TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
antibodies in multiple sclerosis oligoclonal bands target debris. 201627357674
coxiella burnetii induces inflammatory interferon-like signature in plasmacytoid dendritic cells: a new feature of immune response in q fever.plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdcs) play a major role in antiviral immunity via the production of type i interferons (ifns). there is some evidence that pdcs interact with bacteria but it is not yet clear whether they are protective or contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. we wished to investigate whether coxiella burnetii, the agent of q fever, interacts with pdcs. the stimulation of pdcs with c. burnetii increased the expression of activation and migratory markers (cd86 and ccr7) as determine ...201627446817
borrelia sp. phylogenetically different from lyme disease- and relapsing fever-related borrelia spp. in amblyomma varanense from python reticulatus.species of the genus borrelia are causative agents of lyme disease and relapsing fever. lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. however, in some parts of the world lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever may be caused by novel borrelia genotypes. herein, we report the presence of a borrelia sp. in an amblyomma varanense collected from python reticulatus.201627342652
hyperglycemia impairs neutrophil-mediated bacterial clearance in mice infected with the lyme disease pathogen.insulin-insufficient type 1 diabetes is associated with attenuated bactericidal function of neutrophils, which are key mediators of innate immune responses to microbes as well as pathological inflammatory processes. neutrophils are central to immune responses to the lyme pathogen borrelia burgdorferi. the effect of hyperglycemia on host susceptibility to and outcomes of b. burgdorferi infection has not been examined. the present study investigated the impact of sustained obesity-independent hype ...201627340827
hereditary hemochromatosis predisposes mice to yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection even in the absence of the type iii secretion system.the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis (hh) predisposes humans to serious disseminated infection with pathogenic yersinia as well as several other pathogens. recently, we showed that the iron-sulfur cluster coordinating transcription factor iscr is required for type iii secretion in y. pseudotuberculosis by direct control of the t3ss master regulator lcrf. in e. coli and yersinia, iscr levels are predicted to be regulated by iron bioavailability, oxygen tension, and oxidative stre ...201627446816
chloroplast genomes: diversity, evolution, and applications in genetic engineering.chloroplasts play a crucial role in sustaining life on earth. the availability of over 800 sequenced chloroplast genomes from a variety of land plants has enhanced our understanding of chloroplast biology, intracellular gene transfer, conservation, diversity, and the genetic basis by which chloroplast transgenes can be engineered to enhance plant agronomic traits or to produce high-value agricultural or biomedical products. in this review, we discuss the impact of chloroplast genome sequences on ...201627339192
retrospective evaluation of horses diagnosed with neuroborreliosis on postmortem examination: 16 cases (2004-2015).equine neuroborreliosis (nb), lyme disease, is difficult to diagnose and has limited description in the literature.201627327172
structures of the orthosomycin antibiotics avilamycin and evernimicin in complex with the bacterial 70s ribosome.the ribosome is one of the major targets for therapeutic antibiotics; however, the rise in multidrug resistance is a growing threat to the utility of our current arsenal. the orthosomycin antibiotics evernimicin (evn) and avilamycin (avi) target the ribosome and do not display cross-resistance with any other classes of antibiotics, suggesting that they bind to a unique site on the ribosome and may therefore represent an avenue for development of new antimicrobial agents. here we present cryo-em ...201627330110
treponema pallidum lipoprotein tp0435 expressed in borrelia burgdorferi produces multiple surface/periplasmic isoforms and mediates adherence.the ability of treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete to colonize various tissues requires the presence of surface-exposed adhesins that have been difficult to identify due to the inability to culture and genetically manipulate t. pallidum. using a borrelia burgdorferi-based heterologous system and gain-in-function approach, we show for the first time that a highly immunogenic lipoprotein tp0435 can be differentially processed into multiple isoforms with one variant stochastically displayed ...201627161310
independent evolution of six families of halogenating enzymes.halogenated natural products are widespread in the environment, and the halogen atoms are typically vital to their bioactivities. thus far, six families of halogenating enzymes have been identified: cofactor-free haloperoxidases (hpo), vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases (v-hpo), heme iron-dependent haloperoxidases (hi-hpo), non-heme iron-dependent halogenases (ni-hg), flavin-dependent halogenases (f-hg), and s-adenosyl-l-methionine (sam)-dependent halogenases (s-hg). however, these halogenating ...201627153321
disease vectors in the era of next generation sequencing.almost 20 % of all infectious human diseases are vector borne and, together, are responsible for over one million deaths per annum. over the past decade, the decreasing costs of massively parallel sequencing technologies have facilitated the agnostic interrogation of insect vector genomes, giving medical entomologists access to an ever-expanding volume of high-quality genomic and transcriptomic data. in this review, we highlight how genomics resources have provided new insights into the physiolo ...201627154554
autonomic and peripheral nervous system function in acute tick-borne encephalitis.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) is an emerging flaviviral zoonosis in central and eastern europe. tbe can present as meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or meningoencephalomyelitis. dysfunction of the autonomic (ans) and peripheral motoric and sensory nervous system (pns) might contribute to acute and long-term complications. we aimed to examine, whether the ans and pns are affected in acute tbe.201627247855
detection of selected pathogens in ticks collected from cats and dogs in the wrocław agglomeration, south-west poland.tick-borne infections are no longer confined to rural areas, they are documented with increasing frequency in urban settlements across the world. they are known to cause diseases in humans as well as in their companion animals.201627329450
