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studies on the polypeptides of varicella-zoster (v-z) virus. 1. detection of varicella-zoster virus polypeptides in infected cells.virus-induced polypeptides in cells infected with varicella-zoster virus (vzv) were analyzed by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and autoradiography. when human embryonic lung (hel) cells infected with the oka strain of vzv were labelled with 35s-methionine or 14c-glucosamine from 40 hr to 46 hr after infection, at least 18 vzv-induced polypeptides and 10 glycoproteins could be identified in the infected cells. the molecular weights of the polypeptides and glycoproteins ranged ...1979231438
the immediate early proteins of varicella-zoster virus.stable, relatively high-titer varicella-zoster virus (vzv) stocks as well as a high-titer anti-vzv serum prepared in inbred guinea pigs have allowed the identification of vzv immediate early proteins using the classic inhibitor approach. vzv infection was initiated in the presence of cycloheximide. following the removal of cycloheximide, actinomycin d and radiolabel were added. after the labeling period, extracts were immunoprecipitated with anti-vzv guinea pig serum and subjected to polyacrylam ...19873027986
attenuation and laboratory markers of the oka-strain varicella-zoster virus.a live varicella vaccine was developed by serial passages of the oka-strain varicella-zoster virus (vzv), isolated in our laboratory, in human embryonic lung cells and guinea-pig embryonic fibroblasts (gpef). it is slightly temperature sensitive at 39 degrees c and shows a higher ratio of infectivity in gpef to that in human embryonic fibroblasts (huef) than wild-type strains, indicating that it is a variant in thermosensitivity and host dependency. a dna digest with the hpai enzyme of the oka s ...19853014476
specificity of skin test with varicella-zoster virus antigen in varicella-zoster and herpes simplex virus infections.specificity of the skin test with varicella-zoster virus (vzv) antigen was examined in guinea pigs infected with herpes simplex virus (hsv) type 1 or vzv and in children with a history of hsv infection who developed varicella. infected guinea pigs responded positively only to homologous virus. no cross-reaction between hsv and vzv was detected in the skin test, as well as in the neutralization test in infected guinea pigs, suggesting that the vzv skin test is specific for immunity to vzv infecti ...19872826535
ocular varicella-zoster virus infection in the guinea pig. a new in vivo model.corneal intrastromal inoculation of guinea pigs with approximately 10(4) plaque-forming units of live, adapted varicella-zoster virus (vzv) resulted in reproducible, acute, superficial corneal disease in all animals. the culture-positive vzv ocular infection progressed to involve 30% to 40% of the corneal surface in a diffuse punctate keratitis and 10% to 15% of this surface with microdendrites, characteristic of vzv-induced ocular disease. retrograde dissemination of vzv to the trigeminal gangl ...19892546523
investigation of varicella-zoster virus infection of lymphocytes by in situ hybridization.peripheral blood mononuclear cells harboring viral gene sequences were detected during primary varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infection of the human host and the strain 2 guinea pig by in situ hybridization with a 3h-labeled vzv dna probe. activated t lymphocytes were permissive for vzv infection at low frequency in vitro.19892539528
the growth of varicella-zoster virus in guinea pig embryo cells. 19734358892
development of immunogenic recombinant oka varicella vaccine expressing hepatitis b virus surface antigen.recombinant oka varicella vaccine expressing hepatitis b virus (hbv) surface antigen (hbs) was constructed by inserting the hbs gene into the viral thymidine kinase (tk) gene and was examined for its immunogenicity in guinea-pigs. the hbs gene encoding 25 amino acids of pres2 and the whole of the s region was inserted into the tk gene of the cloned plasmid. the chimeric plasmid dna and oka varicella vaccine dna were cotransfected and recombinant virus was isolated after immunofluorescence screen ...19911646279
major histocompatibility complex restriction of t-cell responses to varicella-zoster virus in guinea pigs.varicella-zoster virus (vzv), adapted to grow in guinea pig fibroblasts, was injected subcutaneously into hartley, strain 2, and strain 13 guinea pigs. serum immunoglobulin g antibodies were detected 2 weeks later, and t-cell proliferative responses by blood lymphocytes were found 3 weeks after injection. the proliferating cells bound the 155 antibody, which defines a cd4-like subset of guinea pig t lymphocytes. vzv-infected fibroblasts of human, hartley, and strain 13 origin elicited equivalent ...19911847466
animal models of varicella.varicella-zoster virus (vzv) is highly species-specific and has been demonstrated to naturally infect only humans and great apes. simian varicella, a group of antigenically related agents distinct from vzv, infects cercopithecoids producing severe varicella-like disease but does not infect humanoids. seroconversion following inoculation of vzv in small laboratory animals has been demonstrated in the rat, rabbit, and guinea pig; however, animal-to-animal spread, viremia, and exanthem have been de ...19921320650
