggests a direct correlation bet ...19911879581
[studies on 15 seropositive cases to lyme disease using immunoperoxidase test in japan].the serological survey, analyzing sera which were obtained from lyme disease suspected subjects was performed using immunoperoxidase (ip) test between july, 1987 and february, 1989. fifteen seropositive subjects to borrelia burgdorferi have been found in this survey, and these cases were considered to be true lyme disease or highly suspected for this illness. most of these seropositive cases geographically occurred in northern part of japan, and both sexes and all age subjects were affected. in ...19911880440
use of western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to assist in the diagnosis of lyme disease.without evidence of erythema chronicum migrans, diagnostic confirmation of lyme disease may be difficult, particularly if there are conflicting laboratory results. often, for families and physicians, the clinical dilemma is whether fatigue, arthritis/arthralgias, a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and tick exposure, but no evidence of erythema chronicum migrans, are sufficient to diagnose and treat lyme disease. patients with discordant elisa and western blot (wb) assay result ...19911881724
detection of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi in patients with uveitis.we determined the antibody response against borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from japanese ixodes ovatus and ixodes persulcatus ticks by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay of serum specimens from 127 patients with uveitis. we examined samples of serum from japanese patients with unclassified uveitis, iridocyclitis caused by herpes zoster virus, behçet's disease, vogt-koyanagi-harada syndrome, sarcoidosis, or other conditions (sympathetic ophthalmia, posn ...19911882917
the t-cell proliferative assay in the diagnosis of lyme determine the sensitivity and specificity of the t-cell proliferative assay as a diagnostic test in lyme disease.19911883122
analysis of outer membrane ultrastructure of pathogenic treponema and borrelia species by freeze-fracture electron microscopy.we analyzed the outer membrane (om) ultrastructure of four pathogenic members of the family spirochaetaceae by freeze fracture. the om of treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue contained a low intramembranous particle concentration, indicating that it contains few om transmembrane proteins. the concave om fracture faces of treponema hyodysenteriae and borrelia burgdorferi contained dense populations of particles, typical of gram-negative organisms. a relatively low concentration of particles which w ...19911885536
spotted fever group rickettsiae or borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes cookei (ixodidae) in connecticut.immatures and females of ixodes cookei, a hard-bodied tick, were collected from woodchucks and other mammals in the northeastern united states and examined for spotted fever group rickettsiae and borrelia burgdorferi. of the 93 nymphs analyzed by a hemolymph test, 4 (4.3%) harbored rickettsiae. six (15%) of 40 females were also infected. all infected ticks were collected from woodchucks in connecticut. indirect fluorescent antibody staining of midgut tissues from 128 nymphs revealed b. burgdorfe ...19911885748
detection of the lyme disease bacterium, borrelia burgdorferi, by using the polymerase chain reaction and a nonradioisotopic gene probe.a 419-bp region of the flagellin gene sequence of borrelia burgdorferi was used as a target for the polymerase chain reaction. with a nonradioactively labeled gene-specific probe, sensitivity to as few as 1 to 10 spirochetes was observed. the targeted gene fragment was conserved in the american and european strains of b. burgdorferi tested and among several other pathogenic borreliae.19911885749
lyme borreliosis--a review and present situation in japan.the skin diseases erythema (chronicum) migrans (ecm, em), lymphadenosis benigna cutis (labc), and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) have long been described in northern europe, and dermatologists are very familiar with these manifestations, which have been successfully treated with penicillin for about 40 years without the causative agent being known. certain neurologic symptoms could be linked to tickbites during the 1920's and later also to em. in 1977, steere et al. reported a new for ...19911885848
problems in the use of serologic tests for the diagnosis of lyme disease.lyme disease can be reliably diagnosed in the presence of erythema migrans. when erythema migrans is absent, serologic tests are often used to confirm the diagnosis. to choose a test for our lyme disease diagnostic center, serum samples were obtained from 34 patients and tested for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi. we evaluated five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays from stony brook (ny) university hospital, cambridge bioscience (worcester, mass), hillcrest biologicals (cypress, calif), sigma ...19911888250
[epidemiological studies of the infection of ticks with borreliosis agents in small mammals from north germany].in a two years study into the infestation of ticks with borrelia burgdorferi from mice in north germany 1330 mice out of 11 species could be examined. altogether 508 mice showed to be parasitized by 1445 ticks belonging to three species of ixodes. 777 i. ricinus from 334 mice could be tested for b. burgdorferi. in 66 ticks (8.5%) from 34 mice (10.2%) borreliae could be demonstrated. these discoveries came from 9 of 14 investigated forest regions in lower saxony.19911889366
comparison of in vitro culture and polymerase chain reaction for detection of borrelia burgdorferi in tissue from experimentally infected animals.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was developed for identification of borrelia burgdorferi in biological specimens. the diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of in vitro culture. a primer set specifying a 791-bp dna fragment of the b. burgdorferi b31 flagellin gene was used. amplified dna sequences were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, and the identity of amplified dna was confirmed by restriction enzyme cleavage and southern blot hybridization with a 32p-labeled probe. by using p ...19911890174