distinct oligoclonal band antibodies in multiple sclerosis recognize ubiquitous self-proteins.oligoclonal ig bands (ocbs) of the cerebrospinal fluid are a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (ms), a disabling inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (cns). ocbs are locally produced by clonally expanded antigen-experienced b cells and therefore are believed to hold an important clue to the pathogenesis. however, their target antigens have remained unknown, mainly because it was thus far not possible to isolate distinct ocbs against a background of polyclonal antibodies. to overcome t ...201627325759
acute borrelia infection inducing an apmppe-like picture.acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (apmppe) is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology affecting the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, and the choroid. although several etiological factors have been suggested, none has been confirmed. we report a case of apmppe associated with acute infection of borreliosis. a 30-year-old man presented with a decrease in vision in the right eye of about 1-week duration. his visual acuity in the right eye was 6/36. fundus exam reveal ...201627294731
the characterization of escherichia coli cpdb as a recombinant protein reveals that, besides having the expected 3´-nucleotidase and 2´,3´-cyclic mononucleotide phosphodiesterase activities, it is also active as cyclic dinucleotide phosphodiesterase.endogenous cyclic diadenylate phosphodiesterase activity was accidentally detected in lysates of escherichia coli bl21. since this kind of activity is uncommon in gram-negative bacteria, its identification was undertaken. after partial purification and analysis by denaturing gel electrophoresis, renatured activity correlated with a protein identified by fingerprinting as cpdb (cpdb gene product), which is annotated as 3´-nucleotidase / 2´,3´-cyclic-mononucleotide phosphodiesterase, and it is syn ...201627294396
inflammatory cardiomyopathy: a current view on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.inflammatory cardiomyopathy is defined as inflammation of the heart muscle associated with impaired function of the myocardium. in our region, its etiology is most often viral. viral infection is a possible trigger of immune and autoimmune mechanisms which contributed to the damage of myocardial function. myocarditis is considered the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. typical manifestation of this disease is heart failure, chest pain, or arrhythmias. the most important noninvasive dia ...201627382566
autophagy and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a review.the incidence of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (bladder cancer) remains high. while other solid organ malignancies have seen significant improvement in morbidity and mortality, there has been little change in bladder cancer mortality in the past few decades. the mortality is mainly driven by muscle invasive bladder cancer, but the cancer burden remains high even in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer due to high recurrence rates and risk of progression. while apoptosis deregulation h ...201627326411
texas occurrence of lyme disease and its neurological, lyme disease is the most commonly reported tick-borne disease in the united states and europe. the culprits behind lyme disease are the borrelia species of bacteria. in the usa, borrelia burgdorferi causes the majority of cases, while in europe and asia borrelia afzelii and borrelia garinii carry the greatest burden of disease. the clinical manifestations of lyme disease have been identified as early localized, early disseminated, and late chronic. the neurological effects of lyme disease ...201627478852
spatial scale modulates the strength of ecological processes driving disease distributions.humans are altering the distribution of species by changing the climate and disrupting biotic interactions and dispersal. a fundamental hypothesis in spatial ecology suggests that these effects are scale dependent; biotic interactions should shape distributions at local scales, whereas climate should dominate at regional scales. if so, common single-scale analyses might misestimate the impacts of anthropogenic modifications on biodiversity and the environment. however, large-scale datasets neces ...201627247398
toll-like receptor cascade and gene polymorphism in host-pathogen interaction in lyme disease.lyme disease (ld) risk occurs in north america and europe where the tick vectors of the causal agent borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato are found. it is associated with local and systemic manifestations, and has persistent posttreatment health complications in some individuals. the innate immune system likely plays a critical role in both host defense against b. burgdorferi and disease severity. recognition of b. burgdorferi, activation of the innate immune system, production of proinflammatory cyt ...201627330321
a drug combination screen identifies drugs active against amoxicillin-induced round bodies of in vitro borrelia burgdorferi persisters from an fda drug library.although currently recommended antibiotics for lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. under experimental stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that appear resistant in vitro to customary first-line antibioti ...201627242757
toll-like receptors: the swiss army knife of immunity and vaccine development.innate immune cells have a critical role in defense against infection and disease. central to this is the broad specificity with which they can detect pathogen-associated patterns and danger-associated patterns via the pattern recognition receptors (prrs) they express. several families of prrs have been identified including: toll-like receptors (tlrs), c-type lectin-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors. tlrs are ...201627350884
features and outcome of a glomerulonephropathy associated with ligneous conjunctivitis in a doberman pinscher dog.this report describes a 3-year-old female doberman pinscher dog with ligneous conjunctivitis and a protein-losing nephropathy not associated with underlying plasminogen deficiency. glomerulonephropathy in this circumstance had a positive outcome.201627152037
erratum to: revisited: borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infections in hard ticks (ixodes ricinus) in the city of hanover (germany). 201627129707
the borrelia burgdorferi telomere resolvase, rest, anneals ssdna complexed with its cognate ssdna-binding protein.spirochetes of the genus borrelia possess unusual genomes that consist in a linear chromosome and multiple linear and circular plasmids. the linear replicons are terminated by covalently closed hairpin ends, referred to as hairpin telomeres. the hairpin telomeres represent a simple solution to the end-replication problem. deoxyribonucleic acid replication initiates internally and proceeds bidirectionally toward the hairpin telomeres. the telomere resolvase, rest, forms the hairpin telomeres from ...201627131360
