PMID(sorted ascending)
the hamster immune response to tick-transmitted borrelia burgdorferi differs from the response to needle-inoculated, cultured organisms.the human immune response to natural infection with borrelia burgdorferi appears to differ from that seen in small mammals infected by needle inoculation. in humans, antibody to outer surface proteins a and b (ospa and ospb) is not detectable until late in infection, but small mammals inoculated with b. burgdorferi produce early antibody to ospa and ospb. to investigate this disparity we compared the immune response in hamsters to b. burgdorferi after needle inoculation with cultured organisms o ...19921431134
csf findings in lyme meningitis.the results of cerebrospinal fluid examination in 59 cases of meningitis caused by borrelia burgdorferi were analysed and compared with 73 non-lyme meningitis cases. there was no statistically significant difference in the median cell count of 160 x 10(6)/l in the lyme meningitis patients and the 150 x 10(6)/l in the non-lyme cases. the protein level was elevated in both patients groups to 0.9 g/l and 0.8 g/l, respectively. the glucose level of 2.9 mmol/l (1.0-6.1) was, however, significantly (p ...19921431169
diagnostic tools in lyme borreliosis: clinical history compared with serology.the occurrence of a history of clinical lyme borreliosis and the prevalence of positive antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi were studied in 431 dutch hunters. the majority of the hunters (336 or 78%) did not report any complaints and had no positive igg antibodies to b. burgdorferi. sixty-five hunters (15.1%) had no clinical manifestations but did not have positive antibodies to b. burgdorferi. only 1.9% of the population studied had had past symptoms of definite or probable lyme borreliosis. lik ...19921432003
an investigation of a workplace cluster of bell's palsy.we undertook a study to confirm the existence of an apparent cluster of bell's palsy in an industrial plant ("w4"), and to test etiologic hypotheses regarding chemical exposures, immune suppression, and infectious etiologies. cases were enumerated by questionnaire. employees with a history of bell's palsy ("cases") were invited to participate in a study that included medical history, t cell studies, viral and lyme disease serologies, and blink reflex studies. thirty-three unaffected volunteers f ...19921432295
[ocular findings in infection with borrelia burgdorferi].during the years 1988 to 1990 ten patients were observed in the eye clinic of rwth aachen with ocular findings of infection with borrelia burgdorferi. 6 of them showed neuro-ophthalmological signs, 4 had uveitis. in both groups recent infections were documented in fresh and chronic stages of the disease, lasting longer than one year. the various clinical pictures of the disease following infection with borrelia burgdorferi are described. as a vaccination against borreliosis is not yet available, ...19921434386
a comprehensive multiple matrix model representing the life cycle of the tick that transmits the agent of lyme extension of leslie matrix methodology was developed to describe the life cycle of ixodes dammini, the tick that transmits the agent of lyme disease in eastern north america. thereby, we described the seasonally changing pattern of interactions of the tick with its various hosts in a well-studied site on nantucket island, massachusetts. particular numerical values representing the site were estimated mainly on the basis of published values and interpreted on the basis of experience. the model ...19921434674
the epidemiology of lyme borreliosis in italy.erythema migrans was described in italy only in 1971 although italian dermatologists were familiar with it a long time before. in 1983, the first case of lyme borreliosis with multisystem involvement was identified. the endemic areas in italy are the ligurian coast, the province of friuli venezia giulia, and the region surrounding the town of bologna. in liguria, the incidence of lyme disease is about 17/100,000 inhabitants per year. serosurveys of the general population and of sentinel animals ...19921435355
a controlled trial of antimicrobial prophylaxis for lyme disease after deer-tick bites.borrelia burgdorferi, which causes lyme disease, is transmitted by deer ticks (lxodes dammini) in the northeastern and midwestern united states. although deer-tick bites are common in areas in which the disease is endemic, there is uncertainty about how to manage the care of persons who are bitten.19921435930
[correlation between neurologic disease and borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in 800 paired serum/cerebrospinal fluid samples].paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples from 800 patients of a neurological clinic were tested for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi. a flagellum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for antibody screening. all serum/csf pairs with any elevated antibody response were also tested by a western blot, a method for confirmation. 65 patients (8.1%) had serum igg antibodies on elisa screening and 22 of these (2.8%) were confirmed by western blot. 20 patients (2.5%) had elevated antibo ...19921436252
western blotting in evaluating lyme seropositivity and the utility of a gel densitometric approach.the antibody response to borrelia burgdorferi is widely used in the diagnosis of lyme neuroborreliosis and other manifestations of lyme disease. however, a problem with immunoassays has been a significant number of false positives. the western blotting technique is a useful adjunct in the serodiagnosis of other infections, but its use in lyme borreliosis has been limited because of a lack of definition of what constitutes a positive assay. using a gel densitometric analysis, we devised quantitat ...19921436533
changes in the protein profile and antigenicity of different borrelia burgdorferi strains after reintroduction to ixodes ricinus ticks.eight swiss strains of borrelia burgdorferi, with various protein profiles and the north-american strain b31 were artificially introduced into ixodes ricinus ticks and reisolated 10 days later. all isolates were subsequently examined by sds-page analysis. comparing initial isolates with the reisolates, we observed that 7 out of 9 strains changed their protein pattern with respect to the major proteins ospa, ospb and the 22 kda protein after passage in the tick. the strains ne2, ne4 and ne83 with ...19921437234
