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lyme disease--a new rheumatologic disorder. 19854022553
[lyme disease: a new zoonosis transmitted by ticks]. 19853896516
lyme disease. the tick bite, the rash, and the sequelae.lyme disease may present as a characteristic skin eruption, an acute arthritis, or less commonly, an acute neurologic or cardiac illness. a carefully taken history, including a travel history, provides the key to diagnosis. laboratory tests other than spirochetal antibody studies are nonspecific. prompt antibiotic treatment is important not only for reducing the intensity and duration of the skin eruption but for preventing major sequelae.19853983029
[lyme disease]. 19853843405
diagnosing early lyme disease.the diagnostic value of clinical, culture, and serologic findings was studied prospectively in 41 patients with early lyme disease. fifteen patients had erythema chronicum migrans alone, and 26 had clinical evidence of disseminated infection, most commonly affecting the brain or meninges, other skin sites, lymph nodes, or joints. of 40 blood cultures, only one, from a patient with disseminated infection, yielded spirochetes. one of 10 patients tested with localized infection had an elevated igm ...19853970049
[2 cases of lyme disease contracted in france].two new cases of lyme disease are reported. both were contracted in western france. in the first case, a tick bite was followed by a typical erythema chronicum migrans and then a subacute arthritis. high levels of specific antibodies were demonstrated. in the second case, only erythema chronicum migrans developed and serology remained negative. at least, 16 typical cases of lyme disease have now been reported in france from several geographical areas.19854075472
lyme disease. a cause of bilateral facial paralysis.recently we had the opportunity of treating a boy from the northeastern region of the united states in whom bilateral facial palsies developed. after obtaining a detailed history and performing a thorough physical examination, the findings suggested lyme disease. we herein discuss our evaluation and treatment of this child as well as review the otolaryngologic manifestations of this rare disease.19853966898
lyme arthritis: radiologic findings.lyme disease is a newly recognized, multi-system disorder that may be associated with chronic arthritis. of 25 patients with severe arthritic manifestations the most frequent radiographic finding was knee joint effusion. intra-articular edema was often accompanied by a continuum of soft-tissue changes involving the infrapatellar fat pad, periarticular soft tissues, and the entheses, which were sometimes thickened, calcified, or ossified. later in the illness, the joints of some patients showed t ...19853964949
clinical manifestations of erythema chronicum migrans afzelius in 161 patients. a comparison with lyme disease.clinical symptoms were studied in 161 consecutive patients with erythema chronicum migrans afzelius and in a follow-up study signs of late manifestations were investigated. general symptoms such as headache, fever, myalgia and/or arthralgia were found in about half of the patients with a disease duration of less than or equal to 3 weeks. three patients had coexisting lymphadenosis benigna cutis. two untreated patients developed meningitis/meningoradiculitis and one untreated patient arthritis. t ...19852578705
[double infection with early summer meningoencephalitis virus and borrelia burgdorferi].a 68-year-old woman developed a meningoencephalitis 18 days after a tick bite. igg and igm antibodies against tick-encephalitis virus were demonstrated, by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf). lymphoplasmocytic pleocytosis was present in csf for over six weeks, as was an increased igm level. three weeks after the onset of neurological symptoms and clearing of the encephalitis there occurred multiple peripheral pareses in the left leg which were slow t ...19863011378
organization of genes encoding two outer membrane proteins of the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi within a single transcriptional unit.ospa and ospb are major outer membrane proteins and antigens of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. we examined the organization of ospa and ospb, the genes encoding these proteins. the location and direction of transcription of each osp gene was determined by subcloning, deletion analysis, and transposon tn5 mutagenesis. transposon tn5 insertions within the ospa gene abrogated expression of ospb, suggesting that these genes are transcribed from a common promoter. northern blot an ...19863019889
proliferative responses of mononuclear cells in lyme disease. reactivity to borrelia burgdorferi antigens is greater in joint fluid than in blood.in 27 patients with early lyme disease, the mean response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) to lyme spirochetal borrelia burgdorferi antigens (723 counts per minute) was similar to that of control subjects. during convalescence, 2-3 weeks later, the patients' mean response was significantly higher (2,075 cpm, p less than 0.008). compared with those with early disease, the pbmc of 22 patients with lyme arthritis reacted even more to b burgdorferi (2,923 cpm, p less than 0.0004), and, b ...19862941022
lyme disease during pregnancy.lyme disease is an increasingly recognized tick-borne illness caused by a spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. because the etiologic agent of lyme disease is a spirochete, there has been concern about the effect of maternal lyme disease on pregnancy outcome. we reviewed cases of lyme disease in pregnant women who were identified before knowledge of the pregnancy outcomes. nineteen cases were identified with onset between 1976 and 1984. eight of the women were affected during the first trimester, se ...19862423719
