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lyme neuroborreliosis.lyme disease is a multistage and multisystem disease. neurological manifestations [termed lyme neuroborreliosis (lnb)] occur in about 10% of patients with lyme disease. diagnostics and treatment of early and late lnb are widely established. however, the management of persistent symptoms is still fraught with controversies, and therefore is the focus of this review.201727820708
identification and molecular survey of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in sika deer (cervus nippon) from jilin province, north-eastern china.lyme disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) is a common disease of domestic animals and wildlife worldwide. sika deer is first-grade state-protected wildlife animals in china and have economic consequences for humans. it is reported that sika deer may serve as an important reservoir host for several species of b. burgdorferi s.l. and may transmit these species to humans and animals. however, little is known about the presence of borrelia pathogens in sika deer in china. in this ...201727818123
borrelia burgdorferi – morphological structure and motility as adaptation for transmission and survival in the habitat of a tick-vertebrate setuplyme borreliosis is a multisystem chronic disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) spirochete transmitted by ixodes. this bacterium has a remarkable ability to survive in tick-vertebrate setup. its infection causes diagnostic and clinical difficulties. it was distinguished as a separate disease entity over 30 years ago. observations made by steere et al. proved to be a milestone since they found correlation between the occurrence of skin and joint lesions with tick bites. further ...201727883377
lyme disease in poland in 2014lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease, caused by spirochetes of the borrelia genus transmitted by ticks of the ixodes genus. infection caused by borrelia burgdorferi occur throughout poland and therefore, according also to ecdc description, the whole country should be considered as an endemic area.201727870540
the lyme disease pathogen borrelia burgdorferi infects murine bone and induces trabecular bone loss.lyme disease is caused by members of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex. arthritis is a well-known late-stage pathology of lyme disease, but the effects of b. burgdorferi infection on bone at sites other than articular surfaces are largely unknown. in this study, we investigated whether b. burgdorferi infection affects bone health in mice. in mice inoculated with b. burgdorferi or vehicle (mock infection), we measured the presence of b. burgdorferi dna in bones, bone mineral den ...201727956598
the potential of omics technologies in lyme disease biomarker discovery and early detection.lyme borreliosis (lb) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne infectious disease in north america and many countries of the temperate northern hemisphere. it is associated with local and systemic manifestations and has persistent post-treatment health complications in some individuals. innate and acquired immunity-related inflammation is likely to play a critical role in both host defense against borrelia burgdorferi and disease severity. large-scale analytical approaches to quantify gene expressi ...201727900646
molecular evidence for toxoplasma gondii in feeding and questing ixodes ricinus ticks.the aim of the present study was to detect toxoplasma gondii in ticks collected from ponies and field vegetation and to determine the role of shetland ponies as a potential reservoir host for t. gondii. a total of 1737 feeding ixodes ricinus collected from 49 horses and 371 questing ticks were tested by pcr and sequencing for the presence and genotyping of t. gondii. all ticks were examined in a previous study to detect and identify pathogenic bacterial species. the aim of this study was also to ...201727894863
progress in the molecular diagnosis of lyme disease.current laboratory testing of lyme borreliosis mostly relies on serological methods with known limitations. diagnostic modalities enabling direct detection of pathogen at the onset of the clinical signs could overcome some of the limitations. molecular methods detecting borrelial dna seem to be the ideal solution, although there are some aspects that need to be considered. areas covered: this review represent summary and discussion of the published data obtained from literature searches from pub ...201727892737
outer membrane proteins bb0405 and bb0406 are immunogenic, but only bb0405 is required for borrelia burgdorferi infection.we recently identified the borrelia burgdorferi outer membrane protein (omp) bb0406 and found that the gene encoding this omp was cotranscribed with the gene encoding the omp bb0405. interestingly, bb0405 and bb0406 share 59% similarity and are grouped into the same b. burgdorferi paralogous gene family. given their overall similarity, it is plausible that both omps have similar or overlapping functions in this pathogenic spirochete. bb0405 was recently shown to be required for mammalian infecti ...201727920211
