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structural analysis of an outer surface protein from the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy.the etiological agent of lyme disease is the tick-borne spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. a major antigen of b. burgdorferi is a 31 kda lipoprotein called outer surface protein a (ospa). recently, a truncated form of ospa (lacking 17 amino acids at the n-terminus) was cloned, expressed and purified in large quantities (dunn, j.j., lade, b.a. and barbour, a.g. (1990) protein expression and purification 1, 159-168). the truncated protein (ospa-257) is water-soluble, retains the ability to bind ant ...19921554741
purification and characterization of a tryptic peptide of borrelia burgdorferi flagellin, which reduces cross-reactivity in immunoblots and elisa.in man the early immune response in lyme disease is primarily directed against the endoflagellin antigen. isolated flagellar protein of borrelia burgdorferi suggests itself as a suitable test antigen. however, cross-reactivity between flagellins of b. burgdorferi, escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, proteus mirabilis and salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated by immunoblotting and elisa with polyclonal rabbit-hyperimmune-sera. tryptic cleavage of recombinant b. burgdorferi 41 kda flagellin, ex ...19921556546
adherence and entry of borrelia burgdorferi in vero cells.adherence to and entry of the parasite into the host is one of the essential elements of microbial pathogenicity. we investigated the adherence to and entry into primate kidney epithelial (vero) cells of borrelia burgdorferi by radiolabelling techniques, immunofluorescence and electronmicroscopy. the attachment to and subsequent entry of both untreated and heat (50 degrees c)-treated b. burgdorferi into vero cells occurred at cell-surface sites associated with aggregated coated pits. in contrast ...19921560445
molecular analysis and expression of a borrelia burgdorferi gene encoding a 22 kda protein (pc) in escherichia coli.we describe the cloning and expression of the pc gene which encodes a major immunodominant protein of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis. the pc protein was purified from lysates of b. burgdorferi strain pko. after tryptic digestion of the pc protein the resulting oligopeptides were applied to a gas-phase sequenator. thus partial amino acid sequences were obtained. the deduced oligonucleotides were used as hybridization probes. after southern blotting a reactive band i ...19921560779
heterogeneity of outer membrane proteins in borrelia burgdorferi: comparison of osp operons of three isolates of different geographic origins.biochemical and immunochemical studies of the outer membrane proteins of borrelia burgdorferi have shown that the ospa and ospb proteins from strains of different geographic origins may differ considerably in their reactivities with monoclonal antibodies and in their apparent molecular weights. to further characterize this variation in osp proteins between strains, the osp operons and deduced translation products from two strains, one from sweden (acai) and one from eastern russia (ip90), were s ...19921563773
nucleotide sequence of the ospab operon of a borrelia burgdorferi strain expressing ospa but not ospb.the nucleotide sequence of a 1.6-kb clone containing the gene for outer surface protein a (ospa) of a german strain (go2) of borrelia burgdorferi was determined. the deduced amino acid sequence showed a homology of 82% to the ospa molecules from three other b. burgdorferi strains. the best-conserved region was recognized at the 36-amino-terminal amino acids of ospa. ospb could not be identified in the strain investigated, probably because the nucleotide sequence of the ospab operon prevented exp ...19921563775
an initial investigation of the status of borrellia burgodorferi and its suspected primary vector, ixodes scapularis, in south carolina.based on a survey of hunter-harvested deer, the suspected primary vector of lyme disease in the southeast, i. scapularis, is most prevalent in sandhill and coastal plain counties of south carolina. none of 271 i. scapularis examined were found to be infected with the lyme disease spirochete. however, many more specimens of i. scapularis, a. americanum, and other tick species must be examined before an accurate estimate of the probability of acquiring lyme disease in south carolina can be made.19921564909
lyme disease in dogs in spain. 19921566536
tandem repeat of the 23s and 5s ribosomal rna genes in borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease.the dna fragments containing the rrl and rrf genes were subcloned from a embl3 recombinant phage of borrelia burgdorferi strain b31 into puc18 and were characterized by restriction analysis and southern hybridization. a fine restriction map of the fragments was constructed and the organization of the genes was determined. the genomic hybridization using the gene probes from b. burgdorferi showed that there are two sets of rrl/rrf genes in that genome. the results also revealed the important fact ...19921567408
molecular diagnosis of borrelia burgdorferi infection (lyme disease).in spite of significant advances in immunologically based testing, accurate diagnosis of lyme borreliosis remains problematic. to address this issue, a dna amplification-based diagnostic test was developed utilizing the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and oligonucleotide primers specific for the ospa and ospb genes of borrelia burgdorferi. in this approach, a relatively large dna fragment is amplified with an outer set of primers, and a "nested" internal sequence of the pcr product subsequently ...19921567553
detection of plasma tumor necrosis factor, interleukins 6, and 8 during the jarisch-herxheimer reaction of relapsing fever.the jarisch-herxheimer reaction (j-hr) is a clinical syndrome occurring soon after the first adequate dose of an antimicrobial drug to treat infectious diseases such as lyme disease, syphilis, and relapsing fever. previous attempts to identify factors mediating this reaction, that may cause death, have been unsuccessful. we conducted a prospective trial in addis ababa, ethiopia on 17 patients treated with penicillin for proven louse-borne relapsing fever due to borrelia recurrentis to evaluate t ...19921569394
