PMID(sorted descending)
cronobacter sakazakii dna detection in cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndrome.a 45-year-old male noticed progressive weakness of the right lower limb with gait disturbance. over the following months, motor deficits worsened, spreading to the right upper limb. electromyography showed active denervation in the upper and lower limb muscles. a diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als) was made. about 2 years after symptom onset, gradual improvement occurred. cerebrospinal fluid analysis performed about 3 years after the beginning of symptoms identified cronobacter saka ...201526955334
persister mechanisms in borrelia burgdorferi: implications for improved intervention. 201526954994
borrelia burgdorferi elongation factor ef-tu is an immunogenic protein during lyme borreliosis.borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of lyme disease, does not produce lipopolysaccharide but expresses a large number of lipoproteins on its cell surface. these outer membrane lipoproteins are highly immunogenic and have been used for serodiagnosis of lyme disease. recent studies have shown that highly conserved cytosolic proteins such as enolase and elongation factor tu (ef-tu) unexpectedly localized on the surface of bacteria including b. burgdorferi, and surface-localized enolase has ...201526954993
major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the usa. re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. lyme disease, west nile virus (wnv), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by ...201526954882
identification of new compounds with high activity against stationary phase borrelia burgdorferi from the nci compound collection.lyme disease is the leading tick-borne disease in the usa. whereas the majority of lyme disease patients with early disease can be cured with standard treatment, some patients suffer from chronic fatigue and joint and muscular pain despite treatment, a syndrome called posttreatment lyme disease syndrome. although the cause is unclear, ineffective killing of borrelia burgdorferi persisters by current lyme disease antibiotics is one possible explanation. we took advantage of our recently developed ...201526954881
functional equivalence of ospa and ospb, but not ospc, in tick colonization by borrelia burgdorferi.borrelia burgdorferi, a lyme disease agent, makes different major outer surface lipoproteins at different stages of its mouse-tick infectious cycle. outer surface protein a (ospa) coats the spirochetes from the time they enter ticks until they are transmitted to a mammal. ospa is required for normal tick colonization and has been shown to bind a tick midgut protein, indicating that ospa may serve as a tick midgut adhesin. tick colonization by spirochetes lacking ospa is increased when the infect ...201626953324
unusual presentation of unilateral isolated probable lyme optic neuritis.optic neuritis (on) is one of the most common manifestations of central nervous system involvement caused by various etiologies. lyme on is an exceedingly rare ocular manifestation of lyme disease (ld) and only a few cases have been published in the literature. lyme on is very rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis in unexplained cases, particularly in lyme endemic areas. careful and detailed examination and investigation are warranted to make the diagnosis. we report this cas ...201626953086
serological detection of borrelia burgdorferi among horses in korea.lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi. the present study assessed the infection status of b. burgdorferi among horses reared in korea using elisa and pcr. between 2009 and 2013, blood samples were collected from 727 horses throughout korea. data for each animal including age, gender, breed, and region of sample collection were used for epidemiological analysis. overall, 38 (5.2%; true prevalence: 5.5%) of 727 horses were seropositive by elisa. th ...201626951987
virulence of the lyme disease spirochete before and after the tick bloodmeal: a quantitative assessment.borrelia burgdorferi, the tick-transmitted agent of lyme disease, adapts to different environments as it cycles between an arthropod vector and vertebrate host. signals encountered during nymphal tick feeding prior to transmission activate a regulon that is controlled by the alternative sigma factors rpon and rpos, which are required for mammalian infection. the ingested bloodmeal also provides nutrients that stimulate spirochete replication. although the influence of tick feeding on spirochete ...201626951688
lyme myocarditis presenting as chest pain in an adolescent girl.a previously healthy adolescent girl presented to the emergency department with new onset chest and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. laboratory studies and imaging were consistent with myocarditis. she developed heart block after admission and required stabilization in the cardiac intensive care unit. lyme serology returned positive, and her condition was diagnosed as lyme disease-associated myocarditis.201626945194
molecular epidemiological surveillance to assess emergence and re-emergence of tick-borne infections in tick samples from china evaluated by nested investigation was performed to detect eight pathogens in ticks collected from grass tips or animals in the southern, central and northeast regions of china. dna samples extracted from ticks were collected from ten different locations in eight provinces of china and subjected to screening for tick-borne pathogens, including borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, ehrlichia spp., rickettsia spp., babesia/theileria spp., ehrlichia ruminantium, coxiella burnetii, and francisella tularensis, using nested ...201626943995
serum carnitine concentration is decreased in patients with lyme borreliosis.lyme borreliosis (lb) is a serious infectious disease. carnitine plays a crucial role in metabolism and inflammatory responses. carnitine may be important in improving neuronal dysfunction and loss of neurons.201626943315
surface proteoglycans as mediators in bacterial pathogens infections.infectious diseases remain an important global health problem. the interaction of a wide range of pathogen bacteria with host cells from many different tissues is frequently mediated by proteoglycans. these compounds are ubiquitous complex molecules which are not only involved in adherence and colonization, but can also participate in other steps of pathogenesis. to overcome the problem of microbial resistance to antibiotics new therapeutic agents could be developed based on the characteristics ...201626941735
anticardiac antibodies in patients with chronic pericardial effusion.chronic pericardial effusion may be challenging in terms of diagnosis and treatment. specific laboratory parameters predicting the frequency and severity of recurrences after initial drainage of pericardial effusion are lacking.201626941472