vegetation structure influences the burden of immature ixodes dammini on its main host, peromyscus determine whether the relative abundance of immature ixodes dammini (the vector of lyme disease and human babesiosis) is related to habitat structure, we examined tick burdens on their main host, the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), in 4 structurally diverse sites on great island, massachusetts, usa. vegetation structure at each site was quantified with respect to 25 habitat variables. principal components analysis was used to reduce this set of habitat variables to seven new and ort ...19921437266
the neuropsychiatric manifestations of lyme borreliosis.lyme borreliosis (lyme disease), a tick-borne spirochetal illness, has multisystemic involvement and is rapidly increasing in certain areas of the united states. although its neurologic manifestations are becoming increasingly well recognized, its psychiatric presentations are not well known. the first section of this paper will provide an overview of lyme borreliosis and a review of the relevant neuropsychiatric literature. the second section will provide clinical descriptions of some common ne ...19921438607
arthropoda as zoonoses and their implications.some aspects of changing patterns of arthropodal infections and arthropod-borne diseases in mediterranean areas are briefly discussed. selected examples are given, with particular emphasis on the phenomenon of the synanthropic flea ctenocephalides felis felis and on health problems caused by human infections with argas reflexus, the common tick of urban pigeons in europe. finally, the risk of the emergence of lyme borreliosis (borrelia burgdorferi) is considered in relation to the increasing spr ...19921441188
lyme disease: ecology, epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and management. 19921442314
cystitis induced by infection with the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, in mice.previous studies have demonstrated that the urinary bladder is a consistent source for isolating the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, from both experimentally infected and naturally exposed rodents. we examined histopathologic changes in the urinary bladder of different types of rodents experimentally infected with lyme spirochetes, including balb/c mice (mus musculus), nude mice (m. musculus), white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), and grasshopper mice (onychomys leucogaster). a ...19921443051
vesicular erythema migrans.lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. the characteristic rash, erythema migrans, is an early sign of the disease. clinical criteria remain the "gold standard" for diagnosis at this stage of illness.19921444504
management of asymptomatic borrelia burgdorferi infection. 19921445461
persistence of serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated for lyme determine if antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi persist after antibiotic treatment, we recalled 32 patients with lyme disease from a primary care practice a mean of 16 months after treatment and analyzed initial and follow-up serum samples by elisa and immunoblot assays. of the eight patients whose initial serum specimens were positive for igm antibody by elisa, three had positive titers of igm antibody at follow-up; of the 23 patients whose initial serum specimens were positive for igg antib ...19921445977
[survey of the infestation level of the ixodes ricinus tick by borrelia burgdorferi. complimentary report].in a recent report, we gave results of a 4 year consecutively survey (1987 to 1990) of the level of ixodes ricinus nymphs infested by borrelia burgdorferi in two forests of the western part of france. this brought us to conclude that there was a relative stability for this level in course of time. results of this survey kept on in 1991 oblige us to partly modify our conclusion, on account of an important dropping of the tick infection frequency in one of the two forests, this perhaps in connecti ...19921446183
field ecology of lyme disease in kansas. 19921447862
reported cases of lyme disease in kansas. 19921447863
the diagnosis and treatment of lyme disease.lyme disease has probably been reported for at least 80 years, with the cause unknown until the discovery of the ixodes ricinus complex tick-borne spirochete b. burgdorferi. the incidence of diagnosed cases appears to be increasing in kansas and elsewhere. a negative laboratory test does not exclude the possibility of the disease. at present, no accurate laboratory screen for the illness is available. the diagnosis must be considered when acute or chronic clinical manifestations reviewed in this ...19921447864
[immunology and diagnostic test results in lyme borreliosis].borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi), the etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis, shows both a variety of outer surface proteins with molecular weights between 16 and 100 kilodalton (kd) and a 41 kd flagellar protein, which induce the immunologic response. lipopolysaccharides, another constituent of the bacterial capsule, are responsible for the inflammatory reaction, constitutional symptoms and for the jarisch-herxheimer reaction. first a vigorous t-cell immune response develops, followed later b ...19921448684
lyme borreliosis in genetically resistant and susceptible mice with severe combined immunodeficiency.the evolution of lyme borreliosis was examined in genetically resistant c.b-17 and susceptible c3h/he(c3h) mice homozygous for the severe combined immune deficiency (scid) gene, or their immunocompetent counterparts. the c.b-17, c.b-17-scid, c3h, and c3h-scid mice were inoculated intradermally with 10(4) borrelia burgdorferi and examined on days 14, 21, 30, 45, and 60 after inoculation. spirochetemia was detected through 30 days, but was cleared in all groups by 45 days. kidney and brain were in ...19921449201
[false positive serologic tests for lyme disease in echovirus meningitis]. 19921449361