infection of guinea-pig embryo cells with varicella-zoster virus.varicella-zoster (vz) virus has been shown to replicate in guinea-pig embryo (gpe) cells. when cell-free virus inocula were used, no infectious virus was liberated from these cells, either by freezing-thawing or ultrasonic disruption. however, cell-free virus was separated from gpe cells inoculated with infected human embryonic lung (hel) cells.1975172949
neutralizing antibody responses to varicella-zoster virus.neutralization of varicella-zoster (v-z) virus by human sera and immune rhesus monkey sera was enhanced by fresh guinea pig complement. there was no marked difference in the degree to which complement enhanced neutralization by sera from current v-z virus infections and sera from long-past varicella infections. immunoglobulin g neutralizing antibody in sera from varicella cases was enhanced by complement to a slightly higher degree than was immunoglobulin m (igm) antibody, and immunoglobulin g n ...1975170206
delayed-type hypersensitivity and in vitro lymphocyte response in guinea pigs immunized with a live varicella vaccine.the relation of delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) assessed by the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) skin test and lymphocyte transformation (ltf) with vzv antigen was investigated in guinea pigs immunized with live varicella vaccine virus, or heat-inactivated vaccine virus. guinea pigs immunized with live varicella vaccine virus showed positive dth and ltf responses to viral antigen as well as a neutralizing (nt) antibody response, while those immunized with heat-inactivated vaccine virus showed on ...19846091616
development and characterization of a live varicella vaccine (oka strain).a live varicella vaccine (oka strain) was developed by serial passage of the oka strain isolated in our laboratory, in human embryonic lung cells (11 times at 34 c) and guinea pig embryo cells (12 times at 37 c). it is slightly temperature sensitive at 39 c and shows a higher ratio of infectivity in guinea pig embryo cells to infectivity in human embryo cells than wild-type strains. the dna digest with hpa i enzyme of the oka strain contained one unique fragment (k), although its mobility differ ...19846100054
efficacy of 2'-nor-cyclicgmp in treatment of experimental herpes virus infections.9-[(2-hydroxy-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl)oxymethyl]guanine p-oxide (2'-nor-cgmp), the cyclic phosphate of 2'-nor-deoxyguanosine (2'-ndg) was synthesized by phosphorylation of 2'-ndg and evaluated for antiherpetic activity in cell cultures and in animal protection studies. 2'-nor-cgmp was effective in cell culture against both thymidine kinase deficient and wild-type herpes simplex virus type 1 strains and also against herpes simplex virus type 2. the anti-herpes activity of 2'-nor-cgmp against ...19863022643
humoral and cellular immunity to varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gpi and to a non-glycosylated protein, p170, in the strain 2 guinea-pig.strain 2 guinea-pigs were inoculated with infectious varicella-zoster virus (vzv) or with immunoaffinity-purified proteins of vzv. monoclonal antibodies to the vzv gpi (90,000/58,000 complex) and to a non-glycosylated protein, p170, were used to prepare the polypeptide antigens. humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the infectious virus were compared with those elicited by the gpi and p170 proteins. both vzv igg antibody production and t lymphocyte proliferation to vzv were detected afte ...19872821181
experimental infection of guinea pigs with varicella-zoster virus.weanling guinea pigs are susceptible to infection with varicella-zoster virus (vzv). animals inoculated intranasally or subcutaneously with vzv grown in fetal guinea pig tissue culture shed virus from the nasopharynx and seroconverted to vzv. viremia occurred in some animals. animal-to-animal transmission of vzv was observed. infection of weanling guinea pigs with vzv should allow assessment of the pathophysiology of viral infection in immunocompetent and specifically immunologically modified an ...19806255038
identification and structure of the gene encoding gpii, a major glycoprotein of varicella-zoster virus.the genome of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) encodes three major families of glycoproteins (gpi, gpii, and gpiii). mrna from vzv-infected cells was hybrid selected using a library of vzv recombinant plasmids and translated in vitro; polypeptide products were immunoprecipitated by polyclonal monospecific guinea pig antibodies to gpii. the mrna encoding a 100-kd polypeptide precipitable by anti-gpii antibodies mapped to the hindiii d fragment near the center of the ul region. dna sequence analysis o ...19863012867