erythema chronicum migrans of lyme disease: diagnosis by monoclonal antibodies.we demonstrated spirochetes from a skin lesion of the erythema chronicum migrans in a patient with lyme disease by the murine monoclonal antibody (h9724). frozen skin biopsy specimens reacted with murine monoclonal antibodies (h5332, h9724, and h4825) and were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. the spirochetes stained with monoclonal antibody h9724 and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated second antibody (goat antimouse igg). the antibody h9724 is specific for the periplasmic flagel ...19862426315
comparative prevalence of babesia microti and borrelia burgdorferi in four populations of ixodes dammini in eastern massachusetts.we determined the prevalence of babesia microti and borrelia burgdorferi in four populations of ixodes dammini in eastern massachusetts. the feulgen's reaction was more sensitive than the giemsa method for detecting salivarian babesia. a combination of darkfield and direct-fluorescent-antibody examination proved more sensitive than either method alone for detecting spirochetal infection. the prevalence of spirochetes was greater than the prevalence of babesia in each of the tick populations stud ...19862430433
cellular immune response in lyme disease: the response to mitogens, live borrelia burgdorferi, nk cell function and lymphocyte subsets.although some manifestations of lyme disease may be secondary to the presence of b. burgdorferi, the immune system appears to play a significant role in the clinical manifestations of the disease. the humoral response is well characterized, however the cellular response remains poorly defined. to further define cellular immunity in lyme disease, the responses of lymphocytes from patients with active lyme disease were assessed to con a, pha, pwm, tetanus toxoid, and whole live b. burgdorferi. in ...19862953150
serology of lyme disease. 19862869276
myocarditis associated with tickborne borrelia burgdorferi infection. 19862872445
the etiologic agent of lyme disease in deer flies, horse flies, and mosquitoes. 19862873190
multiple sclerosis and borrelia burgdorferi. 19862875306
reinfection with borrelia burgdorferi. 19862877167
spirochaetes and lyme disease. 19862877362
lyme disease in canada? 19863079659
lyme disease in a hampshire child--medical curiosity or beginning of an epidemic? 19863087517
[a new cause of acute transitory auriculoventricular block: lyme disease].a young man developed syncopal complete paroxysmal atrioventricular block (avb) over a 36 hour period, on a background of 1st degree avb which persisted for 6 weeks. during the 3rd week, electrophysiological studies showed an isolated prolonged ah interval. this episode followed skin and articular manifestations occurring one month after being bitten by a tick in corsica. the clinical picture suggested lyme's disease which was confirmed serologically. this condition transmitted bu ixodes ricinus ...19863096254
[sinoatrial and atrioventricular conduction disorders in lyme disease. apropos of 2 case reports].lyme's disease due to borrelia burgdorferii is a rare cause of acute atrioventricular block (avb) which is the commonest cardiac complication. cutaneous, neurological and articular involvement complete the clinical picture of this condition. these two cases, confirmed by serology, support previously reported data describing the favourable prognosis of these conduction defects (suprahisian and/or hisian in our 2 cases) which regress completely, irrespective of their degree of severity. the author ...19863101641
the emergence of lyme disease in a changing environment in north america and central europe.lyme disease has recently begun to emerge as a significant threat to human health, both in europe and the united states. late sequellae, resembling those of neurosyphilis and multiple sclerosis, may occur many years after initial infection. spontaneous abortion accompanies arthritis, carditis and neuritis as burdensome short-term sequellae. thousands of new infections are recognized each year on each side of the atlantic, although reporting may be incomplete. the disease was described in europe ...19863330512
lyme disease: infectious in origin, rheumatic in expression. 19863511614
experimental inoculation of peromyscus spp. with borrelia burgdorferi: evidence of contact transmission.in order to determine if peromyscus spp. could become infected with the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi) by direct inoculation and to determine the duration of spirochetemia, 4 p. leucopus and 5 p. maniculatus were inoculated by the intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes with an isolate of b. burgdorferi obtained from the blood of a trapped wild p. leucopus from camp mccoy, wisconsin. all of the mice developed antibodies to b. burgdorferi which reached a peak indir ...19863513648
lyme disease: a review.lyme disease has protean manifestations. the causative agent is borrelia burgdorferi, a recently discovered spirochete. the disease has been found on three continents. the initial major clinical feature is a characteristic skin eruption known as erythema chronicum migrans. subsequent main clinical manifestations are meningopolyneuritis and arthritis. however, clinical expressions of the disease vary widely. some patients have very mild disease and others develop severe and prolonged illness. spe ...19863516428