untreated neuroborreliosis: bannwarth's syndrome evolving into acute schizophrenia-like psychosis. a case report.in general, meningopolyradiculitis (bannwarth's syndrome, stage 2 of neuroborreliosis) follows a predictable monophasic self-limiting course. in contrast, we report the case of a patient with an untreated meningopolyradiculitis which evolved into acute schizophrenia-like psychosis due to persistent infection with borrelia burgdorferi. the psychosis resolved within 1 week of treatment with ceftriaxone. this case shows that the usually benign monophasic meningopolyradiculitis may progress to sever ...19921573415
deer, ticks, and lyme disease. 19921574226
incidence and prevalence of lyme disease in a suburban westchester county community.this study was designed to determine the incidence and prevalence of lyme disease in a section of chappaqua, ny, a residential community in which lyme disease is epidemic, and to identify risk factors for this disease. on the basis of clinical history and baseline serologic testing, the overall prevalence of lyme disease for 114 persons entering the study was 8.8%. the incidence during the 5-month study period of may through september 1989 was 2.6%; all three incident cases had erythema migrans ...19921574232
lyme disease case studies.lyme disease is the commonest tick-borne disease in the united states. since the mill creek clinic opened in march 1991, we have diagnosed two cases of the total five cases of lyme disease reported in west virginia.19921574875
diagnosing lyme disease.the incidence of lyme disease is increasing, and the disease is spreading geographically. prompt diagnosis requires recognition of characteristic signs and symptoms of infection with the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. in more than half of cases, erythema migrans is the earliest sign of lyme disease. although less frequently seen than erythema migrans, peripheral neuropathy of the seventh cranial nerve is another important sign. tests for lyme disease await refinement, but laboratory evaluation ...19921575110
[nodular panniculitis: a manifestation of lyme borreliosis?].infection with borrelia burgdorferi can induce various skin manifestations. the type of skin manifestation and the histopathological picture depend on the stage of infection and vary from local inflammatory infiltrates to chronic atrophic skin disease. involvement of subcutaneous tissue has been observed only very rarely. we report on two patients suffering from nodular panniculitis (pfeifer-weber-christian) and present evidence that the disease was caused by borrelia burgdorferi. in one of the ...19921577601
complications of lyme borreliosis.lyme borreliosis is the multisystem infectious disease caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. complications of this infection can involve many organ systems, especially the skin, joints, nervous system, and heart. these manifestations may be acute, or evolve slowly over months or years. diagnosis is not always straightforward, and is currently hampered by lack of a specific serologic assay. this review discusses the syndromes associated with lyme borreliosis and addresses issues of diagn ...19921580609
[borrelia burgdorferi may be the causal agent of sarcoidosis].serum antibody to borrelia burgdorferi was measured in 33 patients with sarcoidosis who were confirmed clinically and pathologically. the results showed that 81.8% of the patients were positive. in addition, a strain of borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from a patient's blood. fourteen patients received ceftriaxone 2 g per day and/or penicillin 12 million per day and a patient received lincomycin 1.2 g per day. the antibody titer of the patients turned to normal level, their sace turned to norma ...19921582344
seroepidemiological studies of borrelia burgdorferi infection in sheep in norway.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in sheep was established. the assay was used in a seroepidemiological survey in which serum samples from 327 norwegian rams were screened for antibodies to b. burgdorferi. these rams were randomly chosen, clinically healthy animals from all parts of norway. they came both from areas where ixodes ricinus is common and from areas where the tick has not been found. the age of the animals varied from 0.5 to 7.5 years. sera f ...19921583130
serologic diagnosis of lyme disease using recombinant outer surface proteins a and b and flagellin.recombinant (r) outer surface proteins (osp) a and b, flagellin, and an immunogenic region of flagellin (41-g) from borrelia burgdorferi were evaluated using immunoblot and elisa for usefulness as substrates in diagnostic testing for lyme disease. antibodies to rospa, rospb, and r-flagellin were detected by immunoblot and elisa using the recombinant proteins. patients with late disease responded to rospa, rospb, and r-flagellin, or only to r-flagellin, whereas patients with early disease showed ...19921583333
prevalence of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi by indirect fluorescent antibody assay, elisa, and western immunoblot in healthy adults in wisconsin and arizona.the prevalence of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in healthy adults from wisconsin and arizona was determined by indirect fluorescent antibody assay (ifa), elisa, and western immunoblotting. a total of 301 sera from adult volunteer blood donors were collected from three areas of wisconsin and compared with 49 consecutive anonymous adult volunteer donor sera from tucson, arizona, an area without reported lyme borreliosis. regional differences in seropositivity were found for western immunoblotti ...19921583334
lyme neuroborreliosis manifesting as an intracranial mass lesion.lyme neuroborreliosis is one of the chronic manifestations of lyme disease and is caused by the neurotropic spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. two of the three stages of lyme disease potentially involve the central nervous system: a second stage that may manifest as meningitis, cranial neuritis, or radiculoneuritis; and a third stage, or chronic neuroborreliosis, with parenchymal involvement. the tertiary stage may mimic many conditions, including multiple sclerosis, polyneuropathy, viral encepha ...19921584393
[lyme borreliosis in an endemic region in europe. prevalence of antibodies and clinical spectrum].a representative sample of the population of two villages located in an area of north baden where borreliosis is endemic was studied to ascertain the prevalence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi and of clinical abnormalities. the aim of the study was to determine what clinical symptoms and signs were correlated with positive antibody status. out of the 2928 inhabitants 1228 were investigated, and 207 of these (16.9%) were seropositive. certain clinical abnormalities showed highly signif ...19921587208