human babesiosis: a general review with special reference to egypt.babesiosis is a tick-borne malaria-like illness caused by species of the intra-erythrocytic protozoan babesia. humans are opportunistic hosts for babesia when bitten by nymph or adult ticks. currently, babesia infection is transmitted by various tick vectors in europe, asia, africa and the northwestern and northeastern united states. human babesiosis was first described in 1957 but is now known to have worldwide distribution. the increase in reported cases is likely due to increases in actual in ...201526939227
detection of ifn-γ secretion by t cells collected before and after successful treatment of early lyme disease.current serodiagnostics for lyme disease lack sensitivity during early disease, and cannot determine treatment response. we evaluated an assay based on quantiferon technology utilizing peptide antigens derived from borrelia burgdorferi to stimulate interferon-gamma (ifn-γ) release as an alternative to serodiagnosis for the laboratory detection of lyme disease.201626936671
using new non-invasive quick method to detect borrelia burgdorferi (b.b.) infection from specific parts of the heart in "seemingly normal" ecgs, and from the ecgs of atrial fibrillation (af), a majority of af ecgs are found to have: 1) significant b.b. infection, 2) markedly increased anp, 3) increased cardiac troponin i & 4) markedly reduced taurine. these 4 factors were mainly localized at infected areas of the sa node area, r-&l-atria & pulmonary veins at the l-atrium.lyme disease is found in a majority of people we tested. once borrelia burgdorferi (b.b.) spirochete enters human body, it not only causes pain by infecting joints, but it also often enters the brain and the heart. infection of brain can be quickly detected from the pupil and infection of the heart by ecgs non-invasively. by evaluating recorded ecgs of atrial fibrillation (af), using u.s. patented non-invasive highly sensitive electromagnetic field (emf) resonance phenomenon between 2 identical ...201526934795
dna charge transport: from chemical principles to the cell.the dna double helix has captured the imagination of many, bringing it to the forefront of biological research. dna has unique features that extend our interest into areas of chemistry, physics, material science, and engineering. our laboratory has focused on studies of dna charge transport (ct), wherein charges can efficiently travel long molecular distances through the dna helix while maintaining an exquisite sensitivity to base pair π-stacking. because dna ct chemistry reports on the integrit ...201626933744
balance between coiled-coil stability and dynamics regulates activity of bvgs sensor kinase in bordetella.the two-component system bvgas controls the expression of the virulence regulon of bordetella pertussis. bvgs is a prototype of bacterial sensor kinases with extracytoplasmic venus flytrap perception domains. following its transmembrane segment, bvgs harbors a cytoplasmic per-arnt-sim (pas) domain and then a predicted 2-helix coiled coil that precede the dimerization-histidine-phosphotransfer domain of the kinase. bvgs homologs have a similar domain organization, or they harbor only a predicted ...201626933056
lyme disease surveillance using sampling estimation: evaluation of an alternative methodology in new york the 14-year period from 1993 to 2006, new york state (nys) accounted for over one-quarter (27.1%) of all confirmed lyme disease (ld) cases in the united states. during that time period, a nine-county area in south-east nys accounted for 90.6% of the reported ld cases in the state. based on concerns related to diminishing resources at both the state and local level and the increasing burden of traditional ld surveillance, the nys department of health (doh) sought to develop an alternative to t ...201626924579
vector competence of the blacklegged tick, ixodes scapularis, for the recently recognized lyme borreliosis spirochete candidatus borrelia mayonii.a novel species within the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, provisionally named borrelia mayonii, was recently found to be associated with lyme borreliosis in the upper midwest of the united states. moreover, b. mayonii was detected from host-seeking ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of b. burgdorferi sensu stricto in the eastern united states. we therefore conducted a study to confirm the experimental vector competence of i. scapularis for b. mayonii (strain mn14-1420), using colony ...201626922324
molecular evidence for bacterial pathogens in ixodes ricinus ticks infesting shetland ponies.ixodes ricinus has the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans and domestic animals. the feeding i. ricinus (n = 1737) collected from 49 shetland ponies and questing ones from vegetation (n = 371) were tested for the presence and differentiation of the bacterial species. dna of i. ricinus ticks was examined with pcr and sequencing analysis to identify species of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (bbsl), anaplasma phagocytophilum and rickettsia spp. altogether, 24.3 % i. ricinus of the i ...201626920921
expression of the tick-associated vtp protein of borrelia hermsii in a murine model of relapsing fever.borrelia hermsii, a spirochete and cause of relapsing fever, is notable for its immune evasion by multiphasic antigenic variation within its vertebrate host. this is based on a diverse repertoire of surface antigen genes, only one of which is expressed at a time. another major surface protein, the variable tick protein (vtp), is expressed in the tick vector and is invariable at its genetic locus. given the limited immune systems of ticks, the finding of considerable diversity among the vtp prote ...201626918760
outer membrane vesicles as platform vaccine technology.outer membrane vesicles (omvs) are released spontaneously during growth by many gram-negative bacteria. they present a range of surface antigens in a native conformation and have natural properties like immunogenicity, self-adjuvation and uptake by immune cells which make them attractive for application as vaccines against pathogenic bacteria. in particular with neisseria meningitidis, they have been investigated extensively and an omv-containing meningococcal vaccine has recently been approved ...201526912077
efficacy of sarolaner in the prevention of borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission from infected ixodes scapularis to dogs.the efficacy of sarolaner (simparica™, zoetis) to prevent transmission primarily of borrelia burgdorferi and secondarily of anaplasma phagocytophilum from infected wild-caught ixodes scapularis to dogs was evaluated in a placebo-controlled laboratory study. twenty-four purpose-bred laboratory beagles seronegative for b. burgdorferi and a. phagocytophilum antibodies were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: placebo administered orally on days 0 and 7, or sarolaner at 2mg/kg admini ...201626906926