a borrelia-specific monoclonal antibody binds to a flagellar epitope.in immunofluorescence assays monoclonal antibody h9724 recognized eight species of the spirochetal genus borrelia but not representatives of the genera treponema, leptospira, and spirochaeta. we examined the reactivity of h9724 against subcellular components of borrelia hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever, and b. burgdorferi, the cause of lyme disease. h9724 bound to isolated periplasmic flagella of the two borreliae. in western blots the antibody reacted with the predominant protein in flagell ...19863516878
peromyscus leucopus and microtus pennsylvanicus simultaneously infected with borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti.borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, and babesia microti, the causative agent of human babesiosis, were isolated from 71 and 57%, respectively, of 14 specimens of peromyscus leucopus and microtus pennsylvanicus collected from prudence and patience islands, r.i. both pathogens were isolated from five individual rodents. the presence of these two infectious organisms in the same mammal suggests that individual larval ixodes dammini may ingest both pathogens and subsequently t ...19863517038
borrelia burgdorferi in joint fluid in chronic lyme arthritis.although indirect evidence suggests that chronic lyme arthritis is caused by persistent infection with borrelia burgdorferi, direct visualization has been lacking. we report the demonstration of b. burgdorferi from synovial fluid aspirated from the right knee of a 31-year-old man with lyme arthritis for more than 1 year. after 6 days, culture medium inoculated with synovial fluid showed one motile and several nonmotile spirochetes. direct immunofluorescence staining showed reactivity with anti-b ...19863518562
spirochetes in ticks and antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in white-tailed deer from connecticut, new york state, and north carolina.ticks were screened for spirochetes and serum samples from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were assayed for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi during 1983-1984. using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit antibodies produced to b. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, spirochetes were detected in ixodes dammini (10.5% of 1,193) and dermacentor albipictus (0.6% of 157) adults from connecticut, i. dammini nymphs (49.1% of 108) and adults (64.7% of 99) from armonk, new yo ...19863520030
natural exposure of wisconsin dogs to the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi).lyme disease, a tick-borne disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi, has been described recently in dogs. in a serologic survey of specimens obtained from march to september 1984, 53% of 380 dogs from two usda licensed vendors in wisconsin were positive for indirect immunofluorescent antibodies to b. burgdorferi at a serum dilution of 1:64 or greater. b. burgdorferi was cultured from the blood of 8/111 dogs. these findings suggest that exposure to this spirochete is common in endemic areas and tha ...19863523038
antigens of borrelia burgdorferi recognized during lyme disease. appearance of a new immunoglobulin m response and expansion of the immunoglobulin g response late in the illness.using immunoblots, we identified proteins of borrelia burgdorferi bound by igm and igg antibodies during lyme disease. in 12 patients with early disease alone, both the igm and igg responses were restricted primarily to a 41-kd antigen. this limited response disappeared within several months. in contrast, among six patients with prolonged illness, the igm response to the 41-kd protein sometimes persisted for months to years, and late in the illness during arthritis, a new igm response sometimes ...19863531237
immunoglobulin abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid and blood over the course of lymphocytic meningoradiculitis (bannwarth's syndrome).the conditions of 5 patients with untreated lymphocytic meningoradiculitis (bannwarth's syndrome, probably equivalent to lyme disease) with serologically confirmed infection resulting from borrelia spirochetes were followed with repetitive lumbar punctures up to 221 days after the onset of symptoms. using a protein a plaque assay, high numbers of igg-, igm-, and iga-producing cells were found in the cerebrospinal fluid (csf), whereas there were mostly normal numbers of immunoglobulin-producing c ...19863532931
[lyme disease]. 19863538208
the enlarging spectrum of tick-borne spirochetoses: r. r. parker memorial address.the author reviews his changing interest in tick-borne spirochetoses during his career (1951-1985) as a medical entomologist at the u.s. public health service's rocky mountain laboratory. the discoveries of relapsing fevers in the western united states in the 1930s and 1940s led to well-supported epidemiologic research, including studies on the relationships between vectors and spirochetes. when tick-borne relapsing fever in the united states was shown to be a relatively rare and readily treatab ...19863541127
lyme disease.although initially considered a localized epidemic form of arthritis. lyme disease is now known to have protean manifestation (skin, joint, heart, nervous system) and worldwide distribution. it is caused by infection with the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted by a variety of hard ticks and, in some localities, fleas. antigenic variation between isolates may determine the differences in clinical expression observed between cases in north america and europe. the reservoir in the ...19863542350