antibiotic treatment of lyme disease. current recommendations by stage and extent of infection.much has been learned about lyme disease over the past several years, but much remains to be learned. careful clinical observation has led to elucidation of the natural history of this disease, and further clinical observations are needed to unravel the remaining areas of uncertainty. it is by no means clear that all the symptoms attributed to lyme disease today actually represent true manifestations of borrelia burgdorferi infection or that patients with well-documented lyme disease whose sympt ...19921589368
special concerns in lyme disease. seropositivity with vague symptoms and development of fibrositis.fear of lyme disease may be as powerful as the disease itself. patients may insist on being tested for infection although little evidence of it exists, and a positive result in the face of vague symptoms can add to the problem. physicians should explain to these patients the differences in "background" seropositivity in various geographic locations and the drawbacks of instituting unnecessary treatment. fibrositis may evolve over time after lyme disease infection. many factors may trigger this d ...19921589369
physical map of the linear chromosome of the bacterium borrelia burgdorferi 212, a causative agent of lyme disease, and localization of rrna genes.the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, which causes lyme disease, and other members of the borrelia genus are unique among characterized bacteria in having a linear chromosome. a restriction map of the chromosome of b. burgdorferi 212 was constructed by making extensive use of digestions in agarose blocks of restriction endonuclease fragments or chromosomal dna that had been purified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. a total of 47 digestion sites for the enzymes sgrai, sacii, mlui, bsshii, eagi ...19921592827
identification of a third genomic group of borrelia burgdorferi through signature nucleotide analysis and 16s rrna sequence determination.as part of a continuing effort to assess genetic variation among isolates of borrelia burgdorferi we have determined the 16s rrna signature nucleotide makeup of two tick isolates from the ussr. signature nucleotides were identified via reverse transcriptase primer extension sequencing of select regions of the 16s rrna molecule. in addition, the near complete 16s rrna sequence of one of the isolates, r-ip3, was determined and utilized in a phylogenetic assessment. the sequence was aligned with th ...19921593264
is there any evidence for an association between ankylosing spondylitis and borrelia burgdorferi infection?the suggested relationship between borrelia burgdorferi and seronegative spondyloarthropathies has been studied in 125 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (as). igg antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi were present in 11 of 125 patients (8.8%) and in 25 of 125 controls (20%). no patient had clinical lyme borreliosis. hla-b27 status was known for 82 patients with as. there was no difference between b27+ and b27 patients. this study provides no evidence that borrelia burgdorferi is associated with ...19921593580
frequency and specificity of antibodies that crossreact with borrelia burgdorferi antigens.the frequency and specificity of antibodies that bind antigens of borrelia burgdorferi in sera from 200 individuals with no evidence of past or current lyme disease was determined. sera were tested for both igg and igm antibodies to b. burgdorferi by western blotting. the non-lyme serum group included specimens from healthy adults and children in addition to specimens from patients with viral infection and rheumatic diseases. crossreactive igg antibodies occurred more frequently than igm antibod ...19921593581
babesiosis: an underdiagnosed disease of children.babesiosis is a malaria-like illness caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite babesia microti and is transmitted by the same tick that transmits borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. babesiosis is well recognized in adult residents of southern new england and new york but has been described in only five children. to determine whether children are infected with b microti less often than are adults, a prospective serosurvey was carried out on block island, ri, where babesiosis ...19921594345
[epidemiological aspects of neurological complications of lyme borreliosis in switzerland. a case-control study].to determine the individual relative risk to neurologically affected patients of infection with borrelia burgdorferi, within the framework of a multicenter case control study encompassing the four neurological departments of the universities of basel, bern, zurich and lausanne, 378 patients and 1134 healthy blood donors serving as controls underwent analysis for antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi by elisa. the seroprevalence were estimated for a cut-off point of 2 standard deviations from t ...19921594902
[mono-arthritis of uncertain etiology--a follow-up study].78 patients in whom the cause of a monoarticular arthritis remained unclear after an initial workup were contacted for a follow-up interview (and an additional clinical examination in 64 cases) after 6 to 11 years (mean 8 years). the mean age at the onset of symptoms was 39 years, with 51% of the patients presenting in the range between 20 and 40 years. there was a slight male preponderance (56%). large joints, mainly the knee, and less often the wrist, ankle or hip, were affected in 79%. finger ...19921594908
suspected lyme borreliosis in sheep.two cases of suspected lyme borreliosis in lambs are described. the clinical signs observed resemble those described for lyme borreliosis in dogs and horses. the lambs were approximately six months old and came from two different flocks in a district heavily infested with ixodes ricinus ticks. the lambs had pronounced lameness in one leg, generally bad condition and poor appetite. they had high serum levels of igg antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi when tested in an elisa. the other lambs in the ...19921595160
