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vesicular erythema migrans.lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states. the characteristic rash, erythema migrans, is an early sign of the disease. clinical criteria remain the "gold standard" for diagnosis at this stage of illness.19921444504
persistence of serum antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in patients treated for lyme disease.to determine if antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi persist after antibiotic treatment, we recalled 32 patients with lyme disease from a primary care practice a mean of 16 months after treatment and analyzed initial and follow-up serum samples by elisa and immunoblot assays. of the eight patients whose initial serum specimens were positive for igm antibody by elisa, three had positive titers of igm antibody at follow-up; of the 23 patients whose initial serum specimens were positive for igg antib ...19921445977
lyme borreliosis in genetically resistant and susceptible mice with severe combined immunodeficiency.the evolution of lyme borreliosis was examined in genetically resistant c.b-17 and susceptible c3h/he(c3h) mice homozygous for the severe combined immune deficiency (scid) gene, or their immunocompetent counterparts. the c.b-17, c.b-17-scid, c3h, and c3h-scid mice were inoculated intradermally with 10(4) borrelia burgdorferi and examined on days 14, 21, 30, 45, and 60 after inoculation. spirochetemia was detected through 30 days, but was cleared in all groups by 45 days. kidney and brain were in ...19921449201
[false positive serologic tests for lyme disease in echovirus meningitis]. 19921449361
differences of two borrelia burgdorferi strains in complement activation and serum resistance.complement activation and serum resistance of the borrelia burgdorferi strains b31 (american strain) and pko (european strain) were compared. in 25% (v/v) normal human serum (nhs) free of b. burgdorferi-specific antibodies the cells of the pko strain were high activators of complement as indicated by rapid and strong c9 consumption, by deposition of up to 336763 c9 molecules per cell and by the formation of the terminal complement complex on the cell surface. by comparison, complement activation ...19921452216
purification and immunological characterization of a major low-molecular-weight lipoprotein from borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi resembles gram-negative bacteria in having both cellular and outer membranes. we previously showed that a lipopolysaccharide (lps)-like material could be extracted from b. burgdorferi with phenol-chloroform-petroleum ether (pcp). the pcp extract of b. burgdorferi exhibited biological activity in several in vitro assays (e.g., mitogenicity, pyrogenicity, and cytokine release). these activities suggested the presence of endotoxin. the pcp extract of b. burgdorferi, however, al ...19921452330
experimental borrelia burgdorferi infection of outbred mice.infectivity of borrelia burgdorferi strain 297 in normal outbred ddy mice was examined. strain 297 was inoculated intraperitoneally in 3-week-old outbred ddy mice. b. burgdorferi was routinely cultured from the heart and urinary bladder 5 to 84 days postinoculation. the combined isolation rate from both heart and urinary bladder was significantly higher than the rate from spleen, kidney, liver, urine, and blood samples. three- and 10-week-old mice were infected with inocula of 10(4) and 10(5) or ...19921452675
diagnosis of early lyme disease by polymerase chain reaction amplification and culture of skin biopsies from erythema migrans lesions.current laboratory diagnosis of lyme disease relies on tests for the detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of the disease. these tests are often unreliable because of a lack of sensitivity and specificity and test-to-test variability. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification for detection of b. burgdorferi in skin biopsy specimens. forty-six 2-mm skin biopsy samples were obtained from ...19921452688
[survey of the infestation level of the ixodes ricinus tick by borrelia burgdorferi. complimentary report].in a recent report, we gave results of a 4 year consecutively survey (1987 to 1990) of the level of ixodes ricinus nymphs infested by borrelia burgdorferi in two forests of the western part of france. this brought us to conclude that there was a relative stability for this level in course of time. results of this survey kept on in 1991 oblige us to partly modify our conclusion, on account of an important dropping of the tick infection frequency in one of the two forests, this perhaps in connecti ...19921446183
human babesiosis in new york state: an epidemiological description of 136 cases.epidemiological data on 136 cases of human babesiosis reported from laboratories and clinicians in the state of new york from 1982 to 1991 were reviewed. all but two patients, who had traveled to nantucket island in massachusetts, acquired disease in suffolk county, long island. the highest average age-group-specific annual incidence rates occurred among men > or = 80 years of age (7.72 per 100,000) and among women 70-79 years of age (3.61 per 100,000). seven patients (5%) had previously undergo ...19921457632
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from a patient infected in maryland. 19921457648
distribution of the lyme disease vector, ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) and isolation of borrelia burgdorferi in ontario, canada.ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin was confirmed at long point, lake erie, ontario, on small mammals and white-tailed deer and by dragging for ticks. mean intensities of up to 16.2 larvae and 2.1 nymphs were found on peromyscus leucopus (rafinesque), with an overall prevalence of infestation up to 92%. adult i. dammini (101.6 +/- 77.63) (mean +/- sd) were found on 8 white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmerman). the seasonal pattern of recovery of ticks from hosts and th ...19921460617
distribution of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in residential lawns on prudence island, rhode island.the distribution of nymphal ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin in residential lawns was assessed by flagging on prudence island, ri. the number of ticks per sample was five times greater in lawns adjacent to woods than in lawns adjacent to other lawns. relative tick abundance was negatively correlated with distance from the woods, but the decline was gradual. spirochete prevalence in ticks did not differ among lawn types or at different distances from the woods. therefore, barri ...19921460622