evaluation of sera from patients with lyme disease in the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test for syphilis.to determine whether the cross-reactivity between treponema pallidum and borrelia burgdorferi affects the specificity of the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (fta-abs) test for syphilis, sera from patients with lyme disease or syphilis were examined in a quantitative fta-abs test. sera were diluted serially in phosphate-buffered saline, then in sorbent, and were tested with t. pallidum and b. burgdorferi antigens. nine of 40 sera from patients with known lyme disease were reactive at t ...19863544256
lyme borreliosis. proceedings of the second international symposium on lyme disease and related disorders. vienna, 1985. 19863577471
ultrastructural differences among spirochetes isolated from patients with lyme disease and related disorders, and from ixodes ricinus.previous studies on cells of strains b31 isolated in the u.s.a. from ixodes dammini and strain g25 isolated in sweden from ixodes ricinus, showed that their ultrastructure was similar, but not identical. for this reason the studies were extended to spirochetes isolated directly from patients with lyme disease and related disorders. included in the present study were three strains isolated from skin, blood and spinal fluid, respectively, from patients with lyme disease, two strains from patients ...19863577472
european borrelia burgdorferi isolated from humans and ticks culture conditions and antibiotic susceptibility.growth of borrelia burgdorferi in a modified kelly-medium is described. borrelia strains were isolated from patients (n = 11) and ticks i. ricinus (n = 19). the modified medium which contained co-trimoxazole is a very effective medium for isolating and culturing of borrelia sp. the susceptibility of 7 strains of b. burgdorferi to antibiotics was studied by the macrodilution and microdilution test. after preliminary testing for optimal conditions, we determined mics in modified kelly medium. the ...19863577473
genetic analysis of borrelia.dna homology studies were performed on borrelia hermsii, b. duttoni, b. crocidurae and the o. coriaceus spirochete. these organisms had a genus level relationship with each other. b. hermsii was 17 to 53% homologous with b. duttoni, b. crocidurae, and the o. coriaceus spirochetes; b. crocidurae was 17-32% related to b. hermsii, b. anserina and the o. coriaceus spirochete, and the o. coriaceus spirochete was 28-50% related to b. hermsii, b. crocidurae and b. anserina. the o. coriaceus spirochete ...19863577474
borrelia burgdorferi lipopolysaccharide and its role in the pathogenesis of lyme disease.lipopolysaccharides (lps) are a constitutive part of the outer wall of gram negative bacteria. because many of the symptoms of lyme disease could be explained by a spirochetal lps we have subjected borrelia burgdorferi to standard lps extraction techniques which yielded a lps which accounted for 1.5-4% of the dry weight. the lps was very similar to classical gram negative bacterial lps both chemically and in its biological activities which included pyrogenicity, mitogenicity for lymphocytes and ...19863577475
endotoxin-like activity associated with lyme disease borrelia.the newly recognized spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, has been examined for endotoxin-like activities as measured by the standard farmacopea ufficiale della republica italiana rabbit fever test and the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. the suspension of heat-killed microorganism caused a febrile response at a dose of 1 x 10(8) bacteria pro kilo. similar results were obtained in the limulus assay where the heat-killed spirochetes stimulated formation of solid ...19863577476
susceptibility of the black-legged tick, ixodes scapularis, to the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi.experiments to determine whether ixodes scapularis can be infected with the lyme disease agent, borrelia burgdorferi, demonstrated that infection and transstadial transmission occurs in up to 73% of larval ticks that had fed on spirochetemic rabbits. in a limited number of nymphal ticks examined, the spirochetes were found only in the midgut. feeding nymphal i. scapularis on a normal rabbit resulted in blood infection characterized by two distinct periods of spirochetemia, suggesting the occurre ...19863577477
the spectrum of organ and systems pathology in human lyme disease.lymphocytes, plasma cells, and mononuclear phagocytes are frequently found in human tissues infected by the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. experience has shown that these cells comprise the tissue bed inflammatory infiltrate in lyme disease affecting the joint synovia, myocardium, and skin. while many differences otherwise exist, lyme synovitis has lymphoplasmacellular similarities with rheumatoid synovitis, lymphoplasmacellular epimyocarditis similarities with syphilitic myocard ...19863577479
remarks on the infectious disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi. 19863577480
clinical features of early erythema migrans disease and related disorders.104 patients with erythema migrans disease (emd), 7 patients with borrelia lymphocytoma (bl), and 21 patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) were prospectively followed for a median of 20, 14, and 12 months, respectively. 99 patients with emd and 6 with bl were treated with antibiotics early for their illness. 72 patients with emd had 1 to 10 constitutional symptoms besides the erythema migrans, 32 had erythema migrans alone, and a child with bl had urticaria. out of 39 patients ...19863577481
