TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
level of awareness regarding some zoonotic diseases, among dog owners of ithaca, new york.worldwide, dogs and cats are the two most common household companion animals. because of this, they can be direct or indirect source of many human infections. fortunately, most of these zoonotic infections can be clinically prevented by appropriate prophylactic interventions.025657956
human exposure to tickborne relapsing fever spirochete borrelia miyamotoi, the netherlands. 024963562
seasonal prevalence of lyme disease spirochetes in a heterothermic mammal, the edible dormouse (glis glis).in europe, dormice serve as competent reservoir hosts for particular genospecies of the tick-borne agent of lyme disease (ld) and seem to support them more efficiently than do mice or voles. the longevity of edible dormice (glis glis) and their attractiveness for ticks may result in a predominance of ld spirochetes in ticks questing in dormouse habitats. to investigate the role of edible dormice in the transmission cycle of ld spirochetes, we sampled skin tissue from the ear pinnae of dormice in ...024705325
human infections with borrelia miyamotoi, japan.we confirmed infection of 2 patients with borrelia miyamotoi in japan by retrospective surveillance of lyme disease patients and detection of b. miyamotoi dna in serum samples. one patient also showed seroconversion for antibody against recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase of b. miyamotoi. indigenous relapsing fever should be considered a health concern in japan.025061761
bartonella spp. bacteremia and rheumatic symptoms in patients from lyme disease-endemic region.bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with an expanding spectrum of symptoms and lesions. among 296 patients examined by a rheumatologist, prevalence of antibodies against bartonella henselae, b. koehlerae, or b. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (185 [62%]) and bartonella spp. bacteremia (122 [41.1%]) was high. conditions diagnosed before referral included lyme disease (46.6%), arthralgia/arthritis (20.6%), chronic fatigue (19.6%), and fibromyalgia (6.1%). b. henselae bacteremia w ...022516098
spatially-explicit simulation modeling of ecological response to climate change: methodological considerations in predicting shifting population dynamics of infectious disease vectors.poikilothermic disease vectors can respond to altered climates through spatial changes in both population size and phenology. quantitative descriptors to characterize, analyze and visualize these dynamic responses are lacking, particularly across large spatial domains. in order to demonstrate the value of a spatially explicit, dynamic modeling approach, we assessed spatial changes in the population dynamics of ixodes scapularis, the lyme disease vector, using a temperature-forced population mode ...024772388
geographical and environmental factors driving the increase in the lyme disease vector ixodes scapularis.the population densities of many organisms have changed dramatically in recent history. increases in the population density of medically relevant organisms are of particular importance to public health as they are often correlated with the emergence of infectious diseases in human populations. our aim is to delineate increases in density of a common disease vector in north america, the blacklegged tick, and to identify the environmental factors correlated with these population dynamics. empirica ...024371541
cases of lyme disease in the united states: locations correlated with distribution of ixodes dammini.lyme disease, defined by erythema chronicum migrans and sometimes followed by neurologic, cardiac, or joint involvement, is known to have affected 512 patients in the united states. the disease seems to occur in three distinct foci: along the northeastern coast, in wisconsin, and in california and oregon, a distribution that correlates closely with that of ixodes dammini in the first two areas and with ixodes pacificus in the last. the implicated tick, saved by six patients in the northeast, was ...1979496106
neurologic abnormalities of lyme disease. 1979449663
[erythema chronicum migrans with arthritis (author's transl)].in a 46-year-old woman arthritis developed in several large joints eight weeks after the onset of erythema chronicum migrans. the joints of the leg were swollen and painful. in addition there was painful involvement bilaterally of knee, hip and elbow joints. circulating immune complexes were demonstrated in serum and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was moderately increased. all other laboratory and radiological tests were within normal limits. on symptomatic treatment the arthritis regressed ...19807439072
lyme disease: a new tick-transmitted illness now recognized in delaware. 19807202773
lyme disease. 19807423274