lipoproteins of borrelia burgdorferi and treponema pallidum activate cachectin/tumor necrosis factor synthesis. analysis using a cat reporter construct.lipoproteins from two pathogenic spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi and treponema pallidum) induced the biosynthesis of tnf in murine macrophages and in permanently transformed macrophages of the cell line raw 264.7. induction was studied by measuring the secretion of biologically active tnf and by measuring the activity of the reporter enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) produced within macrophages transfected with an endotoxin-responsive cat construct. several lines of evidence indic ...19911890308
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi invasion of cultured endothelial cells.borrelia burgdorferi can adhere to cultured endothelial cells and penetrate through cell monolayers by passing through intercellular tight junctions and through the host cell cytoplasm. borrelia burgdorferi strains which were isolated from different sources and areas of the u.s. all demonstrated similar invasive capabilities. bacterial penetration from the apical to the basal surface of the monolayer was 20 times more efficient than from the basal to the apical surface. borreliae which were non- ...19911890951
can protracted relapsing fever resemble lyme disease?we report the case of a protestant missionary who contracted tick-borne relapsing fever in 1979 while serving in the sudan. despite tetracycline treatment, his acute illness ran a protracted course, with migratory polyarthralgias lasting approximately 10 months. symptoms recurred in 1984 and have persisted. at regular intervals, the patient has experienced recurrent episodes of fever, generalized fatigue, bilateral upper and lower extremity muscle weakness, and asymetric large joint polyarthralg ...19911890979
molecular characterization of the humoral response to the 41-kilodalton flagellar antigen of borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease agent.the earliest humoral response in patients infected with borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease, is directed against the spirochete's 41-kda flagellar antigen. in order to map the epitopes recognized on this antigen, 11 overlapping fragments spanning the flagellin gene were cloned by polymerase chain reaction and inserted into an escherichia coli expression vector which directed their expression as fusion proteins containing glutathione s-transferase at the n terminus and a flagellin fra ...19911894359
depletion of complement and effects on passive transfer of resistance to infection with borrelia burgdorferi.when irradiated hamsters are passively immunized with immune serum before challenge with borrelia burgdorferi, they are completely protected from arthritis and infection. the complement dependency of this protection was addressed by treating hamsters with cobra venom factor. depletion of complement abrogated the ability of immune serum obtained 1 and 10 weeks after infection to confer complete protection. by contrast, depletion of complement had no effect on the ability of 3-week immune serum to ...19911894378
spirochetes in atrophic skin lesions accompanied by minimal host response in a child with lyme disease.acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, which has rarely been observed in the united states, is a late skin manifestation of lyme borreliosis. a 12-year-old girl who spent summers on cape cod presented with a 2-year history of hyperpigmentation and atrophy of the skin on the hands, wrists, and ankles. the skin biopsy specimen of an affected area showed mild dermal fibrosis, a few inflammatory cells, and spirochetes morphologically compatible with borrelia burgdorferi. an igg antibody response to b. ...19911894781
update: self-induced malaria associated with malariotherapy for lyme december 1990, the texas department of health (tdh) was contacted by a man who had recently moved from the northeastern united states and who was considering malariotherapy for lyme disease (ld). he described a 2-year history of unsuccessful treatment with multiple antibiotics for arthralgias and palpitations, which had been diagnosed as ld.19911896006
lyme neuroborreliosis: a new sensitive diagnostic assay for intrathecal synthesis of borrelia burgdorferi--specific immunoglobulin g, a, and antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to measure directly intrathecal immunoglobulin (ig) g, a, and m synthesis specific for borrelia burgdorferi. purified, biotin-avidin-peroxidase-labeled b. burgdorferi flagella was used as test antigen. paired cerebrospinal fluid and serum specimens from 100 patients with clinically definite neuroborreliosis and 35 control subjects with neurological diseases were examined. significant b. burgdorferi-specific intrathecal igg, a, a ...19911897911
borrelia rhombencephalomyelopathy.three patients, in whom the diagnosis of borrelia burgdorferi infection was unknown for several years, developed a biphasic involvement of the central nervous system: an acute brain-stem dysfunction was followed up, in two patients, by a progressive, disabling myelitis and, in one patient, by further relapsing-remitting episodes of severe multifocal rhombencephalitis. the most consistent cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities in the analysis of sequential specimens were elevated total igm levels that ...19911898257
cerebrospinal fluid interleukins, immunoglobulins, and fibronectin in neuroborreliosis.intrathecal synthesis of igm and igg, oligoclonal immunoglobulin bands, and the levels of fibronectin, soluble interleukin 2 receptor, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were investigated with the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 46 paired cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from 32 patients with meningopolyradiculoneuritis due to borrelia burgdorferi (lyme borreliosis stage 2). cerebrospinal fluid and serum interleukin 6, although not specific for neuroborreliosis, were ...19911898258
effectiveness of carbaryl applications for the control of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) nymphs in an endemic residential area.ground applications of carbaryl in early june 1989 reduced populations of nymphal ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin by 100% in five 0.4-ha residential sites 72 h after application. high levels of control (greater than 90%) persisted for almost 2 mo. five nymphs were recovered at the periphery of the sprayed plots at two sites 2 wk after spraying and nine nymphs were collected at the periphery of the sprayed plots at three of the sites 4-5 wk after application. at 8 wk after app ...19911903451