erythema chronicum migrans afzelius in sweden. a study on 231 patients.in order to describe the clinical manifestations of erythema chronicum migrans afzelius (ecma) in sweden and to compare them with those in lyme disease in the united states, 231 patients with ecma were investigated. although there are many similarities between the two disorders the findings also point to differences. the skin lesions were of longer duration (median 5-6 weeks) than those in lyme disease but less often multiple (8%). general symptoms were found in about half of the patients with a ...19863577482
microbiological findings in erythema (chronicum) migrans and related disorders.in order to evaluate the virtual advantage of proving borrelial infection in dermatoses clinically diagnosed as erythema (chronicum) migrans (ecm), acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) or lymphadenosis cutis benigna (lcb) by means of histological, cultural or serological trials, skin and serum samples obtained from altogether 99 patients suffering from these dermatoses were examined. serum and--to some extent--skin specimens gained from healthy individuals (n = 36), patients with not tick b ...19863577483
morphea another manifestation of lyme disease? 19863577486
joint and bone involvement in swedish patients with ixodes ricinus-borne borrelia infection.the presence of signs of joint involvement was investigated in 231 patients with erythema chronicum migrans afzelius (ecma), in 50 patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca), in four patients with spirochete-induced facial palsy and in one patient with pericarditis and serologic evidence of borrelia spirochetal infection. only one of 16 untreated patients with ecma developed arthritis. the patient with pericarditis had suffered from arthritis for 2 months when the cardiac symptoms d ...19863577487
borrelia transfer by ticks during their life cycle. studies on laboratory animals.ticks of the species ixodes ricinus were cultured in the laboratory. yellow silver rabbits, gerbils and white mice served as blood hosts. borrelia burgdorferi could be detected by means of an ifa test in homogenates of female ticks, their eggs as well as the respective larval and nymphal ticks. blood infection of splenectomized gerbils and ordinary white mice or of ordinary white mice alone has been demonstrated after feeding of larval or nymphal ticks on them, respectively. spirochetemia starte ...19863577489
culturing borrelia burgdorferi from spleen and kidney tissues of wild-caught white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus.borrelia burgdorferi was isolated most frequently from tissue of spleen (n = 13) and kidney (n = 10) and less often from blood (n = 5) of wild-caught peromyscus leucopus. prevalence of infection tended to be highest at sites where lyme disease was most common (e.g., 5 of 6 mice were positive in east haddam, connecticut). spirochetes were not isolated in danbury or new hartford, areas where this malady is rare. however, in fairfield, where the disease is also uncommon, 4 of 9 mice were infected. ...19863577490
the prevalence and significance of borrelia burgdorferi in the urine of feral reservoir hosts.live borrelia burgdorferi were isolated from the blood and/or urine of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) collected on shelter island, new york, in 1984 and 1985. prevalence of spirochetes in urine was consistently higher than in blood or both fluids simultaneously. spirochetes remained viable for 18-24 hours in urine and were maintained in culture for one week. mice removed from the field were spirocheturic for at least 13 months. one spirocheturic mouse developed spirochetemia one month a ...19863577491
vaccination of hamsters against experimental infection with borrelia burgdorferi.vaccination of syrian hamsters with a single dose of 50 micrograms to 100 micrograms dry weight of a whole cell preparation of borrelia burgdorferi provided 75% to 86% protection against infection.19863577492
evolution of a focus of lyme disease.epidemiological investigations were initiated in 1984 when significant lyme disease activity was observed within a 5-km radius of an area previously used as a non-endemic control site for lyme disease research in new jersey. through 1983, collections of ixodes dammini from vegetation and feral rodents were infrequent and no human cases were identified within a 16-km radius of the control site. in 1984, 4 human cases and 3 serologically reactive canines (greater than or equal to 1:512) were recog ...19863577493
comparison of rates of infection by the lyme disease spirochete in selected populations of ixodes dammini and amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae).at a major endemic focus in new jersey, 50% of 290 adult ixodes dammini collected in the fall of 1984 were infected with the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi), which was statistically higher than the rate found in the 202 adult ticks (39.6%) examined during the spring. neither sex nor site of collection within the focus significantly affected the infection rate. the observed infection rates were similar to those reported in endemic areas of new york and connecticut. borrelia burgdor ...19863577494
austrian hard ticks as vectors of borrelia burgdorferi, overview. 19863577495