mitochondrial myopathy in follow-up of a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome.introduction. symptoms of mitochondrial diseases and chronic fatigue syndrome (cfs) frequently overlap and can easily be mistaken. methods. we report the case of a patient diagnosed with cfs and during follow-up was finally diagnosed with mitochondrial myopathy by histochemical study of muscle biopsy, spectrophotometric analysis of the complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and genetic studies. results. the results revealed 3% fiber-ragged blue and a severe deficiency of complexes i a ...201526904705
eradication of biofilm-like microcolony structures of borrelia burgdorferi by daunomycin and daptomycin but not mitomycin c in combination with doxycycline and cefuroxime.lyme disease, caused by borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the united states and europe. while the majority of lyme disease patients can resolve their symptoms if treated promptly, 10-20% of patients suffer from prolonged symptoms called post-treatment lyme disease syndrome (ptlds). although the cause for ptlds is unclear, one possibility is the presence of bacterial persisters not effectively cleared by the current lyme antibiotics. recent studies identified severa ...201626903956
enigma of il-17 and th17 cells in rheumatoid arthritis and in autoimmune animal models of arthritis.rheumatoid arthritis (ra) is one of the most common autoimmune disorders characterized by the chronic and progressive inflammation of various organs, most notably the synovia of joints leading to joint destruction, a shorter life expectancy, and reduced quality of life. although we have substantial information about the pathophysiology of the disease with various groups of immune cells and soluble mediators identified to participate in the pathogenesis, several aspects of the altered immune func ...201626903711
increase in ticks and lyme borreliosis, yet research into its prevention on the wane.there is increased concern about the upward incidence of lyme borreliosis (lb) in europe, the united states, asia, and northern africa. however, effective measures to control tick populations or vaccines for lb are not yet available. therefore, behavioral measures including avoidance of areas inhabited by ticks, performing routine body checks, using protective clothing, and the application of tick repellents are of great importance. unfortunately, acceptance and uptake of many of these preventiv ...201626901844
evidence for host-genotype associations of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.different genotypes of the agent of lyme disease in north america, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, show varying degrees of pathogenicity in humans. this variation in pathogenicity correlates with phylogeny and we have hypothesized that the different phylogenetic lineages in north america reflect adaptation to different host species. in this study, evidence for host species associations of b. burgdorferi genotypes was investigated using 41 b. burgdorferi-positive samples from five mammal spec ...201626901761
an ixodes ricinus tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor protects borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from human complement.we previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (tslpi) in ixodes scapularis, a vector for borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in north america. tslpi is a salivary protein facilitating b. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement pathway through interference with mannose binding lectin (mbl) activity. since ixodes ricinus is the predominant vector for lyme borreliosis in europe and transmits several complement sensitive b. burgd ...201626901751
mapping human risk of infection with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of lyme borreliosis, in a periurban forest in france.lyme borreliosis is a major zoonosis in europe, with estimates of over 26,000 cases per year in france alone. the etiological agents are spirochete bacteria that belong to the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.) complex and are transmitted by hard ticks among a large range of vertebrate hosts. in europe, the tick ixodes ricinus is the main vector. in the absence of a vaccine and given the current difficulties to diagnose and treat chronic lyme syndromes, there is urgent need for prevention. ...201626897396
larvae of ixodes ricinus transmit borrelia afzelii and b. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts.lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for b. burgdorferi (s.l). therefore, b. burgdorferi (s.l) is considered to cycle from nymphs to larvae through vertebrates. larvae of ixodes ricinus are occasionally b. burgdorferi (s.l) infected, but their vector competence has never been studied.201626896940
probable doxycycline-induced acute pancreatitis.a probable case of doxycycline-induced pancreatitis is reported.201626896500
does an nkt-cell-based immunotherapeutic approach have a future in multiple myeloma?natural killer t (nkt) cells constitute a unique subset of innate-like t lymphocytes which differ from conventional t cells by recognizing lipid antigens presented by the non-polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (mhc) i-like molecule cd1d. despite being a relatively infrequent population of lymphocytes, nkt cells can respond rapidly upon activation with glycosphingolipids by production of cytokines which aim to polarize different axes of the immune system. due to their dual effector capa ...201626895468
what makes a bacterial species pathogenic?:comparative genomic analysis of the genus leptospira.leptospirosis, caused by spirochetes of the genus leptospira, is a globally widespread, neglected and emerging zoonotic disease. while whole genome analysis of individual pathogenic, intermediately pathogenic and saprophytic leptospira species has been reported, comprehensive cross-species genomic comparison of all known species of infectious and non-infectious leptospira, with the goal of identifying genes related to pathogenesis and mammalian host adaptation, remains a key gap in the field. in ...201626890609
lyme disease in hispanics, united states, 2000-2013.hispanics comprise a growing portion of the us population and might have distinct risk factors for tickborne diseases. during 2000-2013, a total of 5,473 lyme disease cases were reported among hispanics through national surveillance. hispanics were more likely than non-hispanics to have signs of disseminated infection and onset during fall months.201626889721
anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 limbic encephalitis: a case report and literature review.this study describes the case of a 41-year-old woman admitted for anterograde memory loss, right facial grimacing and right arm posturing that had begun 1 month previously. cranial magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging and -fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging revealed a hyperintense signal in the left hippocampus and right basal ganglia, but no contrast enhancement. an electroencephalogram revealed rhythmic sharp and slow waves and rhythmic θ build-ups in the left temporal area. ...201526889260
anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 limbic encephalitis: a case report and literature review.this study describes the case of a 41-year-old woman admitted for anterograde memory loss, right facial grimacing and right arm posturing that had begun 1 month previously. cranial magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging and -fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging revealed a hyperintense signal in the left hippocampus and right basal ganglia, but no contrast enhancement. an electroencephalogram revealed rhythmic sharp and slow waves and rhythmic θ build-ups in the left temporal area. ...201526889260
state-of-the-art microbiologic testing for community-acquired meningitis and encephalitis.meningitis and encephalitis are potentially life-threatening diseases with a wide array of infectious, postinfectious, and noninfectious causes. diagnostic testing is central to determining the underlying etiology, treatment, and prognosis, but many patients remain undiagnosed due to suboptimal testing and lack of tests for all pathogens. in this article, we summarize the epidemiology, barriers to diagnosis, and current best tests for meningitis and encephalitis in developed countries. we end wi ...201626888896
cholesteryl esters stabilize human cd1c conformations for recognition by self-reactive t cells.cluster of differentiation 1c (cd1c)-dependent self-reactive t cells are abundant in human blood, but self-antigens presented by cd1c to the t-cell receptors of these cells are poorly understood. here we present a crystal structure of cd1c determined at 2.4 å revealing an extended ligand binding potential of the antigen groove and a substantially different conformation compared with known cd1c structures. computational simulations exploring different occupancy states of the groove reenacted thes ...201626884207
susceptibility to ticks and lyme disease spirochetes is not affected in mice coinfected with nematodes.small rodents serve as reservoir hosts for tick-borne pathogens, such as the spirochetes causing lyme disease. whether natural coinfections with other macroparasites alter the success of tick feeding, antitick immunity, and the host's reservoir competence for tick-borne pathogens remains to be determined. in a parasitological survey of wild mice in berlin, germany, approximately 40% of ixodes ricinus-infested animals simultaneously harbored a nematode of the genus heligmosomoides we therefore ai ...201626883594
comparative speed of kill of sarolaner (simparica) and afoxolaner (nexgard against induced infestations of ixodes scapularis on dogs.the black-legged (or deer) tick, ixodes scapularis, commonly infests dogs and cats in north america and is the main vector for the pathogen that causes lyme disease in dogs and humans. the speed of kill of a parasiticide is critical to minimize the direct and deleterious effects of tick infestation and especially to reduce the risk of tick-borne pathogen transmission. in this study, speed of kill of a novel orally administered isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner chewable tablets (simparica), aga ...201626876891
longitudinal transcriptome analysis reveals a sustained differential gene expression signature in patients treated for acute lyme disease.lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the bacterium borrelia burgdorferi, and approximately 10 to 20% of patients report persistent symptoms lasting months to years despite appropriate treatment with antibiotics. to gain insights into the molecular basis of acute lyme disease and the ensuing development of post-treatment symptoms, we conducted a longitudinal transcriptome study of 29 lyme disease patients (and 13 matched controls) enrolled at the time of diagnosis and followed for up to ...201626873097
distribution of ticks and the risk of lyme disease and other tick-borne pathogens of public health significance in ontario, canada.over the past two decades, the northward spread of ixodes scapularis across ontario, canada, has accelerated and the risk of lyme disease has increased. active surveillance is a recognized and effective method for detecting reproducing populations of i. scapularis. in this study, we conducted field sampling consistent with an active surveillance approach from may to october 2014 at 104 sites in central, eastern, and southern ontario to determine the current distribution of i. scapularis and othe ...201626870937
inhalational alzheimer's disease: an unrecognized - and treatable - epidemic.alzheimer's disease is one of the most significant healthcare problems today, with a dire need for effective treatment. identifying subtypes of alzheimer's disease may aid in the development of therapeutics, and recently three different subtypes have been described: type 1 (inflammatory), type 2 (non-inflammatory or atrophic), and type 3 (cortical). here i report that type 3 alzheimer's disease is the result of exposure to specific toxins, and is most commonly inhalational (iad), a phenotypic ma ...201626870879
origin and evolution of rickettsial plasmids.rickettsia species are strictly intracellular bacteria that have undergone a reductive genomic evolution. despite their allopatric lifestyle, almost half of the 26 currently validated rickettsia species have plasmids. in order to study the origin, evolutionary history and putative roles of rickettsial plasmids, we investigated the evolutionary processes that have shaped 20 plasmids belonging to 11 species, using comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis between rickettsial, microbial and no ...201626866478
the past, present, and (possible) future of serologic testing for lyme disease.lyme disease prevails as the most commonly transmitted tick-borne infection in the united states, and serologic evaluation for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi remains the recommended modality for diagnosis. this review presents a brief historical perspective on the evolution of serologic assays for lyme disease and provides a summary of the performance characteristics for the currently recommended two-tiered testing algorithm (ttta). additionally, a recently proposed alternative to the tradit ...201626865690
evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis.copulation in ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of ...201626864785
using tomoauto: a protocol for high-throughput automated cryo-electron tomography.cryo-electron tomography (cryo-et) is a powerful three-dimensional (3-d) imaging technique for visualizing macromolecular complexes in their native context at a molecular level. the technique involves initially preserving the sample in its native state by rapidly freezing the specimen in vitreous ice, then collecting a series of micrographs from different angles at high magnification, and finally computationally reconstructing a 3-d density map. the frozen-hydrated specimen is extremely sensitiv ...201626863591