dna barcodes identify medically important tick species in canada.medically important ticks (acari: ixodidae) are often difficult to identify morphologically. a standardized, molecular approach using a 658 base pair dna barcode sequence (from the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i gene) was evaluated for its effectiveness in discriminating ticks in north america, with an emphasis on canadian ticks. dna barcodes were generated for 96 of 154 specimens representing 26 ixodid species. a genetic cluster analysis was performed on the barco ...201727918193
a critical appraisal of the mild axonal peripheral neuropathy of late neurologic lyme disease.in older studies, a chronic distal symmetric sensory neuropathy was reported as a relatively common manifestation of late lyme disease in the united states. however, the original papers describing this entity had notable inconsistencies and certain inexplicable findings, such as reports that this condition developed in patients despite prior antibiotic treatment known to be highly effective for other manifestations of lyme disease. more recent literature suggests that this entity is seen rarely, ...201727914746
in vivo expression technology and 5' end mapping of the borrelia burgdorferi transcriptome identify novel rnas expressed during mammalian infection.borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterial pathogen responsible for lyme disease, modulates its gene expression profile in response to the environments encountered throughout its tick-mammal infectious cycle. to begin to characterize the b. burgdorferi transcriptome during murine infection, we previously employed an in vivo expression technology-based approach (bbivet). this identified 233 putative promoters, many of which mapped to un-annotated regions of the complex, segmented genome. herein, we glob ...201727913725
ticks and borrelia in urban and peri-urban green space habitats in a city in southern england.ticks are becoming increasingly recognised as important vectors of pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas, including green space used for recreational activities. in the uk, the risk posed by ticks in such areas is largely unknown. in order to begin to assess the risk of ticks in urban/peri-urban areas in southern england, questing ticks were collected from five different habitat types (grassland, hedge, park, woodland and woodland edge) in a city during the spring, summer and autumn of 2013/20 ...201728089123
correlation between antigenicity and variability in the vls antigenic variation system of borrelia burgdorferi.many parasites have evolved antigenic variation systems that alter surface proteins in order to evade recognition by presently expressed antibodies and subsequent death. although the amino acid positions in antigens to which antibodies most commonly target are expected to be the most variable, this assumption has not been investigated. using the vls antigenic variation system of borrelia burgdorferi as a model, we first investigated this assumption computationally and then developed a sensitive ...201728087455
presence of borrelia turdi and borrelia valaisiana (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) in ticks removed from birds in the north of spain, 2009-2011.the genus borrelia includes species responsible for severe human diseases such as lyme disease. birds are involved in their epidemiology as dispersers of infected ticks (ixodida: ixodidae) and as reservoirs or amplifiers of the bacterium. herein, the presence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner in 336 ticks collected from birds in the north of spain from 2009 to 2011 was investigated. nucleic acid extracts from 174 ixodes frontalis (panzer), 108 ...201728082654
comparison of vector efficiency of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) from the northeast and upper midwest of the united states for the lyme disease spirochete borrelia mayonii.borrelia mayonii, a recently recognized species within the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, has been detected in host-seeking ixodes scapularis say ticks and found to be associated with lyme disease in the upper midwest. this spirochete has, to date, not been documented from the northeast, but we previously demonstrated that i. scapularis ticks originating from connecticut are capable of serving as a vector of b. mayonii in this follow-up study, we compared the vector efficiency for b. m ...201728082653
manifestations of lyme carditis.the first data of lyme carditis, a relatively rare manifestation of lyme disease, were published in eighties of the last century. clinical manifestations include syncope, light-headedness, fainting, shortness of breath, palpitations, and/or chest pain. atrioventricular (av) electrical block of varying severity presents the most common conduction disorder in lyme carditis. although is usually mild, av block can fluctuates rapidly and progress from a prolonged p-r interval to a his-purkinje block ...201728082088
t-helper 17 cell cytokine responses in lyme disease correlate with borrelia burgdorferi antibodies during early infection and with autoantibodies late in the illness in patients with antibiotic-refractory lyme arthritis.control of lyme disease is attributed predominantly to innate and adaptive t-helper 1 cell (th1) immune responses, whereas the role of t-helper 17 cell (th17) responses is less clear. here we characterized these inflammatory responses in patients with erythema migrans (em) or lyme arthritis (la) to elucidate their role early and late in the infection.201728077518
