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acute reversible diffuse conduction system disease due to lyme disease.during the acute phase of lyme disease, a 56-year-old man without previous heart disease developed complete heart block with alternating left and right bundle branch block pattern qrs complexes. electrophysiological study performed in the acute phase revealed marked hv prolongation, although the level of heart block was at the atrioventricular node. the heart block was mildly symptomatic and resolved (as did the bundle branch block) with antibiotic therapy. lyme disease may cause reversible his- ...19901701888
immunoreactive epitopes on an expressed recombinant flagellar protein of borrelia burgdorferi.a recombinant borrelia burgdorferi flagellin protein expressed in escherichia coli is bound by a murine monoclonal antiflagellin antibody (h9724) and by antibodies in the sera of patients with lyme disease. immunoreactive epitopes on the flagellar protein were identified by immunoblot analysis of antibody binding to expressed truncated flagellar proteins. the epitope recognized by the murine monoclonal antibody is within the central heterologous region of the flagellar protein (amino acids 90 to ...19911702766
analysis of the borrelia burgdorferi geho fla gene and antigenic characterization of its gene product.the fla gene of borrelia burgdorferi geho was analyzed and expressed in escherichia coli. the structural gene encodes a flagellar protein of 336 amino acids. comparative sequence analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed a high degree of sequence conservation with flagellins from both phylogenetically related and unrelated bacteria. the antigenic properties of the b. burgdorferi fla protein were studied by synthesizing overlapping octapeptides, which were screened by using a battery of differ ...19911704884
cells secreting antibodies to myelin basic protein in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with lyme neuroborreliosis.an autoimmune response to myelin basic protein (mbp) has been proposed to participate in the development of the chronic neurologic manifestations that may accompany borrelia burgdorferi-induced lyme disease. using an immunospot assay, we counted cells secreting antibodies to mbp. anti-mbp igg antibody-secreting cells were detected in csf from eight of 13 consecutive patients with lyme neuroborreliosis irrespective of stage of disease. the numbers were between 1/370 and 1/5,000 csf cells (mean, 1 ...19911707148
t cell and antibody reactivity with the borrelia burgdorferi 60-kda heat shock protein in lyme arthritis.the reactivity of cloned t cells and serum antibodies, obtained from patients with chronic lyme arthritis, with expressed recombinant b. burgdorferi 60-kda heat shock protein homologue (hsp60) was analyzed. the expressed recombinant borrelia burgdorferi hsp60 was bound by antibodies in the sera of patients with lyme arthritis, but not by control sera. a t cell clone (cr253), isolated from one of four patients examined, exhibited an hla-dr2 restricted proliferative response to the expressed recom ...19911709664
specific immunofluorescence staining of treponema pallidum in smears and tissues.to date, tissue sections prepared from formalin-fixed tissues have not been successfully stained with treponema pallidum subspecies-specific antibody in a direct fluorescent-antibody assay. while current methods stain t. pallidum, they do not distinguish t. pallidum from other spirochetes such as borrelia burgdorferi (e. f. hunter, p. w. greer, b. l. swisher, a. r. simons, c. e. farshy, j. a. crawford, and k. r. sulzer, arch. pathol. lab. med. 108:878-880, 1984). because trypsin pretreatment of ...19911709944
evidence for (lipo) oligosaccharides in borrelia burgdorferi and their serological specificity.sds-page and western immunoblot profiles have been determined for different strains of borrelia burgdorferi. major proteins of 60 kda, 41 kda corresponding to flagellin, 34-36 kda and 30-31 kda corresponding to ospb and ospa respectively, and 18-20 kda corresponding to 'pc' fractions were detected. a "rough" lipopolysaccharide which we called lipooligosaccharide (los) of 8-11 kda appeared to be present, being detected by specific silver staining, as in crude borrelia lysates as in proteinase k d ...19911711876
infective acute transverse myelopathy. report of two cases.two children with acute transverse myelopathy following adenovirus and borrelia burgdorferi infections are presented. the diagnosis stems from the clinical presentation, the determination of specific antibodies in serum and the favorable response to penicillin treatment in the case of neuroborreliosis. both children made a good recovery. the cerebrospinal fluid examination showed a highly increased myelin basic protein concentration, indicating demyelination.19911713310
adsorption with a soluble e. coli antigen fraction improves the specificity of elisa tests for lyme disease.we reported that preadsorption of patient serum with heat killed e. coli increased the specificity of elisa for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi. that procedure required extra specimen handling and a preincubation. we report the use of a soluble e. coli antigen fraction that is included in serum diluent, eliminating additional steps. sera from 220 individuals were tested for antibodies to b. burgdorferi. twenty sera were obtained from patients with lyme disease and 200 sera were from a populat ...19911713972
morphology of borrelia burgdorferi: structural patterns of cultured borreliae in relation to staining methods.the microscopic recognition of borrelia burgdorferi in biologic fluids and tissues is difficult and challenging because of low numbers of organisms occurring as single isolated spirochetes, the apparent lack of colony formation in tissues, and differing lengths and structural morphologies. to identify the most common morphologic forms, we studied numerous cultures by a variety of microscopic techniques. culture suspensions of b. burgdorferi were stained by several different histochemical procedu ...19911716264