differences of two borrelia burgdorferi strains in complement activation and serum resistance.complement activation and serum resistance of the borrelia burgdorferi strains b31 (american strain) and pko (european strain) were compared. in 25% (v/v) normal human serum (nhs) free of b. burgdorferi-specific antibodies the cells of the pko strain were high activators of complement as indicated by rapid and strong c9 consumption, by deposition of up to 336763 c9 molecules per cell and by the formation of the terminal complement complex on the cell surface. by comparison, complement activation ...19921452216
purification and immunological characterization of a major low-molecular-weight lipoprotein from borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi resembles gram-negative bacteria in having both cellular and outer membranes. we previously showed that a lipopolysaccharide (lps)-like material could be extracted from b. burgdorferi with phenol-chloroform-petroleum ether (pcp). the pcp extract of b. burgdorferi exhibited biological activity in several in vitro assays (e.g., mitogenicity, pyrogenicity, and cytokine release). these activities suggested the presence of endotoxin. the pcp extract of b. burgdorferi, however, al ...19921452330
experimental borrelia burgdorferi infection of outbred mice.infectivity of borrelia burgdorferi strain 297 in normal outbred ddy mice was examined. strain 297 was inoculated intraperitoneally in 3-week-old outbred ddy mice. b. burgdorferi was routinely cultured from the heart and urinary bladder 5 to 84 days postinoculation. the combined isolation rate from both heart and urinary bladder was significantly higher than the rate from spleen, kidney, liver, urine, and blood samples. three- and 10-week-old mice were infected with inocula of 10(4) and 10(5) or ...19921452675
diagnosis of early lyme disease by polymerase chain reaction amplification and culture of skin biopsies from erythema migrans lesions.current laboratory diagnosis of lyme disease relies on tests for the detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of the disease. these tests are often unreliable because of a lack of sensitivity and specificity and test-to-test variability. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification for detection of b. burgdorferi in skin biopsy specimens. forty-six 2-mm skin biopsy samples were obtained from ...19921452688
neurologic lyme disease. 19921455107
[the results of a clinico-serological examination of 60 patients with lyme disease].clinical and serological examinations were carried out in 60 patients with lyme disease. the diagnosis was established on the basis of the disease marker--tick-borne migrating erythema and serological data obtained with the use of indirect immunofluorescence and western blot. the spectrum of clinical manifestations and the rate of different clinical syndromes are described and compared with the data by this country and foreign authors. it is shown that borrelia infection is capable of imitating ...19921455388
human babesiosis in new york state: an epidemiological description of 136 cases.epidemiological data on 136 cases of human babesiosis reported from laboratories and clinicians in the state of new york from 1982 to 1991 were reviewed. all but two patients, who had traveled to nantucket island in massachusetts, acquired disease in suffolk county, long island. the highest average age-group-specific annual incidence rates occurred among men > or = 80 years of age (7.72 per 100,000) and among women 70-79 years of age (3.61 per 100,000). seven patients (5%) had previously undergo ...19921457632
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from a patient infected in maryland. 19921457648
fever of unknown origin: review of 86 patients treated in community hospitals.this study describes the clinical features of fever of unknown origin (fuo) in 86 patients in a community setting from 1984 to 1990. infectious diseases remain the most common category of illnesses causing fuo; in this study, infectious diseases including recently described diseases--such as aids (three cases) and lyme disease (one case)--caused fuo in 28 patients. although percutaneous computed tomography-guided procedures were useful for obtaining diagnostic specimens (15 cases), a noninvasive ...19921457669
autoantibodies against cyclophilin in systemic lupus erythematosus and lyme disease.autoantibodies against cyclophilin, a cyclosporin a binding protein, were detected in sera of 29 of 46 (63%) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 14 of 40 (35%) lyme disease patients. the antibodies are directed against the denatured form of both the major and minor isoform of cyclophilin and can be demonstrated in western blots. some first-degree relatives of lupus patients also express these antibodies. they are specific for cyclophilin and are not the consequence of hypergammaglobul ...19921458678
other infections of the choroid and retina. toxoplasmosis, histoplasmosis, lyme disease, syphilis, tuberculosis, and ocular toxocariasis.the major clinical infectious syndromes involving the retina and choroid are discussed. means for successful diagnosis and treatment are presented, as well as the major complications. this work emphasizes the need to identify the infectious nature of these syndromes in order to avoid the all-too-common pitfall of just treating all cases of uveitis with steroids alone.19921460269
distribution of the lyme disease vector, ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) and isolation of borrelia burgdorferi in ontario, canada.ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin was confirmed at long point, lake erie, ontario, on small mammals and white-tailed deer and by dragging for ticks. mean intensities of up to 16.2 larvae and 2.1 nymphs were found on peromyscus leucopus (rafinesque), with an overall prevalence of infestation up to 92%. adult i. dammini (101.6 +/- 77.63) (mean +/- sd) were found on 8 white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmerman). the seasonal pattern of recovery of ticks from hosts and th ...19921460617
distribution of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in residential lawns on prudence island, rhode island.the distribution of nymphal ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin in residential lawns was assessed by flagging on prudence island, ri. the number of ticks per sample was five times greater in lawns adjacent to woods than in lawns adjacent to other lawns. relative tick abundance was negatively correlated with distance from the woods, but the decline was gradual. spirochete prevalence in ticks did not differ among lawn types or at different distances from the woods. therefore, barri ...19921460622