prevention of lyme disease.lyme disease and the use of tick repellents and physical protective measures to prevent the disease are discussed. lyme disease is a multiple-organ-system, immune-mediated inflammatory disorder transmitted by the bites of ixodid ticks infected with borrelia burgdorferi. an individual is at greatest risk for infection when a tick has been attached to the skin for more than 24 hours. lyme disease occurs in three stages and may affect the skin, nervous system, cardiac system, and joints. antimicrob ...19921595748
acute, posterior, multifocal, placoid, pigment epitheliopathy and lyme disease. 19921596215
cross-reactive proteins of borrelia burgdorferi.the specificity of serological tests for lyme borreliosis is impaired by cross-reacting antibodies. in order to select antigens for more specific tests, specific and cross-reactive proteins of borrelia burgdorferi must be identified. therefore, to analyze cross reactions of borrelia burgdorferi with other bacteria, rabbit immune sera against heterologous bacteria (borrelia hermsii, treponema pallidum, treponema phagedenis, leptospira interrogans (serogroup grippotyphosa), neisseria meningitidis, ...19921597198
seroprevalence of lyme disease in gray wolves from minnesota and wisconsin.to determine the seroprevalence of lyme disease in gray wolves (canis lupus) from various counties of minnesota and wisconsin (usa), 589 serum samples were collected from 528 wolves from 1972 to 1989. an indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test was used to detect the presence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi. titers of greater than or equal to 1:100 were considered positive. results were confirmed by testing a few selected sera by western blotting. of the 589 sera tested, 15 (3%) had i ...19921602567
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from peromyscus leucopus in oklahoma.borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from a field-caught peromyscus leucopus from central oklahoma (usa). the strain was identified as b. burgdorferi by reaction with monoclonal antibody h5332 specific for the outer surface protein ospa of b. burgdorferi. this represents the first isolation of b. burgdorferi from a wild mouse outside of the normal range of the known vectors ixodes dammini and i. pacificus.19921602581
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from a lyme seronegative patient in northern italy: expression of ospb immunodominant proteins on the isolated strain.this paper describes the antigenic characteristics of a strain of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from a patient seronegative for lyme borreliosis, in the early stage of the illness. the strain was not recognized by a late serum sample from the patient; the isolate reacted in immunoblotting with some of the monoclonal antibodies directed against the immunodominant antigens of borrelia burgdorferi. in addition to the ospa antigen this strain carries also the epitopes of ospb proteins, unlike the ma ...19921602993
differential cleavage of surface proteins of borrelia burgdorferi by proteases.the differential cleavage of surface proteins of borrelia burgdorferi irs strains by several proteases was examined. proteinase k, trypsin, chymotrypsin and thermolysin all cleaved the outer surface protein b (ospb) to undetectable levels by coomassie brilliant blue staining, whereas some residual protein was detected by immunoblotting with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. not even antigenic fragments were detectable by immunoblotting with 1a8 monoclonal antibody reactive with ospb. less ef ...19921602994
lyme disease in california: a novel enzootic transmission cycle of borrelia burgdorferi.knowledge of zoonotic transmission cycles is essential for the development of effective strategies for disease prevention. the enzootiology of lyme disease in california differs fundamentally from that reported from the eastern united states. woodrats, not mice, serve as reservoir hosts, and ixodes neotomae, a nonhuman-biting tick, maintains the agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, in enzootic cycles. the western black-legged tick, ixodes pacificus, is the primary vector to humans, but i ...19921604318
[prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi infection in an area of barcelona]. 19921606233
the clinical and epidemiological profile of lyme neuroborreliosis in denmark 1985-1990. a prospective study of 187 patients with borrelia burgdorferi specific intrathecal antibody production.this prospective study reports the clinical and epidemiological features of 187 consecutive patients with neuroborreliosis recognized in denmark over the 6-yr period, 1985-1990. only patients with intrathecal borrelia burgdorferi specific antibody synthesis were included. in 1990 regional incidences varied between 5.7 and 24.1 per million. ninety-four percent of the patients had early (second stage) neuroborreliosis. the most common manifestation was a painful lymphocytic meningoradiculitis (ban ...19921606475
elimination of borrelia burgdorferi from vector ticks feeding on ospa-immunized mice.although recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi protects mice against injected lyme disease spirochetes, the mode of protection has not yet been explored. indeed, the efficacy of vaccine-induced immunity against a realistic vector-mediated challenge remains unexplored. accordingly, we determined whether this immunogen protects mice against spirochetes delivered by nymphal ixodes dammini ticks. following challenge by tick bite, no spirochetes could be cultured from imm ...19921608951
biting back at lyme disease. 19921609273
[positive anti-borrelia antibodies in patients with clinical manifestations compatible with neuroborreliosis].the clinical features of 19 patients with neurological manifestations unexplained by another disease and positive serology for borrelia burgdorferi were studied. ecm was present in only 11% of the cases and 32% referred tick bite. the characteristic features for suspicion of nb according to our series was the presence of polyneuritis in 84% of the cases specially in the form of multiple mononeuritis and involvement of the facial nerve (79%) leading to even greater suspicion with the association ...19921610600