microrna expression shows inflammatory dysregulation and tumor-like proliferative responses in joints of patients with post-infectious lyme arthritis.lyme arthritis (la) is caused by infection with borrelia burgdorferi and usually resolves following spirochetal killing with antibiotics. however, in some patients, arthritis persists after antibiotic therapy. to provide insights into underlying pathogenic processes associated with post-infectious la, we analyzed differences in microrna expression between la patients with active infection compared with those with post-infectious la.201728076897
comprehensive spatial analysis of the borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteome reveals a compartmentalization bias toward the bacterial surface.the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi is unique among bacteria in its large number of lipoproteins that are encoded by a small, exceptionally fragmented, and predominantly linear genome. peripherally anchored in either the inner or outer membrane and facing either the periplasm or the external environment, these lipoproteins assume varied roles. a prominent subset of lipoproteins functioning as the apparent linchpins of the enzootic tick-vertebrate infection cycle have been explored a ...201728069820
macrophage ltb4 drives efficient phagocytosis of borrelia burgdorferi via blt1 or blt2.unresolved experimental lyme arthritis in c3h 5-lipoxygenase (5-lox)(-/-) mice is associated with impaired macrophage phagocytosis of borrelia burgdorferi in the present study, we further investigated the effects of the 5-lox metabolite, leukotriene (lt)b4 on phagocytosis of b. burgdorferi bone marrow-derived macrophages (bmdms) from 5-lox(-/-) mice were defective in the uptake and killing of b. burgdorferi from the earliest stages of spirochete internalization. bmdms from mice deficient for the ...201728053185
spermine and spermidine alter gene expression and antigenic profile of borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease, responds to numerous host-derived signals to alter adaptive capabilities during its enzootic cycle in an arthropod vector and mammalian host. molecular mechanisms that enable b. burgdorferi to detect, channel, and respond to these signals have become an intense area of study for developing strategies to limit transmission/infection. bioinformatic analysis of the borrelial genome revealed the presence of polyamine transport components (pota, potb, ...201728052993
infectious agents and neurodegenerative diseases: exploring the links.recent studies have shown that bacterial and viral infections are risk factors for various neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als), multiple sclerosis (ms), alzheimer's disease (ad), and lyme disease (ld). however, it is still controversial how the infections play a role in neurological diseases progression. infections in central nervous system may lead multiple damages in infected and neighboring cells. the infection leads to the activation of inflammatory process ...201728049398
topical azithromycin for the prevention of lyme borreliosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 efficacy trial.lyme borreliosis develops in 1-5% of individuals bitten by ticks, but with a diagnostic gap affecting up to 30% of patients, a broadly applicable pharmacological prevention strategy is needed. topical azithromycin effectively eradicated borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the skin in preclinical studies. we assessed its efficacy in human beings.201728007428
no association between borrelia burgdorferi antibodies and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a case-control study.previous studies, mostly case reports and uncontrolled studies, provide a low level of evidence for the hypothesized link between lyme disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als). in order to make evidence-based recommendations regarding testing for borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in the diagnostic work-up for als, the objective of this study was to explore the evidence for an association between these antibodies and als in a case-control design including age-, gender- and residency-matched ...201728000348
the domestic pig as a potential model for borrelia skin infection.the skin lesion erythema migrans is a characteristic early manifestation of lyme borreliosis in humans. however, the pathomechanisms leading to development of this erythema are not fully understood. models that mimic human skin would enhance research in this field. human and porcine skin structures strongly resemble each other. therefore, we attempted to induce erythema migrans lesions in experimental borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in the skin of domestic pigs. the formation of erythe ...201727986402