occurrence of ixodes pacificus (parasitiformes: ixodidae) in arizona.adults and immatures of ixodes pacificus cooley & kohls were collected by flagging vegetation and from lizards during a 3-mo period in the hualapai mountain park, mohave county, az, in 1991. collections were made at altitudes > or = 2,134 m. two of 48 gut-salivary gland extracts of adult ticks were positive by ifa using a monoclonal antibody (h5332) specific to borrelia burgdorferi. these are the first records of i. pacificus and of spirochetes tentatively identified as b. burgdorferi in arizona ...19921460624
isolation of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, from ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) collected on prince edward island, canada.studies were undertaken to monitor for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, on prince edward island, canada. gut contents were removed for culturing from seven engorged ticks collected in 1991-1992 including five ixodes dammini (spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin) and two i. scapularis (say) removed from a dog that had recently traveled to the southern united states. b. burgdorferi was recovered from one i. dammini that had been removed from a cat in charl ...19921460625
studies on the ecology of lyme disease in a deer forest in county galway, ireland.the abundance of the tick ixodes ricinus (l.) and the infection rate of ticks with borrelia burgdorferi (johnson et al.) were compared on either side of a deer fence in a forest park in county galway, ireland, in an attempt to elucidate the role of fallow deer, dama dama, and woodmice, apodemus sylvaticus, in determining the population density of i. ricinus and the transmission of b. burgdorferi. the results showed that tick numbers were much higher on the deer side of the fence, although the de ...19921460628
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in laboratory-reared ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) fed on experimentally inoculated white-tailed deer.larvae and nymphs of ixodes dammini spielman, piesman, clifford & corwin from a laboratory colony were fed on two white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmerman) inoculated with either the sh2-82 or jd-1 strains of borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner. ticks were exposed to one deer 43 and 69 d after inoculation of the spirochete and to a second deer 35 and 61 d after inoculation. polymerase chain reaction assays amplified the 158 bp ospa dna target sequence in ...19921460639
the diagnosis and treatment of lyme disease.lyme disease has probably been reported for at least 80 years, with the cause unknown until the discovery of the ixodes ricinus complex tick-borne spirochete b. burgdorferi. the incidence of diagnosed cases appears to be increasing in kansas and elsewhere. a negative laboratory test does not exclude the possibility of the disease. at present, no accurate laboratory screen for the illness is available. the diagnosis must be considered when acute or chronic clinical manifestations reviewed in this ...19921447864
[immunology and diagnostic test results in lyme borreliosis].borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi), the etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis, shows both a variety of outer surface proteins with molecular weights between 16 and 100 kilodalton (kd) and a 41 kd flagellar protein, which induce the immunologic response. lipopolysaccharides, another constituent of the bacterial capsule, are responsible for the inflammatory reaction, constitutional symptoms and for the jarisch-herxheimer reaction. first a vigorous t-cell immune response develops, followed later b ...19921448684
[the results of a clinico-serological examination of 60 patients with lyme disease].clinical and serological examinations were carried out in 60 patients with lyme disease. the diagnosis was established on the basis of the disease marker--tick-borne migrating erythema and serological data obtained with the use of indirect immunofluorescence and western blot. the spectrum of clinical manifestations and the rate of different clinical syndromes are described and compared with the data by this country and foreign authors. it is shown that borrelia infection is capable of imitating ...19921455388
[serologic diagnosis of lyme disease in patients with undifferentiated arthritis. diagnostic problems].arthritis is a frequent manifestation of lyme disease. the diagnosis of this disease is especially supported by serological techniques which however have false positives or negatives. the aim of this study was to establish the frequency of serologies positive to borrelia burgdorferi in patients with non-filiated arthritis and in other well defined rheumatic diseases.19921460939
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi from ticks in southern california. 19921462548
[lyme disease--also a childhood disease].in the light of a survey of the world literature lyme borreliosis, an epidemic disease caused by gram-negative organisms borrelia burgdorferi is described. the disease has three phases with involvement of the skin, the nervous system, the cardiovascular system and joints. treatment with antibiotics is effective. the disease lies in the fields of interest of various specialties including paediatrics.19921462570
nucleotide sequence of the borrelia burgdorferi rpmh gene encoding ribosomal protein l34. 19921461740
lyme disease: an orthopedic perspective.the incidence of lyme disease is increasing. this spirochetal infection may frequently manifest itself with joint involvement without characteristic dermatologic signs or history of tick bite. serologic testing remains unreliable. oral or parenteral antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment. chronic arthritis develops in approximately 10% of patients with stage iii disease. lyme arthritis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with mono- or oligoarticular joint involveme ...19921461815
[acute myelo-meningo-radiculitis caused by the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi].a case of severe myelo-meningo-radiculitis with lyme neuro-borreliosis is described in a patient aged 33 years suffering from insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. it is essential to examine the cerebro-spinal fluid for borelia burgdorferi specific intrathecal antibody production if sensory radiculitis persist and, finally, if there are focal motor signs and unexplained lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebro-spinal fluid. early diagnosis is very important in order to shorten the course of the ill ...19921462471
detection of borrelia burgdorferi in ticks by species-specific amplification of the flagellin gene.we developed a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) that specifically amplifies a fragment of the flagellin gene (fla) of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. this fla target, amplified with nested primers, was conserved among all 80 strains of b. burgdorferi tested. strains examined included cultures from ticks, humans, and rodents from major b. burgdorferi-endemic regions of the united states and parts of europe and asia. templates from b. hermsii, b. parkeri, b. turicatae, an ...19921471733