relapsing fever/lyme disease. multiple sclerosis.lyme disease and relapsing fever caused by borrelia burdorferi and borrelia hermsii, respectively, have been generally considered curable if diagnosed early. however, it is becoming apparent that when these diseases are left undiagnosed and untreated they may cause severe problems for some people. they, in fact, may be one of the major causes of multiple sclerosis. these two borrelia infections, when left untreated, are now known to be capable of causing neurological problems, cardiac problems, ...19863642202
transovarially acquired lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi) in field-collected larval ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae). 19863701806
endotoxicity associated with the lyme disease borrelia: recent findings.the endotoxicity of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, a tick-borne spirochetosis, was studied using limulus assay and pyrogen test in rabbit. some suspensions of ixodes ricinus and ixodes dammini associated borrelia were able to gelify limulus lysate and demonstrated a febrile response in rabbit. these findings and other recent data demonstrating an endotoxin-like activity of the lyme disease agent are discussed in the context of the pathogenic mechanisms of the illness.19863713546
longitudinal assessment of the clinical and epidemiological features of lyme disease in a defined population.from 1979 to 1983, lyme disease was studied longitudinally in the 162 long-term residents of great island, massachusetts. in retrospect, the index case occurred in 1962, and the peak years of disease transmission (about three new cases per 100 residents per year) were the late 1970s. thereafter, during the period of active surveillance, attack rates declined by half. altogether, 26 (16%) of the 162 residents developed symptoms of the disease. most of those affected had erythema chronicum migrans ...19863722867
spirochetal diseases of the cns.the neurotropism of the spirochete is evident from the above discussions of syphilis, lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever. in all of these diseases, the organism very likely enters the cns very early in the course of the disease. the fate of the organism then depends on the virulence of the spirochete, the host defenses, and any antibiotic treatment administered. why treponema pallidum lays dormant in the cns and then somehow reactivates is a mystery; the same mystery occurs in lyme ...19863724737
[progressive borreliosis: a rare variation of lyme disease]. 19863725378
[erythema migrans. the clinical spectrum of borrelia burgdorferi infection].17 patients with acute and chronic symptoms of borrelia burgdorferi infection are described. these cases, which were diagnosed within a short period of time at the männedorf-zürich hospital, suggest that erythema migrans disease is likely to be frequent in switzerland as well as elsewhere.19863726507
lyme disease associated with optic neuropathy.a 53-year-old man is described in whom ischemic optic neuropathy was part of the clinical picture of lyme disease. this finding has not previously been reported as a neurologic manifestation of the disease. such a complication could result from direct tissue invasion of the causative spirochete or may be due to immune-mediated inflammation.19863728541
septal panniculitis as a manifestation of lyme disease.a 22-year-old woman presented with fever, chills, photophobia, and headaches, followed by a centrally clearing erythematous skin eruption, migratory polyarthralgias, conjunctivitis, and subsequently, tender, nodular skin lesions. antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi were consistent with acute lyme disease. skin biopsy revealed acute septal panniculitis. this dermatologic manifestation has not been previously described in lyme disease.19863728543
neurologic abnormalities in lyme disease without erythema chronicum migrans.the clinical features in eight patients with neurologic abnormalities typical of lyme disease and elevated titers of antibody to the spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, its causative agent, are described. none of the patients had the diagnostic skin lesion, erythema chronicum migrans. lyme arthritis, the other clinical marker for the disease, developed subsequently in only three. the neurologic abnormalities included aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, cranial neuritis, motor and sensory radiculitis ...19863728556
[borrelia-associated dermatoses].erythema chronicum migrans (e.c.m.), acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (a.c.a.) and lymphadenosis benigna cutis (l.b.c.) are infectious diseases according to koch's criteria, after the infectious agent-borrelia-burgdorferi-could could be isolated. clinic, pathology and therapy of these three diseases are presented in detail. the correlation to the lyme disease is being discussed. we believe that e.c.m., a.c.a. and l.b.c. are different entities determined by the virulence of the infectious agen ...19863744416
passive immunization of hamsters against experimental infection with the lyme disease spirochete.hamsters passively immunized with as little as 0.0125 ml of immune rabbit serum (indirect fluorescent-antibody titer, 1:8,192) were protected from challenge with 1,000 50% infective doses of borrelia burgdorferi. cross-protection studies with minnesota and connecticut isolates of b. burgdorferi indicated no major differences in their capacity to elicit mutually protective antibodies in rabbits.19863744563
specificity of csf antibodies against components of borrelia burgdorferi in patients with meningopolyneuritis garin-bujadoux-bannwarth.the specificity of immunoglobulin (ig) for components of borrelia burgdorferi was investigated in cerebrospinal fluid (csf), serum and in csf oligoclonal bands from nine patients with meningopolyneuritis garin-bujadoux-bannwarth (mpn-gbb). all patients showed specific igg and igm antibodies in serum and csf when incubated with a lysate of b. burgdorferi strain b 31. specific antibody was detected in csf but not in paired serum samples, indicating intrathecal synthesis. investigation of the speci ...19863746362
