TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
dna barcodes identify medically important tick species in canada.medically important ticks (acari: ixodidae) are often difficult to identify morphologically. a standardized, molecular approach using a 658 base pair dna barcode sequence (from the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i gene) was evaluated for its effectiveness in discriminating ticks in north america, with an emphasis on canadian ticks. dna barcodes were generated for 96 of 154 specimens representing 26 ixodid species. a genetic cluster analysis was performed on the barco ...201727918193
a critical appraisal of the mild axonal peripheral neuropathy of late neurologic lyme older studies, a chronic distal symmetric sensory neuropathy was reported as a relatively common manifestation of late lyme disease in the united states. however, the original papers describing this entity had notable inconsistencies and certain inexplicable findings, such as reports that this condition developed in patients despite prior antibiotic treatment known to be highly effective for other manifestations of lyme disease. more recent literature suggests that this entity is seen rarely, ...201727914746
in vivo expression technology and 5' end mapping of the borrelia burgdorferi transcriptome identify novel rnas expressed during mammalian infection.borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterial pathogen responsible for lyme disease, modulates its gene expression profile in response to the environments encountered throughout its tick-mammal infectious cycle. to begin to characterize the b. burgdorferi transcriptome during murine infection, we previously employed an in vivo expression technology-based approach (bbivet). this identified 233 putative promoters, many of which mapped to un-annotated regions of the complex, segmented genome. herein, we glob ...201727913725
the potential of omics technologies in lyme disease biomarker discovery and early detection.lyme borreliosis (lb) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infectious disease in north america and many countries of the temperate northern hemisphere. it is associated with local and systemic manifestations and has persistent post-treatment health complications in some individuals. innate and acquired immunity-related inflammation is likely to play a critical role in both host defense against borrelia burgdorferi and disease severity. large-scale analytical approaches to quantify gene expressi ...201727900646
molecular evidence for toxoplasma gondii in feeding and questing ixodes ricinus ticks.the aim of the present study was to detect toxoplasma gondii in ticks collected from ponies and field vegetation and to determine the role of shetland ponies as a potential reservoir host for t. gondii. a total of 1737 feeding ixodes ricinus collected from 49 horses and 371 questing ticks were tested by pcr and sequencing for the presence and genotyping of t. gondii. all ticks were examined in a previous study to detect and identify pathogenic bacterial species. the aim of this study was also to ...201727894863
progress in the molecular diagnosis of lyme disease.current laboratory testing of lyme borreliosis mostly relies on serological methods with known limitations. diagnostic modalities enabling direct detection of pathogen at the onset of the clinical signs could overcome some of the limitations. molecular methods detecting borrelial dna seem to be the ideal solution, although there are some aspects that need to be considered. areas covered: this review represent summary and discussion of the published data obtained from literature searches from pub ...201727892737
evaluation of a serological test for the diagnosis of borrelia miyamotoi disease in europe.borrelia miyamotoi causes systemic febrile illness and is transmitted by the same tick species that transmits borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus. we describe a serological test using a fragment of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpq) as an antigen, and determined its performance in well-defined patient categories.201728259789
borrelia burgdorferi – morphological structure and motility as adaptation for transmission and survival in the habitat of a tick-vertebrate setuplyme borreliosis is a multisystem chronic disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) spirochete transmitted by ixodes. this bacterium has a remarkable ability to survive in tick-vertebrate setup. its infection causes diagnostic and clinical difficulties. it was distinguished as a separate disease entity over 30 years ago. observations made by steere et al. proved to be a milestone since they found correlation between the occurrence of skin and joint lesions with tick bites. further ...201727883377
lyme disease in poland in 2014lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease, caused by spirochetes of the borrelia genus transmitted by ticks of the ixodes genus. infection caused by borrelia burgdorferi occur throughout poland and therefore, according also to ecdc description, the whole country should be considered as an endemic area.201727870540
infection with the lyme disease pathogen suppresses innate immunity in mice with diet-induced obesity.obesity is a major global public health concern. immune responses implicated in obesity also control certain infections. we investigated the effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity (dio) on infection with the lyme disease bacterium borrelia burgdorferi in mice. dio was associated with systemic suppression of neutrophil- and macrophage-based innate immune responses. these included bacterial uptake and cytokine production, and systemic, progressive impairment of bacterial clearance, and increased ...201727794208
a novel glycan modifies the flagellar filament proteins of the oral bacterium treponema denticola.while protein glycosylation has been reported in several spirochetes including the syphilis bacterium treponema pallidum and lyme disease pathogen borrelia burgdorferi, the pertinent glycan structures and their roles remain uncharacterized. herein, a novel glycan with an unusual chemical composition and structure in the oral spirochete treponema denticola, a keystone pathogen of periodontitis was reported. the identified glycan of mass 450.2 da is composed of a monoacetylated nonulosonic acid (n ...201727696564
duration of borrelia mayonii infectivity in an experimental mouse model for feeding ixodes scapularis larvae.a novel species within the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, borrelia mayonii, was recently described and found to be associated with lyme borreliosis in the upper midwest of the united states. the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis, is naturally infected with b. mayonii in the upper midwest and has been experimentally demonstrated to serve as a vector for this spirochete. natural vertebrate reservoirs for b. mayonii remain unknown. in this study, we demonstrate that an experimental spir ...201727838290