seroprevalence survey of borreliosis in children with chronic arthritis in british columbia, canada.a seroprevalence survey using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) for igg antibodies to borrelia hermsii and borrelia burgdorferi was conducted for varied pediatric chronic arthritis patients and a nonrheumatic control group in the province of british columbia, canada. overall, a higher rate of sera with ifa titers > or = 1/256 was found for b. hermsii (36.6%) compared to b. burgdorferi (12.5%). there were no significant differences among the arthritis subgroups and controls for the distr ...19921464879
antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in various population groups in croatia.the purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in croatia in various population groups. the study comprised 263 individuals: 93 healthy subjects (travellers); 100 controls separated into 2 subgroups, 50 from high risk zone (endemic) and 50 from low risk zone (non-endemic); and 70 members of a high risk population (forestry workers). antibody to b. burgdorferi of igm and igg class were analysed by an elisa technique using mixed antigen made ...19921465590
borrelia arthritis in swedish children: clinical manifestations in 10 children.since 1986, serology against borrelia burgdorferi has been performed on patients with arthritis admitted to the division of pediatric rheumatology, s:t göran's hospital, stockholm. we studied, retrospectively, the period 1986-88. among 300 children with arthritis, 10 had positive titers against b. b. burgdorferi. other causes of arthritis were excluded. the onset of borrelia arthritis was throughout the year. only 3 of the 10 children remembered an actual tick bite. no other manifestations of ly ...19921467615
spirochete chemotaxis, motility, and the structure of the spirochetal periplasmic flagella.spirochetes have a unique motility system that is characterized by flagellar filaments contained within the outer membrane sheath. direct evidence using video microscopy has recently been obtained which indicates that these periplasmic flagella (pf) rotate in several spirochetal species. this rotation generates thrust. as shown for one spirochete, spirochaeta aurantia, motility is driven by a proton motive force. spirochete chemotaxis has been most thoroughly studied in s. aurantia. this spiroch ...19921475520
incorporation of cysteine by borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia hermsii.the growth rate of borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia hermsii in bsk ii medium prepared with cysteine-free or cysteine-containing (0.185-5.92 mm) cmrl 1066 medium was studied. in media with cysteine-free cmrl 1066, growth of borreliae was detectable, although it was reduced by approximately 80%. bacterial growth was maximal when the concentration of cysteine in cmrl 1066 reached 1.48 mm, which represents the standard cysteine concentrations of the medium; higher concentrations inhibited the growt ...19921477785
genetic approaches to cell biology and metabolism of spirochetes.genetic analysis and methodology have only comparatively recently been applied to the study of spirochetes. although genetic transfer procedures for spirochetes are not widely available, there are several examples of progress in genetic analysis of spirochetes by other approaches. some examples of these approaches are the following. 1) genes for synthetic pathways in treponema and leptospira have been cloned by complementation of escherichia coli serving as plasmid hosts. 2) the ospa protein of ...19921475521
interaction of spirochetes with the host.the success of an invading organism must depend on several cytoplasmic, surface-associated and secreted factors. the technical difficulties in handling pathogenic spirochetes like treponema pallidum and borrelia burgdorferi have made it difficult to define specific factors involved in entry and long-term survival. the problem of defining virulence factors has been attacked by several strategies: t. pallidum secretes a number of immunogenic low molecular mass proteins. the most predominant are of ...19921475523
recombination between genes encoding major outer surface proteins a and b of borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi causes lyme disease, a multisystem illness that can persist in humans for many years. we describe recombination between homologous genes encoding the major outer surface proteins (osps) a and b of b. burgdorferi which both deletes osp gene sequences and creates chimaeric gene fusions. recombinant osp genes occur in multiple strains and encode unique proteins that lack some characteristic osp epitopes. antigenic variation in osp through recombination may be relevant to the pe ...19921479892
seroepidemiological survey for antibody to borrelia burgdorferi in cows.antibody to borrelia burgdorferi was examined in 380 healthy and 38 clinical cases of cows from hokkaido and shizuoka in japan. in healthy animals, igg and igm antibody to b. burgdorferi ho14 strain were found in 44 cows (14.6%) and 24 cows (8.0%) from hokkaido. in contrast, antibody-positive case was not observed except for only 1 case which was igm positive (1/79: 1.3%) in cows from shizuoka. mean antibody levels of healthy animals in hokkaido and shizuoka were 0.651 and 0.263 (igg antibody to ...19921479959
[lyme borreliosis in childhood].ten years after detection of borrelia burgdorferi as the etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis and after introduction of serological methods an overview of the disease in children is given and compared with own observations. in view of the wide clinical spectrum and the difficulties in interpreting serological results the early diagnosis of lyme borreliosis is still problematic at present. on the other hand, in case of late diagnosis therapeutic failure and/or partial recovery may result. data of ...19921484707
are csf or serum ganglioside antibodies related to peripheral nerve demyelination in neuroborreliosis, guillain-barré syndrome, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy?cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and serum igg and igm antibodies to seven gangliosides were determined in patients with neuroborreliosis (nb) (n = 20), guillain-barré syndrome (gbs) (n = 13), and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (cidp) (n = 10). the incidence of elevated antibodies was highest in nb and lowest in cidp. correlation between csf and serum antibodies was only observed for igg antibodies to gm1, gd1b and gt1b in gbs. the strong igm antibody reactivity to gangliosid ...19921486101