lyme disease. 19863747983
[lyme disease (erythema migrans disease)]. 19863750228
concurrent borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti infection in nymphal ixodes dammini.ixodes dammini nymphs were examined for evidence of concurrent infection with borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti. a total of 19 nymphs (18.6%) from nantucket island were simultaneously infected, as were 24 nymphs (8.2%) from naushon island. these observations are consistent with a common reservoir host for both i. dammini-transmitted pathogens.19863760136
newly recognized leptospira species ("leptospira inadai" serovar lyme) isolated from human skin.leptospira strain 10, which represents a new leptospira species, was isolated from a skin biopsy of a patient with lyme disease. although pathogenic for laboratory animals, the organism was not considered to have a significant role in the patient's illness.19863760144
optic disc edema and lyme disease.a seven-year-old child developed a febrile rash, migratory arthritis, and neurologic signs. three days earlier, the child had been bitten by a tick. an eye examination two months later revealed bilateral papilledema, although the cerebrospinal fluid pressure was 170 mm. the igm antibody titer for the ixodes dammini spirochete was 1:256. i dammini is the tick vector for the borrelia spirochete that causes lyme disease. the papilledema receded with treatment over a month's time, and bilateral pigm ...19863767210
borrelia isolated from cerebrospinal fluid in a french case of lyme disease. 19863767472
lyme disease: new insights. 19863770244
active immunization of hamsters against experimental infection with borrelia burgdorferi.the immunogenicity of a single dose of a whole-cell vaccine of inactivated borrelia burgdorferi hsf (human spinal fluid isolate) was evaluated. syrian hamsters were vaccinated subcutaneously and challenged by the intraperitoneal injection of 1,000 50% infectious doses of b. burgdorferi hsf 30 or 90 days postvaccination. animals were sacrificed 14 days after challenge, and the kidneys and spleens were examined for spirochetes by cultural procedures. at 30 days postvaccination, 86 to 100% protecti ...19863781630
[disease (lyme disease) in pediatric patients in switzerland caused by spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi) of ixodes ricinus].lyme disease in children is studied in the light of questionnaires sent out twice to departments and divisions of pediatrics in switzerland. thirty-six serologically proven cases were collected. the 48 clinical signs attributed to lyme disease involved the skin in 40%, the nervous system in 40%, and the joints in 20%. they were erythema chronicum migrans (13), lymphocytoma (4), acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (2), peripheral facial palsy (14), sensomotor radiculoneuritis (2), meningoencephal ...19863787225
[the first serologic detection of lyme disease in children in czechoslovakia]. 19863791470
arthritis and panuveitis as manifestations of borrelia burgdorferi infection in a wisconsin pony.infection with borrelia burgdorferi caused panuveitis and arthritis in a pony. spirochetes were detected by direct immunofluorescence in the anterior chamber of the eye. the carpal joints had severe degenerative joint disease, with synovial proliferation. the synovium and serum had b burgdorferi antibody titers of 1:1024. the pony lived in an area of wisconsin where infection with b burgdorferi is endemic in human beings. previously, serum antibodies to b burgdorferi had been found in horses, bu ...19863793582
[enlarged spectrum of tick transmitted spirochaetoses].after the successful identification of borrelia burgdorferi as the cause of lyme disease, a new tick-borne infection occurring in the united states, almost identical spirochaetes have been isolated from the tick ixodes ricinus in europe. as a result, the spirochaetal aetiology of skin diseases, which had long been recognized as tick-borne infections, namely erythema chronicum migrans with its neurological complications of the tick-borne meningopolyneuritis of garin-bujadoux-bannwarth, acrodermat ...19863804731
isolation of the outer envelope from borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi consists of an inner protoplasmic cylinder, containing the genome and cytoplasmic elements, surrounded by a number of axial filaments, all completely encased within a multiple-layered outer envelope structure (oe). in this study, a sodium dodecyl sulfate-mediated technique was used to isolate the oe from borrelia burgdorferi in an attempt to better understand this structure in terms of its antigenic reactivity to lyme disease patient sera. electron microscopic evidence sugge ...19862437735
an ige response to spirochete antigen in patients with lyme disease.most but not all lyme disease patients produce specific ige antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi. development of ige antibodies paralleled that of other immunologic classes and appeared to be directed against a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 41,000. total serum ige levels in lyme disease patients were usually within the normal range in all stages of the disease. however, highly elevated total serum ige in certain patients were not correlated to any particular disease stage nor to specific ...19862437736