molecular mapping of osp-a mediated immunity against borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease.it is paradoxical that although antibodies to the outer surface protein (osp) a of borrelia burgdorferi protect mice against infection and that immunization of uninfected mice with osp-a is protective, antibodies to osp-a induced early in natural infection of mice are not curative. a region recognized by a neutralizing mab is also recognized by sera from chronically infected or immunized mice but is not bound by sera from mice infected for 15 days. infection in mice, despite the presence of earl ...19911716290
identification of an immunoreactive non-proteinaleous component in borrelia burgdorferi.investigations of immunoblots using borrelia burgdorferi antigen demonstrated that a band, migrating faster than the bromophenol blue front in sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis, reacted strongly with sera containing anti-borrelia burgdorferi antibodies preferentially of the igg class. extraction of this antigenic component and chemical analyses showed that the substance was composed mainly of fatty acids and carbohydrates. typical structures of classical lipooolysaccharides such as 3-de ...19911722277
comparative ability of various detergents to extract proteins of borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia hermsii.borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia hermsii were treated with the following detergents: sodium dodecyl sulphate (sds), n-lauryl sarcosine (sarkosyl) and triton x-100, and the soluble and insoluble fractions obtained after each detergent treatment were examined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. sarkosyl as well as sds solubilized all borrelia proteins, whereas triton x-100 treatment selectively solubilized the majority of other borrelial proteins, leaving two proteins o ...19911723136
[retrospective study of a borreliosis infected blood donor].lyme disease is caused by a spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, and represents a potential transfusion hazard. some borrelia burgdorferi-infected blood donors may not be disqualified by standard donor selection procedures, thus possibly transmitting the disease. in a follow-up of 14 recipients of blood products donated by such a donor, no clinical signs or serologic evidence of a transfusion-transmitted borreliosis could be demonstrated.19911725647
immunological characterization of a low molecular mass polypeptidic antigen of borrelia burgdorferi.the presence of a low molecular mass polypeptidic antigen in borrelia burgdorferi was described. the protein was exposed at the bacterial surface since it was clearly identified by mab 3h4 using the immunofluorescence test performed with living bacteria. this antigen was cleaved by proteinase k treatment, whereas it was resistant to the action of chymotrypsin, trypsin and thermolysin. western blotting analysis of the immunological reactivity of this antigenic structure performed using monoclonal ...19911725956
demonstration of a b-lymphocyte mitogen produced by the lyme disease pathogen, borrelia burgdorferi.lyme disease refers to the multisymptomatic illness in humans which results from infection with the tick-borne spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. the white-footed mouse is the major reservoir for b. burgdorferi and, upon infection, certain inbred mice develop symptoms similar to those reported in human disease. sonicated preparations of washed spirochetes were found to have potent mitogenic activity when cultured with lymphocytes from naive c57bl/6, c3h/hej, or balb/c mice. the activity of the b. ...19921730476
roles of ospa, ospb, and flagellin in protective immunity to lyme borreliosis in laboratory mice.vaccination with recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa) has been shown to protect mice from infection with borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease agent. to determine whether antibodies to b. burgdorferi proteins other than ospa are involved in protective immunity, antibodies to ospa were removed from protective anti-b. burgdorferi serum; the residual serum was still protective. absorption of ospa and ospb antibodies from anti-b. burgdorferi serum eliminated the protective effect. therefore, ...19921730500
morphology and dynamics of protruding spirochete periplasmic flagella.we recently characterized the three-dimensional shape of treponema phagedenis periplasmic flagella (pfs). in the course of these studies, we observed protrusions on swimming cells that resembled pfs. here we present a detailed characterization of the shape, structure, and motion of these protrusions. although protrusion formation occurred primarily in wild-type cells during the stationary phase, a large fraction of exponential-phase cells of cell cylinder helicity mutants (greater than 90% of mu ...19921732217
polymerase chain reaction primers and probes derived from flagellin gene sequences for specific detection of the agents of lyme disease and north american relapsing fever.by cloning and sequencing the flagellin gene of borrelia hermsii and comparing this sequence with that of the corresponding gene from b. burgdorferi, i identified a central region within the two genes which showed a reduced level of sequence similarity. oligonucleotide sequences selected from this region produced species-specific amplimers when used in polymerase chain reaction experiments. thus, primers derived from the b. burgdorferi sequence amplified a 276-bp fragment from 22 strains of b. b ...19921734073
pcr detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna in cerebrospinal fluid of lyme neuroborreliosis patients.we used the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), a method useful in the detection of borrelia burgdorferi in vitro, to evaluate csf in patients thought to have neuroborreliosis. nested pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed to recognize the c-terminal region of b burgdorferi ospa. csf samples were obtained from (1) patients with immunologic evidence of systemic b burgdorferi infection and clinical manifestations suggestive of cns dysfunction, (2) seronegative patients with clinical disorders ...19921734321
nervous about ticks--assessing lyme disease risk in san diego county. 19921734618
failure of multitarget detection of borrelia burgdorferi-associated dna sequences in synovial fluids of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: a cautionary note. 19921734914