occurrence of ixodes pacificus (parasitiformes: ixodidae) in arizona.adults and immatures of ixodes pacificus cooley & kohls were collected by flagging vegetation and from lizards during a 3-mo period in the hualapai mountain park, mohave county, az, in 1991. collections were made at altitudes > or = 2,134 m. two of 48 gut-salivary gland extracts of adult ticks were positive by ifa using a monoclonal antibody (h5332) specific to borrelia burgdorferi. these are the first records of i. pacificus and of spirochetes tentatively identified as b. burgdorferi in arizona ...19921460624
isolation of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, from ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) collected on prince edward island, canada.studies were undertaken to monitor for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, on prince edward island, canada. gut contents were removed for culturing from seven engorged ticks collected in 1991-1992 including five ixodes dammini (spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin) and two i. scapularis (say) removed from a dog that had recently traveled to the southern united states. b. burgdorferi was recovered from one i. dammini that had been removed from a cat in charl ...19921460625
studies on the ecology of lyme disease in a deer forest in county galway, ireland.the abundance of the tick ixodes ricinus (l.) and the infection rate of ticks with borrelia burgdorferi (johnson et al.) were compared on either side of a deer fence in a forest park in county galway, ireland, in an attempt to elucidate the role of fallow deer, dama dama, and woodmice, apodemus sylvaticus, in determining the population density of i. ricinus and the transmission of b. burgdorferi. the results showed that tick numbers were much higher on the deer side of the fence, although the de ...19921460628
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in laboratory-reared ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) fed on experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer.larvae and nymphs of ixodes dammini spielman, piesman, clifford & corwin from a laboratory colony were fed on two white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmerman) inoculated with either the sh2-82 or jd-1 strains of borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner. ticks were exposed to one deer 43 and 69 d after inoculation of the spirochete and to a second deer 35 and 61 d after inoculation. polymerase chain reaction assays amplified the 158 bp ospa dna target sequence in ...19921460639
[serologic diagnosis of lyme disease in patients with undifferentiated arthritis. diagnostic problems].arthritis is a frequent manifestation of lyme disease. the diagnosis of this disease is especially supported by serological techniques which however have false positives or negatives. the aim of this study was to establish the frequency of serologies positive to borrelia burgdorferi in patients with non-filiated arthritis and in other well defined rheumatic diseases.19921460939
nucleotide sequence of the borrelia burgdorferi rpmh gene encoding ribosomal protein l34. 19921461740
lyme disease: an orthopedic perspective.the incidence of lyme disease is increasing. this spirochetal infection may frequently manifest itself with joint involvement without characteristic dermatologic signs or history of tick bite. serologic testing remains unreliable. oral or parenteral antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment. chronic arthritis develops in approximately 10% of patients with stage iii disease. lyme arthritis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with mono- or oligoarticular joint involveme ...19921461815
[acute myelo-meningo-radiculitis caused by the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi].a case of severe myelo-meningo-radiculitis with lyme neuro-borreliosis is described in a patient aged 33 years suffering from insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. it is essential to examine the cerebro-spinal fluid for borelia burgdorferi specific intrathecal antibody production if sensory radiculitis persist and, finally, if there are focal motor signs and unexplained lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebro-spinal fluid. early diagnosis is very important in order to shorten the course of the ill ...19921462471
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from ticks in southern california. 19921462548
[lyme disease--also a childhood disease].in the light of a survey of the world literature lyme borreliosis, an epidemic disease caused by gram-negative organisms borrelia burgdorferi is described. the disease has three phases with involvement of the skin, the nervous system, the cardiovascular system and joints. treatment with antibiotics is effective. the disease lies in the fields of interest of various specialties including paediatrics.19921462570
hepatitis associated with lyme disease. 20161462798
seroprevalence survey of borreliosis in children with chronic arthritis in british columbia, canada.a seroprevalence survey using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) for igg antibodies to borrelia hermsii and borrelia burgdorferi was conducted for varied pediatric chronic arthritis patients and a nonrheumatic control group in the province of british columbia, canada. overall, a higher rate of sera with ifa titers > or = 1/256 was found for b. hermsii (36.6%) compared to b. burgdorferi (12.5%). there were no significant differences among the arthritis subgroups and controls for the distr ...19921464879
antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in various population groups in croatia.the purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in croatia in various population groups. the study comprised 263 individuals: 93 healthy subjects (travellers); 100 controls separated into 2 subgroups, 50 from high risk zone (endemic) and 50 from low risk zone (non-endemic); and 70 members of a high risk population (forestry workers). antibody to b. burgdorferi of igm and igg class were analysed by an elisa technique using mixed antigen made ...19921465590