cell-mediated immunity to varicella-zoster virus infection in strain 2 guinea pigs.young adult male strain 2 guinea pigs were inoculated intramuscularly with varicella-zoster virus (vzv) cultured in fetal guinea pig tissue cultures. lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin 2 secretion in response to viral antigen challenge in vitro were measured at weekly intervals for 2 months and periodically thereafter. vzv-specific immunity was apparent 2 weeks after infection, peaking after 2 weeks (lymphoproliferation) or 1-2 months (interleukin 2 secretion). diminished but significant a ...19872824676
immunogenic glycoproteins of laboratory and vaccine strains of varicella-zoster virus.high-titered antisera were prepared in guinea pigs and rabbits against two strains of varicella-zoster virus (vzv): vzv-32, a low-passage laboratory strain, and vzv-oka, a vaccine strain attenuated by passage in both human and guinea pig embryo cells. when the animal vzv-immune sera, as well as a human zoster serum, were used to precipitate radiolabeled glycoproteins from vzv-infected cells and the immune precipitates were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography, it was o ...19816262245
immunization of inbred guinea pigs with varicella-zoster virus grown in a syngeneic transformed embryo cell line.varicella-zoster virus was serially propagated in a chemically transformed and cloned line of embryo cells (designated "104 c1") derived from the inbred strain 2 guinea pig. when strain 2 guinea pigs were immunized with varicella-zoster virus subcultivated in the syngeneic cell line, they produced high-titer virus-specific antiserum which lacked antibody against cellular determinants. this immunization procedure offers both practical and theoretical advantages over prior methods which involved i ...19816268659
varicella-zoster virus infection of diploid and chemically transformed guinea-pig embryo cells: factors influencing virus replication.factors influencing the replication of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) in guinea-pig embryo cells were evaluated using both diploid cells (gpec) and a chemically transformed cell line (gpt). wild-type and vaccine strains of vzv were successfully isolated and serially propagated in gpec prepared from early gestation whole embryos (less than 2 cm in length). low passage gpec (less than or equal to 5 subcultivations) were more susceptible to vzv infection than high passage gpec (greater than 5 subcult ...19816270257
purification of individual varicella-zoster virus (vzv) glycoproteins gpi, gpii, and gpiii and their use in elisa for detection of vzv glycoprotein-specific antibodies.we have utilized monoclonal antibodies in immune affinity chromatography to purify each of the 3 major glycoproteins of varicella-zoster virus (vzv), gpi, gpii, and gpiii, in immunologically active form. upon injection into guinea pigs, each preparation elicited the production of specific antibodies capable of immunoprecipitating the homologous glycoprotein and of neutralizing vzv infectivity in vitro. also, total glycoproteins from vzv-infected cells have been purified by lectin affinity chroma ...19863021804
restriction endonuclease analysis of the dna from varicella-zoster virus: stability of the dna after passage in vitro.dna was extracted from nucleocapsids isolated from wi-38 cells infected with two different strains of varicella-zoster virus (vzv). the dnas were treated with each of six restriction endonucleases (ecori, hindiii, bg/i, bg/ii, sal i and bam-hi) and small, but reproducible differences in restriction endonuclease patterns were observed. these strains were passaged in wi-38 cells and in primary guinea-pig embryo (gpe) cells, followed by restriction endonuclease analysis of the dnas. no changes were ...19816271904
experimental infection and immune response of guinea pigs with varicella-zoster virus.an immune response (fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen) was detected in guinea pigs inoculated with varicella-zoster virus (vzv) adapted to guinea pig embryonic cells, including the oka vaccine strain, even when inoculation was by an external route, i.e., nasal or corneal. live or uv-inactivated virus having the same virus titer before irradiation was administered to guinea pigs by the corneal route, and antibody induction was detected only with live virus. the transmission of vzv from inf ...19826288560
[viral diseases of the outer eye--rapid diagnosis by immunohistochemistry].rapid diagnosis of viral diseases of the outer eye was attempted by means of immunohistochemical methods. specimens were obtained with a nitrocellulose membrane, used as a blotter of immunoblotting test. an impression of the corneal or conjunctival surface was obtained by anesthetizing the eye and lightly pressing the membrane against the tissues. in some cases, scraping materials were taken on a slide glass. viral antigens in the specimens were detected by peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) method ...19902278234
inoculation of guinea pigs with varicella-zoster virus via the respiratory route.guinea pigs were inoculated by the respiratory route with wild-type (cyr) or vaccine (oka) strain varicella zoster virus (vzv). wild-type cell-free virus obtained by sonication produced neutralizing antibody responses in steroid-treated animals when given via the intratracheal route, and induced neutralizing antibody as well as a pneumonitis in normal animals when given via the intrabronchial (i.b.) route. a humoral response also followed i.b. instillation of cell-associated wild-type or vaccine ...19863010908