mri findings in children infected by borrelia burgdorferi.cranial magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were observed in 8 children (5 boys, 3 girls; ages 4-14 years) with neurologic problems following infection by borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease. neurologic features included headache (6), behavioral changes (5), facial palsy (2), papilledema (2), papilledema with diplopia (1), disturbance of sleep pattern (2), and carpal tunnel syndrome (1). two mri studies demonstrated multiple focal areas of increased signal intensity in ...19921476570
risk factors for lyme disease in a small rural community in northern california.a 1-year prospective study of risk factors for seropositivity to and contraction of lyme disease among members of a small rural community (population, approximately 150) was conducted in northwestern california in 1988-1989. the initial rate of seropositivity for borrelia burgdorferi for 119 current or former residents ranged from 15 to 20% among three laboratories, with statistically significant interlaboratory agreement. questionnaires were completed by 93 current residents at entry and 80 res ...19921488962
cns lyme disease. 19921482459
two-year survey of the incidence of lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in a high-risk population in sweden.a survey was made over a two-year period (september 1987 to august 1989) of a population living in an area endemic for lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in sweden. for each patient a blood sample was collected and a questionnaire completed annually. all sera were tested for an antibody response to borrelia burgdorferi in an eia using sonicated antigen and for an antibody response to the tick-borne encephalitis virus using an eia and a haemagglutination inhibition test. antibodies to b ...19921486884
stage-associated risk of transmission of the lyme disease spirochete by european ixodes ticks.to more closely define the risk of infection by the agent of lyme disease in europe, we determined whether spirochetal prevalence increases throughout the development of the ixodes ricinus vector tick. of all ticks that could be flagged from vegetation, i. ricinus were by far the most abundant. spirochetal infection rates in the adult stage of this tick (15%) are no higher than those in nymphs (18%) but greatly exceed those in larvae (0.7%). this tick therefore appears to attain infection mainly ...19921480608
biopsy of canine ear tissue for detection of borrelia burgdorferi following ixodes dammini feeding.a punch biopsy method was developed to detect and cultivate borrelia burgdorferi from canine ear tissue. the biopsy procedure was sensitive in that spirochetes were detected in 100% of the dogs upon which infected ticks had fed. b. burgdorferi could be cultured as early as 6 days after tick feeding at which time the organisms could not be concurrently recovered from peripheral blood. the ear punch biopsy provides a reliable method for sampling live canines and should prove useful for detecting e ...19921490617
mapping of genes on the linear chromosome of the bacterium borrelia burgdorferi: possible locations for its origin of replication.molecular clones of borrelia burgdorferi, aetiologic agent of lyme borreliosis, were isolated and analysed by dna sequence determination. this procedure yielded b. burgdorferi homologues of gida, gyrb, gyra, ftsa and ftsz. the genes were located on the physical map of the b. burgdorferi linear chromosome. also mapped were the genes fla and p60 while dnaa was mapped using a heterologous probe. gyra and gyrb were found to be in tandem and were mapped, along with dnaa at the centre of the chromosom ...19921490605
the enigma of lyme disease in missouri. 19921491662
prevalence of lyme borreliosis spirochetes in ixodid ticks of japan, with special reference to a new potential vector, ixodes ovatus (acari: ixodidae).to determine the vectors of lyme borreliosis in japan, the ixodid ticks taken in hokkaido, fukushima, nagano, ehime, and kochi prefectures were examined individually for spirochetal infections by culturing their midgut tissues in bsk medium. the cultivable spirochetes identified as borrelia burgdorferi were detected in ixodes persulcatus schulze adults (15.5% of 634), nymph (6.7% of 15) and ixodes ovatus neumann adult (9.6% of 188) from hokkaido, i. ovatus adults (25.5% of 47) from fukushima, an ...19921495032
isolation of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) from ixodes scapularis and dermacentor albipictus ticks (acari: ixodidae) in oklahoma.borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from ixodes scapularis say and dermacentor albipictus packard that were removed as partially fed adults from white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus zimmermann, in oklahoma. isolation in media was accomplished only after homogenates of pooled field-collected ticks were inoculated into laboratory-reared peromyscus leucopus and reisolated from the urinary bladder into bsk ii media. both isolates were confirmed by western blot analysis and reactivity with monoclo ...19921495072
rates of borrelia burgdorferi infection in ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in southwestern wisconsin.ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin collected from a study site in southwestern wisconsin were examined for borrelia burgdorferi infection. adult spirochete infection rates varied seasonally (38.1%, spring 1990; 60.3%, fall 1990; 41.2%, spring 1991) and were similar to or higher than rates reported in various studies from the northeastern united states. statistical comparison of seasonal infection rates indicated a significant difference between the fall 1990 adult population and ...19921495049
[three bacterial species associated with lyme borreliosis. clinical and diagnostic implications].dnas from various borrelia associated with lyme disease were reciprocally hybridized. this genomic taxonomy method showed that lyme disease agent comprised three genomic species. two species could be differentiated by phenotypic characters as major proteins molecular weights and monoclonal antibodies reactivity. western-blot with sera from patients suffering from different clinical forms of lyme disease: arthritis, meningoradiculitis and acrodermatitis chronicum atrophicans showed that each of t ...19921493569
spatial analysis of the distribution of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) on white-tailed deer in ogle county, illinois.the pattern of infestations of ixodes dammini on white-tailed deer in ogle county in illinois was studied through examinations of hunted deer from 1988 to 1990. the illinois geographic information system mapped the spatial distribution of tick infestations on deer and related it to a known endemic focus for i. dammini and borrelia burgdorferi (castle rock state park), and to a major waterway (rock river). second-order neighborhood analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution of deer aro ...19921495039