loss of lyme disease spirochetes from ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on european blackbirds.to determine whether blackbirds (turdus merula), the most abundant and most abundantly tick-infested ecotonal bird of central europe, may contribute to the transmission of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi), we compared the infectivity to ticks of naturally as well as experimentally infected blackbirds and rodents. european blackbirds experience intense exposure to ixodes ricinus ticks and to the pathogens that they transmit. in nature, subadult i. ricinus ticks found feeding on ...19921740177
invasion of the central nervous system by borrelia burgdorferi in acute disseminated infection.to determine central nervous system (cns) involvement in acutely disseminated borrelia burgdorferi infection by measurement of borrelia-specific dna using the polymerase chain-reaction (pcr) assay and to compare the results of this with standard serological tests.19921740859
localization of outer surface proteins a and b in both the outer membrane and intracellular compartments of borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi b31 with and without outer membranes contained nearly identical amounts of outer surface proteins a and b. the majority of each immunogen also was localized intracellularly by immunocryoultramicrotomy. these results are inconsistent with the widely held belief that outer surface proteins a and b are exclusively outer membrane proteins.19911744059
experimental inoculation of sheep with borrelia burgdorferi. 19911746105
[prevalence of lyme borreliosis in the netherlands].in the autumn of 1989 a seroepidemiological study was carried out among 440 owners of hunting dogs and 1052 blood donors from different regions in the netherlands. to detect igg antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed. the prevalence of antibodies to b. burgdorferi in owners of hunting dogs was 15%, which was significantly higher than in blood donors (9%). in both groups the prevalence of seropositivity increased with age. there was no difference bet ...19911749435
myositis in mice inoculated with borrelia burgdorferi.the authors describe the appearance of myositis in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice after subcutaneous inoculation with borrelia burgdorferi by histology and immunohistology. experimental infection of mice 1) causes inflammation of striated but not smooth muscles, 2) affects the entire musculoskeletal system, and 3) is characterized by perivascular and interfacicular infiltration of mononuclear leukocytes in the striated muscle leading to necrosis as well as disruption of muscle fibers. ...19911750502
lyme borreliosis in dutch forestry workers.serum samples from 127 dutch forestry workers and 127 matched controls were tested for antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi in an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa). those of the forestry workers were also tested by western blotting. the forestry workers were examined clinically for evidence of lyme borreliosis without the examiner or the workers knowing the results of the laboratory tests. seroprevalence of b. burgdorferi antibodies among forestry workers (25/127) was significantly high ...19911753136
babesia microti, human babesiosis, and borrelia burgdorferi in connecticut.babesia microti was isolated from a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus) that was captured in southeastern connecticut in 1988, when the first human case of babesiosis acquired in connecticut was recognized. to date, 13 cases of babesiosis have been reported in connecticut, the largest number of human cases reported on the mainland united states. two of nine patients quiried remembered a prior tick bite. since babesia parasites are known to be vectored only by ticks, we surmise that 12 of th ...19911757548
rickettsiae and borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks.nymphs and adults of hard-bodied ticks were collected in connecticut and tested by direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining methods for rickettsiae and borrelia burgdorferi. of the 609 ixodes dammini ticks examined, 59 (9.7%) harbored rickettsialike microorganisms in hemocytes (blood cells). these bacteria reacted with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum to ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum to ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichi ...19911757551
antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in deer and raccoons.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis, in deer (odocoileus virginianus) and raccoons (procyon lotor). blood samples were collected from these mammals in connecticut, maryland, north carolina, georgia and florida. seropositivity for deer was highest in connecticut (56% of 353 sera) and maryland (51% of 35 sera). raccoons in connecticut, maryland, north carolina, and florida also had an ...19911758022
diagnostic dilemma for the 1990s: lyme disease versus rheumatic fever.a 15-year-old boy developed an annular erythematous skin rash, fever, knee pain, syncope, and was found to be in complete heart block requiring temporary transvenous pacing. his recovery was complete following therapy with high dose steroids, aspirin, and iv ceftriaxone followed by oral penicillin. serologic tests documented diagnostic levels of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi as well as to group a streptococcal dnase b. diagnoses of both lyme disease and rheumatic fever are based on clinical ...19911759468
pseudospirochetes in animal blood being cultured for borrelia burgdorferi. 19911760469
antigenic properties of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ixodes ovatus and ixodes persulcatus in hokkaido, japan.spirochete strains hp3 and ho14, isolated from ixodes persulcatus and i. ovatus in hokkaido in 1989, were the first isolates of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease, to be recognized in japan. antigenic properties of the japanese strains were compared with those of the strains isolated in the united states (b31 and 297) and europe (irs, p/gau, p/bi, 2/b45, and 3/b56) by western blotting (immunoblotting), by using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against strains b31 and p/bi. t ...19911761676
