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development and utilization of complement-fixation and immune adherence tests for human hepatitis a virus and antibody.the reliable propagation of cr326 strain of human hepatitis a virus in saguinus mystax marmosets has permitted the development of specific serum neutralization, complement-fixation (cf), and immune adherence (ia) assays for hepatitis a antigen and antibody. the cf and ia assay were made possible by the use of livers of cr326-infected marmosets as a source of hepatitis a antigen. all assays were shown to be specific for hepatitis a. patients with hepatitis b did not show development of hepatitis ...197553013
specific immune adherence assay for human hepatitis a antibody application to diagnostic and epidemiologic investigations.a specific immune adherence (ia) test for hepatitis a antibody in human serum was described employing liver extract of marmosets infected with cr326 strain human hepatitis a virus. persons with hepatitis a, but not hepatitis b, developed hepatitis a ia antibody soon after onset of the acute illness and this persisted thereafter. there was very close agreement in the tests for human hepatitis a immune adherence, complement fixing (cf) and neutralizing antibodies. ia antibodies appeared to develop ...1975167376
immune adherence and complement-fixation tests for human hepatitis a. diagnostic and epidemiologic investigations.the reliable propagation of cr326 strain of human hepatitis a virus in saguinus mystax marmosets has permitted the development of specific serum neutralization, complement-fixation (cf), and immune adherence (ia) assays for hepatitis a antigen and antibody. the cf and ia assays were made possible by the use of livers of cr326-infected marmosets as a source of hepatitis a antigen. all assays were shown to be specific for hepatitis a. cases of hepatitis b did not show development of hepatitis a an ...1975173600
mutations within the 5' nontranslated region of hepatitis a virus rna which enhance replication in bs-c-1 cells.passage of human hepatitis a virus (hav) in cell culture results in attenuation of the virus as well as progressive increases in the efficiency of virus replication in cell culture. because the presence of identical mutations within the 5' nontranslated regions (5'ntrs) of several independently isolated cell culture-adapted hav variants suggests that the 5'ntr may play a role in determining this change in virus host range, we constructed chimeric infectious cdna clones in which portions of the 5 ...19921404601
simian hepatitis a virus (hav) strain agm-27: comparison of genome structure and growth in cell culture with other hav strains.fragments of cdna representing greater than 99% of the entire genome of wild-type hepatitis a virus (hav) strain agm-27, isolated from an african green monkey, were obtained by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. comparison with other hav isolates revealed differences in the predicted amino acid sequence in functionally critical parts of the genome. comparison of the biological properties of agm-27 with those of human wild-type and cell culture-adapted hm-175 strains revealed that agm-2 ...19911649901
variations in genome fragments coding for rna polymerase in human and simian hepatitis a viruses.the genome of hepatitis a virus (hav) isolated from spontaneously infected african vervet monkey (cercopithecus aethiops) has been cloned and partially sequenced. comparison of genome fragments (1248 and 162 bp) from the 3d (rna polymerase) region with the corresponding parts of human hav genomes revealed a high degree of heterogeneity: there were altogether 257 nucleotide changes leading to 44 substitutions in predicted amino acid sequence, i.e. 89% amino acid identity. this divergence is consi ...19892541023
studies of prototype live hepatitis a virus vaccines in primate models.we have prepared two prototype live hepatitis a virus (hav) vaccines by serial passage of the hm-175 strain of hav in african green monkey kidney cells. passage 21 (p-21) hm-175 virus shows evidence of attenuation for chimpanzees but not for marmosets; passage 32 (p-32) hm-175 virus shows evidence of attenuation for both species. animals that received p-32 hav had fewer elevations in levels of liver enzyme activity and evidence of less virus replication in the liver and excretion of virus in sto ...19882826614
[spontaneous hepatitis similar to hepatitis a in african green monkeys].circulation of a virus similar to human hepatitis a virus by antigenic and some other properties was observed among african green monkeys imported from their natural habitats. in some of the monkeys this virus caused a disease similar to hepatitis a in many features.19872833034
persistently infected cultures as a source of hepatitis a virus.primary african green monkey kidney, continuous african green monkey kidney cell line bs-c-1, and buffalo green monkey kidney cultures were infected with a uniform inoculum of hepatitis a virus (hav). although both the cell line bs-c-1 and primary african green monkey kidney cultures produced useful amounts of virus, hav was detected earlier and in greater quantities in primary african green monkey kidney cultures. a persistently infected primary african green monkey kidney culture was developed ...19852988436