climate change and the epidemiology of selected tick-borne and mosquito-borne diseases: update from the international society of dermatology climate change task force.climate change refers to variation in the climate of a specific region or globally over time. a change has been reported in the epidemiology of tick- and mosquito-borne diseases in recent decades. investigators have postulated that this effect may be associated with climate change. we reviewed the english-language literature describing changes in the epidemiology of specific tick- and mosquito-borne diseases, including the tick-borne diseases of lyme disease, tularemia, crimean-congo hemorrhagic ...201727696381
health survey of free-ranging raccoons (procyon lotor) in central park, new york, new york, usa: implications for human and domestic animal health.we conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( procyon lotor ) in central park, new york city, us, in february 2010, september 2010, and november 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. we tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus (cdv), respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all wer ...201728135131
evaluation of a serological test for the diagnosis of borrelia miyamotoi disease in europe.borrelia miyamotoi causes systemic febrile illness and is transmitted by the same tick species that transmits borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus. we describe a serological test using a fragment of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpq) as an antigen, and determined its performance in well-defined patient categories.201728259789
the first case of imported borrelia miyamotoi disease concurrent with lyme disease.borrelia miyamotoi disease (bmd) is an emerging infectious disease caused by b. miyamotoi. although bmd has been reported in the united states, europe, and japan, no case of imported bmd has been described in the world. here, we report a 63-year-old american man living in japan who presented with malaise, headache, myalgia, and arthralgia. we suspected lyme disease because of his travel history to minnesota and presence of erythema migrans. serologic analysis supported our diagnosis, and doxycyc ...201728162921
host immune evasion by lyme and relapsing fever borreliae: findings to lead future studies for borrelia miyamotoi.the emerging pathogen, borrelia miyamotoi, is a relapsing fever spirochete vectored by the same species of ixodes ticks that carry the causative agents of lyme disease in the us, europe, and asia. symptoms caused by infection with b. miyamotoi are similar to a relapsing fever infection. however, b. miyamotoi has adapted to different vectors and reservoirs, which could result in unique physiology, including immune evasion mechanisms. lyme borrelia utilize a combination of ixodes-produced inhibito ...201728154563
borrelia miyamotoi in vectors and hosts in the netherlands.ixodes ticks transmit borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the causative agent of lyme borreliosis (lb). these tick species also transmit borrelia miyamotoi, which was recently found to cause infections in humans. we were interested in the prevalence of b. miyamotoi infection in ticks and natural hosts in the netherlands, and to what extent ticks are co-infected with b. burgdorferi. in addition, erythema migrans has been sporadically described in b. miyamotoi-infected patients, but these skin ...201728065617
diagnosing borreliosis.borrelia species fall into two groups, the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (bbsl) complex, the cause of lyme borreliosis (also known as lyme disease), and the relapsing fever group. both groups exhibit inter- and intraspecies diversity and thus have variations in both clinical presentation and diagnostic approaches. a further layer of complexity is derived from the fact that ticks may carry multiple infectious agents and are able to transmit them to the host during blood feeding, with potential ...201728055580
borrelia burgdorferi dna absent, multiple rickettsia spp. dna present in ticks collected from a teaching forest in north central florida.tick-borne diseases are an emerging public health threat in the united states. in florida, there has been public attention directed towards the possibility of locally acquired borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of lyme disease, in association with the lone star tick. the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ticks and the pathogens they carry and potentially transmit, such as b. burgdorferi, in a highly utilized teaching and research forest in north central fl ...201727720381
searching for lyme borreliosis in australia: results of a canine sentinel study.lyme borreliosis is a common tick-borne disease of the northern hemisphere that is caused by bacterial spirochaetes of the borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) (bbsl) complex. to date, there has been no convincing evidence for locally-acquired lyme borreliosis on the australian continent and there is currently a national debate concerning the nature and distributions of zoonotic tick-transmitted infectious disease in australia. in studies conducted in europe and the united states, dogs have been us ...201728285585