isolation and characterization of borrelia burgdorferi from illinois ixodes dammini.ixodes dammini ticks from two northwestern illinois sites were found to be infected with borrelia burgdorferi at rates of 19 and 32%. b. burgdorferi isolates, one from each site, had protein and antigenic patterns similar to those of the b-31 strain. an indirect immunofluorescence method proved to be more sensitive than dark-field microscopy in detection of these spirochetes. a modified bsk medium containing rifampin was found to be more efficient for spirochete isolation than unsupplemented bsk ...19911761698
rectal infusion and aspiration of material through the guts of ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae).a technique for inoculating and removing substances via the anus of vector ticks was devised to define features of vector competence precisely. calibrated inocula (greater than 5 nanoliter) containing aqueous dye and polystyrene beads as well as infectious agents were infused into the rectal sacs of ticks using glass microcapillary pipettes placed within the expanded anal orifice. the guts of preadult and adult ticks, ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, dermacentor variabilis (s ...19911770516
ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in kansas: a new distribution record.the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis say, previously known to occur only in the extreme southeastern corner of kansas, has been collected in douglas and jefferson counties in the northeast. the new collections extend the northern range of this species in kansas by approximately 240 km. the role of i. scapularis as a vector of the lyme borreliosis spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, makes this a noteworthy extension of its known range. the proximity of these new collection sites to large centers ...19911770524
[the modification of a medium for culturing and isolating the causative agent of lyme disease].possible use of three types of media (prepared on the basis of 199, rpmi and mem, the rest of receipt being recommended for bsk-ii) for cultivation of the agent of lyme's disease is reviewed. the most satisfactory borrelia burgdorferi growth has been noted on the medium with base 199. using the same medium 5 spirochaete isolates have been obtained from 10 passages of the material from 41 ticks, ixodes persulcatus sch. and i. ricinus l. the results seem promising for further studies on the elabor ...19911770889
perspective on the development of vaccines against lyme disease.lyme disease, the multisystem illness caused by the tick-borne spirochaete, borrelia burgdorferi, has emerged as a threat to public health worldwide. it is a particularly vexing problem in the united states where it is growing in range and intensity. in fact, in some hyperendemic regions of new york and new england, lyme disease is now such a threat that it interferes with all sorts of outdoor activities, and has even led to depreciation of real estate values. family dogs in these areas seem to ...19911771965
[incidence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in dogs in small animal practice in north bavaria].with help of indirect immunofluorescent assay antibodies were detected to borrelia burgdorferi, agent of lyme borreliosis in 46 (35.5%) serum samples of 130 randomly selected dogs of a small animal practice in northern bavaria. a positive reaction of the indirect immunofluorescent assay was demonstrated in 15 cases in a serum dilution of 1:64, in 9 cases in a serum dilution of 1:128, in 5 cases in a serum dilution of 1:256, in 2 cases in a serum dilution of 1:512, in 3 cases in a serum dilution ...19911772393
clinical aspects of localized and systemic scleroderma.a number of reports of potential etiologic agents of localized and systemic scleroderma appeared in the past year, including alterations in tryptophan metabolism, use of appetite suppressants, and exposure to silicone. an infectious agent, borrelia burgdorferi, was found not to be implicated in localized scleroderma. the improvement in outcome of systemic scleroderma complicated by renovascular hypertension was highlighted in several papers, as was the emerging importance of cardiac and pulmonar ...19911772753
ixodes (pholeoixodes) hexagonus, an efficient vector of borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory.borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al. was first isolated from the midgut of ixodes dammini spielman et al. in the u.s.a. and from the midgut of i.ricinus (l.) in europe. i.ricinus was considered to be the only tick vector of this borrelia, in europe, until i.hexagonus leach, the hedgehog tick, was found to harbour spirochaetes. this paper reports an evaluation of the vector competence of i.hexagonus for the spirochaete b.burgdorferi. transovarial and trans-stadial survival were demonstrated and th ...19911773121
host associations and seasonal abundance of immature ixodes persulcatus (acari: ixodidae) in a lyme-disease-endemic area in china.ticks of nine small mammal species were studied in an area of endemic lyme disease in hailin county, heilongjiang province, from 1 may to 10 october 1986. the bulk (93%) total small mammal captures were apodemus speciosus (45%), clethrionomys rufocanus (31%), a. agrarius (11%) and eutamias sibiricus; (5%): these host species accounted for 97% of the 162 ticks collected. ixodes persulcatus schulze were most abundant on e. sibiricus (0.64 larvae and 0.08 nymphs/squirrel), and less abundant on a. a ...19911773682
immune response to the lyme spirochete borrelia burgdorferi affected by ethanol consumption.rats fed excessive amounts of ethanol developed marked hematologic and immunologic changes. these included a reversal of the normal lymphocyte to granulocyte ratio in the peripheral blood, lower spleen and lymph node weights and a greatly reduced capacity to express normal cell mediated immune functions, based on poor lymphocyte reactivity in vivo, and in vitro to t and b cell mitogens and borrelial antigens shortly after primary immunization with the bacterial spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. ...19911774157