unilateral sequential papillophlebitis and central retinal artery occlusion in a young healthy patient.a 23-year-old girl presented to the clinic with metamorphopsia and photopsia in her left eye. after detailed ophthalmic examination, central retinal vein occlusion with optic disc edema was detected in that eye. three days after diagnosis, the patient returned to our clinic with visual acuity decrease. central retinal artery occlusion sparing cilioretinal artery was detected. all the laboratory tests were normal except for heterozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation (a1298c genotyp ...201526862099
genetic and transcriptomic profiles of inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases: alzheimer, parkinson, creutzfeldt-jakob and tauopathies.polymorphisms in certain inflammatory-related genes have been identified as putative differential risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases with abnormal protein aggregates, such as sporadic alzheimer's disease (ad) and sporadic parkinson's disease (spd). gene expression studies of cytokines and mediators of the immune response have been made in post-mortem human brain samples in ad, spd, sporadic creutzfeldt-jakob disease (scjd) subtypes mm1 and vv2, pick's disease (pid), progressive supranucl ...201626861289
changes in the proteome of langat-infected ixodes scapularis ise6 cells: metabolic pathways associated with flavivirus infection.ticks (family ixodidae) transmit a variety of disease causing agents to humans and animals. the tick-borne flaviviruses (tbfs; family flaviviridae) are a complex of viruses, many of which cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, and represent global threats to human health and biosecurity. pathogenesis has been well studied in human and animal disease models. equivalent analyses of tick-flavivirus interactions are limited and represent an area of study that could reveal novel approaches for tbf ...201626859745
identification of novel immunogenic proteins of neisseria gonorrhoeae by phage display.neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases worldwide with more than 100 million new infections per year. a lack of intense research over the last decades and increasing resistances to the recommended antibiotics call for a better understanding of gonococcal infection, fast diagnostics and therapeutic measures against n. gonorrhoeae. therefore, the aim of this work was to identify novel immunogenic proteins as a first step to advance those unresolved problems ...201626859666
an immersed boundary method for two-phase fluids and gels and the swimming of caenorhabditis elegans through viscoelastic fluids.the swimming of microorganisms typically involves the undulation or rotation of thin, filamentary objects in a fluid or other medium. swimming in newtonian fluids has been examined extensively, and only recently have investigations into microorganism swimming through non-newtonian fluids and gels been explored. the equations that govern these more complex media are often nonlinear and require computational algorithms to study moderate to large amplitude motions of the swimmer. here, we develop a ...201626858520
identification of a novel pathogenic borrelia species causing lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetaemia: a descriptive study.lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. it is a multisystem disease caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies and characterised by tissue localisation and low spirochaetaemia. in this study we aimed to describe a novel borrelia species causing lyme borreliosis in the usa.201626856777
genomic insights into the ixodes scapularis tick vector of lyme disease.ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. we describe the 2.1 gbp nuclear genome of the tick, ixodes scapularis (say), which vectors pathogens that cause lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. the large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive dna, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. annotation of scaffolds representing ∼57% of the ge ...201626856261
effect of solid boundaries on swimming dynamics of microorganisms in a viscoelastic fluid.we numerically study the effect of solid boundaries on the swimming behavior of a motile microorganism in viscoelastic media. understanding the swimmer-wall hydrodynamic interactions is crucial to elucidate the adhesion of bacterial cells to nearby substrates which is precursor to the formation of the microbial biofilms. the microorganism is simulated using a squirmer model that captures the major swimming mechanisms of potential, extensile, and contractile types of swimmers, while neglecting th ...201426855446
diagnostic value of recombinant tp0821 protein in serodiagnosis for syphilis.syphilis is a multistage sexually transmitted disease that remains a serious public health concern worldwide. the coexistence of treponema pallidum with other closely related members of spirochaeta, such as leptospira spp. and borrelia burgdorferi, has complicated the serodiagnosis due to cross-reactive antigens. in this study, recombinant tp0821 protein was expressed in escherichia coli and purified by metal affinity chromatography. then enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) based on tp08 ...201626853900
pilot cross-sectional study of three zoonoses (lyme disease, tularaemia, leptospirosis) among healthy blood donors in eastern slovakia.the aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of three zoonotic infections among healthy blood donors/volunteers in eastern slovakia.201526851418
new recombinant mycobacterium bovis bcg expression vectors: improving genetic control over mycobacterial promoters.the expression of many antigens, stimulatory molecules, or even metabolic pathways in mycobacteria such as mycobacterium bovis bcg or m. smegmatis was made possible through the development of shuttle vectors, and several recombinant vaccines have been constructed. however, gene expression in any of these systems relied mostly on the selection of natural promoters expected to provide the required level of expression by trial and error. to establish a systematic selection of promoters with a range ...201626850295
[winged scapula in lyme borreliosis].here we present the case of a young patient with one-sided winged scapula and lyme borreliosis. this disease can be very delimitating in daily life. if non-operative treatment fails, dynamic or static stabilization of the scapula can be a therapeutic option.201626849378
the position of his-tag in recombinant ospc and application of various adjuvants affects the intensity and quality of specific antibody response after immunization of experimental mice.lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi-caused infection, if not recognized and appropriately treated by antibiotics, may lead to chronic complications, thus stressing the need for protective vaccine development. the immune protection is mediated by phagocytic cells and by borrelia-specific complement-activating antibodies, associated with the th1 immune response. surface antigen ospc is involved in borrelia spreading through the host body. previously we reported that recombinant histidine tagged (hi ...201626848589