screening of nci-dtp library to identify new drug candidates for borrelia burgdorferi. 201727826144
lyme neuroborreliosis.lyme disease is a multistage and multisystem disease. neurological manifestations [termed lyme neuroborreliosis (lnb)] occur in about 10% of patients with lyme disease. diagnostics and treatment of early and late lnb are widely established. however, the management of persistent symptoms is still fraught with controversies, and therefore is the focus of this review.201727820708
identification and molecular survey of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in sika deer (cervus nippon) from jilin province, north-eastern china.lyme disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) is a common disease of domestic animals and wildlife worldwide. sika deer is first-grade state-protected wildlife animals in china and have economic consequences for humans. it is reported that sika deer may serve as an important reservoir host for several species of b. burgdorferi s.l. and may transmit these species to humans and animals. however, little is known about the presence of borrelia pathogens in sika deer in china. in this ...201727818123
structural and molecular analysis of a protective epitope of lyme disease antigen ospa and antibody interactions.the murine monoclonal antibody la-2 recognizes a clinically protective epitope on outer surface protein (ospa) of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease in north america. human antibody equivalence to la-2 is the best serologic correlate of protective antibody responses following ospa vaccination. understanding the structural and functional basis of the la-2 protective epitope is important for developing ospa-based vaccines and discovering prophylactic antibodies against lyme ...201727859766
not all erythema migrans lesions are lyme disease.lyme disease is the number one arthropod-transmitted disease in the us, and one of the diagnostic criteria for the illness is development of an erythematous bull's-eye rash around a tick bite that may expand over time, hence the term erythema migrans. however, there are other erythema migrans-like rashes, such as those from a condition known as southern tick-associated rash illness. this article describes a patient with an erythema migrans-like lesion similar to that associated with lyme disease ...201727612442
autoimmune arthritides, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or peripheral spondyloarthritis following lyme describe systemic autoimmune joint diseases that develop following lyme disease, and to compare their clinical features with those of lyme arthritis (la).201727636905
impact of white-tailed deer on the spread of borrelia burgdorferi.there is a public perception that the white-tailed deer odocoileus virginianus (artiodactyla: cervidae) is the main reservoir supporting the maintenance and spread of the causative agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi. this study examines the pathogen prevalence rate of borrelia in adult ixodes scapularis (ixodida: ixodidae), the black-legged tick, collected from white-tailed deer and compares it with pathogen prevalence rates in adult ticks gathered by dragging vegetation in two contiguo ...201727699814
technical and clinical validation of three commercial real-time pcr kits for the diagnosis of neuroborreliosis in cerebrospinal fluid on three different real-time pcr platforms.this study reports the evaluation of the technical and clinical validation of the o-diaborburg kit (dia), borrelia burgdorferi pcr kit, isex (gene), and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato real-tm (sac) for the diagnosis of neuroborreliosis in cerebrospinal fluid based on both borrelia dna and csf samples from patients with clinical suspicion of neuroborreliosis. this validation study was done by analysing the kits on the rotorgene q (rgq), cfx96, and lightcycler480 (lc480). for all kits, the linear ...201727714590
actin-dependent regulation of borrelia burgdorferi phagocytosis by macrophages.the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of lyme disease, a multisystemic disorder affecting primarily skin, nervous system, and joints. if an infection with borrelia proceeds unchecked, the disease can also enter a chronic stage, leading to the development of neuroborreliosis or cardiac arrhythmia. successful elimination of b. burgdorferi by the host immune system is thus decisive for the positive outcome of a respective infection. accordingly, host immune cells such as macrop ...201727744511
the putative walker a and walker b motifs of rrp2 are required for the growth of borrelia burgdorferi.rrp2 encodes a putative bacterial enhancer binding protein (bebp) in borrelia burgdorferi. point mutation (g239c) of rrp2 abolishes the transcriptional activation of σ(54) -dependent rpos. in contrast to canonical bebps that are dispensable for bacterial growth, rrp2 is essential for borrelial growth in bsk medium. it has been believed that rrp2's atpase activity is not required for cell growth, but experimental evidence supporting this notion has been lacking. in particular, it has remained unc ...201727696536
enhanced protective immunogenicity of homodimeric borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein c.lyme borreliosis is caused by tick-transmitted spirochetes of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states and europe. outer surface protein c (ospc) is a 23-kda outer surface lipoprotein expressed during spirochete transmission from the tick to the vertebrate host. in a previous study, we found that immunization with a recombinant disulfide-bridged dimeric form of ospc (d-ospc) stimulates increased antibody responses relative to immu ...201727733423
prevalence of serological response to borrelia burgdorferi in farmers from eastern and central poland.lyme borreliosis (lyme disease) caused by the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochete is the most common tick-borne infection manifested by a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms. in poland, the preventive health care does not comprise individual farmers as it is practiced in foresters. the objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure of polish farmers to infection with b. burgdorferi, based on serological screening test and epidemiological investigation. a total of 3,597 farmers were e ...201727796648
antibody response to lyme disease spirochetes in the context of vlse-mediated immune evasion.lyme disease (ld), the most prevalent tick-borne illness in north america, is caused by borrelia burgdorferi the long-term survival of b. burgdorferi spirochetes in the mammalian host is achieved though vlse-mediated antigenic variation. it is mathematically predicted that a highly variable surface antigen prolongs bacterial infection sufficiently to exhaust the immune response directed toward invariant surface antigens. if the prediction is correct, it is expected that the antibody response to ...201727799330