lyme carditis: cardiac abnormalities of lyme disease.we studied 20 patients, mostly young adult men, with cardiac involvement of lyme disease. the commonest abnormality (18 patients) was fluctuating degrees of atrioventricular block; eight of them developed complete heart block. thirteen patients had evidence of more diffuse cardiac involvement: electrocardiographic changes compatible with acute myopericarditis (11 patients), radionuclide evidence of mild left ventricular dysfunction (five of 12 patients tested), or frank cardiomegaly (one patient ...19806967274
antibiotic therapy in lyme disease.we studied antibiotic efficacy in 113 patients with erythema chronicum migrans, the first manifestation of lyme disease. erythema chronicum migrans and its associated symptoms resolved faster in patients given penicillin or tetracycline (median duration, 4 and 2 days, respectively) than in untreated patients (10 days; p less than 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). erythromycin had no significant effect. although the frequency of subsequent neurologic and cardiac abnormalities was similar in all ...19806967272
occurrence of erythema chronicum migrans and lyme disease among children in two noncontiguous connecticut may-november 1977 erythema chronicum migrans of lyme arthritis occurred in at least 12 children in new london county, connecticut, east of the original 3-town epidemic focus. the attack rate (0.15 cases per 1,000 persons under 18) was considerably lower than within the focus itself but similar to the rate in towns west of the focus. no cases were identified in litchfield county in northwest connecticut. observed rates of lyme disease varied markedly within connecticut in 1977.19817326064
lyme disease--united states, 1980. 19816793824
a case of "lyme disease" acquired in new jersey. 19816942167
symptomatic high grade heart block in lyme disease.we describe an unusual and remediable form of heart block which developed in the course of lyme disease. the diagnosis of lyme disease requires a careful clinical history pertaining to epidemiologic geography or a history of erythema chronicum migrans. in this case, a highly selective cardiac abnormality responded promptly to systemic steroids.19817460660
treatment of lyme disease. 19817447210
lyme disease-a tick-borne spirochetosis?a treponema-like spirochete was detected in and isolated from adult ixodes dammini, the incriminated tick vector of lyme disease. causally related to the spirochetes may be long-lasting cutaneous lesions that appeared on new zealand white rabbits 10 to 12 weeks after infected ticks fed on them. samples of serum from patients with lyme disease were shown by indirect immunofluorescence to contain antibodies to this agent. it is suggested that the newly discovered spirochete is involved in the etio ...19827043737
lyme disease: additional evidence of widespread distribution. recognition of a tick-borne dermatitis-encephalitis-arthritis syndrome in an area of known ixodes tick distribution.lyme disease is a process of unknown etiology that has been linked to bites of ticks of the ixodes ricinus complex. central minnesota is an area of known ixodes dammini distribution. this case represents the first recognition of lyme disease from this area. this case presented as a fluctuating meningoencephalitis with superimposed cranial neuropathy. the characteristic skin lesion, erythema chronicum migrans, was recognized by history, and oligoarticular arthritis subsequently developed. physici ...19827072749
lyme disease. 19827081002
lyme disease: spirochetes up to old ticks? 19827097930
spirochete isolated in tick vectors of lyme disease. 19826807821
demyelinating neuropathy accompanying lyme disease. 19826890169
lyme disease. 19826815444
lyme disease--"what's new in old lyme?". 19827119538
lyme disease in new jersey: a cluster of 4 cases and 13 sporadic cases. 19826956739
lyme disease first observed to be aseptic meningitis. 19827081166
lyme disease and erythema chronicum migrans in minnesota. 19827078540
lyme disease challenges australian clinicians: the implications of australia's first reported case of lyme arthritis. 19827132842
natural distribution of the ixodes dammini spirochete.spirochetes believed to be the cause of lyme disease were isolated from white-footed mice and white-tailed deer, the preferred natural hosts of ixodes dammini, the tick vector. evidence suggests that deer act as a reservoir of the disease and provide an overwintering mechanism for both spirochetes and adult ticks. some tick larvae may acquire the spirochete by transovarial passage and the nymphal stage may transmit the disease to humans.19836836274
[chronic erythema migrans and tick-transmitted meningopolyneuritis (garin-bujadoux-bannwarth): borrelia infections?].antibodies against borrelia duttoni using indirect immunofluorescence could be demonstrated in 6 patients with erythema chronicum migrans and in 8 persons with tick-borne meningopolyneuritis. significant increases of igg and igm antibody titres in the course of the disease and igg antibodies in the csf indicate recent contact with borrelia duttoni or a closely related agent. demonstration by fluorescence serology of spirochaetaceae in ixodes ricinus in two sites of infection equally indicate suc ...19836839977