diagnosis of lyme disease by demonstration of spirochetes in tissue biopsies.in 14 patients with lyme disease skin biopsies, synovial specimens and a lymphnode showed lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, often perivascular. obliterative alterations of blood vessels and fibrinoid were characteristic for infection of synovium. spirochetes were demonstrated in all specimens by the bosma-steiner silver impregnation method. spirochetes were localized in dermal papilles and subepidermal zones of skin sections of ecma, in lymph vessels and collagen fibres. in synovia of patients with ...19862437737
polymorphisms of major surface proteins of borrelia burgdorferi.forty-five isolates of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, were examined with monoclonal antibodies directed against the surface proteins, ospa and ospb. eighteen of 21 strains of european origin could be distinguished from 24 north american strains on the basis of their reactivities with two antibodies, one specific for an ospa protein and one specific for an ospb protein. differences in antibody reactivities were associated with differences in the electrophoretic migrati ...19862437738
immunochemical and immunological analysis of european borrelia burgdorferi strains.borrelia burgdorferi strains (n = 23), isolated from patients (n = 8) and ticks (n = 14), were analyzed by sds page and western blotting with monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera (rabbit immune serum and sera from patients). testing the 23 strains by sds page 9 different patterns of major protein bands were observed. in contrast to us strains some of our strains showed only weak or negative reactivity with the ospa specific monoclonal antibody h5332. analysis with polyclonal sera gave furth ...19862437739
[borrelia infections (lyme disease): what does a positive serology mean?]. 19863940840
involvement of birds in the epidemiology of the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease, was isolated from the liver of a passerine bird, catharus fuscescens (veery), and from larval ixodes dammini (tick) feeding on pheucticus ludovicianus (rose-breasted grosbeak) and geothlypis trichas (common yellowthroat). in indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests, isolates reacted with polyclonal and monoclonal (h5332) antibodies. studies on the dna composition of the veery liver isolate and the strain cultured from an i. dammini lar ...19863943893
intrathecal production of specific antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi in patients with lymphocytic meningoradiculitis (bannwarth's syndrome).central nervous system infection with borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease in the usa, manifests itself most frequently in europe as lymphocytic meningoradiculitis (bannwarth's syndrome). we examined 12 patients with lymphocytic meningoradiculitis with cerebrospinal fluid (csf) antibodies against b. burgdorferi to establish whether these antibodies were produced intrathecally or were serum derived. by comparison of titers of antibody to b. burgdorferi with total igg and anti ...19863944483
the histopathology of experimentally infected hamsters with the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi.seven hamsters, experimentally infected with borrelia burgdorferi, were examined by both cultural and histological techniques at 1 to 9 months postinfection. spirochetes were detected in the spleen, kidney, or eye of all animals by culture and in the spleen, kidney, eye, liver, or heart blood of five of seven animals by histological examination. two animals showed nonspecific hepatic portal lymphocytic infiltration, while five of the hamsters displayed no significant histologic signs of inflamma ...19863945634
seasonal abundance and hosts of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) and other ixodid ticks from an endemic lyme disease focus in new jersey, usa. 19863950921
lymphocytic meningoradiculitis (garin-bujadoux bannwarth): from syndrome to disease?in two children with lymphocytic meningoradiculitis (bannwarth's syndrome), igg and igm antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi were demonstrated. clinical and laboratory parameters of the syndrome are described and recent bacteriological and serological findings that link the syndrome to the american lyme disease are discussed, as well as the effects of antibiotic treatment.19863956539
reinfection in erythema migrans disease.two patients received oral penicillin for erythema migrans disease (emd) in 1973 and 1977. five and seven years later, respectively, they developed emd for a second time after being bitten by ticks. the first and second erythema migrans lesions appeared in different places. tests of sera evaluated for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi before (in one case), during and after the second episode of emd remained negative (patient 1) or yielded an at least four-fold rise of igg antibody titers, but d ...19863957434
ixodid tick attacks on man in israel: medical implications.various species of ixodid ticks that have been recorded to attack man were surveyed, and boutonneuse fever caused by rickettsia conorii, which is transmitted in israel by rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., is reviewed. only in one case were a complement fixation test and exact determination of the species of the tick performed. tick toxicosis and tick paralysis are discussed, and the possibility of human babesiosis and lyme disease or erythema chronicum migrans appearing in israel is considered.19863957641
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