isolation and adaptation characteristics of hepatitis a virus in primary african green monkey kidney cells: production of antigen useful for elisa serology.four strains of hepatitis a virus (hav) were isolated from four fecal samples of patients with type a hepatitis by using primary african green monkey kidney (pagmk) cells or frhk-4 cells. in all four samples viral antigen became detectable in pagmk cells at the 3rd passage level after 9 weeks of incubation; detectable levels of antigen were reached earlier in frhk-4 cells. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to detect hav antigen (hav-ag). blocking experiments with negative and ...19852997078
spontaneous and experimental hepatitis a in old world monkeys.virologic, serologic, biochemical, and morphological data characterizing spontaneous hepatitis a (ha) in cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis) and green monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops) are reported. experimental ha was induced in macaques as a result of infection with human hepatitis a virus (hav-h). disease similar to human ha was induced in cynomolgus macaques by hav isolates from spontaneously sick rhesus (m. mulatta) and green monkeys. this experimental model of ha in macaques can be us ...19883193448
propagation of human hepatitis a virus in african green monkey kidney cell culture: primary isolation and serial passage.human hepatitis a virus (hav) was propagated in primary african green monkey (cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (agmk) cell cultures. three strains of hav were used: ms-1, sd-11, and hm-175. cells were inoculated with marmoset-passaged material or human clinical specimens and were stained by direct immunofluorescence to establish the identity of the virus. both clinical samples and marmoset-passaged material produced immunofluorescence. hav antigen was found scattered throughout the cytoplasm of in ...19816260685
[experimental models of hepatitis a in macaques using viral strains isolated from man and monkeys].experimental hepatitis a (ha) models were obtained in macaca monkeys (15 m. fascicularis and 4 m. mulatta) by means of the strains of hepatitis a virus (hav) isolated from the feces of a patient (hav-h) and of spontaneously infected m. mulatta (hav-mm) and green monkeys cercopithecus aethiops (hav-ca). irrespective of the strains used all seronegative macaca monkeys developed ha after intravenous-oral inoculation with the following patterns: elevation of the serum alanine aminotransferase level, ...19948087252
mutations within the 5' nontranslated rna of cell culture-adapted hepatitis a virus which enhance cap-independent translation in cultured african green monkey kidney cells.mutations in the 5' nontranslated rna (5'ntr) of an attenuated, cell culture-adapted hepatitis a virus (hav), hm175/p16, enhance growth in cultured african green monkey kidney (bs-c-1) cells but not in fetal rhesus monkey kidney (frhk-4) cells (s. p. day, p. murphy, e. a. brown, and s. m. lemon, j. virol. 66: 6533-6540, 1992). to determine whether these mutations enhance cap-independent translation directed by the hav internal ribosomal entry site (ires), we compared the translational activities ...19968551562
a simian strain of hepatitis a virus, agm-27, functions as an attenuated vaccine for chimpanzees.the agm-27 strain of hepatitis a virus (hav) was originally isolated from an african green monkey with hepatitis and appears to represent a true simian strain. the virus caused acute hepatitis after intravenous inoculation into african green monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and marmosets. cynomolgus monkeys inoculated with the virus did not develop hepatitis, probably because of prior exposure to hav. chimpanzees inoculated with a high dose of the virus did not develop signs of hepatitis, although the v ...19968627022
specific interaction of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase with the 5'-nontranslated rna of hepatitis a virus.initiation of translation of hepatitis a virus (hav) rna occurs by internal entry and is likely to involve the interaction of trans-acting cellular protein factors with cis-acting structural elements of an internal ribosomal entry segment (ires) within the 5'-nontranslated rna. to characterize interactions between african green monkey kidney (bs-c-1) cell proteins and the predicted stem-loop iiia (nucleotides 155-235) located at the 5' border of the hav ires, we utilized an electrophoresis mobil ...19968662893
identification of a surface glycoprotein on african green monkey kidney cells as a receptor for hepatitis a virus.very little is known about the mechanism of cell entry of hepatitis a virus (hav), and the identification of cellular receptors for this picornavirus has been elusive. here we describe the molecular cloning of a cellular receptor for hav using protective monoclonal antibodies raised against susceptible african green monkey kidney (agmk) cells as probes. monoclonal antibodies 190/4, 235/4 and 263/6, which reacted against similar epitopes, specifically protected agmk cells against hav infection by ...19968861957
[preparation and characteristics of cultured strains of hepatitis a virus from humans and monkeys].cultural strains of hepatitis a virus (hav) have been isolated from spontaneously infected macaca mulatta (hav-mm), papio hamadryas (hav-ph), african green monkeys cercopithecus aethiops (hav-ca), and patients (hav-h). the strains replicate in continuous cells lines agmk, 4647, vero, and frhk-4. agmk and 4647 cells are the most permissive at 32 degrees c. virus propagation was not associated with the cytopathic effect and could be detected by enzyme immunoassay (eia), immune electron microscopy ...19979182400