bacteriophage in the ixodes dammini spirochete, etiological agent of lyme disease.a bacteriophage with a b-3 morphology was detected by electron microscopy in a spirochete isolated from the tick ixodes dammini. it has a 40- to 50-nm elongated head and a tail 50 to 70 nm in length. it appears devoid of collars or kite-tail structure. the spirochete has been identified as the causative agent of lyme disease.19836853449
spirochetes in ixodes dammini and mammals from connecticut.spirochetes were observed in the midguts of 35% of 147 motile ixodes dammini from three locations in lyme and east haddam, connecticut. positive ticks were removed from eastern chipmunks (tamias striatus), raccoons (procyon lotor), white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), and a red squirrel (tamiasciurus hudsonicus). spirochetes were isolated in fortified kelly's medium from nine questing or partially engorged i. dammini adults and nymphs and from the bloods of a raccoon and a white-footed mouse ...19836881431
the spirochete in erythema chronicum migrans. demonstration by light and electron microscopy.a lesion of erythema chronicum migrans was examined by light and electron microscopy. spirochetes were identified by light microscopy with steiner silver stain. electron microscopy was performed on deparaffinized tissue of the biopsy specimen and a spirochete was identified in the tissue. this treponema-like spirochete has morphological characteristics similar to those described previously for spirochetes obtained from ticks in areas endemic for lyme disease.19836881479
[the spirochetal etiology of erythema chronicum migrans and garin-bujadoux-bannwarth meningo-polyneuritis].erythema chronicum migrans and tick-born meningo-polyneuritis garin-bujadoux-bannwarth are caused by a spirochete transmitted by ixodes ricinus. the same is true of lyme disease, the erythema chronicum migrans infection of north america transmitted by ticks of the same genus. in europe demonstration of igg and igm antibodies against borrelia duttoni during the course of infection and by immunofluorescence staining of spirochetes in ticks at sites of infection indicate this etiology. in the usa a ...19836884950
antibodies to lyme-disease spirochaete in european lymphocytic meningoradiculitis (bannwarth's syndrome) 19836136679
lyme disease spirochetes and ixodid tick spirochetes share a common surface antigenic determinant defined by a monoclonal antibody.ixodid tick-associated spirochetes have been implicated as the etiological agents of lyme disease. we raised a murine monoclonal antibody (h5332) against a spirochete, strain b31, isolated from ixodes dammini ticks. in indirect immunofluorescence assays and western blot analyses, h5332 reacted with whole cells or isolated components of not only strain b31 but also spirochetes isolated from ixodes ricinus ticks, a field mouse, a raccoon, and patients with lyme disease. in contrast, h5332 did not ...19836192088
[the spirochetal etiology of erythema chronicum migrans and of meningo-polyneuritis garin-bujadoux-bannwarth].erythema chronicum migrans and tick-borne meningo-polyneuritis garin-bujadoux-bannwarth are caused by a spirochete transmitted by ixodes ricinus. the same is true for lyme disease, which is the erythema chronicum migrans infection of north-america transmitted by ticks of the same genus. in europe, this etiology is indicated by demonstration of igg and igm antibodies against borrelia duttoni during the course of infection and by immunofluorescence staining of spirochetes in ticks at sites of infe ...19836659638
"endotoxicity" of the lyme disease spirochete. 19836668073
antibodies of patients with lyme disease to components of the ixodes dammini spirochete.lyme disease is an inflammatory disorder of skin, joints, nervous system, and heart. the disease is associated with a preceding tick bite and is ameliorated by penicillin treatment. a spirochete (ids) isolated from ixodes dammini ticks has been implicated as the etiologic agent of lyme disease. we examined the antibody responses of lyme disease patients to ids lysate components in order to further understand the pathogenesis of this disease. the components were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfat ...19836348092
[lyme disease: a new infectious disease]. 19836656464
neurologic abnormalities of lyme disease: successful treatment with high-dose intravenous penicillin.twelve patients were treated with high-dose intravenous penicillin for neurologic abnormalities of lyme disease. headache, stiff neck, and radicular pain usually began to subside by the second day of therapy and were often gone by 7 to 10 days. five of the 12 patients continued to have intermittent mild headache for several more weeks, but no patient relapsed after therapy was stopped. compared to 15 previous patients treated with prednisone alone, the duration of meningitic syndrome was signifi ...19836316826
lymphocytic meningoradiculitis in the united states.lymphocytic meningoradiculitis (bannwarth's syndrome) is a radicular neuralgia associated with a chronic lymphocytic pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid and frequently with unilateral or bilateral peripheral facial weakness. most reported cases have occurred during the summer among adults living in central europe. lymphocytic meningoradiculitis has occurred in the united states in a few patients with lyme disease and erythema chronicum migrans. however, it may occur independently. we describe a w ...19836685240