borrelia burgdorferi chey2 is dispensable for chemotaxis or motility but crucial for the infectious life cycle of the spirochete.the requirements for bacterial chemotaxis and motility range from dispensable to crucial for host colonization. even though more than 50% of all sequenced prokaryotic genomes possess at least one chemotaxis signaling system, many of those genomes contain multiple copies of a chemotaxis gene. however, the functions of most of those additional genes are unknown. most motile bacteria possess at least one chey response regulator that is typically dedicated to the control of motility and which is usu ...201727799336
infections in the differential diagnosis of bell's palsy: a plea for performing csf analysis.peripheral facial nerve palsy (fp) is the most common single nerve affection. most cases are idiopathic, but a relevant fraction is caused by potentially treatable aetiologies including infections. not all current diagnosis and treatment guidelines recommend routine cerebrospinal fluid (csf) analysis in the diagnostic workup of this symptom. in this study, we evaluated frequency of aetiologies and relevance of csf analysis in an interdisciplinary cohort.201727530390
seroprevalence of west nile virus, crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus, francisella tularensis and borrelia burgdorferi in rural population of manisa, western turkey.zoonotic diseases are well recognised threat to public health globally. the information of regional prevalence and associated risk factors allow the national programmes to determine and frame better strategies for their control, as they also provide the actual status of zoonosis in the region. the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of west nile virus (wnv), crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv), francisella tularensis and borrelia burgdorferi among the rural residents ...201727353580
chronic lymphomonocytic meningoencephalitis, oligoarthritis and erythema nodosum: report of baggio-yoshinari syndrome of long and relapsing evolution.the brazilian human borreliosis, also known as baggio-yoshinari syndrome (bys), is a tickborne disease but whose ticks do not pertain to the ixodes ricinus complex. it is caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato microorganisms and resembles clinical and laboratory features of lyme disease (ld). bys is also distinguished from ld by its prolonged clinical evolution, with relapsing episodes and autoimmune dysfunction. we describe the case of a young female who, over one year, progressively present ...201724878862
a boy with a tight skin: borrelia-associated early-onset morphea.we present a case of a 16-year-old boy with morphea caused by borrelia burgdorferi. we re-emphasise an immunohistochemical method, focus floating microscopy (ffm), to detect borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes in tissue sections. focus floating microscopy (ffm) proved to be more sensitive than polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and nearly equally specific.201724093617
cerebrospinal fluid t-regulatory cells recognize borrelia burgdorferi napa in chronic lyme borreliosis.the napa protein of b. burgdorferi is essential for the persistence of spirochetes in ticks. one of the most intriguing aspects of napa is its potential to interfere with the host immune system. here, we investigated the role of the acquired immune responses induced by napa in the cerebrospinal fluids (csf) of patients with chronic lyme borreliosis. we evaluated the cytokine profile induced in microglia cells and csf t cells following napa stimulation. we report here that napa induced a regulato ...201724355226
prevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in humans from a cuban village.lyme disease has not been officially reported in cuba. however, clinical cases have been serologically reported. seroprevalence survey of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto antibodies in humans in the country has not been conducted.201722358362
a serosurvey of diseases of free-ranging gray wolves (canis lupus) in minnesota.we tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves ( canis lupus ) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in minnesota's wolf population. we found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite neospora caninum . ...201728192048
early disseminated lyme disease causing false positive serology for primary epstein-barr virus infection - report of 2 cases.false positive serology for lyme disease was reported in patients with acute infectious mononucleosis. here we describe two patients with early-disseminated lyme disease who were misdiagnosed with infectious mononucleosis based on false positive tests for primary epstein-barr virus infection.201728379435
tuberculosis 'the great imitator': a usual disease with unusual presentations.a number of infectious diseases have been referred to by the phrase 'the great imitator', of which the oldest is syphilis; others include lyme disease, nocardiosis, etc. tuberculosis has been described as the second great imitator as it can imitate various other disease processes. an awareness of the atypical clinical manifestations of tuberculosis is important, especially in regions where tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem, such as india. extrapulmonary tuberculosis (ept ...201728166920
modeling the effects of variable feeding patterns of larval ticks on the transmission of borrelia lusitaniae and borrelia afzelii.spirochetes belonging to the borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato (sl) group cause lyme borreliosis (lb), which is the most commonly reported vector-borne zoonosis in europe. b. burgdorferi sl is maintained in nature in a complex cycle involving ixodes ricinus ticks and several species of vertebrate hosts. the transmission dynamics of b. burgdorferi sl is complicated by the varying competence of animals for different genospecies of spirochetes that, in turn, vary in their capability of causing disease ...201728690096
borrelia species detected in ticks feeding on wild korean water deer (hydropotes inermis) using molecular and genotypic analyses.lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne disease transmitted through the bite of ticks infected by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group, including b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, b. afzelii, and b. garinii. the goal of the present study was to detect borrelia species in ticks infesting wild korean water deer (kwd; hydropotes inermis swinhoe), using molecular and genotypic analyses. in total, 48 ticks were collected from kwd, all of which were morphologically identified as haemaphysalis longicornis neum ...201728549151