cytokines and the pathogenesis of neuroborreliosis: borrelia burgdorferi induces glioma cells to secrete interleukin-6.lyme disease is a multisystemic disease caused by a tickborne spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. neuroborreliosis is characterized by intrathecal production of antibodies specific for the spirochete. this suggests that spirochetal infection of the central nervous system produces conditions that support the maturation of b lymphocytes to immunoglobulin-secreting cells. interleukin 6 (il-6) stimulates b cell differentiation into antibody-secreting cells. the present study was undertaken to determin ...19911908002
pathogenesis, diagnosis, manifestations, and treatment of lyme disease.progress in understanding the causation and immunopathogenesis of lyme disease has continued in the past year. only by studying the complex relationship between the infecting organism, borrelia burgdorferi, and the host will improvements in therapy be possible. physicians in the united states have evaluated large numbers of patients with late neurologic lyme disease, and a more consistent clinical description of the north american experience is emerging. laboratory diagnosis remains a problem. i ...19911911056
changes in antigenic reactivity of borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease spirochete, during persistent infection in laboratory mice, mus musculus, were shown to be suitable experimental animals for studying infectivity, persistent infection, and in vivo antigenic changes of borrelia burgdorferi. sixteen mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with a low-passage culture of an uncloned strain of b. burgdorferi and 16 months later spirochetes were reisolated from the urinary bladder of 15 (94%) of the mice. spirochetes recovered from the urinary bladder of one persistently infected mouse were tested for inf ...19911913349
[transitory av block as a cardiac manifestation of lyme disease].after one day of dizziness a 28-year-old man experienced a syncope on getting up. ecg revealed a 3 degrees atrioventricular (av) block unresponsive to drug treatment. a temporary pacemaker was implanted. erythema migrans 4 weeks before admission suggested lyme carditis, and the diagnosis was confirmed serologically (elisa increased polyvalently, igm antibody titre 1:64, igg antibody titre 1:512). on antibiotic treatment with amoxicillin (1 g three times daily) and prednisolone (initially 80 mg d ...19911914933
lyme borreliosis as a cause of myocarditis and heart muscle disease.lyme borreliosis (lb) is a multisystem disorder that may cause self-limiting or chronic diseases of the skin, the nervous system, the joints, heart and other organs. the aetiological agent is the recently discovered borrelia burgdorferi. in 1980, cardiac manifestations of lb were first described, including acute conduction disorders, atrioventricular block, transient left ventricular dysfunction and even cardiomegaly. pathohistological examination showed spirochaetes in cases of acute perimyocar ...19911915460
experimental borrelia burgdorferi infection in inbred mouse strains: antibody response and association of h-2 genes with resistance and susceptibility to development of arthritis.we have investigated the specific humoral immune response and its correlation to the development of disease after experimental inoculation of b. burgdorferi in different inbred strains of mice. all mouse strains tested showed high levels of specific igm antibodies during the initial 10 days of infection. specific igg antibodies predominantly of the igg2a, igg2b and igg3 isotypes were found in increasing amounts by 14 days post infection. antibody titers peaked at days 65 and 110. particularly lo ...19911915553
facial palsy with elevated protein in otherwise normal csf in a child with lyme disease.this is a report on an eight-year-old girl who presented with facial palsy, headache, fatigue, arthralgias and myalgias six weeks after two tick bites. physical examination was unremarkable with the exception of a left-sided facial palsy. laboratory investigation revealed normal complete blood count, esr and crp. the spinal tap showed a protein of 63 mg/dl, glucose 45 mg/dl and no cells. ift titres to borrelia burgdorferi in serum and csf were significantly elevated. the diagnosis was supported ...19911917037
lyme borreliosis: ten years after discovery of the etiologic agent, borrelia burgdorferi.since the recovery of its causative agent, borrelia burgdorferi, in 1981, lyme borreliosis has become the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the united states as well as in europe. its steadily increasing clinical spectrum now includes erythema migrans, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, lymphadenosis beniga cutis, arthritis, myocarditis, progressive meningoencephalitis, myositis, and various ocular and skin disorders. the true incidence of lyme borreliosis in the world is unknown. in the un ...19911917043
laboratory diagnosis and seroepidemiology of lyme borreliosis.laboratory diagnosis of lyme borreliosis is performed by direct detection of borrelia burgdorferi in body fluids and tissue samples. this can be achieved by cultivation of the organisms, staining techniques, or demonstration of parts of the genome. although the best aetiologic proof in case of positivity, these methods cannot yet serve as routine techniques: they are too time consuming and expensive. currently, the usual method for establishing the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis is serologic test ...19911917044
lyme borreliosis of central nervous system (cns) in children: a diagnostic challenge.within 24 months in a consecutive series of 84 children with neurological symptoms indicative of lyme borreliosis of the central nervous system (cns) 45 seronegative children (group iii), 17 seropositive (group ii), and 22 children with specific borrelia burgdorferi results in cerebrospinal fluid (csf)-i.e. b. burgdorferi antibodies and/or intrathecally produced b. burgdorferi antibodies and/or positive b. burgdorferi culture in csf were observed. the results show that intrathecally produced b. ...19911917045