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi glycoconjugates and surface carbohydrates.borrelia burgdorferi glycoconjugates with different oligosaccharide structures were characterized by a blotting technique with peroxidase-labelled lectins. the localization of surface carbohydrates was studied using electron microscopy with lectin-gold complexes. a high-mannose glycan structure was detected in 83 kda glycoprotein (major extracellular protein); at least four carbohydrates (glucose or mannose, galactose, n-acetylgalactosamine and n-acetylglucosamine) were present in other borrelia ...19921611204
analysis and expression of the borrelia burgdorferi p/gau fla gene: identification of heterogeneity with the b31 strain.the flagellin gene from the p/gau strain of borrelia burgdorferi was cloned and sequenced. the translated p/gau flagellin protein differed from the flagellin of the b31 strain at 13 of 336 amino acids. this includes seven differences between amino acids 190-234, an immunodominant and specific region for b. burgdorferi. the entire flagellin molecule, as well as peptides of the internal portion of the protein which is more specific for b. burgdorferi, has been expressed in escherichia coli using a ...19921612419
immunoglobulin g2 confers protection against borrelia burgdorferi infection in lsh hamsters.we showed that immune serum and its immunoglobulin fractions, specifically immunoglobulin g2 (igg2), could confer complete protection to irradiated hamsters challenged with the lyme disease spirochete. immune serum and its immunoglobulin fractions also killed borrelia burgdorferi in vitro. depletion of complement in vivo abrogated the ability of igg2 to confer complete protection against b. burgdorferi. furthermore, the majority of antibody reactivity directed against b. burgdorferi was found in ...19921612738
lyme disease.lyme disease, a multisystem disorder, has now been reported to the centers for disease control from 43 states of the united states. the disease is a tick-transmitted infectious disorder caused by the spirochete bacterium borrelia burgdorferi. lyme disease typically begins with the symptoms of flu associated with a characteristic skin rash, erythema chronicum migrans. the diagnosis of lyme disease is best made by clinical examination and epidemiologic history, with serologic studies supporting th ...19921612941
western blotting for the diagnosis of borrelia burgdorferi infection in patients with sacroiliitis. 19921613726
[simultaneous infection with borrelia burgdorferi--fsme virus]. 19921614078
[lyme disease in switzerland: ocular involvement].lyme disease is a multisystem disorder caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by a tick (ixodes ricinus). lyme disease is divided into three stages (infection, dissemination and immunological reactions). ocular manifestations are rare except for conjunctivitis and facial nerve palsy. switzerland is an endemic zone for lyme disease; the presence of an atypical pars planitis should prompt a search for lyme disease.19921614153
[meningitis in 154 children of a pediatric clinic in germany: clinical and epidemiologic aspects].in a retrospective study, the histories of the non-neonates treated for primary meningitis in the pediatric department of mainz university hospital between 1986 and 1989 were analyzed with regard to etiological, diagnostic, clinical and epidemiological criteria. in the period studied there were 37 cases of infectious meningitis (11 neisseria meningitidis (29.7%), 7 h. influenzae (18.9%), 3 s. pneumoniae (8.1%), 16 other (43.2%)), and 117 cases of acute aseptic meningitis syndrome (12 mumps virus ...19921614183
serodiagnosis of leptospirosis in pigs using an axial filament enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the axial filament (af) from leptospira interrogans serovar canicola was isolated by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation of 2% sarcosyl treated whole cells. isolation of af was confirmed by electron microscopic examination, by protein-a immunogold labelling, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page), and immunoblotting. analysis by sds-page of the purified preparation showed relatively weak bands of molecular size 41 kda and 21 kda, and strong bands of 35 ...19921615635
[incidence of borrelia burgdorferi infection in isolated facial paralysis. a prospective study].between the causes of facial paralysis, similar to bell's palsy, recently are included those due to some families of spirochaeta (borrelia burgdorferi) transmitted through tick-bite. these bacteria, besides de facial palsy, may produce several degrees of lymphocytic meningitis and subsequently the paralysis of the face, sometimes clumsy or recurrent. the treatment being the antibiotic drugs, never the corticoids. in the paper are explained prospectively the incidence of this disease in the aa's ...19921616069
failure of borrelia burgdorferi to survive in the skin of patients with antibiotic-treated lyme disease.borrelia burgdorferi has been cultivated from clinically normal skin (previous erythema migrans sites) after antibiotic therapy for lyme disease.19921619074
borrelia burgdorferi and other related spirochetes bind to galactocerebroside.spirochetes are agents of neurologic disease that may utilize specific neural cell surface molecules for adhesion. borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, bound to galactocerebroside (galcer) in numbers that were two- to threefold greater than to ceramide and glucocerebroside, and four- to fivefold greater than to sphingosine, psychosine, sulfatide, cholesterol, and three membrane phospholipids. the adherence was greater to galcer and ceramide with a higher content of alpha-hy ...19921620344
selection of a borrelia burgdorferi antigenic variant by cultivation in the presence of increasing amounts of homologous immune serum.this investigation was undertaken to select antigenic variants of a borrelia burgdorferi strain in vitro. the original strain bits was cultivated in bsk medium supplemented with increasing concentrations of homologous hyperimmune serum raised in rabbits. after a few serial passages starting from a subinhibitory serum dilution of 1:800 in bsk up to 1:200, a variant named bitsv was obtained; it grew abundantly like the control culture in the presence of hyperimmune serum. analysis of the antigenic ...19921624108
antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in rodents in the eastern and southern united states.serologic studies were conducted to determine whether white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) and cotton mice (peromyscus gossypinus) contained serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme borreliosis. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays detected antibodies to this spirochete in 35.7 and 27.3% of 56 p. leucopus and 535 p. gossypinus serum samples, respectively, collected in connecticut, north carolina, south carolina, georgia, florida, alabama, and mississippi. antibody t ...19921624561