cluster of tick-borne infections at fort chaffee, arkansas: rickettsiae and borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks.human intrusion into pristine habitats increases the likelihood of acquiring infectious agents from potentially infective ticks. as part of a larger human serological investigation into tick-borne illnesses, 3,000 ixodid ticks were collected during may, august, and november 1990 at fort chaffee, arkansas. ticks were examined to determine whether they harbor rickettsiae, ehrlichiae, and borrelia burgdorferi, and to assess relationship to human exposure to tick-borne infections at fort chaffee, ar ...19921495077
attempted transmission of borrelia burgdorferi (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) (jdi strain) by ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae), dermacentor variabilis, and amblyomma americanum.laboratory-reared ixodes scapularis say, amblyomma americanum (l.), and dermacentor variabilis (say) were fed on new zealand white rabbits experimentally infected with borrelia burgdorferi (jdi strain). at repletion, spirochetes could be detected by dark-field microscopy only in i. scapularis. acquisition rates were 18 and 21%. when previously exposed nymphs of each species were fed on susceptible rabbits, i. scapularis was the only tick of the three species that transmitted b. burgdorferi. when ...19921495078
third-year evaluation of host-targeted permethrin for the control of ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in southeastern connecticut.the impact of commercially available permethrin-treated cotton balls targeted at ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin on white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus, was evaluated for a third year at five residential sites in south-central connecticut. each site had been treated twice each year from 1989 through 1991 with sufficient product to treat 0.4 ha of mouse habitat, and results were compared with five untreated sites. there were no significant differences in the number of host- ...19921495085
borrelia burgdorferi stimulates release of interleukin-1 activity from bovine peripheral blood monocytes.infection with borrelia burgdorferi is suspected to be a cause of lameness and arthritis in cattle. interleukin-1 (il-1) activity has been detected in joint fluids from human patients affected by various arthritides, including lyme arthritis. in addition, human monocytes and murine macrophages have been reported to release il-1 activity when incubated with b. burgdorferi in vitro. to address a possible mechanism by which b. burgdorferi might cause a bovine arthritic syndrome, we determined wheth ...19921500171
roseolar lesions in lyme disease: isolation of the causative agent. 19921500246
localized scleroderma is not a borrelia burgdorferi infection in france. 19921498396
carditis in lyme disease susceptible and resistant strains of laboratory mice infected with borrelia burgdorferi.the clinical and pathologic evolution of cardiac lyme disease was evaluated in four-week-old susceptible c3h/he (c3h) and resistant c57bl/6 (b6) mice on days 3, 6, 10, 15, 30, 60, and 90 after intradermal inoculation with borrelia burgdorferi strain n40. culture, dna polymerase chain reaction, in situ nucleic acid hybridization, immunoperoxidase histochemical analysis, and silver stain were used to detect spirochetes. spirochetes were first detected by culture on day 6 in two of four c3h mice. t ...19921503192
genomic fingerprinting by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction resolves borrelia burgdorferi into three distinct phyletic groups.the causative agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, was first identified by burgdorfer et al. in 1982 (w. burgdorfer, a. g. barbour, s. f. hayes, j. l. benach, e. grunwaldt, and j. p. davis, science 216:1317-1319, 1982) and was isolated by barbour et al. in 1983 (a. g. barbour, w. burgdorfer, s. e. hayes, o. peter, and a. aeschlimann, curr. microbiol. 8:123-126, 1983). since then, a large number of isolates have been collected, and there have been questions regarding the relationships amo ...19921503971
[lyme disease: 4 reported cases in the autonomous community of aragon].lyme's disease (ld) is a multisystemic infection due to borrelia burgdorferi transmitted through the byte of a vector arthropod of the ixodes genre. until now we do not know exactly which is the geographical distribution in our setting, no case have been published in the aragon community. we present four patients diagnosed of lyme's disease following clinical and serological criteria (ifi) according to the recommendations of the spanish group for the study of lyme's disease. a patient with chron ...19921502396
immunogenicity and efficacy study of a commercial borrelia burgdorferi bacterin.the immunogenicity and efficacy of a commercial borrelia burgdorferi bacterin was evaluated for stimulation of the host immune response and protection against clinical disease associated with experimentally induced borreliosis in dogs. a total of 30 vaccinated and 24 control dogs were used in 3 separate studies. the vaccine was given im as two 1-ml doses separated by a 3-week interval. two weeks or 5 months following the last vaccination, the dogs were challenge inoculated with 7 daily doses of ...19921506244
use of a novel technique of cutaneous lavage for diagnosis of lyme disease associated with erythema migrans.determining the microbial cause of cellulitis is often difficult. in this study, a novel two-needle lavage technique was used to culture borrelia burgdorferi from the skin of suspected erythema migrans lesions.19921507378
antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.in a study of 94 consecutive patients with neurophysiologically verified carpal tunnel syndrome (cts) 7/94 had igg and 0/94 igm serum titers to borrelia burgdorferi above the 98th percentile value of age and sex matched controls (n = 127). the difference in prevalence of positive igg serum titers in patients, compared to controls, was not statistically significant. even in patients, living in an area, highly endemic for lyme borreliosis, routine serological screening for borrelia infection does ...19921519478
borrelia burgdorferi infection in white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) in hemlock (tsuga canadensis) habitat in western pennsylvania.white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) were captured and their tissues sampled from 27 sites in seven counties of western pennsylvania in 1990 for isolation and identification of borrelia burgdorferi. two hundred sixty mice were captured from which there were 27 isolations. significantly more mice were captured and significantly more isolations made from hemlock (tsuga canadensis) habitat than from deciduous species forest. hemlock habitat is sparse and focal but evidently increases winter surv ...19921512867