penicillin g sodium and ceftriaxone in the treatment of neuroborreliosis in children--a prospective study.a controlled clinical study was set up to examine whether penicillin g sodium (pg) or ceftriaxone (c) is superior in the treatment of acute neuroborreliosis in childhood. within a time period of 18 months 77 children with symptoms indicative of lyme borreliosis of the central nervous system (cns) were seen. in 23 of these children borrelia burgdorferi specific cerebrospinal fluid (csf) parameters confirmed the diagnosis of a neuroborreliosis. these children were treated at random with intravenou ...19911917046
cutaneous manifestations of lyme borreliosis.the dermatological symptoms of lyme borreliosis present with a typical clinical pattern and characteristic time of appearance. in contrast to other manifestations of lyme borreliosis they are easily recognizable in most of the cases. in the first stage, erythema migrans arises at the tick bite site. with this symptom the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis can be established. during all manifestations of lyme borreliosis the history of erythema migrans is an important parameter to verify the diagnosis ...19911917047
preliminary characterization of borrelia burgdorferi csf isolates.borrelia burgdorferi was cultivated from three cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples of children (aged three and a half, four and a half and eight years) who were admitted to the hospital because of acute facial palsy, aseptic meningitis, and aseptic meningitis plus facial palsy. csf was taken on day one in two cases and on day two in the remaining case after onset of symptoms. all three strains showed a very similar sds-page pattern, without an ospb and 20kd band. however, of nine monoclonal antibo ...19911917048
[borrelia infections of the skin--progress of knowledge since the discovery of lyme disease].the description of lyme disease in 1976 and the detection of its causative agent, the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi), in 1982 led to an increase in our knowledge of the course of b. burgdorferi infection and its clinical manifestations. the classic tick-borne dermatoses erythema chronicum migrans (ecm), lymphadenosis benigna cutis (labc) and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) were proven by isolation of the spirochete from skin lesions to be caused by b. burgdorferi infe ...19911917458
phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes.the 16s rrna sequences were determined for species of spirochaeta, treponema, borrelia, leptospira, leptonema, and serpula, using a modified sanger method of direct rna sequencing. analysis of aligned 16s rrna sequences indicated that the spirochetes form a coherent taxon composed of six major clusters or groups. the first group, termed the treponemes, was divided into two subgroups. the first treponeme subgroup consisted of treponema pallidum, treponema phagedenis, treponema denticola, a thermo ...19911917844
use of third-generation cephalosporins. spirochetes.although dosing schedules are still being worked out, ceftriaxone has been shown to be effective in both primary and secondary syphilis. in our experience, ceftriaxone was the drug of choice for the treatment of lyme disease.19911918214
acute and chronic neuroborreliosis with and without cns involvement: a clinical, mri, and hla study of 27 cases.of the 96 serologically confirmed neuroborreliosis cases seen in our clinic between 1983 and 1988, 11 patients had mild to moderate and 4 patients had serious cerebral and/or spinal cord symptoms. nine of these 15 patients with cns involvement exhibited a primary chronic course of the illness. after high-dose intravenous therapy with penicillin, doxycycline or cefotaxime, given mostly in combination with cortisone, gradual recovery occurred with normalization of csf findings characteristic of ne ...19911919611
from the centers for disease control. self-induced malaria associated with malariotherapy for lyme disease--texas. 19911920712
[anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody in dogs: lyme disease as zoonosis].to obtain epidemiological data on human lyme disease (ld) in japan, anti borrelia burgdorferi (borrelia) antibody was measured in dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the anti-borrelia antibody titer was high in 106 (27.3%) of 387 clinically healthy dogs that may have a chance of tick bite but not in any of 31 negative control dogs not exposed to ticks; the difference of the antibody titer between two groups was significant. however, no signs of arthritis were observed in any of th ...19911920885
[serodiagnosis of lyme disease by elisa using borrelia burgdorferi flagellum antigen].antibodies to a 41,000 (41 kd) polypeptide in flagella of borrelia burgdorferi were measured in patients with lyme disease in japan by flagellum elisa. the igg and igm classes of antibodies to a flagellum antigens were detected in the sera as early as 0.5 months after infection. the igg antibodies continued to exist in their sera for more than one year, while the igm antibodies quickly faded out from their sera. with respect to a diagnostic specificity of the flagellum elisa, false positive reac ...19911920889
borreliosis risk after tick bite in north-eastern italy.lyme borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the borrelia burgdorferi spirochete transmitted to man by a tick bite. the aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of tick bites for the diagnosis of borreliosis in a sample of 266 subjects residing in an endemic area of north-eastern italy. in the serological diagnosis of borreliosis, positive and negative predictive values of tick bites were found to be 24% and 88% respectively.19911921746
[endogenous paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome caused by borrelia encephalitis].we describe a case with no neurological signs but marked psychiatric symptoms induced by borrelia burgdorferi, whose clinical picture was indistinguishable from an endogenous schizophrenia. the symptoms within one week under antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxon, but afterwards the patient showed a mild organic brain syndrome. the case demonstrated the aetiologic nonspecificity of paranoid symptoms and hallucinations and emphasizes that in psychotic patients without psychiatric history additional ...19911922585