drug testing for activity against varicella-zoster virus in hairless guinea pigs.inoculation of congenitally hairless guinea pigs with varicella-zoster virus (vzv) (oka strain) results in a self-limited exanthematous infection analogous to varicella in children. administration of acyclovir or 6-methoxypurine arabinoside modified the course of infection. this model should facilitate pre-clinical testing of putative anti-vzv agents.19911659314
biologic and immunologic characterization of the soluble skin-test antigen of varicella-zoster virus.a sensitive method for assay of the potency of the skin-test antigen of varicella-zoster virus was established. potency was determined by a reverse passive hemagglutination test, and the results correlated well with the cutaneous reaction of sensitized guinea pigs and an immune human adult to the antigen. cutaneous reactivity was not induced by repeated inoculation of the antigen, but humoral neutralizing antibody was detected in most guinea pigs when a large amount of antigen was used. no cutan ...19846327833
detection of varicella-zoster viral antigens in clinical specimens by solid-phase enzyme immunoassay.forty-two vesicular specimens from patients with a clinical diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infection were tested in a four-layer solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (eia) for vzv antigens. guinea pig and rabbit immunoglobulins to purified vzv nucleocapsids and a commercially obtained conjugate were used as immunoreagents. thirty-nine specimens were positive by eia, and the results were verified by a confirmatory test with normal guinea pig immunoglobulins as a first layer. none of 20 speci ...19846086769
immunity in strain 2 guinea-pigs inoculated with vaccinia virus recombinants expressing varicella-zoster virus glycoproteins i, iv, v or the protein product of the immediate early gene 62.the immunogenicity of specific varicella-zoster virus (vzv) proteins, with emphasis upon cell-mediated immune responses, was evaluated by immunizing strain 2 guinea-pigs with vaccinia virus recombinants that express gpi (vac-gpi), gpiv (vac-gpiv) and gpv (vac-gpv) or the ie-62 protein (vac-ie-62). vac-gpi elicited the highest initial mean t cell proliferation response [stimulation index (s.i.) 3.8 +/- 0.9 s.e.m.] whereas inoculation with vac-gpv produced the lowest primary t cell response (s.i. ...19921321876
expression in recombinant vaccinia virus of the equine herpesvirus 1 gene encoding glycoprotein gp13 and protection of immunized animals.the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gene encoding glycoprotein 13 (gp13) was cloned into the hemagglutinin (ha) locus of vaccinia virus (copenhagen strain). expression of the gp13 gene was driven by the early/late vaccinia virus h6 promoter. metabolically radiolabeled polypeptides of approximately 47 and 44 kilodaltons and 90 kilodaltons (glycosylated form) were precipitated with both polyclonal and gp13-specific monoclonal antibodies. presentation of gp13 on the cytoplasmic membrane of cells infec ...19892550665
varicella in hairless guinea pigs.a high proportion of depilated newborn or euthymic congenitally hairless adult guinea pigs develop an erythematous papular exanthem during infection with varicella-zoster virus (vzv) previously cultivated in guinea pig cell culture. virus has been demonstrated in tissues during varicella using polymerase chain reaction amplification and nucleic acid hybridization methods. the frequency of exanthem expression can be reduced by the prophylactic administration of vzv convalescent-phase guinea pig s ...19911849161
varicella-zoster virus infection of strain 2 guinea pigs.weanling strain 2 guinea pigs are susceptible to infection with varicella-zoster virus cultured in embryonic guinea pig tissue. animals inoculated by an intramuscular route develop mononuclear cell viremia that may persist for as long as three weeks. during the period of viremia, virus may be recovered from the nasopharynx and a variety of tissues. in addition, virus may be recovered from neural tissues in the absence of viremia, although infectious virus has not been cultivated from neural tiss ...19852981274
improved yields and assay of simian varicella virus, and a comparison of certain biological properties of simian and human varicella viruses.studies were performed to define conditions under which propagation, assay and stabilization of the delta herpesvirus (dhv) strain of simian varicella virus might be improved, and to compare biological properties of dhv with those of human varicella zoster virus (vzv). a mycoplasma contaminant was successfully eliminated from the dhv seed virus by treatment with a specific anti-serum. dhv was found to replicate more efficiently in the bs-c-1 line of african green monkey kidney cells than in vero ...19826296181