lyme disease.lyme disease is a recently described disease of unknown cause that may involve the skin, joints, heart, or nervous system with characteristic symptoms. the disease follows a bite from an ixodes tick. symptoms are generally self-limited and despite the varied and sometimes protracted manifestations, the outcome of the disease is favorable. the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory features and treatment of lyme disease are reviewed.19836353917
[lyme disease. a new or newly recognized clinical entity]. 19836415420
lyme disease in northern california.lyme disease is a recently described clinical entity with cutaneous, neurologic, articular and cardiac manifestations. since the original description of the disease in 1977, more than 500 cases have been reported. although the vast majority of patients have been from the area near lyme, connecticut, we have seen four patients from northern california with various aspects of lyme disease. this diagnosis should be considered in patients who have traveled to tick regions and who have a distinctive ...19836636745
[erythema migrans disease. a contribution to its clinical features and relation to lyme disease].a largely prospective study averaging 33 months was undertaken in 30 patients with and one without (chronic) erythema migrans. in one case erythema migrans disappeared spontaneously, in the 29 others it persisted up to six months, but quickly responded to antibiotic treatment. measured from the tick bite in 9 patients or from onset of the erythema migrans, arthritis and arthralgia appeared in ten patients on average 6.5 months (0.7-36), and persisted for eight months (0.2-42). in seven of these ...19836872871
spirochaetal aetiology for lyme disease. 19836135024
the early clinical manifestations of lyme disease.lyme disease, caused by a tick-transmitted spirochete, typically begins with a unique skin lesion, erythema chronicum migrans. of 314 patients with this skin lesion, almost half developed multiple annular secondary lesions; some patients had evanescent red blotches or circles, malar or urticarial rash, conjunctivitis, periorbital edema, or diffuse erythema. skin manifestations were often accompanied by malaise and fatigue, headache, fever and chills, generalized achiness, and regional lymphadeno ...19836859726
ticks and lyme disease in the united states. 19836859709
treatment of the early manifestations of lyme disease.during 1980 and 1981, we compared antibiotic regimens in 108 adult patients with early lyme disease. erythema chronicum migrans and its associated symptoms resolved faster in penicillin- or tetracycline-treated patients than in those given erythromycin (mean duration, 5.4 and 5.7 versus 9.2 days, f = 3.38, p less than 0.05). none of 39 patients given tetracycline developed major late complications (meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, or recurrent attacks of arthritis) compared with 3 of 40 penicil ...19836407378
was it lyme disease? 19836880371
lyme disease in north carolina.we report two cases of lyme disease in north carolina, further expanding the distribution of known sporadic cases of this predominantly northeastern problem in southern states. physicians in areas where lyme disease has traditionally not been recognized should be alerted to its characteristic rash (erythema chronicum migrans), tick vector (ixodes species), possible severe manifestations (neurologic, arthritic, and cardiac), and response to appropriate antibiotic therapy (penicillin or tetracycli ...19836857306
lyme disease: a new entity. 19836573608
simultaneous occurrence of babesiosis and lyme disease. 19836682178
lyme disease is a spirochetosis. a review of the disease and evidence for its cause.fourteen patients with lyme disease showed typical clinical features of erythema chronicum migrans. eighteen biopsy specimens in all were obtained from the cutaneous lesions of these patients. the predominant histologic finding was a superficial and deep perivascular and interstitial infiltrate composed mostly of lymphocytes, or lymphocytes and either plasma cells and eosinophils or both. the plasma cells were found most frequently in biopsy specimens taken from the peripheries of the lesions, w ...19836410931
lyme disease--success for academia and the community. 19836828125
spirochetes isolated from the blood of two patients with lyme disease.we isolated spirochetes from the blood of 2 of 36 patients in long island and westchester county, new york, who had signs and symptoms suggestive of lyme disease. the spirochetes were morphologically similar and serologically identical to organisms recently found to infect lxodes dammini ticks, which are endemic to the area and have been epidemiologically implicated as vectors of lyme disease. in both patients, there was a rise in specific antispirochetal antibodies in paired specimens of serum. ...19836828119