central nervous system abnormalities in lyme neuroborreliosis.intrathecal production of anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibody occurs frequently in cns lyme, yet reliable diagnosis of neuroborreliosis is still considered difficult and controversial. therefore, we assessed the utility of this measurement in 103 lyme patients. among 15 patients with lyme meningoradiculitis and 41 controls, diagnostic specificity was 93% and sensitivity 87%. application of this method permits the identification of a rare b burgdorferi-associated multifocal encephalitis (brain inf ...19911922798
plagues--what's past is present: thoughts on the origin and history of new infectious diseases.medical science has made tremendous strides in overcoming infectious diseases in the 20th century. despite this, several epidemics of previously unrecognized diseases have occurred during the last 15 years. these diseases include lyme disease, legionnaires' disease, toxic shock syndrome, and aids. examination of past epidemics, including the plague of athens, the black death, syphilis, and influenza, suggests that the sudden occurrence of diseases that were previously unrecognized is not unusual ...19911925288
life-threatening complications of empiric ceftriaxone therapy for 'seronegative lyme disease'.lyme disease, now the most common tick-borne illness in the united states, has recently received much media attention, due in part to its potentially serious sequelae in untreated patients. because a rare patient with late illness may lack antibodies to the etiologic agent, borrelia burgdorferi, physicians may be tempted to give empiric antibiotics for illnesses that may not be lyme disease. we have described a patient who, despite negative laboratory evidence for late lyme disease, was treated ...19911925730
[spondylodiscitis as a dominant early symptom of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis].a 12-year-old female (hla-b27 negative) presented with unilateral low back pain and sterno-clavicular arthritis. six months after onset the clinical and radiological findings determined spondylodiscitis l1/2. on the basis of the clinical findings (oligoarthritis, symptomatic sacroilitis, spondylodiscitis), juvenile ankylosing spondylitis was suspected. the diagnosis was corroborated 18 months after the first occurrence of symptoms by the appearance of typical changes in the sacroiliac joint that ...19911927065
prevalence of lyme disease among patients with uveitis. 19911928255
canine seroprevalence and the distribution of ixodes dammini in an area of emerging lyme disease.this study evaluates the relative usefulness of canine serosurveys to predict risk of exposure in an area of emerging lyme disease by comparing the distribution of canine seroprevalence with that of vector ticks. from 16 veterinary clinics throughout the state of maine, 828 canine sera were obtained during the heartworm-testing months of april and may 1989 and measured for anti-borrelia antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. in the same year, 1605 ticks, including 585 ixodes dammini, w ...19911928538
california serogroup virus infections in the ryazan region of the ussr.serum samples from 60 people diagnosed in the summer of 1989 as having acute respiratory infections, meningitis or meningoencephalitis, acute pneumonia, lyme disease, or other illnesses were tested by neutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition with tahyna, inkoo, and snowshoe hare viruses of the california serogroup (family bunyaviridae, genus bunyavirus). demonstration of a diagnostic increase in antibody titers between paired serum samples from seven people showed that their illnesses were ...19911928573
a clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical comparison of acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans and morphea.we compared 19 patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca), a dermatosis caused by borrelia burgdorferi infection, and 40 patients with morphea, a disease of heterogeneous origin where a borrelia etiology has been suggested in some cases, both clinically and histologically to define the differences between these two dermatoses. clinically, aca involves acral body sites with lower temperatures, is seen mostly in elderly persons, and presents as a livid discoloration that is not sharpl ...19911928618
autoantibodies to human stress proteins. a survey of various rheumatic and other inflammatory diseases.unselected sera from patients with various rheumatic, inflammatory bowel, and autoimmune skin diseases (n = 268) were examined against human cell lysate by immunoblotting procedures, to determine the prevalence of autoantibodies to stress proteins (heat-shock proteins) hsp60 (homolog of escherichia coli groel and mycobacterial 65k antigens), hsp73, and hsp90. using standard, sensitive and specific assay conditions, igg and igm autoantibodies to these stress proteins were not demonstrable, or wer ...19911930332
a comparison of the occurrence of borreliae in nymphal and adult ixodes ricinus ticks.the prevalence of borreliae in 209 nymphal and 251 adult ixodes ricinus was investigated in two areas of southern moravia, czechoslovakia, using the dark-field and the giemsa stained-smear techniques. the proportions of infected ticks were 3.8% in nymphs and 10.6% in adults of area a, while they were 29.1% in nymphs and 35.9% in adults of area b. the mean number of borreliae per tick was about 3 to 10 times greater in adult than in nymphal i. ricinus. the results indicate a significant role of n ...19911930561
[serologic diagnosis of lyme disease. a pending problem].we analyze the experience in serologic diagnosis of lyme's borreliosis. from a total of 551 patients studied from 1987 to 1989, we further evaluate 80 cases with erythema chronicum migrans or a clinical diagnosis of lyme's disease and positive serological tests. the techniques used were ifi, elisa1 (whittaker bioproducts) and elisa2 (mardx diagnostics). serological tests results were evaluated in relation to clinical data. five cases were excluded because of no-specific symptoms. there were 20 f ...19911932240
[lyme disease with the triad of neurologic manifestations].a 40-year-old man developed progressive neurologic manifestations following a tick bite with subsequent localized erythema migrans. these manifestations included bilateral sensory radiculoneuritis (t7-12), rectovesical dysfunction, paraparesis, right facial palsy and nuchal rigidity. both serum and cerebrospinal fluid titers of igg antibody against borrelia burgdorferi were 1:8,192 using indirect immunofluorescence assay. no igm antibody was detected. with high-dose intravenous penicillin and co ...19911934771