ticks and tick-borne pathogens in wild birds in greece.wild birds are common hosts of ticks and can transport them for long distances, contributing to the spreading of tick-borne pathogens. the information about ticks on birds and tick-borne pathogens in greece is limited. the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and species of ticks infesting wild resident birds (mostly small passerines) in greece, and to assess borrelia and rickettsia infection in the collected ticks. detection of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was performed by nested pcr tar ...201626847630
a divergent spirochete strain isolated from a resident of the southeastern united states was identified by multilocus sequence typing as borrelia bissettii.out of 20 spirochete species from borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex recognized to date some are considered to have a limited distribution, while others are worldwide dispersed. among those are borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) and borrelia bissettii which are distributed both in north america and in europe. while b. burgdorferi s.s. is recognized as a cause of lyme borreliosis worldwide, involvement of b. bissettii in human lyme disease was not so definite yet.201626846867
transcriptional profiling the 150 kb linear megaplasmid of borrelia turicatae suggests a role in vector colonization and initiating mammalian infection.adaptation is key for survival as vector-borne pathogens transmit between the arthropod and vertebrate, and temperature change is an environmental signal inducing alterations in gene expression of tick-borne spirochetes. while plasmids are often associated with adaptation, complex genomes of relapsing fever spirochetes have hindered progress in understanding the mechanisms of vector colonization and transmission. we utilized recent advances in genome sequencing to generate the most complete vers ...201626845332
five-antigen fluorescent bead-based assay for diagnosis of lyme disease.the systematically difficult task of diagnosing lyme disease can be simplified by sensitive and specific laboratory tests. the currently recommended two-tier test for serology is highly specific but falls short in sensitivity, especially in the early acute phase. we previously examined serially collected serum samples from borrelia burgdorferi-infected rhesus macaques and defined a combination of antigens that could be utilized for detection of infection at all phases of disease in humans. the f ...201626843487
neisseria meningitidis translation elongation factor p and its active-site arginine residue are essential for cell viability.translation elongation factor p (ef-p), a ubiquitous protein over the entire range of bacterial species, rescues ribosomal stalling at consecutive prolines in proteins. in escherichia coli and salmonella enterica, the post-translational β-lysyl modification of lys34 of ef-p is important for the ef-p activity. the β-lysyl ef-p modification pathway is conserved among only 26-28% of bacteria. recently, it was found that the shewanella oneidensis and pseudomonas aeruginosa ef-p proteins, containing ...201626840407
climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: the butterfly effect.we have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. the impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. on the occasion of the impact of environmental changes on infectious diseases (iec ...201526835253
expression of alzheimer-type neurofibrillary epitopes in primary rat cortical neurons following infection with enterococcus faecalis.the neurofibrillary tau pathology and amyloid deposits seen in alzheimer's disease (ad) also have been seen in bacteria-infected brains. however, few studies have examined the role of these bacteria in the generation of tau pathology. one suggested link between infection and ad is edentulism, the complete loss of teeth. edentulism can result from chronic periodontal disease due to infection by enterococcus faecalis. the current study assessed the ability to generate early alzheimer-like neurofib ...201526834627
expression of alzheimer-type neurofibrillary epitopes in primary rat cortical neurons following infection with enterococcus faecalis.the neurofibrillary tau pathology and amyloid deposits seen in alzheimer's disease (ad) also have been seen in bacteria-infected brains. however, few studies have examined the role of these bacteria in the generation of tau pathology. one suggested link between infection and ad is edentulism, the complete loss of teeth. edentulism can result from chronic periodontal disease due to infection by enterococcus faecalis. the current study assessed the ability to generate early alzheimer-like neurofib ...201526834627
detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in hard ticks (acari, ixodidae) parasitizing bats in poland.a total of 491 ixodes vespertilionis and 8 ixodes ricinus collected from bats and cave walls in southern poland between 2010 and 2012 were examined by the polymerase chain reaction for tick-transmitted pathogens. pcr analysis for borrelia burgdorferi s.l., rickettsia spp., and anaplasma phagocytophilum yielded negative results for all i. vespertilionis. dna of rickettsia helvetica was detected in three specimens of i. ricinus attached to rhinolophus hipposideros or myotis myotis, while borrelia ...201626833325
a high-affinity native human antibody disrupts biofilm from staphylococcus aureus bacteria and potentiates antibiotic efficacy in a mouse implant infection model.many serious bacterial infections are difficult to treat due to biofilm formation, which provides physical protection and induces a sessile phenotype refractory to antibiotic treatment compared to the planktonic state. a key structural component of biofilm is extracellular dna, which is held in place by secreted bacterial proteins from the dnabii family: integration host factor (ihf) and histone-like (hu) proteins. a native human monoclonal antibody, trl1068, has been discovered using single b-l ...201626833157
transient spurious intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in neurological patients after therapeutic apheresis.the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (csf) is usually done under steady-state conditions, when proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins) reach diffusion equilibrium between blood and csf. however, little data has been published on csf analysis under non-steady-state conditions after therapeutic apheresis. by reducing serum proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins), while leaving csf unchanged, therapeutic apheresis might cause spuriously altered intrathecal immunoglobulin fractions.201526830688