the spirochetal etiology of lyme disease.we recovered a newly recognized spirochete from the blood, skin lesions (erythema chronicum migrans [ecm]), or cerebrospinal fluid of 3 of 56 patients with lyme disease and from 21 of 110 nymphal or adult lxodes dammini ticks in connecticut. these isolates and the original one from l. dammini appeared to have the same morphologic and immunologic features. in patients, specific igm antibody titers usually reached a peak between the third and sixth week after the onset of disease; specific igg ant ...19836828118
lyme disease: a selective medium for isolation of the suspected etiological agent, a spirochete.a simple procedure with a new selective culture medium for the isolation of the suspected etiological agent of lyme disease from ticks is described. live ticks (ixodes dammini) were ground with a mortar and pestle, and the suspensions were inoculated into a selective and nonselective medium. the selective medium, which contained kanamycin and 5-fluorouracil, yielded positive spirochete cultures from 100% of the pooled ticks and from 79% of the single tick specimens. the isolation rate for the no ...19846361065
[spirochete etiology of erythema chronicum migrans disease].from ticks of the type ixodes ricinus, 19 strains of a spirochete were isolated at three places of infection of erythema chronicum migrans disease. the spirochete was immunologically related to borrelia duttoni, treponema pallidum and ixodes dammini spirochete, the causative organism of north american erythema chronicum migrans disease (lyme disease). the isolated spirochete differed from the north american one in its reaction with monoclonal antibodies and possibly in its electronmicroscopic st ...19846363033
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay for lyme disease.the sensitivity and specificity of an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and elisa for lyme disease were estimated. sera from patients with lyme disease, patients with other infections, and healthy individuals were examined. significant cross-reactivity occurred only with sera from patients with syphilis, yaws, and pinta . all tested sera from patients with lyme disease, however, gave negative results in the rapid reagin screening test and the microhemagglutination assay for antibodies to t ...19846371156
antibody response in lyme disease: evaluation of diagnostic tests.the antibody response to the ixodes dammini spirochete was determined in 41 serial serum samples from 12 patients with lyme disease. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), 11 of the 12 patients had higher titers of specific igm antibody (greater than 1:200) during early disease than did 40 control subjects. specific igm antibody titers, which correlated with total amounts of igm antibody (p less than .001), sometimes remained elevated throughout the illness. during neuritis, nine of 10 pa ...19846373966
comparison of an indirect fluorescent-antibody test with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological studies of lyme enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was compared with an indirect fluorescent antibody test for its ability to detect antibodies to the lyme disease spirochete in sera of naturally infected humans, dogs, and white-footed mice and experimentally infected swiss mice. ninety-five percent of the total 123 sera analyzed reacted similarly in both tests. for 36 human sera, the correlation coefficient (r = 0.47) for logarithmic transformations of indirect fluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunoso ...19846386843
interactions of phagocytes with the lyme disease spirochete: role of the fc receptor.the phagocytic capacity of murine and human mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes (including peripheral blood monocytes and neutrophils), rabbit and murine peritoneal exudate cells, and the murine macrophage cell line p388d1 against the lyme disease spirochete was studied. all of these cells were capable of phagocytosing the spirochete; phagocytosis was measured by the uptake of radiolabeled spirochetes, the appearance of immunofluorescent bodies in phagocytic cells, and electron microsco ...19846386995
taxonomy of the lyme disease spirochetes.morphology, physiology, and dna nucleotide composition of lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia, treponema, and leptospira were compared. morphologically, lyme disease spirochetes resemble borrelia. they lack cytoplasmic tubules present in treponema, and have more than one periplasmic flagellum per cell end and lack the tight coiling which are characteristic of leptospira. lyme disease spirochetes are also similar to borrelia in being microaerophilic, catalase-negative bacteria. they utilize carboh ...19846393605
the antibody response in lyme disease.we determined the antibody response against the ixodes dammini spirochete in lyme disease patients by indirect immunofluorescence and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the specific igm response became maximal three to six weeks after disease onset, and then declined, although titers sometimes remained elevated during later disease. specific igm levels correlated directly with total serum igm. the specific igg response, often delayed initially, was nearly always present during neuriti ...19846393607