the abundance of the lyme disease pathogen borrelia afzelii declines over time in the tick vector ixodes ricinus.the population dynamics of vector-borne pathogens inside the arthropod vector can have important consequences for vector-to-host transmission. tick-borne spirochete bacteria of the borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) species complex cause lyme borreliosis in humans and spend long periods of time (>12 months) in their ixodes tick vectors. to date, few studies have investigated the dynamics of borrelia spirochete populations in unfed ixodes nymphal ticks.201728545520
approaches for reverse line blot-based detection of microbial pathogens in ixodes ricinus ticks collected in austria and impact of the chosen method.ticks transmit a large number of pathogens capable of causing human disease. in this study, the pcr-reverse line blot (rlb) method was used to screen for pathogens in a total of 554 ixodes ricinus ticks collected from all provinces of austria. these pathogens belong to the genera borrelia, rickettsiae, anaplasma/ehrlichia (including "candidatus neoehrlichia"), babesia, and coxiella the pathogens with the highest detected prevalence were spirochetes of the borrelia burgdorferisensu lato complex, ...201728455331
emerging borreliae - expanding beyond lyme borreliosis.lyme borreliosis (or lyme disease) has become a virtual household term to the exclusion of other forgotten, emerging or re-emerging borreliae. we review current knowledge regarding these other borreliae, exploring their ecology, epidemiology and pathological potential, for example, for the newly described b. mayonii. these bacteria range from tick-borne, relapsing fever-inducing strains detected in some soft ticks, such as b. mvumii, to those from bat ticks resembling b. turicatae. some of these ...201727523487
infection resistance and tolerance in peromyscus spp., natural reservoirs of microbes that are virulent for humans.the widely-distributed north american species peromyscus leucopus and p. maniculatus of cricetine rodents are, between them, important natural reservoirs for several zoonotic diseases of humans: lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, erhlichiosis, hard tickborne relapsing fever, powassan virus encephalitis, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and plague. while these infections are frequently disabling and sometimes fatal for humans, the peromyscines display little pathology and ap ...201727381345
use of a tick-borne disease manual increases accuracy of tick identification among primary care providers in lyme disease endemic areas.given the high incidence of tick bites and tick-borne diseases in the united states, it is important for primary care providers to recognize common ticks and the pathogens they may transmit. if a patient has removed and saved an attached tick, identifying the tick helps guide clinical management and determine whether antibiotic prophylaxis for lyme disease is appropriate. to investigate providers' ability to recognize common ticks and the pathogens they may transmit, we asked 76 primary care pro ...201727916581
bactericidal activity of octenidine to various genospecies of borrelia burgdorferi, sensu lato spirochetes in vitro and in vivo.the aim of our studies was to invent a reliable method for detection of the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against borrelia burgdorferi in suspension (in vitro) and in cell line cultures (in vivo). in the suspension method, 0.01% octenidine at 20°c and 35°c was bactericidal to borrelia afzeli; borrelia garini, b. burgdorferi sensu stricto after 5 minutes treatment. increase of the temperature to 35°c speed up the bactericidal effect to 1 minute. the bactericidal action of octenidine towa ...201728735308
lyme borreliosis in finland, 1995-2014.we investigated the epidemiology of lyme borreliosis (lb) in finland for the period 1995-2014 by using data from 3 different healthcare registers. we reviewed data on disseminated lb cases from the national infectious diseases register (21,051 cases) and the national hospital discharge register (10,402 cases) and data on primary lb (erythema migrans) cases from the register for primary health care visits (11,793 cases). incidence of microbiologically confirmed disseminated lb cases increased fro ...201728726624
cascading effects of predator activity on tick-borne disease risk.predators and competitors of vertebrates can in theory reduce the density of infected nymphs (din)-an often-used measure of tick-borne disease risk-by lowering the density of reservoir-competent hosts and/or the tick burden on reservoir-competent hosts. we investigated this possible indirect effect of predators by comparing data from 20 forest plots across the netherlands that varied in predator abundance. in each plot, we measured the density of questing ixodes ricinus nymphs (don), din for thr ...201728724731
white matter diseases with radiologic-pathologic correlation.white matter diseases include a wide spectrum of disorders that have in common impairment of normal myelination, either by secondary destruction of previously myelinated structures (demyelinating processes) or by primary abnormalities of myelin formation (dysmyelinating processes). the pathogenesis of many white matter diseases remains poorly understood. demyelinating disorders are the object of this review and will be further divided into autoimmune, infectious, vascular, and toxic-metabolic pr ...201727618323
lyme disease in a brazilian traveler who returned from germany. 201728225980
[borrelia miyamotoi: a recently identified human pathogenic tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete].borrelia miyamotoi is a recently described relapsing fever spirochete transmitted by ticks of the ixodes ricinus complex. this pathogen is different from borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the lyme borreliosis spirochetes) in its epidemiology, ecology and also genetics. over 50 patients have been described worldwide with borrelia miyamotoi disease, and three immunocompromised patients were reported with neurological symptoms. our knowledge about borrelia miyamotoi infection in ticks and its distri ...201728714333
leptospira spp. vaccinal antibodies do not react with borrelia burgdorferi peptides used in the accuplex 4.we attempted to determine if leptospira spp. antibodies induced by vaccination would cross-react with borrelia burgdorferi antigens used in a commercial automated immunofluorescent assay (accuplex 4 biocd; antech). staff- and student-owned dogs ( n = 31) were recruited at a veterinary teaching hospital in a b. burgdorferi nonendemic area. the dogs were randomized and administered 1 of 4 commercial leptospira spp. vaccines that contained serovars canicola, grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, and ...201728782459
lyme carditis buried beneath st-segment elevations.lyme disease is caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi and is carried to human hosts by infected ticks. there are nearly 30,000 cases of lyme disease reported to the cdc each year, with 3-4% of those cases reporting lyme carditis. the most common manifestation of lyme carditis is partial heart block following bacterial-induced inflammation of the conducting nodes. here we report a 45-year-old gentleman that presented to the hospital with intense nonradiating chest pressure and tightness. ...201728713599