borrelia arthritis in swedish children: clinical manifestations in 10 children.since 1986, serology against borrelia burgdorferi has been performed on patients with arthritis admitted to the division of pediatric rheumatology, s:t göran's hospital, stockholm. we studied, retrospectively, the period 1986-88. among 300 children with arthritis, 10 had positive titers against b. b. burgdorferi. other causes of arthritis were excluded. the onset of borrelia arthritis was throughout the year. only 3 of the 10 children remembered an actual tick bite. no other manifestations of ly ...19921467615
rheumatology--lyme disease. 19921468248
features of an autoimmune process in mid-dermal elastolysis.mid-dermal elastolysis is a rare disorder that is manifested clinically by wrinkling and histologically by the selective absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. we describe a young woman who developed abnormal wrinkling after augmentation mammoplasty with silicone implants. histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of mid-dermal elastolysis. in addition, a positive antinuclear antibody titer and a false-positive lyme titer were subsequently detected. in a previously reported case a pat ...19921469138
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in ticks by species-specific amplification of the flagellin gene.we developed a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) that specifically amplifies a fragment of the flagellin gene (fla) of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. this fla target, amplified with nested primers, was conserved among all 80 strains of b. burgdorferi tested. strains examined included cultures from ticks, humans, and rodents from major b. burgdorferi-endemic regions of the united states and parts of europe and asia. templates from b. hermsii, b. parkeri, b. turicatae, an ...19921471733
spirochete chemotaxis, motility, and the structure of the spirochetal periplasmic flagella.spirochetes have a unique motility system that is characterized by flagellar filaments contained within the outer membrane sheath. direct evidence using video microscopy has recently been obtained which indicates that these periplasmic flagella (pf) rotate in several spirochetal species. this rotation generates thrust. as shown for one spirochete, spirochaeta aurantia, motility is driven by a proton motive force. spirochete chemotaxis has been most thoroughly studied in s. aurantia. this spiroch ...19921475520
genetic approaches to cell biology and metabolism of spirochetes.genetic analysis and methodology have only comparatively recently been applied to the study of spirochetes. although genetic transfer procedures for spirochetes are not widely available, there are several examples of progress in genetic analysis of spirochetes by other approaches. some examples of these approaches are the following. 1) genes for synthetic pathways in treponema and leptospira have been cloned by complementation of escherichia coli serving as plasmid hosts. 2) the ospa protein of ...19921475521
interaction of spirochetes with the host.the success of an invading organism must depend on several cytoplasmic, surface-associated and secreted factors. the technical difficulties in handling pathogenic spirochetes like treponema pallidum and borrelia burgdorferi have made it difficult to define specific factors involved in entry and long-term survival. the problem of defining virulence factors has been attacked by several strategies: t. pallidum secretes a number of immunogenic low molecular mass proteins. the most predominant are of ...19921475523
mri findings in children infected by borrelia burgdorferi.cranial magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were observed in 8 children (5 boys, 3 girls; ages 4-14 years) with neurologic problems following infection by borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease. neurologic features included headache (6), behavioral changes (5), facial palsy (2), papilledema (2), papilledema with diplopia (1), disturbance of sleep pattern (2), and carpal tunnel syndrome (1). two mri studies demonstrated multiple focal areas of increased signal intensity in ...19921476570
incorporation of cysteine by borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia hermsii.the growth rate of borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia hermsii in bsk ii medium prepared with cysteine-free or cysteine-containing (0.185-5.92 mm) cmrl 1066 medium was studied. in media with cysteine-free cmrl 1066, growth of borreliae was detectable, although it was reduced by approximately 80%. bacterial growth was maximal when the concentration of cysteine in cmrl 1066 reached 1.48 mm, which represents the standard cysteine concentrations of the medium; higher concentrations inhibited the growt ...19921477785
recombination between genes encoding major outer surface proteins a and b of borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi causes lyme disease, a multisystem illness that can persist in humans for many years. we describe recombination between homologous genes encoding the major outer surface proteins (osps) a and b of b. burgdorferi which both deletes osp gene sequences and creates chimaeric gene fusions. recombinant osp genes occur in multiple strains and encode unique proteins that lack some characteristic osp epitopes. antigenic variation in osp through recombination may be relevant to the pe ...19921479892
seroepidemiological survey for antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in cows.antibody to borrelia burgdorferi was examined in 380 healthy and 38 clinical cases of cows from hokkaido and shizuoka in japan. in healthy animals, igg and igm antibody to b. burgdorferi ho14 strain were found in 44 cows (14.6%) and 24 cows (8.0%) from hokkaido. in contrast, antibody-positive case was not observed except for only 1 case which was igm positive (1/79: 1.3%) in cows from shizuoka. mean antibody levels of healthy animals in hokkaido and shizuoka were 0.651 and 0.263 (igg antibody to ...19921479959