acarological risk of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infections across space and time in the netherlands.a longitudinal investigation on tick populations and their borrelia infections in the netherlands was undertaken between 2006 and 2011 with the aim to assess spatial and temporal patterns of the acarological risk in forested sites across the country and to assess variations in borrelia genospecies diversity. ticks were collected monthly in 11 sites and nymphs were examined for borrelia infections. tick populations expressed strong seasonal variations, with consistent and significant differences ...201727893309
clinical and serological one-year follow-up of patients after the bite of ixodes ricinus ticks infected with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.the risk of developing lyme borreliosis (lb) after the bite of a borrelia (b.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infected tick in romania is unknown.201727866446
multistrain infections with lyme borreliosis pathogens in the tick vector.mixed or multiple-strain infections are common in vector-borne diseases and have important implications for the epidemiology of these pathogens. previous studies have mainly focused on interactions between pathogen strains in the vertebrate host, but little is known about what happens in the arthropod vector. borrelia afzelii and borrelia garinii are two species of spirochete bacteria that cause lyme borreliosis in europe and that share a tick vector, ixodes ricinus each of these two tick-borne ...201727836839
tick thioester-containing proteins and phagocytosis do not affect transmission of borrelia afzelii from the competent vector ixodes ricinus.the present concept of the transmission of lyme disease from borrelia-infected ixodes sp. ticks to the naïve host assumes that a low number of spirochetes that manage to penetrate the midgut epithelium migrate through the hemocoel to the salivary glands and subsequently infect the host with the aid of immunomodulatory compounds present in tick saliva. therefore, humoral and/or cellular immune reactions within the tick hemocoel may play an important role in tick competence to act as a vector for ...201728361038
comparison of mkp and bsk-h media for the cultivation and isolation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.the isolation of b. burgdorferi sensu lato requires the use of complex cultivation media. the aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of bsk-h (a commercial medium produced by himedia, india) and mkp medium. mkp and bsk-h media were prepared in accordance with the relevant protocols. borrelia strains and skin culture biopsies were simultaneously inoculated into both media, incubated and checked for growth. borrelial growth characteristics, isolation rates and characteristics of the isolat ...201728170447
induction of apoptosis in normal human dermal fibroblasts infected with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi s.l. can enter into different eukaryotic cells. intracellular localization of bacteria may cause many changes in different cell pathways like apoptosis-mediated caspase cascade. the present studies focused on gene expression associated with caspase cascade after normal human dermal fibroblasts (nhdf) infection with borrelia garinii, borrelia afzelii, and b. burgdorferi s.s. the use of oligonucleotide microarray technique enabled an expression level comparison ...201728068192
enzootic origins for clinical manifestations of lyme borreliosis.both early localized and late disseminated forms of lyme borreliosis are caused by borrelia burgdorferi senso lato. differentiating between the spirochetes that only cause localized skin infection from those that cause disseminated infection, and tracing the group of medically-important spirochetes to a specific vertebrate host species, are two critical issues in disease risk assessment and management. borrelia burgdorferi senso lato isolates from lyme borreliosis cases with distinct clinical ma ...201728040562
borrelia miyamotoi and co-infection with borrelia afzelii in ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from slovakia.borrelia miyamotoi causes relapsing fever in humans. the occurrence of this spirochete has been reported in ixodes ricinus and wildlife, but there are still gaps in the knowledge of its eco-epidemiology and public health impact. in the current study, questing i. ricinus (nymphs and adults) and skin biopsies from rodents captured in slovakia were screened for the presence of b. miyamotoi and borrelia burgdorferi s.l. dna. the prevalence of b. miyamotoi and b. burgdorferi s.l. in questing ticks wa ...201727995301
validation of droplet digital pcr for the detection and absolute quantification of borrelia dna in ixodes scapularis ticks.we evaluated the qx200 droplet digital pcr (ddpcr™, bio-rad) system and protocols for the detection of the tick-borne pathogens borrelia burgdorferi and borrelia miyamotoi in ixodes scapularis nymphs and adults collected from north truro, massachusetts. preliminary screening by nested pcr determined positive infection levels of 60% for b. burgdorferi in these ticks. to investigate the utility of ddpcr as a screening tool and to calculate the absolute number of bacterial genome copies in an infec ...201727806739