rickettsia parkeri colonization in amblyomma maculatum: the role of superoxide dismutases.the gulf coast tick (amblyomma maculatum) is an arthropod vector of rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of american boutonneuse fever and an infectious agent of public health significance. in this study, we evaluated the biological significance of the superoxide dismutases (sods) of a. maculatum in hematophagy and r. parkeri colonization within the tick host.201627206371
did garin and bujadoux actually report a case of lyme radiculoneuritis?a 1922 report by garin and bujadoux is widely regarded as describing the first case of neurologic lyme borreliosis. although the patient reported had a tick bite followed by the development of a rash and radiculoneuritis, there were a number of highly atypical features, raising the question of whether the patient, in fact, had neurologic lyme borreliosis. the paper may not deserve the historic recognition that it has received.201627419161
tick receptor for outer surface protein a from ixodes ricinus - the first intrinsically disordered protein involved in vector-microbe recognition.the tick receptor for outer surface protein a (trospa) is the only identified factor involved in tick gut colonization by various borrelia species. trospa is localized in the gut epithelium and can recognize and bind the outer surface bacterial protein ospa via an unknown mechanism. based on earlier reports and our latest observations, we considered that trospa would be the first identified intrinsically disordered protein (idp) involved in the interaction between a vector and a pathogenic micro ...201627112540
neuroglucopenia and metabolic distress in two patients with viral meningoencephalitis: a microdialysis study.viral encephalitis is an emerging disease requiring intensive care management in severe cases. underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely understood and may be elucidated using invasive multimodal neuromonitoring techniques in humans.201627112148
the past, present, and (possible) future of serologic testing for lyme disease.lyme disease prevails as the most commonly transmitted tick-borne infection in the united states, and serologic evaluation for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi remains the recommended modality for diagnosis. this review presents a brief historical perspective on the evolution of serologic assays for lyme disease and provides a summary of the performance characteristics for the currently recommended two-tiered testing algorithm (ttta). additionally, a recently proposed alternative to the tradit ...201626865690
state-of-the-art microbiologic testing for community-acquired meningitis and encephalitis.meningitis and encephalitis are potentially life-threatening diseases with a wide array of infectious, postinfectious, and noninfectious causes. diagnostic testing is central to determining the underlying etiology, treatment, and prognosis, but many patients remain undiagnosed due to suboptimal testing and lack of tests for all pathogens. in this article, we summarize the epidemiology, barriers to diagnosis, and current best tests for meningitis and encephalitis in developed countries. we end wi ...201626888896
erratum for stromdahl et al., borrelia burgdorferi not confirmed in human-biting amblyomma americanum ticks from the southeastern united states. 201627114565
orbital pseudotumor as a rare extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis c infection.hepatitis c is frequently accompanied by immune-related extrahepatic manifestations affecting the skin, kidneys, central and peripheral nervous system and exocrine glands. we present the case of a 40-year-old man with left-sided ptosis, exophthalmos and headache. mri demonstrated left-sided orbital pseudotumor with lacrimal and retro-orbital contrast enhancement extending to the cavernous sinus and the vestibulocochlear nerve. immunological tests of serum and cerebrospinal fluid identified hepat ...201627403111
recent advances in microscopic techniques for visualizing leukocytes in vivo.leukocytes are inherently motile and interactive cells. recent advances in intravital microscopy approaches have enabled a new vista of their behavior within intact tissues in real time. this brief review summarizes the developments enabling the tracking of immune responses in vivo.201627239292
characterization of a dna adenine methyltransferase gene of borrelia hermsii and its dispensability for murine infection and persistence.dna methyltransferases have been implicated in the regulation of virulence genes in a number of pathogens. relapsing fever borrelia species harbor a conserved, putative dna methyltransferase gene on their chromosome, while no such ortholog can be found in the annotated genome of the lyme disease agent, borrelia burgdorferi. in the relapsing fever species borrelia hermsii, the locus bh0463a encodes this putative dna adenine methyltransferase (dam). to verify the function of the bh0463a protein pr ...201627195796
erythema multiforme syndrome associated with acute acquired cytomegalovirus infection. 201627279865
lichen sclerosus-presentation, diagnosis and management.lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. it is thought to be underdiagnosed and undertreated. if it is not treated, lichen sclerosus is associated with a greater degree of scarring and an elevated risk of cancer in the genital area.201627232363
first case of lyme arthritis involving a prosthetic knee joint.borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is the most common tick-borne illness in the united states. arthritis is usually a mani-festation of late dis-ease but has not been associated with cases of periprosthetic joint infections. we report on a patient who was first diagnosed with periprosthetic joint infection and subsequently lyme arthritis.201627419168
a 27-year-old man with right-sided hemiparesis and dysarthria. 201627695601
genomic characteristics of chinese borrelia burgdorferi china, b. burgdorferi, b.garinii, b. afzelii and b. yangtze sp. nov have been reported; b.garinii and b. afzelii are the main pathogenic genotypes. but until now only one chinese strain was reported with whole genome sequence. in order to further understand the genomic characteristics and diversity of chinese borrelia strains, 5 isolates from china were sequenced and compared with the whole genome sequences of strains in other areas. the results showed a high degree of conservation within the ...201627093540