phagocytic cell responses to in vivo and in vitro exposure to the lyme disease experimental skin lesion induced in rabbits by the bite of infected adult ixodes dammini showed dense dermal interstitial inflammatory cell infiltrates composed of mononuclear cells (histiocytes and lymphocytes) and granulocytes. the prevalence of phagocytic cells in this experimental lesion motivated a study on the interactions of macrophages and neutrophils with lyme disease spirochetes. interactions as measured by uptake of radiolabeled spirochetes and by indirect immunofluorescence were e ...19846393611
the new zealand white rabbit: an experimental host for infecting ticks with lyme disease spirochetes.efficiency of the new zealand white rabbit as a host for infecting larval ixodes dammini, i. pacificus, and i. ricinus with lyme disease spirochetes was evaluated. rabbits inoculated with infected midgut suspensions of i. dammini from shelter island, new york, or fed upon by infected ticks from the same area, responded with spirochetemias of sufficient concentrations to infect as many as 30 percent of the ticks. when infected ticks were used as indicators, it appeared that spirochetemias persist ...19846393612
infection in rabbits with the lyme disease spirochete.of 33 rabbits inoculated with lyme disease spirochetes, two developed erythema chronicum migrans at the site of inoculation. spirochetes were seen in skin biopsies of one of the lesions with immunoperoxidase and warthin-starry stains. spirochetes were also recovered from the blood of two additional rabbits two weeks post-inoculation. these findings are characteristic of early lyme disease in humans.19846393613
lyme disease in minnesota: epidemiologic and serologic findings.during the four years, 1980 to 1983, 83 minnesota residents have been diagnosed with lyme disease. sixty-five of the patients were male. the median age of patients was 39 years with a range from one to 77 years. seventy-five (90 percent) had onset in 1982 and 1983. of these latter cases, 56 (75 percent) recalled a tick bite three to 27 days prior to the development of erythema chronicum migrans. patients experienced possible exposure to ixodes dammini in at least 24 (28 percent) of the 87 minnes ...19846393615
lyme disease: a review. 19846394029
[lyme disease--another tick-borne disease in austria].infection with tick-borne spirochetes (e.g. borrelia burgdorferi) may lead to the development of erythema chronicum migrans, acrodermatitis atrophicans, meningopolyneuritis bannwarth, and a special type of reactive arthritis named lyme disease after the american endemic area. since these diseases occur also in austria, their clinical features are described in this review; a clear distinction must be made between the neurological manifestation of lyme disease and those of tick-bite mediated early ...19846396970
erythema chronicum migrans of lyme disease.erythema chronicum migrans (ecm) is the distinctive cutaneous lesion of the multisystem tick-borne spirochetosis, lyme disease. its clinical and histologic pictures are variable. of the 51 patients with ecm of lyme disease, 38 patients (75%) had single lesions, 13 patients (25%) had multiple lesions, and 32 patients (62%) had extracutaneous signs and symptoms. only 15 patients (29%) had symptoms referable to ecm. extracutaneous signs and symptoms were absent in 12 (80%) of the 15 patients. these ...19846465906
thirteen british cases of erythema chronicum migrans, a spirochaetal disease.thirteen british cases of erythema chronicum migrans are reported. an antibody to the lyme disease spirochaete was found in three of five recent cases, but lyme disease was not seen. the distribution and life cycle of the tick ixodes ricinus is described and related to the occurrence of erythema chronicum migrans in great britain.19846477830
experimental lyme disease in rabbits: spirochetes found in erythema migrans and attempts to produce experimental lyme disease, 33 rabbits were inoculated with lyme spirochetes by tick feeding or from tick organ homogenates or cultures. two rabbits developed erythema chronicum migrans at the site of inoculation, in one instance 2 days after injection of a tick organ homogenate and in the other instance, 17 days after feeding of infected ixodes dammini ticks. spirochetes were seen in skin biopsy specimens of the second lesion with warthin-starry and immunoperoxidase stains ...19846480108
update: lyme disease--united states. 19846480956
the spirochetal etiology of lymphocytic meningoradiculitis of bannwarth (bannwarth's syndrome).in all the sera of four patients with meningoradiculitis of bannwarth admitted to the neurological department of the university clinic grosshadern in munich in 1983, we found antibodies against ixodes dammini spirochetes. in three patients antibodies were also present in the csf. in one patient, we isolated spirochetes from the csf and demonstrated specific igg antibodies in serum and csf. this spirochete was morphologically indistinguishable from the i. dammini spirochete and a spirochete isola ...19846481420