molecular epidemiological survey of bacterial and parasitic pathogens in hard ticks from eastern china.ticks are able to transmit various pathogens-viruses, bacteria, and parasites-to their host during feeding. several molecular epidemiological surveys have been performed to evaluate the risk of tick-borne pathogens in china, but little is known about pathogens circulating in ticks from eastern china. therefore, this study aimed to investigate the presence of bacteria and parasites in ticks collected from xuzhou, a 11258km(2) region in eastern china. in the present study, ticks were collected fro ...201727986546
emergence of tick-borne pathogens (borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, anaplasma phagocytophilum, ricketsia raoultii and babesia microti) in the kyiv urban parks, ukraine.to date, only limited data about the presence of ticks and circulation of tick-borne pathogens in urban parks of kyiv in northern ukraine are available. in total, 767 ticks (696 ixodes ricinus and 69 dermacentor reticulatus) collected in seven urban parks and one suburban oak wood park in kyiv were individually analyzed by the pcr assays. tick-borne pathogens, namely spirochetes from borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesia microti, were detected in 11.1% o ...201727923669
detection of borrelia miyamotoi and other tick-borne pathogens in human clinical specimens and ixodes scapularis ticks in new york state, 2012-2015.borrelia miyamotoi (bm) is a recently emerging bacterial agent transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks. diagnosis of bm infection can be challenging, as the organism is not easily cultivable. we have developed and validated a multiplex real-time pcr to simultaneously identify bm infection and the agents causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human monocytic ehrlichiosis, anaplasma phagocytophilum and ehrlichia chaffeensis, respectively. the assay is 100% specific; highly sensitive, d ...201728131594
bacteria associated with marginal zone lymphomas.in the last decades some bacteria have been associated with a various extent with marginal zone (extra nodal, nodal and splenic types) lymphomas are frequently associated with chronic infections, with important clinical, molecular, biological, and therapeutic implications. the well-known correlation between helicobacter pylori and gastric malt-lymphoma, the recently reported links between chlamydia psittaci and ocular adnexal malt-lymphoma and borrelia burgdorferi and cutaneous malt lymphoma con ...201728288714
specificity of mass spectrometry (maldi-tof) in the diagnosis of babesia canis regarding to other canine vector-borne diseases.the canine vector-borne diseases (cvbd) is a term, which describes a range of infectious or/and parasitic diseases whose etiological agents are transmitted by vectors. cvbd are becoming more widely in the world in relation to global warming and the increasing number of infected vectors. the aim of this study was to assess rapid mass spectrometry (ms) - based proteomics analyses for diagnosis of babesia canis, anaplasma phagocytophilum and borrelia burgdorferi infections in dogs. the study was co ...201727614473
seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and francisella tularensis infections in belgium: results of three population-based samples.to estimate the seroprevalence of borrelia burgdorferi (bb), anaplasma phagocytophilum (ap), and francisella tularensis (ft) in belgium, we tested sera from three population-based samples in which exposure to pathogen is assumed to vary: 148 samples from workers professionally exposed, 209 samples from rural blood donors, and 193 samples from urban blood donors. sera were tested using elisa or the immunofluorescence assay test. the seroprevalence of bb was 5.4% in workers professionally exposed, ...201727828762
serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in pheasants (phasianus colchicus).previous studies on tick-borne pathogens in the avian population have focused mainly on the detection of the agents in ticks collected from birds, but data about the presence of tick-borne bacteria in these animals are scant. the aim of the presented study was to verify the exposure to some zoonotic tick-borne bacteria, in particular, anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, coxiella burnetii, and the rickettsia species of the spotted fever group (sfg), in pheasants (phasianus ...201728378988
prevalence of infections and co-infections with 6 pathogens in dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected in eastern poland.occurrence of co-infections with various pathogens in ixodid ticks creates a risk of increased severity of tick-borne diseases in humans and animals exposed to bite of the ticks carrying multiple pathogens. accordingly, co-infections in ticks were subject of numerous analyses, but almost exclusively with regard to ixodes ricinus complex whereas potential tick vectors belonging to other genera were much less studied. taking into consideration the role of dermacentor reticulatus in the transmissio ...201728378977
serological and molecular prevalence of canine vector-borne diseases (cvbds) in korea.previous surveys in dogs from korea indicated that dogs are exposed to a variety of vector- borne pathogens, but perception for a nation-wide canine vector-borne disease (cvbd) occurrence has been missing. we report here results of both serological and molecular prevalence studies for major cvbds of dogs from all over the south korean peninsula except for jeju island.201728298245