stage-associated risk of transmission of the lyme disease spirochete by european ixodes more closely define the risk of infection by the agent of lyme disease in europe, we determined whether spirochetal prevalence increases throughout the development of the ixodes ricinus vector tick. of all ticks that could be flagged from vegetation, i. ricinus were by far the most abundant. spirochetal infection rates in the adult stage of this tick (15%) are no higher than those in nymphs (18%) but greatly exceed those in larvae (0.7%). this tick therefore appears to attain infection mainly ...19921480608
cns lyme disease. 19921482459
[lyme borreliosis in childhood].ten years after detection of borrelia burgdorferi as the etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis and after introduction of serological methods an overview of the disease in children is given and compared with own observations. in view of the wide clinical spectrum and the difficulties in interpreting serological results the early diagnosis of lyme borreliosis is still problematic at present. on the other hand, in case of late diagnosis therapeutic failure and/or partial recovery may result. data of ...19921484707
are csf or serum ganglioside antibodies related to peripheral nerve demyelination in neuroborreliosis, guillain-barré syndrome, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy?cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and serum igg and igm antibodies to seven gangliosides were determined in patients with neuroborreliosis (nb) (n = 20), guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) (n = 13), and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (cidp) (n = 10). the incidence of elevated antibodies was highest in nb and lowest in cidp. correlation between csf and serum antibodies was only observed for igg antibodies to gm1, gd1b and gt1b in gbs. the strong igm antibody reactivity to gangliosid ...19921486101
two-year survey of the incidence of lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in a high-risk population in sweden.a survey was made over a two-year period (september 1987 to august 1989) of a population living in an area endemic for lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in sweden. for each patient a blood sample was collected and a questionnaire completed annually. all sera were tested for an antibody response to borrelia burgdorferi in an eia using sonicated antigen and for an antibody response to the tick-borne encephalitis virus using an eia and a haemagglutination inhibition test. antibodies to b ...19921486884
risk factors for lyme disease in a small rural community in northern california.a 1-year prospective study of risk factors for seropositivity to and contraction of lyme disease among members of a small rural community (population, approximately 150) was conducted in northwestern california in 1988-1989. the initial rate of seropositivity for borrelia burgdorferi for 119 current or former residents ranged from 15 to 20% among three laboratories, with statistically significant interlaboratory agreement. questionnaires were completed by 93 current residents at entry and 80 res ...19921488962
mapping of genes on the linear chromosome of the bacterium borrelia burgdorferi: possible locations for its origin of replication.molecular clones of borrelia burgdorferi, aetiologic agent of lyme borreliosis, were isolated and analysed by dna sequence determination. this procedure yielded b. burgdorferi homologues of gida, gyrb, gyra, ftsa and ftsz. the genes were located on the physical map of the b. burgdorferi linear chromosome. also mapped were the genes fla and p60 while dnaa was mapped using a heterologous probe. gyra and gyrb were found to be in tandem and were mapped, along with dnaa at the centre of the chromosom ...19921490605
biopsy of canine ear tissue for detection of borrelia burgdorferi following ixodes dammini feeding.a punch biopsy method was developed to detect and cultivate borrelia burgdorferi from canine ear tissue. the biopsy procedure was sensitive in that spirochetes were detected in 100% of the dogs upon which infected ticks had fed. b. burgdorferi could be cultured as early as 6 days after tick feeding at which time the organisms could not be concurrently recovered from peripheral blood. the ear punch biopsy provides a reliable method for sampling live canines and should prove useful for detecting e ...19921490617
epidemiology of lyme disease in olmsted county, mn, 1975-1990.lyme disease has been reported in minnesota since 1980. until now, it has not been regarded as endemic in olmsted county. we reviewed the medical records of all 68 cases of lyme disease diagnosed in residents of olmsted county for 1980-1990. only 17 of the 68 cases met centers for disease control surveillance criteria for definite lyme disease (13 men, 4 women). of these 17 cases, 3 were likely acquired in olmsted county. the age and sex adjusted incidence rate was 2.3/100,000 (95% ci 1.1-3.4). ...19921491394
the enigma of lyme disease in missouri. 19921491662
[three bacterial species associated with lyme borreliosis. clinical and diagnostic implications].dnas from various borrelia associated with lyme disease were reciprocally hybridized. this genomic taxonomy method showed that lyme disease agent comprised three genomic species. two species could be differentiated by phenotypic characters as major proteins molecular weights and monoclonal antibodies reactivity. western-blot with sera from patients suffering from different clinical forms of lyme disease: arthritis, meningoradiculitis and acrodermatitis chronicum atrophicans showed that each of t ...19921493569
prevalence of lyme borreliosis spirochetes in ixodid ticks of japan, with special reference to a new potential vector, ixodes ovatus (acari: ixodidae).to determine the vectors of lyme borreliosis in japan, the ixodid ticks taken in hokkaido, fukushima, nagano, ehime, and kochi prefectures were examined individually for spirochetal infections by culturing their midgut tissues in bsk medium. the cultivable spirochetes identified as borrelia burgdorferi were detected in ixodes persulcatus schulze adults (15.5% of 634), nymph (6.7% of 15) and ixodes ovatus neumann adult (9.6% of 188) from hokkaido, i. ovatus adults (25.5% of 47) from fukushima, an ...19921495032