microarray-based comparative genomic and transcriptome analysis of borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of lyme disease, is maintained in nature in a cycle involving a tick vector and a mammalian host. adaptation to the diverse conditions of temperature, ph, oxygen tension and nutrient availability in these two environments requires the precise orchestration of gene expression. over 25 microarray analyses relating to b. burgdorferi genomics and transcriptomics have been published. the majority of these studies has explored the global transcriptome under ...201627600075
transcriptomic analysis of the stationary phase response regulator spdr in caulobacter bacterial cells enter stationary phase, they adjust their growth rate to comply with nutrient restriction and acquire increased resistance to several stresses. these events are regulated by controlling gene expression at this phase, changing the mode of exponential growth into that of growth arrest, and increasing the expression of proteins involved in stress resistance. the two-component system spdr/spds is required for the activation of transcription of the caulobacter crescentus cspd gene ...201627072651
rickettsia helvetica and r. monacensis infections in immature ixodes ricinus ticks derived from sylvatic passerine birds in west-central poland.the aim of this study was to assess the importance of forest passerine birds in spreading ixodid ticks infected with rickettsiae of spotted fever group (sfg) in sylvatic habitats in western poland. in total, 834 immature ixodes ricinus ticks were found on 64 birds of 11 species which were captured during the tick-questing season between may and september of 2006. ground-foraging passerines hosted most of the ticks compared with arboreal species, and therefore, only the former group was included ...201627164834
mtor regulation of lymphoid cells in immunity to pathogens.immunity to pathogens exists as a fine balance between promoting activation and expansion of effector cells, while simultaneously limiting normal and aberrant responses. these seemingly opposing functions are kept in check by immune regulators. the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mtor) is a serine/threonine kinase that senses nutrient availability and, in turn, regulates cell metabolism, growth, and survival accordingly. mtor plays a pivotal role in facilitating immune defense against invading ...201627242787
seroprevalence of vector-borne pathogens and molecular detection of borrelia afzelii in military dogs from portugal.canine vector-borne diseases (cvbds) are increasingly being reported worldwide and represent a serious threat to both animal and public health. military dogs may constitute a risk group for the agents causing these diseases, as they frequently work outdoors in different areas and are thus exposed to vector arthropods. in order to assess the risk of exposure of this type of dogs, a serological and molecular survey was conducted in military working dogs in portugal. one hundred apparently healthy ...201627160284
bartonella spp. - a chance to establish one health concepts in veterinary and human medicine.infectious diseases remain a remarkable health threat for humans and animals. in the past, the epidemiology, etiology and pathology of infectious agents affecting humans and animals have mostly been investigated in separate studies. however, it is evident, that combined approaches are needed to understand geographical distribution, transmission and infection biology of "zoonotic agents". the genus bartonella represents a congenial example of the synergistic benefits that can arise from such comb ...201627161111
molecular detection of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa in cervids and wild boars from portugal.wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens, such as bacteria, parasites and viruses. the aim of the present study was to assess the presence of tick-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance in cervids and wild boars from the centre and south of portugal.201627160767
human pathogens associated with the blacklegged tick ixodes scapularis: a systematic review.the blacklegged tick ixodes scapularis transmits borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) in eastern north america; however, the agent of lyme disease is not the sole pathogen harbored by the blacklegged tick. the blacklegged tick is expanding its range into areas of southern canada such as ontario, an area where exposure to blacklegged tick bites and tick-borne pathogens is increasing. we performed a systematic review to evaluate the public health risks posed by expanding blacklegged tick populatio ...201627151067
an immunosuppressant peptide from the hard tick amblyomma variegatum.ixodid ticks are well known for spreading transmitted tick-borne pathogens while being attached to their hosts for almost 1-2 weeks to obtain blood meals. thus, they must secrete many immunosuppressant factors to combat the hosts' immune system. in the present work, we investigated an immunosuppressant peptide of the hard tick amblyomma variegatum. this peptide, named amregulin, is composed of 40 residues with an amino acid sequence of hlhmhgngatqvfkprlvlkcpnaaqliqpgklqrqlllq. a cdna of the prec ...201627153086
encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease: a potentially reversible condition.autoimmune thyroid disease may occasionally associate with unspecific neurological symptoms, which are more commonly insidious, include cognitive or behavioural symptoms, and may associate with tremor, myoclonus, or ataxia. we report a 61-year-old female patient who presented with chronic headache, insidious mood, and cognitive disturbance which evolved in a few months to dementia associated with exuberant limb myoclonus. diagnostic workup revealed high anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody titers an ...201627127515
new recombinant mycobacterium bovis bcg expression vectors: improving genetic control over mycobacterial promoters.the expression of many antigens, stimulatory molecules, or even metabolic pathways in mycobacteria such as mycobacterium bovis bcg or m. smegmatis was made possible through the development of shuttle vectors, and several recombinant vaccines have been constructed. however, gene expression in any of these systems relied mostly on the selection of natural promoters expected to provide the required level of expression by trial and error. to establish a systematic selection of promoters with a range ...201626850295
diagnostic pitfalls in a young romanian ranger with an acute psychotic episode.the identification and distinction of the pathological conditions underlying acute psychosis are often challenging. we present the case of a 35-year-old ranger who had no history of acute or chronic infectious disease or any previous neuropsychiatric symptoms. he arrived at the psychiatry clinic and was admitted as an emergency case, displaying bizarre behavior, hallucinations, paranoid ideation, and delusional faults. these symptoms had first appeared 7 days earlier. an objective examination re ...201627217753