early detection of autism (asd) by a non-invasive quick measurement of markedly reduced acetylcholine & dhea and increased β-amyloid (1-42), asbestos (chrysotile), titanium dioxide, al, hg & often coexisting virus infections (cmv, hpv 16 and 18), bacterial infections etc. in the brain and corresponding safe individualized effective treatment.a brief historical background on autism & some of the important symptoms associated with autism are summarized. using strong electro magnetic field resonance phenomenon between 2 identical molecules with identical weight (which received u.s. patent) non-invasively & rapidly we can detect various molecules including neurotransmitters, bacteria, virus, fungus, metals & abnormal molecules. simple non- invasive measurement of various molecules through pupils & head of diagnosed or suspected autism p ...201526829843
assessment of the geographic distribution of ornithodoros turicata (argasidae): climate variation and host diversity.ornithodoros turicata is a veterinary and medically important argasid tick that is recognized as a vector of the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia turicatae and african swine fever virus. historic collections of o. turicata have been recorded from latin america to the southern united states. however, the geographic distribution of this vector is poorly understood in relation to environmental variables, their hosts, and consequently the pathogens they transmit.201626829327
[prediction of potential geographic distribution of lyme disease in qinghai province with maximum entropy model].to predict the potential geographic distribution of lyme disease in qinghai by using maximum entropy model (maxent).201626822652
[the blood coagulation system and microcirculatory disorders in ixodid tick-borne borreliosis caused by borrelia miyamotoi].to study blood coagulation and microcirculatory disorders as a possible cause of transient dysfunctions of organs (the kidney, liver, heart, lung, etc.) in patients with ixodid tick-borne borreliosis caused by borrelia miyamotoi (bmt). subjects and methods; twenty-four patients with lyme disease (ld) and 28 bmt patients treated at izhevsk city hospital (udmurtia) were examined in the study. platelet counts and the presence of d-dimers were determined; activated partial thromboplastin time, proth ...201526821412
evolutionary steps in the emergence of life deduced from the bottom-up approach and gadv hypothesis (top-down approach).it is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. so, firstly, i would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. after that, i will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up a ...201626821048
diagnostic impact of routine lyme serology in recent-onset arthritis: results from the espoir cohort.lyme disease may be considered by rheumatologists in patients with recent-onset arthritis, even in the absence of suggestive symptoms. the aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic impact of routine lyme serology in a french cohort of patients with recent-onset arthritis affecting at least 2 joints.201626819751
bacterial gcn5-related n-acetyltransferases: from resistance to regulation.the gcn5-related n-acetyltransferases family (gnat) is an important family of proteins that includes more than 100000 members among eukaryotes and prokaryotes. acetylation appears as a major regulatory post-translational modification and is as widespread as phosphorylation. n-acetyltransferases transfer an acetyl group from acetyl-coa to a large array of substrates, from small molecules such as aminoglycoside antibiotics to macromolecules. acetylation of proteins can occur at two different posit ...201626818562
the contemporary management of urethral strictures in men resulting from lichen sclerosus.lichen sclerosus (ls) is a chronic, inflammatory disease primarily involving the genital skin and urethra in males. historically, the treatment of this common condition was a challenge due to its uncertain etiology, variable response to therapy, and predilection to recur. the etiology of ls is still debated and has been linked to autoimmune disease, infection, trauma, and genetics. today, topical steroids are a mainstay of therapy for patients, even in the presence of advanced disease, and can i ...201526816805
uveitis and systemic inflammatory markers in convalescent phase of ebola virus disease.we report a case of probable zaire ebola virus-related ophthalmologic complications in a physician from the united states who contracted ebola virus disease in liberia. uveitis, immune activation, and nonspecific increase in antibody titers developed during convalescence. this case highlights immune phenomena that could complicate management of ebola virus disease-related uveitis during convalescence.201626812218
high prevalence of borrelia miyamotoi among adult blacklegged ticks from white-tailed deer.we compared the prevalence of borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult ixodes scapularis ticks in wisconsin, usa. prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen.201626811985
repeated activation of lung invariant nkt cells results in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-like symptoms.chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and emphysema, which lead to reduced lung function and breathlessness. the pathologies of copd are due to an abnormal immune response. invariant natural killer t (inkt) cells are an important population of innate lymphocytes and have been implicated in the regulation of immune responses associated with a broad range of diseases including copd. we have here analyzed the role of inkt ...201626811900
borrelia burgdorferi bbk32 inhibits the classical pathway by blocking activation of the c1 complement complex.pathogens that traffic in blood, lymphatics, or interstitial fluids must adopt strategies to evade innate immune defenses, notably the complement system. through recruitment of host regulators of complement to their surface, many pathogens are able to escape complement-mediated attack. the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, produces a number of surface proteins that bind to factor h related molecules, which function as the dominant negative regulator of the alternative pathway of com ...201626808924
characteristic cytokine and chemokine profiles in encephalitis of infectious, immune-mediated, and unknown aetiology.encephalitis is parenchymal brain inflammation due to infectious or immune-mediated processes. however, in 15-60% the cause remains unknown. this study aimed to determine if the cytokine/chemokine-mediated host response can distinguish infectious from immune-mediated cases, and whether this may give a clue to aetiology in those of unknown cause.201626808276
update on canine and feline blood donor screening for blood-borne update on the 2005 american college of veterinary internal medicine (acvim) consensus statement on blood donor infectious disease screening was presented at the 2015 acvim forum in indianapolis, indiana, followed by panel and audience discussion. the updated consensus statement is presented below. the consensus statement aims to provide guidance on appropriate blood-borne pathogen testing for canine and feline blood donors in north america.201626806261