detection of borreliacidal antibodies in hamsters by using flow cytometry.flow cytometry can be used to detect antibody that kills borrelia burgdorferi. borreliacidal activity was detected within 3 h of incubating b. burgdorferi with immune serum and complement. right-angle light scatter and propidium iodide fluorescence were the cytometric parameters which correlated best with in vitro killing of b. burgdorferi. flow cytometry is a rapid method for determining the presence of borreliacidal activity and may lead to a better serodiagnostic test for the detection of lym ...19921624563
first isolation of borrelia burgdorferi in southern california.the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, was isolated from the blood of a dusky-footed wood rat, neotoma fuscipes baird, in the san bernardino mountains of southern california. antigenic, protein, and molecular analyses demonstrated that the isolate varied slightly from most isolates of b. burgdorferi from northern california and was clearly distinct from other species of borrelia that are endemic to the state. this is the first reported iso ...19921625299
inability of ixodes cookei and amblyomma americanum nymphs (acari: ixodidae) to transmit borrelia burgdorferi.the vector competency of ixodes cookei packard and amblyomma americanum (l.) for borrelia burgdorferi was studied using syrian hamsters. ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin were used as controls. darkfield and immunofluorescent examinations of midgut diverticula revealed b. burgdorferi spirochetes in 32 of 36 (88.9%) i. dammini larvae, 5 of 36 (13.9%) i. cookei larvae, and 7 of 36 (19.4%) a. americanum larvae within 48 h after feeding on infected syrian hamsters. b. burgdorferi w ...19921625302
effectiveness of an aerial application of carbaryl in controlling ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) adults in a high-use recreational area in new jersey.lyme disease risk reduction through the control of the principal tick vector, ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, has become a major issue facing public health agencies in many endemic states. where large tracts of land are involved, established methods of i. dammini control are impractical. an aerial application of carbaryl directed against fall populations of i. dammini adults resulted in 93.8% control after 96 h. control persisted through the following spring. the usefulness ...19921625304
serological survey for lyme disease in domestic dogs and white-tailed deer from oklahoma.sera from 223 randomly selected dogs and 489 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were tested for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi using an indirect kinetic elisa. dog samples were obtained in 1989 whereas deer samples were obtained between 1975 and 1990. ten known negatives and two known positives from each group were run on each plate as controls. samples showing mean mod values above the mean of negatives + 3 sd were considered positive. twenty-six dog (11.7%) and 22 deer (4.5%) sampl ...19921626867
epizootiology of lyme disease and methods of cultivating borrelia burgdorferi.lyme disease is prevalent over vast areas of land in the northern hemisphere. the etiologic agent is a spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, that is transmitted by ixodes ticks. at least five species of anthropophilic ticks are competent vectors, and the causative agent or closely related species have been detected in 20 wild or domestic mammals and eight birds. the ability to isolate and culture b. burgdorferi from humans, ticks, and wildlife has significantly contributed to our understanding of th ...19921626892
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in human blood and urine using the polymerase chain reaction.we investigated the use of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detect borrelia burgdorferi strain b-31 in human blood and urine experimentally inoculated with 5 and 1 borreliae/cm3, respectively, and to biotinylate a dna probe specific for b. burgdorferi in the dot blot and southern blot assays. when the blood and urine samples were subjected to pcr, a 370-bp amplified product was consistently visible on agarose gel electrophoresis after 30 and 45 cycles, respectively. the total human genomic ...19921627262
detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna in urine samples and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with early and late lyme neuroborreliosis by polymerase chain reaction.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was developed for use in the identification of a 248-bp fragment of the borrelia burgdorferi flagellin gene in urine and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) from patients with lyme neuroborreliosis. the specificities of the pcr products were confirmed by dna-dna hybridization with an internal probe. the assay had a detection limit of 10 in vitro-cultivated b. burgdorferi. the pcr assay seemed to be species wide as well as species specific, since dna from all 21 b. burgdor ...19921629318
lyme disease knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors--connecticut, 1992.lyme disease (ld), caused by infection with the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, is the most commonly reported tick-borne illness in the united states (1). because no vaccine is available and effective measures to control tick populations are experimental, education is the most important approach to preventing ld. ld was identified in connecticut in 1975 (2); in 1991, connecticut had the highest rate of ld in the united states (36 per 100,000 population), and cases were reported in residents fro ...19921630426
epidemiology and prevalence of seropositivity against borrelia burgdorferi antigen in la rioja, spain.the aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge of the epidemiology of lyme disease. a seroepidemiologic study was made by evaluating the different levels of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in a five hundred serum representative sample of a population from the province of la rioja, spain. samples were randomly selected and stratified to take into account sex, age, rural or urban residence, and geographical area. all subjects included in the study were asked to fill out a questionnaire ...19921631381