efficacy and safety of pharmacological agents in the treatment of erythema migrans in early lyme borreliosis-systematic review protocol.erythema migrans represents an early cutaneous and most common manifestation of lyme borreliosis. recommendations regarding pharmacological agents, dose and duration of treatment are subject of intense debate. this review aims to explore differences in efficacy and safety between pharmacological treatments and control treatment.201627142846
analysis of a spontaneous non-motile and avirulent mutant shows that flim is required for full endoflagella assembly in leptospira interrogans.pathogenic leptospira strains are responsible for leptospirosis, a worldwide emerging zoonotic disease. these spirochetes are unique amongst bacteria because of their corkscrew-like cell morphology and their periplasmic flagella. motility is reported as an important virulence determinant, probably favoring entry and dissemination of pathogenic leptospira in the host. however, proteins constituting the periplasmic flagella and their role in cell shape, motility and virulence remain poorly describ ...201627044038
idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss in the only hearing ear.a retrospective chart review was used for 31 patients with sudden, progressive or fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss (shl) in the only hearing ear who had been consecutively evaluated at the ent, audiology and phoniatrics unit of the university of pisa. the group of patients was evaluated with a complete history review, clinical evaluation, imaging exam (mri, ct), audiologic tests (tone and speech audiometry, tympanometry, study of stapedial reflexes, abr and otoacoustic emission) evaluation ...201627196076
pseudolymphoma versus lymphoma: an important diagnostic decision.small innocuous growths on the face usually do not pose difficulty in diagnosis on histopathology. however, some benign inflammatory lesions might mimic malignancy and hence need further investigations for final diagnosis. the distinction between a benign/inflammatory/malignant lesion needs no emphasis as the treatment plan, prognosis and the patient's well-being depends on it. lymphocytoma cutis, or spiegler-fendt sarcoid, is classed as one of the pseudolymphomas, referring to inflammatory diso ...201627601833
expanded geographic distribution and clinical characteristics of ehrlichia ewingii infections, united states.ehrlichiosis is a bacterial zoonosis, spread through the bites of infected ticks, that is most commonly caused in the united states by infection with the bacterium ehrlichia chaffeensis. we retrospectively reviewed samples from an 18-month study of ehrlichiosis in the united states and found that e. ewingii was present in 10 (9.2%) of 109 case-patients with ehrlichiosis, a higher rate of infection with this species than had previously been reported. two patients resided in new jersey and indiana ...201627089171
astrovirus mlb2, a new gastroenteric virus associated with meningitis and disseminated sequencing has identified novel astroviruses for which a pathogenic role is not clearly defined. we identified astrovirus mlb2 infection in an immunocompetent case-patient and an immunocompromised patient who experienced diverse clinical manifestations, notably, meningitis and disseminated infection. the initial case-patient was identified by next-generation sequencing, which revealed astrovirus mlb2 rna in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, urine, and anal swab specimens. we then used ...201627088842
differences in genotype, clinical features, and inflammatory potential of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains from europe and the united states.borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates from patients with erythema migrans in europe and the united states were compared by genotype, clinical features of infection, and inflammatory potential. analysis of outer surface protein c and multilocus sequence typing showed that strains from these 2 regions represent distinct genotypes. clinical features of infection with b. burgdorferi in slovenia were similar to infection with b. afzelii or b. garinii, the other 2 borrelia spp. that cause diseas ...201627088349
acute human inkoo and chatanga virus infections, finland.inkoo virus (inkv) and chatanga virus (chatv), which are circulating in finland, are mosquitoborne california serogroup orthobunyaviruses that have a high seroprevalence among humans. worldwide, inkv infection has been poorly described, and chatv infection has been unknown. using serum samples collected in finland from 7,961 patients suspected of having viral neurologic disease or puumala virus infection during the summers of 2001-2013, we analyzed the samples to detect california serogroup infe ...201627088268
outcome based on treatment protocol in patients with primary canine immune-mediated thrombocytopenia: 46 cases (2000-2013).this study investigated the relationship between treatment protocol, survival to discharge, and relapse in 46 dogs diagnosed with primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (itp) at the western college of veterinary medicine between 2000 and 2013. treatment was at the discretion of the attending clinician and consisted of either a corticosteroid alone or a corticosteroid plus a secondary therapy. there was no association between survival to discharge and treatment protocol (p = 0.23). of the survi ...201627152040
the diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for lyme borreliosis in europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.interpretation of serological assays in lyme borreliosis requires an understanding of the clinical indications and the limitations of the currently available tests. we therefore systematically reviewed the accuracy of serological tests for the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis in europe.201627013465
factors associated with anaplasma spp. seroprevalence among dogs in the united states.dogs in the united states are hosts to a diverse range of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, including a. phagocytophilum, an important emerging canine and human pathogen. previously, a companion animal parasite council (capc)-sponsored workshop proposed factors purported to be associated with the infection risk for tick-transmitted pathogens in dogs in the united states, including climate conditions, socioeconomic characteristics, local topography, and vector distribution.201627004557