absence of lyme borreliosis among patients with presumed bell's palsy.in a prospective study, 69 patients with a presumed idiopathic (bell's) peripheral facial palsy were clinically and serologically evaluated for the presence of lyme borreliosis. in addition, their clinical spectrum was compared with clinical manifestations collected retrospectively in nine patients with symptomatic peripheral facial palsy due to lyme borreliosis. the seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi antibodies, determined by flagellum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, among 69 patients wi ...19921520085
the western fence lizard sceloporus occidentalis: evidence of field exposure to borrelia burgdorferi in relation to infestation by ixodes pacificus (acari: ixodidae).the role of the western fence lizard sceloporus occidentalis in the enzootiology of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi was evaluated in the hopland and ukiah areas of mendocino county, california. in 1989, half of 74 lizards collected monthly from april to october at hopland were infested by the immature western black-legged tick ixodes pacificus at a mean intensity of 6.0 ticks per lizard. the prevalence of infestation of lizards by immature i. pacificus (36 of 73) at ukiah was si ...19921524146
new lyme disease vaccine for dogs. 19921524271
polymorphism of outer surface proteins of borrelia burgdorferi as a tool for classification.a total of 23 isolates of borrelia burgdorferi were characterized by sds-page and immunoblot analysis. one isolate came from the csf of a lyme neuro-borreliosis patient in valais (switzerland) and 22 were tick isolates (2 from i. dammini of shelter island, usa and 20 from i. ricinus of valais, switzerland). based on the electrophoretic mobility of outer surface proteins (ospa and ospb), four groups of b. burgdorferi could be defined. group i isolates possess an ospa of 31 kd and an ospb of 34 kd ...19921520966
cellular immune reactivity to recombinant ospa and flagellin from borrelia burgdorferi in patients with lyme borreliosis. complexity of humoral and cellular immune responses.patients with lyme borreliosis (lb) usually develop a vigorous t cell response against the causative pathogen borrelia burgdorferi, but little is known about the antigens recognized in the cellular response. therefore, t cell reactivities against whole bacteria, recombinant 31-kd (outer surface protein a, [ospa]), and 41-kd proteins (flagellin) from b. burgdorferi were studied in patients with lb, non-lb patients, and healthy donors. in parallel, specific antibodies were determined by western bl ...19921522216
borrelia burgdorferi infection in europe: an hla-related disease?various studies in the united states and europe have established human leucocyte antigens (hla) cw3, dr2 and dr4 as risk factors for manifest borrelia burgdorferi infection or the development of chronic courses of lyme disease. other studies failed to confirm these findings. in the present study the frequencies of hla a, b, cw and dr were analysed in 283 persons from austria and germany with manifest b. burgdorferi infection. no statistically significant differences were found between patients a ...19921521884
lymphocyte proliferation assay in lyme disease. 19921527433
delayed dissemination of lyme disease spirochetes from the site of deposition in the skin of mice.to determine whether the agent of lyme disease disseminates in vertebrate hosts directly after deposition by an infecting tick, a 6-mm disk of skin was excised from the sites where nymphal ixodes dammini ticks infected by lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia burgdorferi, had fed. infection in each mouse was tested by examining xenodiagnostic ticks that had engorged on these mice 4 weeks later and by serologic testing. generalized infection was aborted when the site of inoculation was excised withi ...19921527418
neuroactive kynurenines in lyme borreliosis.although neurologic dysfunction occurs frequently in patients with lyme borreliosis, it is rarely possible to demonstrate the causative organism within the neuraxis. this discordance could arise if neurologic symptoms were actually due to soluble neuromodulators produced in response to infection. since immune stimulation is associated with the production of quinolinic acid (quin), an excitotoxin and n-methyl-d-aspartate (nmda) agonist, we measured levels of csf and serum quin, and lymphokines. s ...19921531156
immunocytochemical identification of rochalimaea henselae in bacillary (epithelioid) angiomatosis, parenchymal bacillary peliosis, and persistent fever with bacteremia.we report the immunocytochemical identification of rochalimaea henselae, a newly recognized fastidious, gram-negative, warthin-starry-positive organism, as the common pathogen in bacillary angiomatosis (ba), bacillary peliosis (bp) of the liver and spleen, and persistent fever with bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. immunogenic proteins of the r. henselae strain isolated from the blood of a febrile immunocompromised patient with bp of the liver were used to produce primary immune serum in ...19921530106
nonspecific proliferative responses of murine lymphocytes to borrelia burgdorferi antigens.proliferative responses of naive splenocytes to borrelia burgdorferi antigens from mice susceptible (c3h) and resistant (balb) to lyme borreliosis were investigated. b. burgdorferi spirochetes and recombinant outer surface proteins, ospa and ospb, were found to induce nonspecific proliferation of naive splenocytes from both strains of mice. cell purification studies localized nonspecific proliferation to the b cell-enriched fraction. b. burgdorferi, ospa, and ospb were found to induce igm and ig ...19921531672
[lyme's disease, a possible cause of isolated acute myocarditis].the frequency of cardiac lesion in patients with other signs of lyme disease has been estimated at 8 percent. the usual manifestation of myocardial involvement is a varying degree of atrioventricular block or more diffuse signs of myocarditis. autopsy or intramyocardial biopsy provides a histological diagnosis of myocarditis. microscopy shows a diffuse lympho-plasmocytic infiltrate with presence of macrophages in the myocardium, associated with a varying number of necrotic myocytes. structures r ...19921535149
interleukin-1 (il-1) receptor blockade reduces endotoxin and borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated il-8 synthesis in human mononuclear cells.interleukin-1 (il-1) is a potent stimulator of il-8 production by fibroblasts and monocytes. in the present study, we asked how much of endotoxin (lps)-induced il-8 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was due to il-1 induced by lps. cells were stimulated with either il-1 beta, lps, or borrelia burgdorferi, and total il-8 was determined by a specific radioimmunoassay. the addition of saturating concentrations of il-1 receptor antagonist protein (irap) reduced the il-1 beta-, lp ...19921532945