spatial analysis of the distribution of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) on white-tailed deer in ogle county, illinois.the pattern of infestations of ixodes dammini on white-tailed deer in ogle county in illinois was studied through examinations of hunted deer from 1988 to 1990. the illinois geographic information system mapped the spatial distribution of tick infestations on deer and related it to a known endemic focus for i. dammini and borrelia burgdorferi (castle rock state park), and to a major waterway (rock river). second-order neighborhood analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution of deer aro ...19921495039
rates of borrelia burgdorferi infection in ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in southwestern wisconsin.ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin collected from a study site in southwestern wisconsin were examined for borrelia burgdorferi infection. adult spirochete infection rates varied seasonally (38.1%, spring 1990; 60.3%, fall 1990; 41.2%, spring 1991) and were similar to or higher than rates reported in various studies from the northeastern united states. statistical comparison of seasonal infection rates indicated a significant difference between the fall 1990 adult population and ...19921495049
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) from ixodes scapularis and dermacentor albipictus ticks (acari: ixodidae) in oklahoma.borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from ixodes scapularis say and dermacentor albipictus packard that were removed as partially fed adults from white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus zimmermann, in oklahoma. isolation in media was accomplished only after homogenates of pooled field-collected ticks were inoculated into laboratory-reared peromyscus leucopus and reisolated from the urinary bladder into bsk ii media. both isolates were confirmed by western blot analysis and reactivity with monoclo ...19921495072
cluster of tick-borne infections at fort chaffee, arkansas: rickettsiae and borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks.human intrusion into pristine habitats increases the likelihood of acquiring infectious agents from potentially infective ticks. as part of a larger human serological investigation into tick-borne illnesses, 3,000 ixodid ticks were collected during may, august, and november 1990 at fort chaffee, arkansas. ticks were examined to determine whether they harbor rickettsiae, ehrlichiae, and borrelia burgdorferi, and to assess relationship to human exposure to tick-borne infections at fort chaffee, ar ...19921495077
attempted transmission of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) (jdi strain) by ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae), dermacentor variabilis, and amblyomma americanum.laboratory-reared ixodes scapularis say, amblyomma americanum (l.), and dermacentor variabilis (say) were fed on new zealand white rabbits experimentally infected with borrelia burgdorferi (jdi strain). at repletion, spirochetes could be detected by dark-field microscopy only in i. scapularis. acquisition rates were 18 and 21%. when previously exposed nymphs of each species were fed on susceptible rabbits, i. scapularis was the only tick of the three species that transmitted b. burgdorferi. when ...19921495078
third-year evaluation of host-targeted permethrin for the control of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in southeastern connecticut.the impact of commercially available permethrin-treated cotton balls targeted at ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin on white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, was evaluated for a third year at five residential sites in south-central connecticut. each site had been treated twice each year from 1989 through 1991 with sufficient product to treat 0.4 ha of mouse habitat, and results were compared with five untreated sites. there were no significant differences in the number of host- ...19921495085
localized scleroderma is not a borrelia burgdorferi infection in france. 19921498396
borrelia burgdorferi stimulates release of interleukin-1 activity from bovine peripheral blood monocytes.infection with borrelia burgdorferi is suspected to be a cause of lameness and arthritis in cattle. interleukin-1 (il-1) activity has been detected in joint fluids from human patients affected by various arthritides, including lyme arthritis. in addition, human monocytes and murine macrophages have been reported to release il-1 activity when incubated with b. burgdorferi in vitro. to address a possible mechanism by which b. burgdorferi might cause a bovine arthritic syndrome, we determined wheth ...19921500171
roseolar lesions in lyme disease: isolation of the causative agent. 19921500246
[lyme disease: 4 reported cases in the autonomous community of aragon].lyme's disease (ld) is a multisystemic infection due to borrelia burgdorferi transmitted through the byte of a vector arthropod of the ixodes genre. until now we do not know exactly which is the geographical distribution in our setting, no case have been published in the aragon community. we present four patients diagnosed of lyme's disease following clinical and serological criteria (ifi) according to the recommendations of the spanish group for the study of lyme's disease. a patient with chron ...19921502396
carditis in lyme disease susceptible and resistant strains of laboratory mice infected with borrelia burgdorferi.the clinical and pathologic evolution of cardiac lyme disease was evaluated in four-week-old susceptible c3h/he (c3h) and resistant c57bl/6 (b6) mice on days 3, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 90 after intradermal inoculation with borrelia burgdorferi strain n40. culture, dna polymerase chain reaction, in situ nucleic acid hybridization, immunoperoxidase histochemical analysis, and silver stain were used to detect spirochetes. spirochetes were first detected by culture on day 6 in two of four c3h mice. t ...19921503192
epidemiology, clinical features, and diagnosis of lyme disease.lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. epidemiologic research has contributed to a better understanding of the factors involved in the geographic spread and increased incidence of the disease. clinical features of lyme disease, including skin, joint, cardiac, and neurologic involvement, are discussed here, along with recent studies that better characterize these clinical manifestations and more clearly define their immunopathogenesis. the diagnosis of lyme dis ...19921503876