tick-borne bacterial pathogens in southwestern finland.ixodes ricinus and ixodes persulcatus are the main vectors of lyme borreliosis spirochetes and several other zoonotic bacteria in northern europe and russia. however, few studies screening bacterial pathogens in finnish ticks have been conducted. therefore, reports on the occurrence and prevalence of several bacterial pathogens detected from ticks elsewhere in europe and russia are altogether missing from finland. the main aim of the current study was to produce novel data on the occurrence and ...201627004834
heart disease in disorders of muscle, neuromuscular transmission, and the nerves.little is known regarding cardiac involvement (ci) by neuromuscular disorders (nmds). the purpose of this review is to summarise and discuss the major findings concerning the types, frequency, and severity of cardiac disorders in nmds as well as their diagnosis, treatment, and overall outcome. ci in nmds is characterized by pathologic involvement of the myocardium or cardiac conduction system. less commonly, additional critical anatomic structures, such as the valves, coronary arteries, endocard ...201627014341
insight into the dual functions of bacterial enhancer-binding protein rrp2 of borrelia is well established that the rpon-rpos sigma factor (σ(54)-σ(s)) cascade plays an essential role in differential gene expression during the enzootic cycle of borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of lyme disease. the rpon-rpos pathway is activated by the response regulator/σ(54)-dependent activator (also called bacterial enhancer-binding protein [bebp]) rrp2. one unique feature of rrp2 is that this activator is essential for cell replication, whereas rpon-rpos is dispensable for bacterial ...201626977110
toll-like receptor 1/2 and 5 ligands enhance the expression of cyclin d1 and d3 and induce proliferation in mantle cell lymphoma.mantle cell lymphoma (mcl) is an aggressive b-cell non-hodgkin's lymphoma with a still undefined etiology. several lines of evidence are consistent with the possible involvement of peculiar microenvironmental stimuli sustaining tumor cell growth and survival, as the activation of toll-like receptors (tlr) 4 and 9. however, little is known about the contribution of other tlrs of pathogenic relevance in the development of mcl. this study reports evidence that mcl cell lines and primary mcl cells e ...201627123851
identification of the gc1qr sites for the hiv-1 viral envelope protein gp41 and the hcv core protein: implications in viral-specific pathogenesis and therapy.a substantial body of evidence accumulated over the past 20 years supports the concept that gc1qr is a major pathogen-associated pattern recognition receptor (prr). this conclusion is based on the fact that, a wide range of bacterial and viral ligands are able to exploit gc1qr to either suppress the host's immune response and thus enhance their survival, or to gain access into cells to initiate disease. of the extensive array of viral ligands that have affinity for gc1qr, the hiv-1 envelope glyc ...201627111569
susceptibility to ticks and lyme disease spirochetes is not affected in mice coinfected with nematodes.small rodents serve as reservoir hosts for tick-borne pathogens, such as the spirochetes causing lyme disease. whether natural coinfections with other macroparasites alter the success of tick feeding, antitick immunity, and the host's reservoir competence for tick-borne pathogens remains to be determined. in a parasitological survey of wild mice in berlin, germany, approximately 40% of ixodes ricinus-infested animals simultaneously harbored a nematode of the genus heligmosomoides we therefore ai ...201626883594
snake venom disintegrin inhibits the activation of toll-like receptors and alleviates sepsis through integrin alphavbeta3 blockade.bacterial infection-induced sepsis is the leading cause of septic inflammatory disease. rhodostomin (rn), a snake venom disintegrin, was previously reported to interact with the αvβ3 integrin and the tlr4 on phagocyte in attenuating lps-induced endotoxemia. in this report, we further evaluated the effects of rn on tlr2-activated monocytes and its in vivo efficacy. rn effectively suppressed the adhesion, migration, and cytokine release of pam3csk4-activated thp-1 cells. rn specifically bound to i ...201626987407
co-infection of ticks: the rule rather than the exception.ticks are the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in europe, and the ixodes ricinus tick species is able to transmit a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. ticks may also be co-infected with several pathogens, with a subsequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. however few data exist regarding co-infection prevalences, and these studies only focus on certain well-known pathogens. in addition to pathogens, ticks also carry symbionts t ...201626986203
pa3297 counteracts antimicrobial effects of azithromycin in pseudomonas aeruginosa.pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute and chronic infections in human. its increasing resistance to antibiotics requires alternative treatments that are more effective than available strategies. among the alternatives is the unconventional usage of conventional antibiotics, of which the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (azm) provides a paradigmatic example. azm therapy is associated with a small but consistent improvement in respiratory function of cystic fibrosis patients suffering from chronic ...201627014238
the cryptosporidium parvum c-type lectin cpclec mediates infection of intestinal epithelial cells via interactions with sulfated proteoglycans.the apicomplexan parasite cryptosporidium causes significant diarrheal disease worldwide. effective anticryptosporidial agents are lacking, in part because the molecular mechanisms underlying cryptosporidium-host cell interactions are poorly understood. previously, we identified and characterized a novel cryptosporidium parvum c-type lectin domain-containing mucin-like glycoprotein, cpclec. in this study, we evaluated the mechanisms underlying interactions of cpclec with intestinal epithelial ce ...201626975991
functional equivalence of ospa and ospb, but not ospc, in tick colonization by borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi, a lyme disease agent, makes different major outer surface lipoproteins at different stages of its mouse-tick infectious cycle. outer surface protein a (ospa) coats the spirochetes from the time they enter ticks until they are transmitted to a mammal. ospa is required for normal tick colonization and has been shown to bind a tick midgut protein, indicating that ospa may serve as a tick midgut adhesin. tick colonization by spirochetes lacking ospa is increased when the infect ...201626953324