[diagnosis of lyme neuroborreliosis. detection of intrathecal antibody formation].the most common neurological manifestation of lyme disease is lymphocytic meningoradiculitis (banwarth's syndrome, stage ii). in rare cases, chronic progressive encephalomyelitis (stage iii) with symptoms similar to multiple sclerosis is observed. antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi are detectable in 70-90% of stage ii cases, with igm-antibodies predominating in the first two weeks, and igg-antibodies thereafter. detection of specific intrathecal antibodies is the best serodiagnostic paramet ...19911937323
[borrelia burgdorferi infection. i. aspects of basic research, current approach to diagnosis and therapy]. 19911938417
linear plasmids of borrelia burgdorferi have a telomeric structure and sequence similar to those of a eukaryotic virus.spirochetes of the genus borrelia have double-stranded linear plasmids with covalently closed ends. the physical nature of the terminal connections was determined for the 16-kb linear plasmid of the b31 strain of the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi. native telomeric fragments representing the left and right ends of this plasmid were isolated and subjected to maxam-gilbert sequence analysis. at the plasmid ends the two dna strands formed an uninterrupted, perfectly palindromic, at-rich se ...19911938918
identification of related dna sequences in borrelia burgdorferi and two strains of leptospira interrogans by using polymerase chain reaction.the suitability of a polymerase chain reaction assay for borrelia burgdorferi in epidemiological studies of infected tick populations was evaluated by using 28 strains of leptospira interrogans and lysates of fixed adult ixodes tick tissues. two false positives representing leptospires were differentiated from b. burgdorferi by using an oligonucleotide probe.19911939594
use of flagellin-enriched antigens in a rapid, simple and specific quantitative enzyme immunoassay for lyme disease antibodies in human serum enzyme immunoassay (eia, elisa) using microwells coated with a flagellin-enriched fraction of b. burgdorferi and absorbent-containing sample diluent for the quantitative determination of lyme disease (ld) igg and igm antibodies in human serum samples was described. this ld eia required three 15-minute incubations at room temperature, followed by a 1-step normalization of photometer readings to eia units (eu/ml). compared with tests using the whole bacterial extract as antigens and a sample di ...19911939664
evaluation of four commercially available elisa assays for the serologic diagnosis of lyme disease.we evaluated four commercially available elisas for detection of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi with 21 sera from patients with clinically diagnosed lyme disease and 89 patient control sera. patient control sera included 28 sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (ra), 17 sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (sle), and 44 sera containing antibodies reported to cross-react in some lyme disease tests. the elisas tested (cambridge bioscience, diamedix, 3m, and zeus) detect an ...19911941354
evaluation of host-targeted acaricide for reducing risk of lyme disease in southern new york state.a 2-yr evaluation of a commercial product designed to reduce the risk of lyme disease by delivering permethrin-treated cotton to white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) was conducted at three sites in westchester county, n.y., an area where lyme disease is endemic. we examined the numbers of host-seeking nymphal ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, the numbers of larval i. dammini infesting mice, and the proportion of nymphs infected with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent ...19911941916
effectiveness of host-targeted permethrin in the control of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae)tubes of commercially available permethrin-treated cotton balls were distributed twice each year in 1989 and 1990 at five sites in a lyme disease endemic area in connecticut. five additional sites were not treated. at each application, 48 tubes, sufficient to treat 0.4 ha, were dispersed at 10-m intervals through woodlands, around ornamental plantings, and along rockwalls. the cotton was collected by white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) from the majority of the tubes, which resulted in a decr ...19911941927
etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, detected in ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected at a focus in alabama.the study was conducted at sites of known transmission of borrelia burgdorferi in east central alabama. the objectives were to determine species of ticks present at these sites, their host associations, and species of ticks and small mammals naturally infected with b. burgdorferi. a total of 451 hosts were examined for ticks, including cotton mice, peromyscus gossypinus (le conte); cotton rats, sigmodon hispidus say & ord; southern short-tailed shrews, blarina carolinensis (bachman); house mice, ...19911941933
borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from coastal virginia.ixodid ticks removed from hosts and from vegetation during march-november 1987 at sites in coastal virginia and north carolina were examined for borrelia burgdorferi. b. burgdorferi was evident in nine (22%) ixodes cookei packard removed from rice rats (oryzomys palustris), a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), and raccoons (procyon lotor); four (6%) amblyomma americanum (l.) removed from raccoons; and two (3%) dermacentor variabilis (say) removed from a raccoon and a rice rat. b. burgdorf ...19911941936
efficacy of a permethrin-based acaricide to reduce the abundance of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae).permethrin-impregnated cotton was distributed to reduce abundance of immature ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin feeding upon white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and questing on vegetation at a private resort site (the crane reservation of the trustees of reservations in ipswich, mass.) located in coastal new england. this test constituted the first independent evaluation of the efficacy of this commercial product (damminix). over a 3-yr period, 2,000 applicator tubes contai ...19911941940