[recombinant oka varicella vaccine as a live hepatitis b virus vaccine].recombinant oka varicella-hepatitis b virus (hbv) vaccine was constructed by inserting the hbv surface antigen (hbsag) gene coding partial pres2 and whole s regions into the viral thymidine kinase gene. hbsag was expressed in the cytoplasm of infected cells. intracellular hbsag (26k and 30k) was n- and o-glycosylated, sialylated, and secreted into the supernatant as 30k and 35k hbsag particles. recombinant virus induced antibody response to both varicella-zoster virus and hbsag in guinea pigs an ...19938381884
immunization with recombinant varicella-zoster virus expressing herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein d reduces the severity of genital herpes in guinea pigs.varicella-zoster virus (vzv) is an attractive candidate for a live-virus vector for the delivery of foreign antigens. the oka vaccine strain of vzv is safe and effective in humans, and recombinant oka vzv (roka) can be generated by transfecting cells with a set of overlapping cosmid dnas. by this method, the herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) glycoprotein d (gd2) gene was inserted into an intergenic site in the unique short region of the oka vzv genome. expression of gd2 in cells infected with ...19957494331
varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein i is essential for growth of virus in vero cells.varicella-zoster virus (vzv) encodes at least six glycoproteins. glycoprotein i (gi), the product of open reading frame 67, is a 58- to 62-kda glycoprotein found in vzv-infected cells. we constructed two vzv gi deletion mutants. immunoprecipitation of vzv ge from infected cells indicated that cells infected with vzv deleted for gi expressed a ge that was larger (100 kda) than that expressed in cells infected with the parental virus (98 kda). cell-associated or cell-free vzv deleted for gi grew t ...19979261418
[virological and serological studies in herpes zoster]. 196414253193
mutagenesis of the varicella-zoster virus genome: lessons learned.the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) genome encodes at least 70 genes. we have developed a cosmid based system to inactivate individual viral genes or to insert foreign genes into the genome. we have shown that many vzv genes are not required for replication of the virus in cell culture. several of these genes, including vzv orf61, orf47, and orf10, have unexpected phenotypes in cell culture and differ from their homologs in the better studied herpes simplex virus (hsv). we have also used the oka st ...200111339555
mild reduction of generalized rash in guinea pigs experimentally infected with varicella zoster virus or herpes simplex virus type 1. 19957560465
[studies with the varicella-herpes zoster virus]. 196514272390
generation of a recombinant oka varicella vaccine expressing mumps virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein as a polyvalent live vaccine.we constructed a recombinant varicella-zoster virus (vzv) oka vaccine strain (voka) that contained the mumps virus (muv) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) gene, inserted into the site of the orf 13 gene by using the bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) system in escherichia coli. insertion of the hn gene into the vzv genome was confirmed by pcr and southern blot. the infectious virus reconstituted from the voka-hn genome (rvoka-hn) had a growth curve similar to the original recombinant voka with ...200718053621
chronic uveitis in guinea pigs infected with varicella-zoster virus expressing escherichia coli beta-galactosidase.there is no small animal model that replicates chickenpox and herpes zoster, which are caused by varicella-zoster virus (vzv). therefore, to detect vzv in tissues of infected animals, the escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene was inserted into the viral genome. intravitreal inoculation of guinea pigs with virus-infected cells resulted in a chronic uveitis, with mononuclear cells in the vitreous cavity of the eye of nearly all animals. staining with x-gal demonstrated the presence of vzv in th ...19989466514
immunogenicity of a recombinant varicella-zoster virus ge-ie63 fusion protein, a putative vaccine candidate against primary infection and zoster reactivation.the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) envelope glycoprotein e (ge) and immediate early protein 63 (ie63) are well known targets for specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses during vzv infection and latency, respectively. the present study evaluated the immunogenicity of an engineered chimeric recombinant ge-ie63 (recge-ie63) protein secreted from cho cells, wherein a soluble form of ge, deleted of its anchor and cytoplasmic domains was fused to ie63. guinea pig vaccinations with adjuvanted ...200211858867
recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoproteins e and i: immunologic responses and clearance of virus in a guinea pig model of chronic uveitis.guinea pigs immunized with recombinant varicella-zoster virus (vzv) glycoproteins e (ge) and i (gi) developed antigen-specific antibodies in the sera, vitreous, and conjunctival washes. sera from immunized animals neutralized both cell-free and cell-associated vzv, and peripheral blood lymphocytes proliferated in vitro in response to recombinant ge and gi and to antigens from vzv-infected cells. immunized guinea pigs were inoculated intravitreally with vzv, which induces chronic uveitis. vzv dna ...19989697709