lyme disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi with two homeologous 16s rrna genes: a case report.lyme disease (ld), the most common tick-borne disease in north america, is believed to be caused exclusively by borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and is usually diagnosed by clinical evaluation and serologic assays. as reported previously in a peer-reviewed article, a 13-year-old boy living in the northeast of the usa was initially diagnosed with ld based on evaluation of his clinical presentations and on serologic test results. the patient was treated with a course of oral doxycycline for 28 d ...201627186082
novel spotted fever group rickettsiae in haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks from gansu, northwest china.rickettsia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria and well known as transmitted by arthropods. these pathogens have a broad geographic distribution and a high degree of biological and clinical diversity. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from gansu, where borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and anaplasma phagocytophilum were previously reported in ticks and ruminants.201626968160
potential use of antimicrobial peptides as vaginal spermicides/microbicides.the concurrent increases in global population and sexually transmitted infection (sti) demand a search for agents with dual spermicidal and microbicidal properties for topical vaginal application. previous attempts to develop the surfactant spermicide, nonoxynol-9 (n-9), into a vaginal microbicide were unsuccessful largely due to its inefficiency to kill microbes. furthermore, n-9 causes damage to the vaginal epithelium, thus accelerating microbes to enter the women's body. for this reason, anti ...201626978373
bartonella henselae transmission by blood transfusion in mice.bartonella spp. are neglected fastidious gram-negative bacilli. we isolated bartonella henselae from 1.2% of 500 studied blood donors and demonstrated that the bacteria remain viable in red blood cell units after 35 days of experimental infection. now, we aim to evaluate the possibility of b. henselae transmission by blood transfusion in a mouse model.201626968530
case report of salmonella cross-contamination in a food laboratory.this paper describes a case of salmonella cross-contamination in a food laboratory. in 2012, chocolate bars shipped from belgium to the usa were prevented from entering the usa because a salmonella rissen strain had been isolated from one of the chocolate bars in a belgian food laboratory. however, a retrospective study of the salmonella isolates sent from the laboratory to the belgian national reference laboratory for salmonella revealed that 7 weeks prior, a salmonella rissen strain has been i ...201626965050
common mechanisms involved in alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes: a key role of chronic bacterial infection and inflammation.strong epidemiologic evidence and common molecular mechanisms support an association between alzheimer's disease (ad) and type 2-diabetes. local inflammation and amyloidosis occur in both diseases and are associated with periodontitis and various infectious agents. this article reviews the evidence for the presence of local inflammation and bacteria in type 2 diabetes and discusses host pathogen interactions in chronic inflammatory disorders. chlamydophyla pneumoniae, helicobacter pylori and spi ...201626961231
trans-atlantic exchanges have shaped the population structure of the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.the origin and population structure of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), the agent of lyme disease, remain obscure. this tick-transmitted bacterial species occurs in both north america and europe. we sequenced 17 european isolates (representing the most frequently found sequence types in europe) and compared these with 17 north american strains. we show that trans-atlantic exchanges have occurred in the evolutionary history of this species and that a european origin of b. burgdorferi s. ...201626955886
borrelia burgdorferi induces a type i interferon response during early stages of disseminated infection in mice.lyme borrelia genotypes differ in their capacity to cause disseminated disease. gene array analysis was employed to profile the host transcriptome induced by borrelia burgdorferi strains with different capacities for causing disseminated disease in the blood of c3h/hej mice during early infection.201626957120
misdiagnosis of primary hepatic marginal zone b cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type, a case report.extra-nodal marginal zone b cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue originating in the liver is less common.201626956381
nested graft for acral lichen sclerosus of the feet: a surgical treatment for an inflammatory disease.the "nested graft" is an innovative and well-defined surgical technique used for chronic wound healing that induces the de-senescence of fibroblasts in the wound bed. we report a case of a 76-year-old man affected by plantar chronic wounds because of acral lichen sclerosus and atrophicus localized at both feet and treated for many years successfully with immunosuppressive agents. for cardiological dysfunction, systemic therapy was reduced to low dosage of steroids with an increase of ulcerations ...201627257563
a 44-year-old man with eye, kidney, and brain dysfunction.retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy (rvcl) is a rare, autosomal dominant condition caused by mutations of trex1 (3-prime repair exonuclease-1). the phenotypic expressions range from isolated retinal involvement to varying degrees of retinopathy, cerebral infarction with calcium depositions, nephropathy, and hepatopathy. we report a case of rvcl caused by a novel trex1 mutation. this patient's multisystem presentation, retinal involvement interpreted as "retinal vasculitis," and imp ...201626691497
virulence of the lyme disease spirochete before and after the tick bloodmeal: a quantitative assessment.borrelia burgdorferi, the tick-transmitted agent of lyme disease, adapts to different environments as it cycles between an arthropod vector and vertebrate host. signals encountered during nymphal tick feeding prior to transmission activate a regulon that is controlled by the alternative sigma factors rpon and rpos, which are required for mammalian infection. the ingested bloodmeal also provides nutrients that stimulate spirochete replication. although the influence of tick feeding on spirochete ...201626951688
balance between coiled-coil stability and dynamics regulates activity of bvgs sensor kinase in bordetella.the two-component system bvgas controls the expression of the virulence regulon of bordetella pertussis. bvgs is a prototype of bacterial sensor kinases with extracytoplasmic venus flytrap perception domains. following its transmembrane segment, bvgs harbors a cytoplasmic per-arnt-sim (pas) domain and then a predicted 2-helix coiled coil that precede the dimerization-histidine-phosphotransfer domain of the kinase. bvgs homologs have a similar domain organization, or they harbor only a predicted ...201626933056