[an experimental study of immunity to hepatitis a in monkeys].in this work the experimental model of hepatitis a on monkeys, adequate to human hepatitis a, was used. ten monkeys (6 macaca mulatta and 4 cercopithecus aethiops) were reinfected with different doses of hepatitis a virus (hav) a year after recovery from spontaneous and experimental hepatitis a. the monkeys were completely resistant to the inoculation of the virus in moderate doses (10(3) id50). the inoculation of hav in large doses (10(4)-10(5) id50) induced a mild form of this infection in the ...19959381880
polymorphisms of the hepatitis a virus cellular receptor 1 in african green monkey kidney cells result in antigenic variants that do not react with protective monoclonal antibody 190/4.monoclonal antibody (mab) 190/4 blocks binding of hepatitis a virus (hav) to the hav cellular receptor 1 (havcr-1) and protects african green monkey kidney (agmk) clone gl37 cells (gl37 cells) against hav infection. bs-c-1 and cv-1 cells, two widely used agmk cell lines, did not react with mab 190/4 but expressed havcr-1, as judged by western blot analysis. the cdna coding for havcr-1 was amplified from bs-c-1 and cv-1 total cellular rna by reverse transcription-pcr. alignment of the amino acid ...19989621093
the human homolog of havcr-1 codes for a hepatitis a virus cellular receptor.the hepatitis a virus cellular receptor 1 (havcr-1) cdna was isolated from a cdna expression library of african green monkey kidney (agmk) cells by using protective monoclonal antibody (mab) 190/4, which blocks the binding of hepatitis a virus (hav) to agmk cells. the havcr-1 cdna codes for havcr-1, a 451-amino-acid class i integral-membrane mucin-like glycoprotein of unknown natural function. to determine the existence of a human homolog(s) of havcr-1 (huhavcr-1), we used havcr-1-specific prime ...19989658108
hepatitis a virus translation is rate-limiting for virus replication in mrc-5 cells.translation of hepatitis a virus (hav) rna is controlled by an internal ribosome entry site (ires) located within the 5' untranslated region (utr). in some cell types, the characteristically slow growth of hav may be due to inefficient viral translation. we investigated whether this is true in mrc-5 cells, which are used for vaccine production. we measured the impact of two clusters of mutations in the 5' utr on virus translation and replication: the ag group was selected during passage in afric ...19999986793
functional significance of the interaction of hepatitis a virus rna with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh): opposing effects of gapdh and polypyrimidine tract binding protein on internal ribosome entry site function.glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh), a cellular enzyme involved in glycolysis, binds specifically to several viral rnas, but the functional significance of this interaction is uncertain. both gapdh and polypyrimidine tract binding protein (ptb) bind to overlapping sites in stem-loop iiia of the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of hepatitis a virus (hav), a picornavirus. since the binding of gapdh destabilizes the rna secondary structure, we reasoned that gapdh may suppress the ab ...200010864658
neutralization of hepatitis a virus (hav) by an immunoadhesin containing the cysteine-rich region of hav cellular receptor-1.hepatitis a virus (hav) infects african green monkey kidney (agmk) cells via the hav cellular receptor-1 (havcr-1), a mucin-like type 1 integral-membrane glycoprotein of unknown natural function. the ectodomain of havcr-1 contains an n-terminal immunoglobulin-like cysteine-rich region (d1), which binds protective monoclonal antibody (mab) 190/4, followed by an o-glycosylated mucin-like threonine-serine-proline-rich region that extends d1 well above the cell surface. to study the interaction of h ...200111134285
alteration of hepatitis a virus (hav) particles by a soluble form of hav cellular receptor 1 containing the immunoglobin-and mucin-like regions.hepatitis a virus (hav) infects african green monkey kidney cells via hav cellular receptor 1 (havcr-1). the ectodomain of havcr-1 contains an n-terminal cysteine-rich immunoglobin-like region (d1), followed by a mucin-like region that extends d1 well above the cell surface. d1 is required for binding of hav, and a soluble construct containing d1 fused to the hinge and fc portions of human immunoglobin g1 (igg1), d1-fc, bound and neutralized hav inefficiently. however, d1-fc did not alter the vi ...200312901378
hepatitis a virus receptor blocks cell differentiation and is overexpressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis and progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccrcc) are not well understood. we aimed to identify new molecular markers to provide insight into these processes.200415086915
simian hepatitis a virus derived from a captive rhesus monkey in india is similar to the strain isolated from wild african green monkeys in kenya.summary: a simian hepatitis a virus (hav) was identified retrospectively in a faecal sample from a rhesus monkey in india, inoculated in 1995 with a faecal suspension from a suspected patient of non-a to e hepatitis. the monkey was in captivity for 2 years in one of the experimental primate facilities in western india before being moved to the national institute of virology, pune for experimentation. phylogenetic analysis based on a partial sequence of the 5' noncoding region placed this virus i ...200919175880
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