amplification of borrelia burgdorferi dna in skin biopsies from patients with lyme disease.to determine whether the polymerase chain reaction could contribute to a better diagnosis of lyme disease, skin biopsy samples from patients suffering from erythema chronicum migrans or acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans were tested for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi by a polymerase chain reaction assay, which was specific for european strains. the spirochete could not be detected microscopically in any of the 15 biopsy samples obtained from nine patients. however, b. burgdorferi could be ...19911774243
110-kilodalton recombinant protein which is immunoreactive with sera from humans, dogs, and horses with lyme borreliosis.ecori-digested dna from borrelia burgdorferi was ligated into the dephosphorylated vector pwr590 and transformed into escherichia coli dh5 alpha. when the gene library was screened, 20 clones reacted with pooled dog sera with high titers (immunofluorescent antibody titer, greater than or equal to 1,280) to this spirochete. one clone expressed a 110-kda antigen that reacted strongly with the high-titered pooled sera from dogs with lyme borreliosis and serum from goats immunized with b. burgdorfer ...19911774245
adsorption and biotin-streptavidin amplification in serologic tests for diagnosis of lyme borreliosis.serum samples from persons with lyme borreliosis, periodontitis, or acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with and without adsorption and amplification procedures. when biotin and streptavidin reagents were used as an amplification procedure in elisa without the use of commercially prepared sorbent (treponema phagedenis biotype reiter), sensitivity increased. of the 85 serum samples collected from persons with erythema migrans but n ...19911774293
lyme disease assay which detects killed borrelia burgdorferi.we developed an in vitro assay showing that borrelia burgdorferi organisms were killed by serum from patients with lyme disease. twenty of 20 lyme disease serum samples caused b. burgdorferi killing in a range of 36 to 99% compared with the mean number of viable spirochetes when sera from 10 healthy individuals were used. the percentage of killing of b. burgdorferi increased with convalescent serum from patients with early lyme disease. the borreliacidal activity was detectable in some sera dilu ...19911774294
molecular and immunological analysis of a polymorphic periplasmic protein of borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of lyme disease, a tick-borne spirochetosis with a worldwide prevalence. to assist the categorization and typing of fresh isolates from global foci, we have identified a unique species-specific periplasmic protein (p22-a) conserved among all north american and european isolates examined. the gene encoding this antigen was cloned, and the recombinant was used to screen serum collected from experimentally infected animals. although antibodies were detect ...19911774319
[lyme arthritis in childhood: monarthritis of the knee joint, clinically indistinguishable from monarthritis of unknown origin].four children with monarthritis of the knee had no further manifestations of lyme borreliosis, but a positive antibody titer against borrelia burgdorferi as measured by elisa. about 3 years after antibiotic therapy none of the children had arthritis, but one suffered from fibromyalgia and another child had still a vigorous reactivity against borrelia burgdorferi antigens by elisa and immunoblot. in this study 4 out of 20 children with recently recognized arthritis had lyme arthritis which makes ...19911775141
spatial and temporal dispersion of immature ixodes dammini on peromyscus leucopus in northwestern illinois.infestation by immature ixodes dammini and infection by borrelia burgdorferi of the white-footed mouse peromyscus leucopus were studied in castle rock state park in northwestern illinois during june-october 1990. prevalence and intensity of infestation of larvae on mice were highest in august with a smaller peak in early june. the distribution of larvae on mice was highly aggregated during each of the sampling periods. aggregation appears to be the result of a series of nonrandom successful atta ...19911779300
immunological properties of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from the ixodes ovatus in shizuoka, japan.three strains of spirochetes (ika1 to 3) were isolated from the midgut of ixodes ovatus collected in the ikawa region of the northern part of shizuoka, japan. these isolates had eight flagella, and their size and other morphological features were similar to borrelia burgdorferi. they showed similar motility and reacted with monoclonal antibody (mab) h9724 against borrelial flagella and with mab h5332 against the outer surface protein a. these strains showed similar sds-page profiles to that of b ...19911779892
[study on the elimination of bacteria from the cultures of lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi)].contaminated cultures of strains h11, h20 from ticks, and strain r9 from patient were purified by antisera for bacteria, chemicals, filtration dilution and animal inoculation. most of bacteria were eliminated after adding antisera into contaminated strains h11, h20. the preliminarily decontaminated cultures of strains h11, h20 or those with a few bacteria such as strain r9 could be completely purified by filtration, chemicals, dilution, or animal inoculation, but filtration is the simplest and t ...19911782662
[topics on lyme disease]. 19911783847
an indirect microhemagglutination test for lyme disease.we have developed an indirect microhemagglutination test (imha) for detecting antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi using formalin-fixed chicken erythrocytes sensitized with a sonicated extract of the bacteria. the specificity of imha for lyme disease was compared with that of a conventional indirect immunoperoxidase technique (ip) using sera from the patients with syphilis, randomly-chosen outpatients unrelated to lyme disease, and from normal individuals. the imha was more specific than ip, givin ...19911784260