small rnas of borrelia burgdorferi: characterizing functional regulators in a sea of srnas
.borrelia (borreliella) burgdorferi and closely related genospecies are the causative agents of lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease north of the equator. the bacterium, a member of the spirochete phylum, is acquired by a tick vector that feeds on an infected vertebrate host and is transmitted to another vertebrate during subsequent feeding by the next tick stage. the precise navigation of this enzootic cycle entails the regulation of genes required for these two host-specific phases ...201728656017
interaction of primary mast cells with borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto): role in transmission and dissemination in c57bl/6 mice.borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the causative agent of lyme borreliosis is a bacterium transmitted by hard ticks, ixodes spp. bacteria are injected into the host skin during the tick blood meal with tick saliva. there, borrelia and saliva interact together with skin cells such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, mast cells and other specific immune cells before disseminating to target organs.201728655322
neuroborreliosis in swedish children: a population-based study on incidence and clinical characteristics.borrelia burgdorferi is a common cause of bacterial meningitis but there are very few studies on incidence in europe.201728654563
in vivo imaging of lyme arthritis in mice by [(18)f]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.lyme borreliosis (lb) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi spirochaetes, which are able to disseminate from the tick-bite site to distant organs. mouse models are widely used to study lb and especially lyme arthritis (la), but only a few whole-animal in vivo imaging studies on the pathogenesis of b. burgdorferi infection in mice have been published so far. the existing imaging techniques have their drawbacks and, therefore, novel tools to complement the array of avai ...201728649922
regulation of escherichia coli pathogenesis by alternative sigma factor n.σ(n) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the rna polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. it is broadly conserved in the eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(n) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpon (σ(n)), ptsn, hpf, rapz, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of escherichia, shigella, and salmonella. in an increasing numb ...201728635589
range expansion and increasing borrelia burgdorferi infection of the tick ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in iowa, 1990-2013.a passive surveillance program monitored ticks submitted by the public in iowa from 1990-2013. submitted ticks were identified to species and life stage, and ixodes scapularis say nymphs and adults were tested for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi. an average of 2.6 of iowa's 99 counties submitted first reports of i. scapularis per year over the surveillance period, indicating expansion of this tick species across the state. the proportion of vector ticks infected by b. burgdorferi increased ...201728633503
borrelia burgdorferi infection induces lipid mediator production during lyme arthritis.experimental lyme arthritis provides a mouse model for exploring the development of pathology following infection of c3h mice with borrelia burgdorferi. infected mice develop a reliable inflammatory arthritis of the ankle joint with severity that typically peaks around two to three weeks post-infection and then undergoes spontaneous resolution. this makes experimental lyme arthritis an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms that drive both the development and resolution phases of infla ...201728630010
doctor says you are cured, but you still feel the pain. borrelia dna persistence in lyme disease.lyme disease is a zoonosis caused by infection with borrelia burgdorferi (bb). a great amount of research has attempted to elucidate the mechanisms by which bb causes inflammation and chronic symptomatology in some patients. patients often seek unconventional treatments that lack scientific evidence, as medical care is unable to effectively explain and treat their illness. bb-dna can persist for long periods of time in some individuals, even after antibiotic therapy. herein, scientific rationale ...201728625898
a dual luciferase reporter system for b. burgdorferi measures transcriptional activity during tick-pathogen interactions.knowledge of the transcriptional responses of vector-borne pathogens at the vector-pathogen interface is critical for understanding disease transmission. borrelia (borreliella) burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease in the united states, is transmitted by the bite of infected ixodes sp. ticks. it is known that b. burgdorferi has altered patterns of gene expression during tick acquisition, persistence and transmission. recently, we and others have discovered in vitro expression of rnas ...201728620587
blood donor borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato seroprevalence and history of tick bites at a northern limit of the vector order to study the antibody seroprevalence of the causal agent of lyme borreliosis, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), and the history of tick bites at a geographical distribution limit of ixodes ricinus, we compared healthy blood donors in geographically extreme regions: the borreliosis-endemic vestfold county (59°n) and the region of northern norway. blood samples were screened using igg/vlse elisa, and positive/borderline samples were confirmed using c6 elisa and immunoblot assays. al ...201728612350
europe-wide meta-analysis of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence in questing ixodes ricinus ticks.lyme borreliosis is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in europe and north america. despite having multiple tick vectors, the causative agent, borrelia burgdorferisensu lato, is vectored mainly by ixodes ricinus in europe. in the present study, we aimed to review and summarize the existing data published from 2010 to 2016 concerning the prevalence of b. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in questing i. ricinus ticks. the primary focus was to evaluate the infection rate of thes ...201728550059
infection with borrelia chilensis in ixodes stilesi ticks collected from pudu puda deer.lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex spirochetes, which are maintained in transmission cycles among vertebrates and ixodes ticks. recently, a new genospecies within this complex, borrelia chilensis, was described in ixodes stilesi collected from the environment and from rodents in chile. this tick also infests the native southern pudu deer (pudu puda). the objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence, intensity of in ...201728549720