light chain distribution of anti-borrelia burgdorferi igg antibodies in lyme arthritis.joint fluid (jf) and serum igg from eight lyme arthritis patients was investigated by isoelectric focusing, blotting to membranes of uncoated nitrocellulose (nc) as well as borrelia (b.) burgdorferi antigen-coated nc (immunoblot) and immunoezymatic staining for visualization of the igg isotype and characterization of the kappa/lambda light chain distribution. oligoclonal bands of total igg occurred in jf as well as in serum (3 cases) or in jf only (1 case); igg lambda components were present in ...19921535989
diversity of tick species biting humans in an emerging area for lyme disease.although most tick bites in humans in areas of the northeastern united states in which lyme disease is highly endemic are due to ixodes dammini, no study documents the frequency of i. dammini bites in low-prevalence or emerging areas for lyme disease. data on the proportion of tick bites in humans that are due to i. dammini in a region may have implications for public health policy and clinical management.19921536337
serodiagnosis of lyme borreliosis by western immunoblot: reactivity of various significant antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi.the significance of various antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi was studied by western blot (immunoblot) by using 578 human serum samples. the proteins regularly detected by using samples from patients with lyme borreliosis were those with bands with molecular masses of 94, 83, 75, 66, 60, 55, 46, 41, 39, 34, 31, 29, 22, and 17 kda. the detectable frequencies of most of these proteins appeared to be significantly different between the sera from patients with lyme borreliosis and those from n ...19921537905
complement-mediated in vitro bactericidal activity of monoclonal antibodies reactive with outer-surface-protein ospb of borrelia burgdorferi.murine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were obtained against the outer-surface-protein ospa and ospb and against the 41-kda flagellar antigen of borrelia burgdorferi. the specificity of mab was determined by the western blotting technique and the surface association of the antigens was inferred by immunofluorescence of living bacteria. in an in vitro assay in the presence of complement, two mabs reactive with the ospa were able to kill borreliae, whereas several mabs reactive with the ospa as well ...19921537543
cultivation of borrelia burgdorferi from erythema migrans lesions and perilesional skin.skin biopsy specimens from the peripheral aspect of erythema migrans lesions (site 1) and from clinically normal perilesional areas (site 2) were compared as sources of borrelia burgdorferi. this spirochete was isolated from the skin of 18 of 21 (86%) patients with untreated early lyme disease at one or both biopsy sites. site 1 specimens were superior to site 2 specimens for the isolation of b. burgdorferi. site 1 specimens from 18 (86%) patients were culture positive, and site 2 specimens from ...19921537904
capacity of european animals as reservoir hosts for the lyme disease spirochete.the abundance of spirochete-infected ixodes ricinus ticks naturally derived from endemic rodents was compared to identify the reservoir hosts of the agent of lyme disease at a series of enzootic sites in central europe. black-striped mice appear to be the most important rodent host for the tick and infect more ticks with borrelia burgdorferi than do other mice and voles tested. although rodents infect about half of the ticks that feed on them, lizards infect none. these spirochete-incompetent ho ...19921538153
cultivation of borrelia burgdorferi from the blood and a subcutaneous lesion of a patient with relapsing febrile nodular nonsuppurative panniculitis. 19921538171
long-term protection of mice from lyme disease by vaccination with ospa.mice vaccinated with recombinant outer surface protein a (ospa) have been shown to be protected from infection with borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease, when sacrificed 14 days after challenge with an intradermal inoculum of the spirochete. to determine whether infection was not merely delayed and that protection was long-lasting, we sacrificed vaccinated mice 60, 120, and 180 days after challenge; and to determine whether vaccinated mice retained their immune state over long periods ...19921541551
interactions between extracellular borrelia burgdorferi proteins and non-borrelia-directed immunoglobulin m antibodies.previous work showed that outer surface protein a (ospa) and ospb of borrelia burgdorferi may occur within an extracellular multiprotein complex, which was resolved by electrophoresis as an 83-kda major extracellular protein band. to characterize the 83-kda band, we sequenced the n terminus of the predominant peptide in the band and examined the interaction between the associated proteins. peptide sequence and amino acid composition comparisons showed identity with the heavy chain of immunoglobu ...19921541558
population genetic analysis of borrelia burgdorferi isolates by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.fifty borellia burgdorferi strains isolated from humans and ticks in europe and the united states were analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. eleven genetic loci were characterized on the basis of the electrophoretic mobilities of their products. ten loci were polymorphic. the average number of alleles per locus was 5.9, with a mean genetic diversity of 0.673 among electrophoretic types (ets). the strains were grouped into 35 ets constituting three main divisions (i, ii, and iii) separat ...19921548090
evaluation of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs of missouri, including serologic status to ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia equi and borrelia burgdorferi.canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis was diagnosed in 37 dogs by finding ehrlichial morulae in 0.1 to 26.2% of their blood neutrophils and eosinophils. all 37 dogs had clinical signs of arthritis or muscular stiffness. titer to ehrlichia canis was determined in sera from 31 of the 37 dogs; 25 dogs had titer ranging from 1:20 to 1:5,120. in the other 6 dogs, titer to e canis was less than 1:10. the most common hematologic abnormality in these dogs, other than rickettsiemia, was thrombocytopenia. gran ...19921539918
in vitro and in vivo induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha by borrelia burgdorferi.tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-alpha) is an immunoregulatory cytokine with many biological activities including the mediation of inflammation. we examined sera and synovial fluids from patients seropositive for infection with borrelia burgdorferi using a radioimmunoassay specific for tnf-alpha. significant elevation of tnf-alpha was found in the sera and synovial fluids of patients examined, while controls showed no elevation. sera of mice infected with b. burgdorferi contained elevated levels ...19921541526