lyme disease in california: interrelationship of ixodid ticks (acari), rodents, and borrelia burgdorferi.the association of immature ixodid ticks, several species of rodents, and the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, was studied in two habitats in northern california in spring and summer 1985 and year-round in 1986. a total of 428 rodents were collected from ecotonal chaparral and a woodland-grass-rock outcrop; the former habitat yielded six species, the latter three species. the deer mouse, peromyscus maniculatus (wagner), and the piñon mou ...19911941942
collections of adult ixodes dammini in indiana, 1987-1990, and the isolation of borrelia burgdorferi.the collection records for ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin in indiana are summarized for the period 1987-1990. in 1990, 13 of 729 deer examined were found to harbor adult i. dammini ticks. eleven of these ticks were collected from 10 deer at a site in newton county in northwestern indiana. borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes were isolated from a single female i. dammini tick collected from this site.19911941948
apparent incompetence of dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae) and fleas (insecta: siphonaptera) as vectors of borrelia burgdorferi in an ixodes dammini endemic area of ontario, canada.from april to october 1990, white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus (rafinesque), were examined for ectoparasites on long point, ontario, the only endemic area for ixodes dammini clifford, spielman, piesman & corwin and borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner known in canada. larval and nymphal i. dammini and dermacentor variabilis (packard), and adult fleas orchopeas leucopus (baker), epitedia wenmanni (rothschild), and ctenophthalamus pseudagrytes baker were common on ...19911941949
lyme disease in south carolina.lyme disease is present in south carolina, though not as prevalent as in many other states in the country. the characteristics of south carolina cases are similar to those of the nation as a whole. the tick vector of lyme disease in the southeast is not clearly established, but is thought to be ixodes scapularis. questions remain concerning the prevalence of infection in local ticks with borrelia burgdorferi, and the risk to a person bitten by a tick in south carolina.19911943029
lyme disease: a clinical review.lyme disease is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted primarily by ixodes dammini ticks in the northeast and upper midwest, by ixodes pacificus in western states, and by ixodes ricinus in europe. lyme disease can affect the skin, nervous system, heart, eyes, and joints, and is diagnosed in patients with these characteristic clinical features: exposure to an endemic area and usually a positive serologic test for b. burgdorferi six or more weeks after infection. full ...19911944020
[subacute organic psychosyndrome as a clinical manifestation of infection with stage ii borrelia burgdorferi without further neurologic manifestations].a 60-year old man developed a subacute psychoorganic syndrome over four weeks. cct was normal, except a slight atrophy of the cerebellar superior vermiform process. in the csf we found 1696/3 cells, suggesting a lesion of the hemato-encephalic barrier, an autochthonous igg production and an increased specific antibody-titre (10.3) for borrelia burgdorferi. based on these data a lyme-neuroborreliosis being diagnosed. treatment with cefotaxim and gentamycin was successful, a complete remission of ...19911944717
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in biological samples using the polymerase chain reaction assay.oligonucleotide primers were used in the polymerase chain reaction assay to amplify specific dna regions of the borrelia burgdorferi 49-kb linear plasmid. one set of primers identifies a 442-bp dna fragment in the ospa gene and a second pair of amplimers, a 176-bp dna piece located in the ospb gene. the last set of primers, ospbpc3/pc4, outperformed the other pair in discriminating pathogenic north american or european isolates from related bacterial species, detected down to 4 spirochaetes, and ...19911947428
genetics of borrelia burgdorferi.structural analysis by electronmicroscopy and pulsed field agarose gel electrophoresis of the genome of borrelia burgdorferi has revealed a 1000 kilobase (kb) chromosome and a unique type of extra chromosomal linear dna, as well as supercoiled circular dna. the plasmid dna ranged in size from 1.5 to 50 kb. gene mapping of the ospa and ospb genes have placed them on the 49 kb linear plasmid molecule. the osp operon of b. burgdorferi has been extensively characterized at the molecular level.19911947799
lyme borreliosis: non-specific interactions of the organism with the host.this article will review the known factors which are host derived or borne out of the interaction between borrelia burgdorferi and the cells of the various organ systems in order to understand the process of infection b. burgdorferi as an arthropod-borne pathogen must adapt to various and diverse environments in its life cycle. in the invertebrate vector, this organism must tolerate the conditions of the tick midgut as well as the conditions after systemic dissemination. in the vertebrate host, ...19911947801
antibiotic susceptibility of borrelia burgdorferi in vitro and in animal models.the development of a rational antibiotic therapy for lyme borreliosis has been hampered by the lack of reliable microbiologic or serologic criteria for diagnosis or cure. in studies of the treatment, the clinical response, has been used as the primary indicator of efficacy. studies often differ in their criteria for a successful outcome, and it is not clear whether persistent symptoms are due to incomplete eradication of the pathogen, to a post-infectious syndrome, or to erroneous diagnosis in t ...19911947803
lyme borreliosis: a relapsing fever-like disease?to determine by xenodiagnosis length and concentrations of spirochetemias produced by borrelia burgdorferi in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), laboratory reared mice were inoculated with either spirochete-containing tick suspensions or bsk ii spirochete culture and were exposed for as long as three months to larval ixodes dammini. upon development to the nymphal stage, ticks were evaluated for spirochetal infections by direct immunofluorescence. all mice were found to circulate spirochet ...19911947807