[risk of infection with borrelia burgdorferi in an area endemic for lyme disease].the results of the study of the prevalence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi in three categories of subjects from the endemic region of lyme disease in the northeast croatia are reported. the study comprised 265 subjects: 97 living in the rural region, 51 forest rangers working in this region and 117 members of the yugoslav people's army who spent a certain period of time in this region. positive titer of specific antibodies were found in 11.3% of local inhabitants, 25.5% forest rangers ...19911788965
borrelia burgdorferi: another cause of foodborne illness?borrelia burgdorferi was identified as the etiological agent of lyme disease in 1982. this gram-negative spirochete is classified in the order spirochaetales and the family spirochaetaceae. the pathogen is fastidious, microaerophilic, mesophilic and metabolises glucose through the embden-meyerhof pathway. a generation time of 11 to 12 h at 37 degrees c in barbour-stoenner-kelly medium has been reported. lyme disease, named after lyme in connecticut, is distributed globally. it is the most common ...19911790102
absence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in multiple sclerosis. 19911792860
an outer surface protein is a major t cell antigen in experimental lyme disease in cb6f1 mice. 19911793226
lyme arthritis in the netherlands: a nationwide survey among rheumatologists.a nationwide survey among all 118 dutch rheumatologists (response rate 85%) yielded 42 patients with lyme arthritis. the arthritis was nonpersistent in all these patients. a tick bite was reported by 23 of these 42 patients (55%). erythema migrans was recalled by 19 patients (45%). cardiac manifestations occurred in 4 patients (9%) and neurologic symptoms in 14 patients (33%). by immunoabsorbent assay or immunofluorescence technique 37 patients (88%) had positive igg antibodies to borrelia burgd ...19911795318
[a description of a case of lyme disease in eastern siberia].a typical case of lyme's borreliosis with classical stage course has been described in a 56-year-old male residing in severobań≠kalsk. this case confirms the possibility of infestation with lyme's disease in the regions where ixodes ticks are widespread, as they are vectors of both tick-borne encephalitis virus and lyme's borreliosis.19911795690
lyme antibodies and lyme disease: when to measure and who to treat. 19911797295
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from a skin lesion in a patient with granuloma annulare. 19911800376
tracing the roots of borrelia burgdorferi. 19911800474
culture of borrelia burgdorferi on six solid media.six solid substrates were compared for their support of growth of ten isolates of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis. the following substrates with or without rabbit serum and bovine serum albumin were tested: bsk agar, bhiam agar, tarom agar, mem agar, mkp agar and pmr agar. after incubation in a candle jar and a gaspak for two to four weeks, borrelia colonies were counted and characterized. colony morphology was related more to the growth substrate than to the charac ...19911802702
neurological manifestations of lyme borreliosis.after the isolation of borrelia burgdorferi, the previously unknown causative agent of lyme disease, two neurological disorders, bannwarth's syndrome and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans-associated neuropathy, which have been known in europe for decades, gained new interest. with the availability of serodiagnostic tests, a chronic debilitating disorder--progressive borrelia encephalomyelitis--was found to be caused by chronic infection with b. burgdorferi. beside these typical manifestations, ...19911804127
[survey during 4 years of the infestation level of the tick ixodes ricinus (acari ixodidae) by borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme borreliosis, in 2 forests in brittany].the authors followed, during 4 years consecutively, from 1987 to 1990, by immunofluorescence, the frequency of b. burgdorferi in an amount of 677 nymphs of i. ricinus tick, collected fasting by flagging in 2 forests in brittany (france). percentages obtained in each of these forests do not reveal significative differencies statistically and seem to show a relative stability, from one year to the following, during the considered period, of the infestation levels in ticks.19911807855
serological survey for lyme disease in sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).seventy-six wild sika deer (cervus nippon yesoensis) from areas endemic for borrelia burgdorferi during 1988 to 1989 had the igg antibody to the bacteria in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the percentage of seropositive deer was 25.0% to strain ho14 and 22.4% to strain hp3, respectively. specific igg antibody titers were high in summer but low in winter. in summer, seropositive deer were 75.0%. similar results were obtained in serum specimens obtained monthly from 4 farmed deer. it was sugges ...19911808467
[the disease spectrum of borrelia burgdorferi (lyme borreliosis)]. 19911808888
antibody response against autologous and heterologous isolates of borrelia burgdorferi in four patients with lyme neuroborreliosis.serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples from four patients with lyme neuroborreliosis were analyzed for igm and igg antibodies by an indirect enzyme immunoassay with the four patients' own csf isolate of borrelia burgdorferi and two tick isolates, strains stg152 and b31, as antigens. no major differences in the antibody response were found comparing autologous and heterologous strains as sonicate antigens, although a tendency towards a stronger response to the autologous isolates was noted i ...19911810726
aids and sjogren's syndrome.hiv infection can produce a clinical syndrome and immunologic changes similar to those seen in ss. hiv infection can occasionally result in an ss-like disease but without the formation of antibodies to ro(ss-a) or la(ss-b). could this mean that a retrovirus yet to be discovered is responsible for the autoimmune exocrinopathy known as ss? evidence to date is circumstantial, based on antibodies to a retroviral protein (p24). the idea that retroviruses act in a genetically susceptible host to cause ...19911814527
global climate change and infectious diseases.the effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. these mosquitoes transmit dengue v ...19911820262