genetic relationship of lyme disease spirochetes to borrelia, treponema, and leptospira spp.genetic studies were performed on the following spirochetes: three lyme disease spirochetes isolated from ixodes ticks and from human spinal fluid; three species of north american borreliae; four species of treponema; and two species of leptospira. the mol% g+c values for lyme disease spirochetes were 27.3 to 30.5%, similar to values of 28.0 to 30.5% for borrelia species but different from the values of leptospira or treponema species which ranged from 35.3 to 53%. lyme disease spirochetes repre ...19846490811
dna characterization of the spirochete that causes lyme disease.lyme disease, a tick-borne disease long recognized in europe but only recently recognized in the united states, was shown in 1982-1983 to be caused by a spirochete, the lyme disease spirochete. whether one or more species of the spirochete exists is unknown, as is its taxonomic status. to answer these questions, we determined (i) the dna base (guanidine-plus-cytosine) content for five strains; (ii) the dna relatedness of 10 strains from europe or the united states (isolated from ticks, humans, a ...19846490812
experimental transmission of the lyme disease spirochete to rabbits. 19846491385
[cardiac manifestations of lyme disease. apropos of 2 cases].lyme disease, a well-known entity in the united states, has featured only rarely in the french literature. we report two cases from the cardiology department with acute symptomatic atrio-ventricular block. the illness begins with migratory chronic erythema, which is the best marker of the condition. this is followed by neurological, joint and cardiac manifestations. cardiac involvement consists essentially in a-v block of varying severity, which rapidly regresses. until the recent discovery of t ...19846497303
human phagocyte interactions with the lyme disease spirochete.the interaction between human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes and the lyme disease spirochete was investigated by incubating phagocytes with microorganisms adherent to plastic or glass surfaces. both cell populations readily phagocytized and killed spirochetes, and antibodies facilitated but were not essential for phagocytosis.19846500703
lyme disease: a unique human model for an infectious etiology of rheumatic disease.lyme disease is a complex immune-mediated multi-system disorder that is infectious in origin and inflammatory or "rheumatic" in expression. through its epidemiologic characteristics, large numbers of a seasonally synchronized patient population are readily available for prospective study. lyme disease has a known clinical onset ("zero time"), marked by the characteristic expanding skin lesion, erythema chronicum migrans, and a clearly defined pre-articular phase. at least some manifestations of ...19846516449
chronic meningitis and lyme disease in sweden.we studied 35 patients with chronic meningitis. the neurological abnormalities included aseptic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (mostly facial palsy), motor and sensory peripheral radiculoneuropathy, and myelitis. neurological symptoms were sometimes preceded by erythema chronicum migrans or an insect bite and were often accompanied by fever, malaise, profound fatigue, and weight loss. the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) abnormalities consisted of a predominantly mononuclear pleocytosis, an elevated cs ...19846516451
vectorial capacity of north american ixodes ticks.ixodes dammini, the vector of lyme disease and babesiosis, is distributed in various locations in the northeastern quadrant of the united states and nearby canada. the life cycle of this tick, which includes larval, nymphal, and adult stages, spans at least two years. the tick over-winters between larval and nymphal feeding. horizontal transmission of pathogens is facilitated by a feeding pattern in which both the larval and nymphal stages feed on the white-footed mouse, peromyscus leucopus, and ...19846516453
discovery of the lyme disease spirochete and its relation to tick vectors.the various hypotheses concerning the etiologic agent of erythema chronicum migrans of europe and of lyme disease in the united states are reviewed, and an account of events that led to the discovery of the causative spirochetal agent in ixodes dammini is presented. spirochetes morphologically and antigenically similar, if not identical to, the organism detected in i. dammini were also found for the first time in ixodes pacificus and ixodes ricinus, the vectors hitherto incriminated, respectivel ...19846516454
dna characterization of lyme disease spirochetes.lyme disease spirochetes (lds) have phenotypic characteristics of both treponemes and borreliae. to ascertain whether one or more species of lds exist, as well as their taxonomic status, we determined the dna base (g + c) content for three strains of lds, the dna relatedness of ten strains isolated in the united states or europe, and the dna relatedness of lds to other spirochetes. the g + c content of the three lds strains was 28.1-29.0 mol%, most similar to those of borellia hermsii (30.6 mol ...19846516455