epizootiology of lyme borreliosis.borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted from animals to humans by ticks belonging primarily to the ixodes ricinus complex. transmission occurs during feeding, either by salivation, regurgitation, or by both processes. two eurasian (ixodes ricinus and i. persulcatus) and three north american (i. dammini, i. scapularis and i. pacificus) species vector b. burgdorferi to humans. all ticks feed on three different host animals during their lives, and each species parasitizes a relatively large number of d ...19911947808
relationship of borrelia burgdorferi to its arthropod the iv international conference on lyme borreliosis, a workshop was held to identify the unique development of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, in its established and suspected arthropod vectors. the following is a summary of the panel's discussions of research aspects concerning relationship(s) of this borrelia to its vectors, and the mode(s) of its transmission to animal hosts.19911947809
borrelia burgdorferi as an etiologic agent in chronic heart failure?since 1980 cardiac manifestations of lyme borreliosis have been described as selflimited conduction and transient left ventricular disorders or even cardiomegaly. an etiologic role of borrelia burgdorferi in long-standing chronic heart disturbances is suggested by the cultivation of a strain of borrelia burgdorferi which we were able to isolate from an endomyocardial biopsy of a patient with long-standing dilated cardiomyopathy. the aim of this study was to acquire information about the prevalen ...19911947816
molecular biology of antigenic variation in lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever: a comparative analysis.lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever are human diseases caused by different members of the genus borrelia. antigenic variation has been a well-known feature of the pathogenesis of relapsing fever for decades. more recently it has been recognized that borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme borreliosis, also can vary its surface antigens. in this review the biology and molecular biology of antigenic variation of the pathogens in these two disorders are compared.19911947817
factors influencing the antigenic reactivity of borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease spirochete.the immunologic reactivity of some antigens of low passage borrelia burgdorferi varied with the temperature at which it was cultivated in vitro, with long-term cultivation in vitro, and following passage in white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus. the low passaged uncloned strain sh-2-82 had either more antigens or antigens which were more immunoreactive when grown at various temperatures from 28-39 degrees c. the influence of temperatures was less evident, however with a higher passage of the sa ...19911947819
[prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in forestry workers in slavonia and baranja]. 19911950640
dogs as sentinels for lyme disease in investigation of the relationship between incident human cases of lyme disease and seroprevalence of antibodies to b. burgdorferi in dogs was undertaken in order to determine whether dogs might serve as sentinels for lyme disease.19911951802
cognitive functioning in late lyme borreliosis.lyme borreliosis, a tick-borne multisystem disease, may cause a variety of neurologic complications, including meningoencephalitis and encephalopathy. to evaluate neurobehavioral function following treated lyme borreliosis, 15 patients with lyme disease and complaints of persistent cognitive difficulty a mean of 6.7 months following antibiotic treatment underwent neuropsychological evaluation and were compared with 10 healthy controls, matched in aggregate for age and education, who underwent th ...19911953395
protection of mice from lyme borreliosis by oral vaccination with escherichia coli expressing ospa.mice immunized with recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa) in freund's adjuvant or with intraperitoneal injections of live escherichia coli expressing ospa have been shown to be protected from infection with borrelia burgdorferi. to investigate the efficacy of oral vaccination, c3h/he mice were inoculated with 10(8) live e. coli expressing recombinant ospa by gavage and boosted in a similar manner on days 10, 20, 30, and 40. the animals developed serum igg antibodies to ospa by immunoblot an ...19911955724
false positive serologic tests for lyme disease after varicella infection. 19911961232
tick-borne zoonoses: lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and rocky mountain spotted fever.the primary health risk for veterinary staff and companion pet owners is exposure to ticks in the wooded/pasture areas or to ticks brought indoors by their pets. there are no proven cases of direct animal to human transmission for lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, or rocky mountain spotted fever. direct inoculation of blood from a bacteremic animal, eg, by needle stick is a theoretical, but, so far, undocumented health risk. however, veterinarians should record needle sticks or other inoculation-type ...19911962008
sequestration of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in immune complexes in seronegative lyme find out whether apparent seronegativity in patients strongly suspected of having lyme disease can be due to sequestration of antibodies in immune complexes, such complexes were isolated and tested for antibody to borrelia burgdorferi. in a blinded analysis the antibody was detected in all 10 seronegative lyme disease patients with erythema chronicum migrans (ecm), in none of 19 patients with other diseases, and in 4 of 12 seronegative patients who probably had lyme disease but had no ecm. th ...19901967770
lack of transmission of borrelia burgdorferi by blood transfusion. 19901968566
detection of borrelia burgdorferi infection in ixodes dammini ticks with the polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to amplify dna sequences of the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, and was applied to the detection of the spirochete in its tick vector. the target for pcr amplification was the osp-a gene of strain b31; analysis of isolates from different geographical areas indicated that this gene could be used to identify most north american isolates. these methods were extended to the analysis of colony-derived and field-collected ixodes dammi ...19901969867
antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in guillain-barré syndrome. 19901971906
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