retinal vasculitis in lyme borreliosis.three patients with retinal vasculitis are reported who were found to be seroreactive for lyme borreliosis. careful investigation revealed no other apparent etiology for the angiitis, and improvement of the retinal vasculitis on tetracycline therapy was documented by fluorescein angiography in one of them. two cases of retinal vasculitis were presented at the international conference on lyme borreliosis in stockholm 18-21 june 1990, and two cases of cerebral vasculitis due to borrelia burgdorfer ...19911827466
recombinant outer surface protein a from borrelia burgdorferi induces antibodies protective against spirochetal infection in mice.the outer surface protein a (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi was isolated in its native form from strains zs7 and b31 and as a recombinant protein from strain zs7. amino acid sequence analysis of internal peptides of native ospa (strain zs7) revealed identity with the sequence deduced from the ospa gene. repeated immunization of c57bl/6 and c.b-17 mice with any of the three ospa structures resulted in the generation of monospecific hyperimmune sera reactive with both native and recombinant ospa. u ...19911829104
[polymorphism of clinical manifestations of lyme disease].the paper describes a clinical picture of a new transmissible disease which got widespread in the middle zone of russia. it is caused by a tick-borne organism pertaining to new pathogenic species of borrelia. early in its onset lyme borrelia (lb) infection presented with tick-borne erythema, followed by neurological and cardiac complications eventuating in locomotor disturbances. altogether 118 patients at various stages of the disease were examined and treated. wide-spectrum antibiotics proved ...19911830912
borrelia burgdorferi activates a t helper type 1-like t cell subset in lyme arthritis.18 cloned t cell lines reactive with borrelia burgdorferi proteins, all cd3+4+8-tcr-alpha/beta+ and restricted by hla class ii proteins, were isolated from four patients with chronic lyme arthritis. analysis of these t cell clones indicated that the t cell response to the lyme disease spirochete is not oligoclonally restricted; yet all produced the same pattern of lymphokines, resembling that of murine type 1 t helper cells, after antigen-specific or nonspecific stimulation. therefore, a subset ...19911831490
lyme disease.lyme disease, also known as lyme borreliosis, is at present the most common arthropod-borne infectious disease in europe and the united states. it is caused by the bacterial spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to the human primarily in the spring, summer and early fall by the tick ixodes dammini or deer tick. signs and symptoms of infection are many and misdiagnosis often occurs. if not treated with antibiotics in early stages neurological complications can occur. health care provide ...19911833479
[the basic epidemiological traits of lyme disease in the northwestern ussr].dissemination, season variability, ways of infection, as well as main carriers of lyme's disease and tick-borne encephalitis, reasons for the population contact with natural foci and ticks, age and socially professional status were shown to be extremely similar in patients with borreliosis and encephalitis in leningrad province. this fact indicates principal similarity of basic epidemiological properties in two etiologically different infections. a much higher morbidity level is characteristic o ...19911837580
[3m fast-lyme test in the diagnosis of lyme disease in poland]. 19911843814
lyme disease control in face of tick phobia.lyme disease, the subject of recent public awareness and fear, not only can be controlled through medical means but also can be effectively prevented with environmental techniques and common sense safety precautions. understanding the origin of the disease and its carriers will aid physicians in calming patient fears and reinforcing preventive measures.19911852447
[neurological aspects of borreliosis. a discovery due to lyme disease]. 19911853128
anti-tick saliva antibody: a biologic marker of tick exposure that is a risk factor for lyme disease seropositivity.anti-tick saliva antibody (atsa) has potential as a biologic marker of exposure to tick bites. in 1989, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 304 outdoor workers in monmouth county, new jersey, to evaluate associations between self-reported tick exposure, atsa status, and lyme disease antibody status. atsa levels 1) were correlated with an index of tick exposure on the basis of three self-reported measures of tick exposure and outdoor hours worked per week (p = 0.01); 2) were consistently high ...19911853864
[ticks and lyme disease]. 19911854837
[infection caused by borrelia burgdorferi in extremadura]. 19911854843
[study of cross reactions using serological techniques between borrelia burgdorferi and treponema pallidum]. 19911854844
borreliacidal activity of sera from hamsters infected with the lyme disease spirochete.an in vitro borreliacidal assay that accurately reflects the levels of protective antibody determined by passive transfer of immunity studies was developed. borreliacidal antibody in sera obtained from normal hamsters infected with borrelia burgdorferi was readily detected. when immune serum containing complement was incubated with b. burgdorferi organisms, spirochetes were killed within 2 h. treating immune serum with anti-hamster immunoglobulin g abrogated the borreliacidal activity. killing o ...19911855973
characterization of borrelia coriaceae antigens with monoclonal antibodies.three monoclonal antibodies (f6f3, f6b11, and f6b3) were developed against borrelia coriaceae antigens. all three antibodies appeared to be specific for this species and did not cross-react with borrelia burgdorferi (strains b31 and irs), borrelia hermsii, borrelia anserina, leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, or treponema hyodysenteriae, as determined by indirect fluorescent antibody staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western immunoblot analysis. only one of these antibodies, f ...19911855995