melting pot of tick-borne zoonoses: the european hedgehog contributes to the maintenance of various tick-borne diseases in natural cycles urban and suburban areas.european hedgehogs (erinaceus europaeus) are urban dwellers and host both ixodes ricinus and ixodes hexagonus. these ticks transmit several zoonotic pathogens like borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), anaplasma phagocytophilum, rickettsia helvetica, borrelia miyamotoi and "candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis". it is unclear to what extent hedgehogs in (sub) urban areas contribute to the presence of infected ticks in these areas, which subsequently pose a risk for acquiring a tick-borne disease. the ...201728270232
borrelia diversity and co-infection with other tick borne pathogens in ticks.identifying borrelia burgdorferi as the causative agent of lyme disease in 1981 was a watershed moment in understanding the major impact that tick-borne zoonoses can have on public health worldwide, particularly in europe and the usa. the medical importance of tick-borne diseases has long since been acknowledged, yet little is known regarding the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens such as borrelia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, rickettsia spp., bartonella spp., "candidatus neoehrlichi ...201728261565
transmission differentials for multiple pathogens as inferred from their prevalence in larva, nymph and adult of ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae).ixodes ricinus serves as vector for a range of microorganisms capable of causing clinical illness in humans. the microorganisms occur in the same vector populations and are generally affected by the same tick-host interactions. still, the instars have different host preferences which should manifest in different transmission patterns for various microorganisms in the tick populations, i.e., most microorganisms increase in prevalence rate from larvae to nymphs because their reservoirs are among s ...201728255923
first identification of rickettsia helvetica in questing ticks from a french northern brittany forest.tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but data about their presence in western europe are scarce. ixodes ricinus ticks, the most abundant and widespread tick species in western europe, were collected and tested for the presence of several tick-borne pathogens in western france, a region never previously explored in this context. there was a high tick abundance with a mean of 4 females, 4.5 males, and 23.3 nymphs collected per hour per collector. out of 622 tested ticks, specific ...201728248955
detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks ixodes ricinus from the czech republic.the aim of the present study is to compare the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks by using molecular methods from spring to autumn 2007. a total of 526 ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from vegetation in three different sampling sites, representing an urban area (city park), a suburban area (village) and a natural montane habitat. the prevalence of b. burgdorferi s.l. was 17.3% (7.5% in males, 18.7% in females and 20.2% in nymp ...201728238642
tick-borne pathogens induce differential expression of genes promoting cell survival and host resistance in ixodes ricinus cells.there has been an emergence and expansion of tick-borne diseases in europe, asia and north america in recent years, including lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis and human anaplasmosis. the primary vectors implicated are hard ticks of the genus ixodes. although much is known about the host response to these bacterial and viral pathogens, there is limited knowledge of the cellular responses to infection within the tick vector. the bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum is able to bypass apoptotic ...201728202075
infection-derived lipids elicit an immune deficiency circuit in arthropods.the insect immune deficiency (imd) pathway resembles the tumour necrosis factor receptor network in mammals and senses diaminopimelic-type peptidoglycans present in gram-negative bacteria. whether unidentified chemical moieties activate the imd signalling cascade remains unknown. here, we show that infection-derived lipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (popg) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl diacylglycerol (podag) stimulate the imd pathway of ticks. the tick imd network protects agai ...201728195158
a novel quantitative pcr detects babesia infection in patients not identified by currently available non-nucleic acid amplification tests.ticks transmit babesia microti, the causative agents of babesiosis in north america and europe. babesiosis is now endemic in northeastern usa and affects people of all ages. babesia species infect erythrocytes and can be transmitted through blood transfusion. whole blood and blood products, which are not tested for babesia, can cause transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (ttb) resulting in severe consequences in the immuno-compromised patients. the purpose of this study was epidemiological evaluati ...201728088177
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