the nih-3 immunodeficient mouse is a model for lyme borreliosis myositis and carditis.experimental infection of immunodeficient nih-3 (n:nih-bg-nu-xid) mice with borrelia burgdorferi was found to result in multisystem histopathologic lesions. in addition to t-cell deficiency due to the nude mutation, these mice have an x-linked defect affecting the b-cell maturation and the beige mutation resulting in the absence of nk cells. nih-3 mice were susceptible to progressive infection with b. burgdorferi resulting in pancarditis, synovitis, and skeletal interstitial myositis whereas con ...19921632468
fibroblasts protect the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, from ceftriaxone in vitro.the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, can be recovered long after initial infection, even from antibiotic-treated patients, indicating that it resists eradication by host defense mechanisms and antibiotics. since b. burgdorferi first infects skin, the possible protective effect of skin fibroblasts from an antibiotic commonly used to treat lyme disease, ceftriaxone, was examined. human foreskin fibroblasts protected b. burgdorferi from the lethal action of a 2-day exposure to ceftria ...19921634816
the vector of the lyme disease spirochete. 19921635568
clustering of host-seeking nymphal deer ticks (ixodes dammini) infected by lyme disease spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi).in areas where the agent of lyme disease is intensely enzootic, the mouse reservoirs may be universally infected. because a large proportion of the vector tick population appears to feed upon these hosts, the prevalence of infection in the vectors should approach 100%. however, infection in host-seeking nymphal ticks in nature rarely exceeds 40%. to help reconcile this apparent paradox, we examined whether estimates of prevalence might differ if we did not assume that infected ticks are randomly ...19921636884
lyme disease associated with fibromyalgia.to describe the clinical and laboratory findings as well as results of treatment in patients with lyme disease associated with fibromyalgia.19921637022
multifocal choroiditis with evidence of lyme disease.a 32-year-old man had multifocal choroiditis without vitreous involvement. the diagnosis of lyme disease was suggested by serial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of his serum and a cerebrospinal fluid specimen. the ocular findings resembled those seen in patients with acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (apmppe). the active lesions resolved after administration of a two-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone. this case suggests that some cases of apmppe actually may be ly ...19921637125
a comparison of methods for sampling the deer tick, ixodes dammini, in a lyme disease endemic area.the purpose of this study was to compare the trapping and examining of mice, drag sampling, and co2-baited traps for their ability to detect the presence and abundance of immature deer ticks, ixodes dammini, in a lyme disease endemic area in southern new york state. eight study sites were sampled 14 times between 28 may and 31 august by setting 49 live-traps, four co2-baited traps, and drag sampling 500 m2. a total of 1540 nymphs and 3079 larvae was collected during the study. drag sampling coll ...19921638929
evidence for b-lymphocyte mitogen activity in borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice.borrelia burgdorferi produces a mitogen for murine b lymphocytes which can be measured in vitro by polyclonal stimulation of proliferation and immunoglobulin production (r. schoenfeld, b. araneo, y. ma, l. yang, and j. j. weis, infect. immun. 60:455-464, 1992). sonicated b. burgdorferi cells also stimulated il-6 production by splenocyte cultures. we have used the murine model for lyme disease described by barthold et al. (s. w. barthold, d. s. beck, g. m. hansen, g. a. terwilliger, and k. d. moo ...19921639470
selection of an escape variant of borrelia burgdorferi by use of bactericidal monoclonal antibodies to ospb.two immunoglobulin g (igg) monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to outer surface protein b (cb2 and cb6), affinity purified from mouse ascitic fluid, exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitory and bactericidal properties against borrelia burgdorferi after a 24-h incubation period in spirochete medium. fab fragments derived from these mabs showed the same effects, indicating that they were not caused by agglutination of the organisms by the intact mabs. the inhibition of spirochete growth in cultures c ...19921639477
hemolytic activity of borrelia burgdorferi.zones of beta-hemolysis occurred around colonies of borrelia burgdorferi grown on barbour-stoenner-kelly medium containing agarose and horse blood. blood plates were inoculated with either the infective strain sh-2-82 or noninfective strain b-31 in an overlay and incubated in a candle jar. both strains of b. burgdorferi displayed beta-hemolysis after 1 to 2 weeks of incubation. the hemolytic activity diffused out from the borrelial colonies, eventually resulting in lysis of the entire blood plat ...19921639493
borrelia burgdorferi in the central nervous system. 19921640607
borrelia burgdorferi in the central nervous system. 19921640608
borrelia burgdorferi in the central nervous system. 19921640609
performance of 45 laboratories participating in a proficiency testing program for lyme disease serology.we show that significant interlaboratory and intralaboratory variations exist in lyme disease proficiency testing.19921640618
molecular characterization of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ixodes ricinus in northern sweden.ixodes ricinus ticks, harbouring borrelia burgdorferi, were found in an area in northern sweden, not thought to be endemic for lyme borreliosis. this investigation took place at norrbyskär, an island situated in the bothnian gulf, 63 degrees 33'n/19 degrees 52'e. one of 42 nymphal and 8/43 adult i. ricinus ticks collected carried spirochetes as seen by phase contrast microscopy. pure bacterial cultures were obtained from 2 of the ticks. western blot analysis using species-specific monoclonal ant ...19921641595