clinical decision rules for acute bacterial meningitis: current insights.acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis (bm) requires rapid diagnosis so that suitable treatment can be instituted within 60 minutes of admitting the patient. the cornerstone of diagnostic examination is lumbar puncture, which enables microbiological analysis and determination of the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) cytochemical characteristics. however, microbiological testing is not sufficiently sensitive to rule out this diagnosis. with regard to the analysis of standard csf cytochemical chara ...201627307768
function of the borrelia burgdorferi ftsh homolog is essential for viability both in vitro and in vivo and independent of hflk/ many bacteria, the ftsh protease and its modulators, hflk and hflc, form a large protein complex that contributes to both membrane protein quality control and regulation of the cellular response to environmental stress. both activities are crucial to the lyme disease pathogen borrelia burgdorferi, which depends on membrane functions, such as motility, protein transport, and cell signaling, to respond to rapid changes in its environment. using an inducible system, we demonstrate that ftsh prod ...201627094329
understanding neuropsychiatric diseases, analyzing the peptide sharing between infectious agents and the language-associated nmda 2a protein.language disorders and infections may occur together and often concur, to a different extent and via different modalities, in characterizing brain pathologies, such as schizophrenia, autism, epilepsies, bipolar disorders, frontotemporal neurodegeneration, and encephalitis, inter alia. the biological mechanism(s) that might channel language dysfunctions and infections into etiological pathways connected to neuropathologic sequelae are unclear. searching for molecular link(s) between language diso ...201627148089
prevalence of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis at hamilton-wentworth, ontario.lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in canada, where the etiological agent, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. this study explores the presence of b. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis, collected at dundas, ontario (a locality within the region of hamilton-wentworth). using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and c ...201627226771
exploring the secretomes of microbes and microbial communities using filamentous phage display.microbial surface and secreted proteins (the secretome) contain a large number of proteins that interact with other microbes, host and/or environment. these proteins are exported by the coordinated activities of the protein secretion machinery present in the cell. a group of bacteriophage, called filamentous phage, have the ability to hijack bacterial protein secretion machinery in order to amplify and assemble via a secretion-like process. this ability has been harnessed in the use of filamento ...201627092113
the drug-minded protein interaction database (drumpid) for efficient target analysis and drug development.the drug-minded protein interaction database (drumpid) has been designed to provide fast, tailored information on drugs and their protein networks including indications, protein targets and side-targets. starting queries include compound, target and protein interactions and organism-specific protein families. furthermore, drug name, chemical structures and their smiles notation, affected proteins (potential drug targets), organisms as well as diseases can be queried including various combination ...201627055828
editorial: the evolving telomeres. 201627092174
analysis of endothelial adherence of bartonella henselae and acinetobacter baumannii using a dynamic human ex vivo infection model.bacterial adherence determines the virulence of many human-pathogenic bacteria. experimental approaches elucidating this early infection event in greater detail have been performed using mainly methods of cellular microbiology. however, in vitro infections of cell monolayers reflect the in vivo situation only partially, and animal infection models are not available for many human-pathogenic bacteria. therefore, ex vivo infection of human organs might represent an attractive method to overcome th ...201626712205
surface proteoglycans as mediators in bacterial pathogens infections.infectious diseases remain an important global health problem. the interaction of a wide range of pathogen bacteria with host cells from many different tissues is frequently mediated by proteoglycans. these compounds are ubiquitous complex molecules which are not only involved in adherence and colonization, but can also participate in other steps of pathogenesis. to overcome the problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics new therapeutic agents could be developed based on the characteristics ...201626941735
evidence for host-genotype associations of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.different genotypes of the agent of lyme disease in north america, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, show varying degrees of pathogenicity in humans. this variation in pathogenicity correlates with phylogeny and we have hypothesized that the different phylogenetic lineages in north america reflect adaptation to different host species. in this study, evidence for host species associations of b. burgdorferi genotypes was investigated using 41 b. burgdorferi-positive samples from five mammal spec ...201626901761
the upside of bias: a case of chronic meningitis due to sporothrix schenckii in an immunocompetent host.chronic meningitis of unknown etiology is a vexing illness for patients and clinicians. identification of the correct pathogen can be challenging and time consuming, leading to delays in appropriate treatment. although sporothrix schenckii is a recognized and treatable cause of chronic meningitis, neurologists and infectious diseases physicians may not regularly evaluate for sporothrix infection. we describe an immunocompetent patient with chronic meningitis who partially responded to empiric fl ...201628042367
the upside of bias: a case of chronic meningitis due to sporothrix schenckii in an immunocompetent host.chronic meningitis of unknown etiology is a vexing illness for patients and clinicians. identification of the correct pathogen can be challenging and time consuming, leading to delays in appropriate treatment. although sporothrix schenckii is a recognized and treatable cause of chronic meningitis, neurologists and infectious diseases physicians may not regularly evaluate for sporothrix infection. we describe an immunocompetent patient with chronic meningitis who partially responded to empiric fl ...201628042367
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