detection and genetic characterization of a wide range of infectious agents in ixodes pavlovskyi ticks in western siberia, russia.the ixodes pavlovskyi tick species, a member of the i. persulcatus/i. ricinus group, was discovered in the middle of the 20(th) century in the russian far east. limited data have been reported on the detection of infectious agents in this tick species. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic variability of a wide range of infectious agents in i. pavlovskyi ticks collected in their traditional and recently invaded habitats, the altai mountains and novosibirsk province, ...201728545549
impact of a freeway on the dispersal of ticks and ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: forested resting areas may become lyme disease barriers are well known for their effects on ecosystems. habitat fragmentation, for instance, is a recognised consequence of modern-day infrastructure. the aim of the present study was to investigate the diversity and abundance of tick species, as well as the risks of acquiring tick-borne infections in habitats adjacent to a freeway. therefore, ixodid ticks were collected from the vegetation at two-week intervals (in the main tick season, from march to june) in eight habitats of differe ...201728605964
crowdsourcing-based nationwide tick collection reveals the distribution of ixodes ricinus and i. persulcatus and associated pathogens in finland.a national crowdsourcing-based tick collection campaign was organized in 2015 with the objective of producing novel data on tick distribution and tick-borne pathogens in finland. nearly 20 000 ixodes ticks were collected. the collected material revealed the nationwide distribution of i. persulcatus for the first time and a shift northwards in the distribution of i. ricinus in finland. a subset of 2038 tick samples containing both species was screened for borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the prev ...201728487561
identification of tp0751 (pallilysin) as a treponema pallidum vascular adhesin by heterologous expression in the lyme disease spirochete.treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, is a highly invasive spirochete pathogen that uses the vasculature to disseminate throughout the body. identification of bacterial factors promoting dissemination is crucial for syphilis vaccine development. an important step in dissemination is bacterial adhesion to blood vessel surfaces, a process mediated by bacterial proteins that can withstand forces imposed on adhesive bonds by blood flow (vascular adhesins). the study of ...201728484210
a proteomic signature of dormancy in the actinobacterium micrococcus luteus.dormancy is a protective state in which diverse bacteria, including mycobacterium tuberculosis, staphylococcus aureus, treponema pallidum (syphilis), and borrelia burgdorferi (lyme disease), curtail metabolic activity to survive external stresses, including antibiotics. evidence suggests dormancy consists of a continuum of interrelated states, including viable but nonculturable (vbnc) and persistence states. vbnc and persistence contribute to antibiotic tolerance, reemergence from latent infecti ...201728484042
detection and differentiation of lyme spirochetes and other tick-borne pathogens from blood using real-time pcr with molecular beacons.real-time pcr assays have recently been implemented in diagnostics for many bacterial pathogens, allowing rapid and accurate detection, which ultimately results in improved clinical intervention. here, we describe a sensitive method of detection for three common tick-borne pathogens borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesia microti since coinfections with these pathogens have started occurring with increasing frequency over the last several years in both north america and euro ...201728600768
a protein-protein interaction dictates borrelial infectivity.two borrelia burgdorferi interacting proteins, bb0238 and bb0323, play distinct roles in pathogen biology and infectivity although a significance of their interaction remained enigmatic. here we identified the polypeptide segment essential for bb0238-bb0323 interaction and examined how it supports spirochete infectivity. we show that the interaction region in bb0323 requires amino acid residues 22-200, suggesting that the binding encompasses discontinuous protein segments. in contrast, the inter ...201728592866
the geographic distribution of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) revisited: the importance of assumptions about error balance.the black-legged tick, ixodes scapularis say, is the primary vector of borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete that causes lyme disease, in eastern north america. lyme disease risk has generally been considered to be focused in the northeast and the northern midwest in the united states, yet the distribution of the vector extends considerably more broadly. a recent analysis of the distribution of the species using ecological niche modeling approaches painted an odd biogeographic picture, in which the ...201728591858
bosr is a novel fur family member responsive to copper and regulating copper homeostasis in borrelia burgdorferi.the ferric uptake regulator (fur) family of dna-binding proteins represses and/or activates gene transcription via divalent metal ion-dependent signal sensing. the borrelia burgdorferi fur homologue, also known as borrelia oxidative stress regulator (bosr), promotes spirochetal adaptation to the mammalian host by directly repressing the lipoproteins required for tick colonization and indirectly activating those required for establishing infection in the mammal. here, we examined whether the dna- ...201728583949
no evidence of borrelia mayonii in an endemic area for lyme borreliosis in france.borrelia mayonii is currently the latest species belonging to the borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) complex to be discovered. interestingly it is involved in human pathology causing a high fever. we looked for its presence in post- tick bite febrile patients as well as in ixodes ricinus ticks in an endemic area of france.201728583197
molecular evidence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients in brazilian central-western region.we aimed to detect dna of borrelia burgdorferi in whole blood and serum samples of patients with clinical symptoms and epidemiology compatible with brazilian lyme-like disease. four patients with positive epidemiological histories were recruited for the study. blood samples were collected, screened by serologic testing by elisa and western blotting and molecular identification of b. burgdorferi by amplifying a fragment of the conserved gene that synthesizes the hook flagellar flge. the results s ...201728579253