immunohistochemistry and real-time pcr as diagnostic tools for detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from humans.the objective of this study was to evaluate different methods used for detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks: immunohistochemistry followed by focus floating microscopy (ffm) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time pcr) targeting the ospa and hbb genes. additionally, an optimized ospa real-time pcr assay was developed with an integrated internal amplification control (iac) for the detection of inhibition in the pcr assay and was validated as an improved screenin ...201626801157
surface display of a borrelial lipoprotein on meningococcal outer membrane vesicles.outer membrane vesicles (omvs) are gaining attention as vaccine candidates. the successful expression of heterologous antigens in omvs, with the omv functioning both as adjuvant and delivery vehicle, has greatly enhanced their vaccine potential. since there are indications that surface exposed antigens might induce a superior immune response, targeting of heterologous antigens to the omv surface is of special interest. several systems for surface display of heterologous antigens on omvs have bee ...201626801064
iga nephropathy and this paper we concentrate on the role of infections in iga nephropathy both from a pathogenetic and clinic point of view. the current hypotheses as regards the role of infections in the pathogenesis of iga nephropathy are: (a) role of particular pathogens, (b) chronic exposure to mucosal infections, (c) abnormal handling of commensal microbes (gut microbiota). we also focus on particular infections reported in association with classic iga nephropathy (hiv, malaria, chlamydia, lyme disease), a ...201626800970
first molecular evidence of zoonotic bacteria in ticks in bosnia and bosnia and herzegovina, the tick fauna is very diverse, but data on the occurrence of zoonotic tick-borne bacteria are lacking. thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, anaplasma phagocytophilum, 'candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis', spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae and francisella tularensis in questing ticks. in 19 (21.8%) of 87 ticks (ixodes ricinus, n = 30; dermacentor reticulatus, n = 54; d. marginatus, n = 3) collected by flagg ...201626799474
codon usage bias and determining forces in taenia solium genome.the tapeworm taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. at present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. in this study, codon usage patterns in the t. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. neutrality analysis showed that t. solium had a narrow gc distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between gc12 an ...201526797435
unusual cause of recurrent fever after travel in south america.fever in returning travelers is a common problem and usually the diagnosis is made within a few days or the traveler recovers. we present two travelers who presented with fever two weeks after returning from a six week vacation in south america. over the following 18 months they presented with short attacks of fever, elevated crp and leukocytosis and the program for investigation became more and more elaborate. a curious and key feature was, that they were completely synchronous both developing ...201526793454
atypical presentation of eosinophilic fasciitis with pitting edema.eosinophilic fasciitis (ef) is a rare condition involving inflammation of the fascia and peripheral eosinophilia of unknown etiology leading to tissue fibrosis. clinical presentation includes peripheral eosinophilia, symmetrical skin thickening with subcutaneous tissue induration of the extremities and rashes developing acutely over a period of days to weeks. an unusual feature of ef is the presence of symmetric pitting edema presumed to be secondary to vascular leakage. this is a case of eosino ...201526793415
point-counterpoint: the fda has a role in regulation of laboratory-developed tests.since the food and drug administration (fda) released its draft guidance on the regulation of laboratory-developed tests (ldts) in october 2014, there has been a flurry of responses from commercial and hospital-based laboratory directors, clinicians, professional organizations, and diagnostic companies. the fda defines an ldt as an "in vitrodiagnostic device that is intended for clinical use and is designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory." the draft guidance outlines a risk-b ...201626791369
the "urban myth" of the association between neurological disorders and modern society, a potentially serious adverse event attributed to a vaccination is likely to be snapped up by the media, particularly newspapers and television, as it appeals to the emotions of the public. the widespread news of the alleged adverse events of vaccination has helped to create the "urban myth" that vaccines cause serious neurological disorders and has boosted antivaccination associations. this speculation is linked to the fact that the true causes of many neurological diseases a ...201526789825
autophagy-associated immune responses and cancer immunotherapy.autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process by which cellular components are sequestered into a double-membrane vesicle and delivered to the lysosome for terminal degradation and recycling. accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy plays a critical role in cell survival, senescence and homeostasis, and its dysregulation is associated with a variety of diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration. recent studies show that autophagy is also an important r ...201626788909
stroke as an unusual first presentation of lyme disease.introduction. lyme neuroborreliosis is a nervous system infection caused by spirochete borrelia burgdorferi with diverse neurological complications. stroke due to cerebral vasculitis is a rare consequence of neuroborreliosis and has been described in just a few case reports. case presentation. here, we report the case of a 43-year-old patient who presented with discrete left-sided hemiparesis and amnestic cognitive impairment. brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a thalamic infarct, and serol ...201526788385
morbus behçet - a rare disease in central europe.behçet's disease (bd) is a multiorgan inflammatory disease of complex and not entirely elucidated etiology, which was originally diagnosed in patients with aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcerations and ocular manifestations. the entity is endemic in countries of eastern and central asia, especially turkey and iran, but rarely seen in central europe. as there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests or histopathologic findings which confirm the preliminary diagnosis, the final diagnosis should ...201526788079
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