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in patients with lyme disease by the polymerase chain reaction.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, was detected in patients' serum by dna amplification using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). b burgdorferi was pelleted from serum samples by centrifugation (10,000 x g for 10 minutes) and lysed by treatment with ammonium hydroxide (100 degrees c for 15 minutes). two pairs of "nested" pcr primers complementary to the gene encoding a major outer surface protein (osp a) of b burgdorferi were used in dna amplification under standard pcr ...19911856296
[geographic distribution of lyme disease in mudanjiang].four forestry plant in mudanjiang with different geographic characteristics were investigated in 1989. 2178 people were inquired and examined. 74 cases including 54 of ecm, 12 of nervous system disorder and 8 of arthritis were confirmed as lyme disease. there were some patients at other places of forest areas of mudanjiang. the prevalence rate of lyme disease ranged from 1% to 4.5% at four plants with higher rate in mountainous area than in hilly land. it is first report that one strain of lyme ...19911863948
immune capture and detection of borrelia burgdorferi antigens in urine, blood, or tissues from infected ticks, mice, dogs, and humans.current biological and serological techniques for demonstrating infections by borrelia burgdorferi can be inconclusive. in order to monitor lyme borreliosis, we developed a rapid and sensitive assay for b. burgdorferi antigens in infected hosts. polyclonal rabbit antisera were raised against membrane vesicles and an 83-kda vesicle-associated protein band that was purified from in vitro b. burgdorferi cultures. immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies were recovered from these sera and tested for a spec ...19911864935
[chronic atrophic acrodermatitis; a deceptive form of lyme borreliosis].acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) was diagnosed in 15 patients from the southern and eastern part of friesland (the netherlands). twelve patients had one leg affected; three had more than one extremity involved. frequent complaints were fatigue, paraesthesia, swelling and blue discoloration. the symptoms persisted for many years in most cases. the inflammatory stage was observed most frequently (13/15): violet-blue erythema, oedema, firm swelling and nodules. atrophy (4/15) was observed ...19911865945
[lyme borreliosis: should we prepare for an epidemic?].lyme borreliosis results from the persistent infection with a spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by ticks of the ixodes ricinus complex. the geographic distribution of these ticks depends on specific climatic and ecologic conditions. lyme borreliosis is a disease with protean manifestations whose distribution is world-wide. in north america, the disease usually begins between may and august with a characteristic rash, erythema chronicum migrans, accompanied by non specific or meningit ...19911866842
[isolation and characteristics of borrelia burgdorferi from ixodes persulcatus].we reported the detailed characteristics of lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi), strain h7, isolated from ixodes persulcatus in heilongjiang. cells of strain h7 were 9.8--26.5 microns long and 0.13--0.35 microns wide. there were 1--11 waves with a wavelength of 1.2--3.0 microns and an amplitude of 0.59--1.13 microns. direction of spires was left. seven flagella were inserted subterminally at each end of the cell and ends were pointed. 31 degrees c was the optimum cultural temperature ...19911866942
kinetics of borrelia burgdorferi dissemination and evolution of disease after intradermal inoculation of mice.borrelia burgdorferi dissemination to selected target organs was examined on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 15, 21, and 30 after intradermal inoculation of 4-week-old c3h mice. infection was determined by culture (blood, spleen, kidney, ear punch); polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for outer surface protein a (osp a) dna (ear punch); histology and spirochete histochemistry (spleen, kidney, skin, heart, joints); and osp a dna in situ hybridization (joints, heart). blood or spleen of most mice were culture ...19911867318
serodiagnosis of lyme disease. 19911867682
absence of transplacental transmission of lyme disease spirochetes from reservoir mice (peromyscus leucopus) to their offspring.lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi) are naturally maintained in an enzootic cycle mainly by vector ticks (ixodes dammini) infesting white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus). suggestions that mice may become infected without exposure to ticks prompted a study to evaluate whether mice could transmit spirochetes transplacentally to their offspring. mice were live-captured in two massachusetts sites where lyme disease spirochetes are intensely enzootic. pregnant females were housed separa ...19911869842
the geographic spread and temporal increase of the lyme disease epidemic.to describe the temporal and geographic progression of the lyme disease epidemic in new york state from 1977 through 1989.19911870248
[parasite fauna of red foxes in berlin (west)].the infestation with ecto- and endoparasites of red foxes in berlin (west) was investigated. as shown by post mortems of 100 animals (47 males and 53 females), none of them was found to be free of parasites. with regard to ectoparasites, 3 species of ixodes ticks, 7 flea species, one species of biting lice and mite species were demonstrated. the sarcoptic mange is often inducing the death of the foxes and is considered to be a limiting factor of the population increment. concerning endoparasites ...19911872791
diagnosis of lyme borreliosis by an enzyme immunoassay detecting immunoglobulin g reactive to purified borrelia burgdorferi cell components.an enzyme immunoassay (eia) developed for the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis was tested for its specificity and sensitivity in detecting igg antibodies in patients at various stages of the disease. the eia is based on a detergent extract of borrelia burgdorferi which contains 12 proteins of defined molecular weights from borrelia burgdorferi. the assay showed a specificity of 100% in control sera from 64 healthy individuals, using a cut-off optical density value of 0.13 (means +2- 3 sd). the sens ...19911874248
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