t2 magnetic resonance assay-based direct detection of three lyme disease-related borrelia species in whole-blood early lyme disease (ld), serologic testing is insensitive and seroreactivity may reflect active or past infection. in this study, we evaluated a novel assay for the direct detection of three species of borrelia spirochetes in whole blood. the t2 magnetic resonance (t2mr) assay platform was used to amplify borrelia dna released from intact spirochetes and to detect amplicon. analytical sensitivity was determined from blood spiked with known concentrations of spirochetes, and the assay's limit ...201728566314
receptor tyrosine kinases play a significant role in human oligodendrocyte inflammation and cell death associated with the lyme disease bacterium borrelia previous studies, human oligodendrocytes were demonstrated to undergo apoptosis in the presence of borrelia burgdorferi under an inflammatory milieu. subsequently, we determined that the mek/erk pathway played a significant role in triggering downstream inflammation as well as apoptosis. however, the identity of receptors triggered by exposure to b. burgdorferi and initiating signaling events was unknown.201728558791
importance of common wall lizards in the transmission dynamics of tick-borne pathogens in the northern apennine mountains, italy.during the investigations on ticks and tick-borne pathogens (tbp) range expansion in the northern apennines, we captured 107 podarcis muralis lizards. sixty-eight animals were infested by immature ixodes ricinus, haemaphysalis sulcata and h. punctata. borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 3.7% of i. ricinus larvae and 8.0% of nymphs. together with the species-specific b. lusitaniae, we identified b. garinii, b. afzelii and b. valaisiana. rickettsia spp. (18.1% larvae, 12.0% nymphs), namely r ...201728540487
lost in plasmids: next generation sequencing and the complex genome of the tick-borne pathogen borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia (b.) burgdorferi sensu lato, including the tick-transmitted agents of human lyme borreliosis, have particularly complex genomes, consisting of a linear main chromosome and numerous linear and circular plasmids. the number and structure of plasmids is variable even in strains within a single genospecies. genes on these plasmids are known to play essential roles in virulence and pathogenicity as well as host and vector associations. for this reason, it is essential to explore methods for ...201728558786
the clinical relevance of studies on borrelia burgdorferi persisters. 201728502813
western blot techniques.the western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (pvdf) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. here, we describe the transfer and detection of outer surface protein a (ospa), a protein only found on th ...201728501998
candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detected in the blood of norwegian patients with erythema migrans.the most common tick-borne human disease in norway is lyme borreliosis. ticks in norway also harbour less known disease-causing agents such as candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis, borrelia miyamotoi and rickettsia helvetica. however, human infections caused by these pathogens have never been described in norway. the main aims of the study were to evaluate the contribution of several tick-borne bacterial agents, other than borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, to zoonotic diseases in norway and to dete ...201728539197
powassan/deer tick virus and borrelia burgdorferi infection in wisconsin tick populations.powassan/deer tick virus (powv/dtv) is an emerging cause of arboviral neuroinvasive disease in the upper midwest. these studies describe the prevalence and geographic distribution of wisconsin ticks carrying powv/dtv as well as the high frequency of ixodes scapularis ticks coinfected with both powv/dtv and borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. these findings suggest that concurrent transmission of powv/dtv and b. burgdorferi from coinfected ticks is likely to occur in humans ...201728488932
lyme disease ecology in a changing world: consensus, uncertainty and critical gaps for improving control.lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in temperate regions of north america, europe and asia, and the number of reported cases has increased in many regions as landscapes have been altered. although there has been extensive work on the ecology and epidemiology of this disease in both europe and north america, substantial uncertainty exists about fundamental aspects that determine spatial and temporal variation in both disease risk and human incidence, which hamper effective and effi ...201728438910
detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia microti, borrelia burgdorferi, borrelia miyamotoi, and powassan virus in ticks by a multiplex real-time reverse transcription-pcr assay.ixodes scapularis ticks are implicated in transmission of anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi, borrelia miyamotoi, babesia microti, and powassan virus. we describe the establishment and implementation of the first multiplex real-time pcr assay with the capability to simultaneously detect and differentiate all five pathogens in a single reaction. the application of this assay for analysis of ticks at sites in new york and connecticut revealed a high prevalence of b. microti in ticks f ...201728435891
infectious agents is a risk factor for myxomatous mitral valve degeneration: a case control study.the etiology of myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (mvd) is not fully understood and may depend on time or environmental factors for which the interaction of infectious agents has not been documented. the purpose of the study is to analyze the effect of mycoplasma pneumoniae (mp), chlamydophila pneumoniae (cp) and borrelia burgdorferi (bb) on myxomatous mitral valve degeneration pathogenesis and establish whether increased in inflammation and collagen degradation in myxomatous mitral valve deg ...201728431520
practices of lyme disease diagnosis and treatment by general practitioners in quebec, 2008-2015.lyme disease (ld), a multisystem infection caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (b. burgdorferi), is the most reported vector-borne disease in north america, and by 2020, 80% of the population in central and eastern canada could live in ld risk areas. among the key factors for minimising the impact of ld are the accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients bitten by ticks. in this study, the practices of quebec general practitioners (gps) on ld diagnosis and m ...201728532428
lyme borreliae prevalence and genospecies distribution in ticks removed from humans.lyme borreliosis (lb) is the most important human tick-borne disease, but borrelia genospecies cause different clinical manifestations. ticks of the genus ixodes removed from humans between 2006 and 2012 were analysed for borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) infections. the majority of ticks originated from the greater hanover region in northern germany. the engorgement status varied over the entire spectrum from unengorged (no evidence of started blood feeding) to fully engorged. in the present ...201728528880