susceptibility of the lyme disease spirochete to seven antimicrobial agents.the antimicrobial susceptibility of five lyme disease spirochete strains (two human and three tick isolates) was determined. a macrodilution broth technique was used to determine on three separate test occasions the minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) of seven antibiotics. the lyme disease spirochete was most susceptible to erythromycin with a mic of less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml. the spirochete was also found to be susceptible to minocycline, ampicillin, doxycycline, and tetracy ...19846516457
the global distribution of lyme disease.following the original description of erythema chronicum migrans (ecm) in sweden in 1909, ecm became widely recognized in europe. the first reported case of ecm acquired in the united states occurred in 1969, and in 1975 the full symptom complex now known as lyme disease was recognized. in 1981, cases of lyme disease were recognized in yet a third continent, australia and, to date, cases acquired in at least 19 countries have been reported. beginning with the original case reported in sweden, cl ...19846516458
geographic distribution of humans, raccoons, and white-footed mice with antibodies to lyme disease spirochetes in indirect immunofluorescence test was used during 1982-1983 to identify antibodies to lyme disease spirochetes in humans, white-footed mice, and raccoons. serologic tests detected igm or total ig antibodies in serum samples from 67 persons. onset of illness, as marked by erythema chronicum migrans (ecm), occurred mainly during july and august. the majority of the persons with lyme disease lived in south central and southeastern connecticut. analyses also verified prior spirochetal infections i ...19846516459
avian and mammalian hosts for spirochete-infected ticks and insects in a lyme disease focus in connecticut.spirochetes and their vectors and reservoirs were studied in a lyme disease focus in east haddam, connecticut, from mid-may through september 1983. ixodes dammini subadults were comparable in number on white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) (means = 2.9 +/- 3.6 sd) to those on 27 different species of birds (means = 2.3 +/- 4.2 sd) representing 11 families within the order passeriformes. less commonly found ticks on birds (means less than or equal to 0.1) were immature ixodes dentatus and haemap ...19846516460
prevalence of the lyme disease spirochete in populations of white-tailed deer and white-footed mice.the prevalence of the ixodes dammini spirochete (ids) in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) was studied on the eastern end of long island, new york. both species commonly occur in a variety of habitats, are preferred hosts of ixodes dammini, and can harbor the spirochetes in the blood. each animal was examined for spirochetemia, tick infestation, and ids infection rates in the ticks that were removed from it. the results obtained suggest that i ...19846516461
[etiology of erythema migrans disease and lyme disease. review and results of personal study].erythema chronicum migrans (ecm), lymphadenosis cutis benigna and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) have been well known in europe for a long time as skin diseases induced by tickbites. earlier hints that these inflammatory dermatoses and associated disorders (erythema migrans disease) might be of spirochetal origin are now supported by the findings of several groups in the usa and europe. in the united states the endemic occurrence of a new inflammatory disease which seems to be closely ...19846519987
infection of syrian hamsters with lyme disease spirochetes.syrian hamsters were shown to be susceptible to infection by the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. although these spirochetes did not cause any outward signs of illness in these animals, they did cause a generalized infection. spirochetemia was present during the first 6 days of infection. at 14 days postinfection, spirochetes could be isolated from one or more of the following organs: spleen, eyes, kidneys, liver, testes, and brain. spirochetes were isolated from the eyes and kidney ...19846520220
[tick-borne spirochaetales infection of lyme (lyme disease)]. 19846533687
infections acquired in the fields and forests of the united states.sportsmen, backpackers, and outdoor workers may present with unusual infections acquired in the fields and forests of the united states. infections to be considered in such persons with a febrile illness include rocky mountain spotted fever, colorado spotted tick fever, babesiosis, borreliosis, and lyme disease. the differential diagnoses for clinical presentations of pulmonary and gastrointestinal disease are also discussed.19846549506
parasitism by ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) and antibodies to spirochetes in mammals at lyme disease foci in connecticut, usa. 19846694176
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