molecular cloning and characterization of dna from human intestinal spirochetes.hindiii cleaved human intestinal spirochete genomic dna was cloned into the plasmid vector pbluescript. the inserts from three of these clones (prb.c33, prb.c47 and prb.f11) successfully hybridized with dna from the nine human intestinal spirochetes used in this study. the fourth insert (from clone prb.a8) failed to hybridize with dna from two of these isolates (hrm4 and hrm9), and, all four of the inserts hybridized with the m1 strain of swine intestinal spirochete treponema innocens. hybridiza ...19921644136
linear- and circular-plasmid copy numbers in borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease agent, and other members of the spirochetal genus borrelia have double-stranded linear plasmids in addition to supercoiled circular plasmids. the copy number relative to the chromosome was determined for 49- and 16-kb linear plasmids and a 27-kb circular plasmid of the type strain, b31, of b. burgdorferi. all three plasmids were present in low copy number, about one per chromosome equivalent, as determined by relative hybridizations of replicon-specific dna ...19921644750
vasculitic mononeuritis multiplex in patient with lyme disease.lyme borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. neurological complications are frequently reported but the pathogenesis remains largely unknown. we report on a patient with positive borrelia antibodies at elisa and immunoblotting and with histological and immunofluorescence study of peripheral nerve biopsy consistent with vasculitic neuropathy.19911649149
phenotypic and genotypic analysis of borrelia burgdorferi isolates from various sources.a total of 17 b. burgdorferi isolates from various sources were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins, restriction enzyme analysis, southern hybridization with probes complementary to unique regions of evolutionarily conserved genes (16s rrna and fla), and direct sequencing of in vitro polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments of the 16s rrna gene. three groups were distinguished on the basis of phenotypic and genotypic traits, the ...19911649797
effect of a beta-lactamase inhibitor, tazobactam, on growth and penicillin-binding proteins of borrelia burgdorferi.the effects of tazobactam, a relatively new beta-lactamase inhibitor, were investigated on growth and penicillin-binding proteins (pbps) of borrellia burgdorferi. a previous communication from our group demonstrated several proteins capable of binding labelled penicillin in this organism. of these proteins, 94-kda and 57-kda pbps possessed the highest affinity for penicillin and were assumed to be essential proteins involved in cell-wall synthesis. in these experiments, tazobactam was used in co ...19911657694
north american lyme neuroborreliosis.clinical, neurophysiologic and laboratory findings obtained in american patients with nervous system lyme borreliosis were compared to published observations in european neuroborreliosis patients. in both populations, borrelia burgdorferi infection is commonly associated with neurologic abnormalities. european reports have emphasized dramatic clinical phenomena, such as painful radiculitis (garin-bujadoux-bannwarth syndrome) and chronic progressive spastic paraparesis. north american patients se ...19911658921
the activity of azithromycin in animal models of infection.high and prolonged tissue levels accompanied by low serum concentrations are a feature of azithromycin, an azalide antibiotic. it has a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms and several intracellular pathogens. a number of animal models of localised infection have been developed which demonstrate that the efficacy of azithromycin correlates with its extravascular pharmacokinetics and not with blood levels. in many instances, because of high tissue bioa ...19911662625
is sarcoidosis a borreliosis?recently some authors have suggested that sarcoidosis may be a borreliosis. thus in the period april to june 1991 we studied serum samples of 12 sarcoid patients (pts) by elisa in order to identify antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi (bb). none had positive results. we conclude that great caution is to be used in advancing the hypothesis of an etiologic role of bb in sarcoidosis.19911669979
comparison of four different serological methods for detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in erythema migrans.three different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) and western blot were compared in regard to the detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in sera from 100 patients with erythema migrans and from 100 controls. for igg detection, a commercial indirect elisa kit with flagellum antigen (flagellum elisa) was significantly more sensitive than the routinely-used indirect elisa with sonicated whole-cell antigen (sonicate elisa) (p = 0.008). the difference in positivity in the igm test w ...19911675520
borrelia burgdorferi in urban parks. 19911676804
isolation of lyme disease spirochetes from an ixodid tick in hokkaido, japan. 19911678577
lyme borreliosis.borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, was the topic of an international conference in stockholm which assembled 500 scientists from all over the world. about 300 oral and poster presentations revealed many new details on the complex life history of this bacterium, its molecular characteristics, the clinical consequences of human and animal infections, new diagnostic procedures and therapeutic regimens.19911679024
evaluation of the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (fta-abs) test specificity.serum samples from 43 patients with positive test for syphilis only in the fta-abs test, were evaluated. three had primary or treated syphilis. twenty-one (49%) had clinical and/or serological signs of lyme borreliosis as assessed by whole-cell sonicate borrelia burgdorferi elisa and western blot techniques. seven (16%) had genital herpes simplex infection and the remaining 12 patients, miscellaneous disorders. in control sera from 30 patients with lyme borreliosis an isolated positive fta-abs r ...19911681646
an immunological study of lyme disease.84 patients in the second or third stages of serologically diagnosed lyme disease suffering from different forms of central as well as peripheral nervous system involvement were tested for the participation of autoimmune mechanisms. cell hypersensitivity to the encephalitogenic basic protein and to antigens from peripheral myelin was evaluated on an opton cytopherometer according to the effect of the macrophage slowing factor--liberated during short-term incubation of sensibilized lymphocytes by ...19901700949
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