clinically silent infections in patients with oligoarthritis: results of a prospective study.oligoarticular synovitis of undetermined origin can closely resemble an incomplete form of reactive arthritis/reiter's syndrome. eighty three patients with oligoarthritis of undetermined origin were studied prospectively to identify asymptomatic infections potentially triggering the inflammatory response in the synovial fluid. at the time of initial evaluation, 57 (69%) of the patients with oligoarthritis and 4/20 (20%) of the control subjects were carriers of clinically silent infections. evide ...19921550413
borrelia burgdorferi strain 25015: characterization of outer surface protein a and vaccination against infection.mice vaccinated with outer surface protein a (ospa) from borrelia burgdorferi strain n40 are protected from challenge with an intradermal syringe inoculum of b. burgdorferi strains n40, b31, and cd16. vaccination experiments were done to determine if protection extended to strains 297 and 25015. we now show that ospa-n40 immunized mice are protected against challenge with strain 297, isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with neuroborreliosis, but not against challenge with strain 2 ...19921545130
[pigmented urticarial erythema with flaccid atrophy as expression of an unusual manifestation of lyme borreliosis].unusual courses of infections with borrelia burgdorferi can make diagnosis problematic, but early and adequate therapy is mandatory to avoid further complications. in this paper a patient is presented who developed urticarial erythemas and hyperpigmentation with slack skin atrophy. positive serological findings and the regression of the skin eruptions under antibiotic therapy confirmed the diagnosis of an unusual manifestation of lyme borreliosis.19921548134
relationship between development of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in dogs and the subsequent development of limb/joint borreliosis.the relationship between antibody production and the subsequent development of limb/joint disorders of borreliosis was examined in dogs from south central connecticut. dogs without signs of illness, determined by physical examination, were selected from dogs being tested for dirofilaria immitis. an elisa was used to detect antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in 234 apparently healthy dogs during 1988. these dogs were monitored for 20 months after initial analyses to determine the prevalence of li ...19921548169
polymerase chain reaction confirmation of borrelia burgdorferi in benign lymphocytic infiltrate of dermis. 19921552070
distribution, density, and lyme disease spirochete infection in ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) on white-tailed deer in maryland.a statewide survey of ticks parasitizing white-tailed deer was carried out in maryland during november 1989 to assess the status of the deer tick, ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin, the major vector of lyme disease in the northeastern united states. ticks were collected from deer carcasses brought in by hunters at 23 check stations (one per county). a total of 3,437 i. dammini were collected from 538 of 1,281 deer (42%), together with 2,013 dermacentor albipictus (packard) and ...19921552529
dna analysis of borrelia burgdorferi nch-1, the first northcentral u.s. human lyme disease isolate.the dna of the first northcentral united states human lyme disease isolate, borrellia burgdorferi nch-1, was characterized and compared with the dnas of nine other b. burgdorferi isolates. strain nch-1 was isolated in august 1989 from a human skin biopsy specimen. dna was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and restriction endonuclease analysis. contour-clamped homogeneous electric field pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of in situ-lysed cells was performed to compare the plasmid profile ...19921551988
analysis of leptospira spp., leptonema illini, and rickettsia rickettsii for the 39-kilodalton antigen (p39) of borrelia burgdorferi.five serovars of leptospira interrogans, leptospira biflexa, leptonema illini, and rickettsia rickettsii were examined and found not to contain the 39-kda antigen (p39) of borrelia burgdorferi, the lyme disease spirochete. the specificity of this antigen and its reactivity with human lyme disease sera should exclude the possibility of false-positive serum samples from patients having had either leptospirosis or rocky mountain spotted fever, as well as tick-borne relapsing fever and syphilis, as ...19921551994
structural analysis of an outer surface protein from the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, using circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy.the etiological agent of lyme disease is the tick-borne spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi. a major antigen of b. burgdorferi is a 31 kda lipoprotein called outer surface protein a (ospa). recently, a truncated form of ospa (lacking 17 amino acids at the n-terminus) was cloned, expressed and purified in large quantities (dunn, j.j., lade, b.a. and barbour, a.g. (1990) protein expression and purification 1, 159-168). the truncated protein (ospa-257) is water-soluble, retains the ability to bind ant ...19921554741
purification and characterization of a tryptic peptide of borrelia burgdorferi flagellin, which reduces cross-reactivity in immunoblots and elisa.in man the early immune response in lyme disease is primarily directed against the endoflagellin antigen. isolated flagellar protein of borrelia burgdorferi suggests itself as a suitable test antigen. however, cross-reactivity between flagellins of b. burgdorferi, escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, proteus mirabilis and salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated by immunoblotting and elisa with polyclonal rabbit-hyperimmune-sera. tryptic cleavage of recombinant b. burgdorferi 41 kda flagellin, ex ...19921556546
lyme disease in children: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.lyme disease is a multisystem disorder that is caused by infection with borrelia burgdorferi. in endemic areas, its occurrence is extremely common among children. the early diagnosis and treatment of lyme disease may prevent the development of serious cardiac, rheumatological, and neurological sequelae. for this reason, a full understanding of the clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation, and antibiotic therapy of lyme disease is of vital importance.19921550714
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