genomic fingerprinting by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction resolves borrelia burgdorferi into three distinct phyletic groups.the causative agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, was first identified by burgdorfer et al. in 1982 (w. burgdorfer, a. g. barbour, s. f. hayes, j. l. benach, e. grunwaldt, and j. p. davis, science 216:1317-1319, 1982) and was isolated by barbour et al. in 1983 (a. g. barbour, w. burgdorfer, s. e. hayes, o. peter, and a. aeschlimann, curr. microbiol. 8:123-126, 1983). since then, a large number of isolates have been collected, and there have been questions regarding the relationships amo ...19921503971
immunogenicity and efficacy study of a commercial borrelia burgdorferi bacterin.the immunogenicity and efficacy of a commercial borrelia burgdorferi bacterin was evaluated for stimulation of the host immune response and protection against clinical disease associated with experimentally induced borreliosis in dogs. a total of 30 vaccinated and 24 control dogs were used in 3 separate studies. the vaccine was given im as two 1-ml doses separated by a 3-week interval. two weeks or 5 months following the last vaccination, the dogs were challenge inoculated with 7 daily doses of ...19921506244
use of a novel technique of cutaneous lavage for diagnosis of lyme disease associated with erythema migrans.determining the microbial cause of cellulitis is often difficult. in this study, a novel two-needle lavage technique was used to culture borrelia burgdorferi from the skin of suspected erythema migrans lesions.19921507378
[lyme disease with exclusively neurologic manifestations]. 19921507904
the origin of plagues: old and new.viruses and bacteria emerge in new and old forms to cause disease epidemics. some microorganisms recur when changing life-styles (including increased international travel) offer new opportunities; others arise from new genetic variations. these various epidemics connect the future with the past, offering lessons for guarding the health of generations to come--lessons learned from diseases such as tuberculosis, toxic shock syndrome, lyme disease, streptococcal infection, influenza, and acquired i ...19921509258
borrelia burgdorferi infection in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) in hemlock (tsuga canadensis) habitat in western pennsylvania.white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) were captured and their tissues sampled from 27 sites in seven counties of western pennsylvania in 1990 for isolation and identification of borrelia burgdorferi. two hundred sixty mice were captured from which there were 27 isolations. significantly more mice were captured and significantly more isolations made from hemlock (tsuga canadensis) habitat than from deciduous species forest. hemlock habitat is sparse and focal but evidently increases winter surv ...19921512867
progressive hemifacial atrophy associated with lyme disease.a case is described of progressive hemifacial atrophy occurring in a child with lyme disease. borrelial infection may have been an etiologic factor in the progressive hemifacial atrophy, which was ultimately treated with an siea free-flap transfer.19921513894
antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in patients with carpal tunnel a study of 94 consecutive patients with neurophysiologically verified carpal tunnel syndrome (cts) 7/94 had igg and 0/94 igm serum titers to borrelia burgdorferi above the 98th percentile value of age and sex matched controls (n = 127). the difference in prevalence of positive igg serum titers in patients, compared to controls, was not statistically significant. even in patients, living in an area, highly endemic for lyme borreliosis, routine serological screening for borrelia infection does ...19921519478
lyme disease revisited. 19921520077
absence of lyme borreliosis among patients with presumed bell's a prospective study, 69 patients with a presumed idiopathic (bell's) peripheral facial palsy were clinically and serologically evaluated for the presence of lyme borreliosis. in addition, their clinical spectrum was compared with clinical manifestations collected retrospectively in nine patients with symptomatic peripheral facial palsy due to lyme borreliosis. the seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi antibodies, determined by flagellum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, among 69 patients wi ...19921520085
polymorphism of outer surface proteins of borrelia burgdorferi as a tool for classification.a total of 23 isolates of borrelia burgdorferi were characterized by sds-page and immunoblot analysis. one isolate came from the csf of a lyme neuro-borreliosis patient in valais (switzerland) and 22 were tick isolates (2 from i. dammini of shelter island, usa and 20 from i. ricinus of valais, switzerland). based on the electrophoretic mobility of outer surface proteins (ospa and ospb), four groups of b. burgdorferi could be defined. group i isolates possess an ospa of 31 kd and an ospb of 34 kd ...19921520966
borrelia burgdorferi infection in europe: an hla-related disease?various studies in the united states and europe have established human leucocyte antigens (hla) cw3, dr2 and dr4 as risk factors for manifest borrelia burgdorferi infection or the development of chronic courses of lyme disease. other studies failed to confirm these findings. in the present study the frequencies of hla a, b, cw and dr were analysed in 283 persons from austria and germany with manifest b. burgdorferi infection. no statistically significant differences were found between patients a ...19921521884
cellular immune reactivity to recombinant ospa and flagellin from borrelia burgdorferi in patients with lyme borreliosis. complexity of humoral and cellular immune responses.patients with lyme borreliosis (lb) usually develop a vigorous t cell response against the causative pathogen borrelia burgdorferi, but little is known about the antigens recognized in the cellular response. therefore, t cell reactivities against whole bacteria, recombinant 31-kd (outer surface protein a, [ospa]), and 41-kd proteins (flagellin) from b. burgdorferi were studied in patients with lb, non-lb patients, and healthy donors. in parallel, specific antibodies were determined by western bl ...19921522216
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