canine infection with borrelia burgdorferi, dirofilaria immitis, anaplasma spp. and ehrlichia spp. in canada, 2013-2014.canine test results generated by veterinarians throughout canada from 2013-2014 were evaluated to assess the geographical distribution of canine infection with borrelia burgdorferi, dirofilaria immitis, ehrlichia spp., and anaplasma spp.201728526093
relative risk for ehrlichiosis and lyme disease in an area where vectors for both are sympatric, new jersey, usa. 201728518034
a case of early disseminated neurological lyme disease followed by atypical cutaneous manifestations.lyme disease (ld) is a tick-borne illness caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. an 80-year-old female from pennsylvania, usa, presented to an outside hospital with fever, confusion, lower extremity weakness, and stool incontinence. ct head and mri spine were unremarkable. an infectious work-up including lumbar puncture was negative. she was transferred to our tertiary care hospital. patient was noted to have mild unilateral right-sided facial droop and a diffuse macular rash throughout t ...201728512589
[tick-borne infections in denmark].the castor bean tick, ixodes ricinus, is common in woodlands in most of denmark. besides borrelia burgdorferi, it can harbour a number of pathogenic microorganisms such as tick-borne encephalitis virus, anaplasma phagocytophilum, rickettsia helvetica, francisella tularensis, candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis, bartonella spp., borrelia miyamotoi and babesia spp. these tick-borne infections should be a differential diagnostic consideration during the tick season in denmark. we review the distribu ...201728504633
corrigendum to: dna-based identification and ospc serotyping in cultures of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. isolated from ticks collected in the moravia (czech republic). 201728504440
anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia microti, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and toxoplasma gondii in ixodes ricinus (acari, ixodida) ticks collected from slowinski national park (northern poland). 201728504439
species composition and temporal distribution of adult ixodid ticks and prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and rickettsia species in orange county, california. 201728504429
isolation of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia mayonii from naturally infected rodents in minnesota.borrelia mayonii is a newly described member of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that is vectored by the black-legged tick (ixodes scapularis say) and a cause of lyme disease in minnesota and wisconsin. vertebrate reservoir hosts involved in the enzootic maintenance of b. mayonii have not yet been identified. here, we describe the first isolation of b. mayonii from naturally infected white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus rafinesque) and an american red squirrel (tamiasciurus hudsonic ...201728444198
pleomorphism and viability of the lyme disease pathogen borrelia burgdorferi exposed to physiological stress conditions: a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-scanning electron microscopy understand the response of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi exposed to stress conditions and assess the viability of this spirochete, we used a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-scanning microscopy approach. this approach enables simple exposition of bacteria to various experimental conditions that can be stopped at certain time intervals by cryo-immobilization, examination of cell viability without necessity to maintain suitable culture conditions during viability assays ...201728443079
neuroretinitis as presenting and the only presentation of lyme disease: diagnosis and management.we present a case of neuroretinitis as presenting and the only presentation of lyme disease in a 25-year-old female who visited hilly areas in the himalayas of north india. she presented with right eye sudden and painless blurring of vision. her vision at presentation was 20/60. she had fundus examination; fundus fluorescein angiography (ffa) and optical coherence tomography (oct) imaging showed classical features of neuroretinitis. no other organ was involved. oral steroids were prescribed and ...201728440258
[bilateral facial nerve palsy associated with epstein-barr virus infection in a 3-year-old boy].bilateral facial nerve palsy is a rare and sometimes difficult diagnosis. we describe a case of bilateral simultaneous facial nerve palsy associated with epstein-barr virus (ebv) infection in a 3-year-old boy. several symptoms led to the diagnosis of ebv infection: the clinical situation (fever, stomachache, and throat infection), white blood cell count (5300/mm(3) with 70% lymphocyte count), seroconversion with ebv-specific antibodies, lymphocytic meningitis, and a positive blood ebv polymerase ...201728416425
liver microbiome of peromyscus leucopus, a key reservoir host species for emerging infectious diseases in north america.microbiome studies generally focus on the gut microbiome, which is composed of a large proportion of commensal bacteria. here we propose a first analysis of the liver microbiome using next generation sequencing as a tool to detect potentially pathogenic strains. we used peromyscus leucopus, the main reservoir host species of lyme disease in eastern north america, as a model and sequenced v5-v6 regions of the 16s gene from 18 populations in southern quebec (canada). the lactobacillus genus was fo ...201728412525
detection of anaplasma spp. and ehrlichia spp. anibodies, and dirofilaria immitis antigens in dogs from seven locations of morocco no data has been published on canine exposure to anaplasma spp., borrrelia burgdorferi, and ehrlichia spp., and only one report is available on the occurrence of dirofilaria immitis in dogs. therefore, the aim of this study was to collect current data on the canine exposure to these vector-borne pathogens (vbps) in morocco. a total of 217 urban (n=57), rural (n=110) and military (n=50) dogs from seven moroccan locations were screened for anaplasma spp., b. burgdorferi and ehrlichia sp ...201728410950
lyme disease: a case report with typical and atypical lesions.lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease caused by the spirochete "borrelia burgdorferi," which is transmitted by "ixodes" tick, with skin being the most common and earliest organ to be affected. diagnosis of erythema chronicum migrans (ecm), which is the characteristic lesion of early disease, may help in early treatment and prevention of complications. here, we are reporting a case of lyme disease in a 10-year-old young boy from a non-endemic zone of himachal pradesh, who presented wit ...201728405553
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