use of a rodent model to show that varicella-zoster virus orf61 is dispensable for establishment of latency.varicella-zoster virus (vzv) results in a latent infection in humans after primary infection. latency has also been established in guinea pigs and rats after inoculation with the virus. it was found that infection of cotton rats with the oka vaccine strain of vzv results in a latent infection. to begin to identify which genes are required for latency, we infected cotton rats with vzv strain oka that is deleted for orf61. orf61 protein transactivates certain vzv promoters and enhances the infecti ...200312627493
nuclear import of the varicella-zoster virus latency-associated protein orf63 in primary neurons requires expression of the lytic protein orf61 and occurs in a proteasome-dependent manner.varicella-zoster virus (vzv) open reading frame (orf) 63 protein (orf63p) is one of six vzv orfs shown to be transcribed and translated in latently infected human dorsal root ganglia. orf63p accumulates exclusively in the cytoplasm of latently infected sensory neurons, whereas it is both nuclear and cytoplasmic during lytic infection and following reactivation from latency. here, we demonstrate that infection of primary guinea pig enteric neurons (en) with an adenovirus expressing orf63p results ...200818562514
a model of lytic, latent, and reactivating varicella-zoster virus infections in isolated enteric neurons.because human primary afferent neurons are not readily obtained, we sought to develop a model in which the lytic, latent, and reactivating phases of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infection were recapitulated in neurons from an animal source. enteric neurons were obtained from the small intestine of adult guinea pigs and from the bowel of fetal mice. latency was established when these neurons were infected by cell-free vzv in the absence of fibroblasts or other cells of mesodermal origin. in contr ...200818419411
vzv infection of keratinocytes: production of cell-free infectious virions in vivo.varicella-zoster virus (vzv) is the cause of varicella (chickenpox) and zoster (shingles). varicella is a primary infection that spreads rapidly in epidemics while zoster is a secondary infection that occurs sporadically as a result of the reactivation of previously acquired vzv. reactivation is made possible by the establishment of latency during the initial episode of varicella. the signature lesions of both varicella and zoster are cutaneous vesicles, which are filled with a clear fluid that ...201020225011
development of varicella vaccine.the oka strain of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) was first isolated from vesicles of an otherwise healthy 3-year-old boy with typical varicella. the virus was passaged 11 times in human embryonic lung fibroblasts at 34 degrees c and 12 times in guinea pig embryo fibroblasts (gpefs) at 37 degrees c. gpefs were the only nonprimate cells tested in which some degree of viral replication occurred. the resultant virus was temperature sensitive and showed host dependency, measured as better replication i ...200818419406
biologic and biophysical markers of a live varicella vaccine strain (oka): identification of clinical isolates from vaccine recipients.possible biologic and biophysical markers of the oka vaccine strain of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) were explored. the ratio between the infectivity of the vaccine strain in guinea-pig embryo fibroblasts and that in human embryo fibroblasts was consistently higher than the corresponding ratios for wild-type strains; this result seemed to correlate with the passage history of the vaccine strain in guinea-pig embryo fibroblasts. according to profiles of cleavage of digested dna by various restrict ...19846330239
development of a live varicella vaccine--past and future.background of the development of a live varicella vaccine, including studies on the attenuation of measles and polioviruses, and transformation experiments of cultured hamster and human cells with conditional lethal mutants of adenovirus and herpes simplex virus were described. varicella-zoster virus (oka strain) was passaged in guinea pig cells, and the resulting virus (vaccine virus) was found to have a higher affinity to guinea pig cells. it was recently proved that variations of base sequenc ...200010871914
varicella-zoster virus expressing hsv-2 glycoproteins b and d induces protection against hsv-2 challenge.a recombinant oka (roka) varicella-zoster virus (vzv) vaccine was constructed that expresses herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) glycoproteins b (gb) and d (gd). guinea pigs received one of four inocula: (a). uninfected cells, (b). recombinant oka vzv infected cells, (c). recombinant oka vzv expressing hsv-2 gb/gd (roka-gb2/gd2) infected cells, or (d) heat-inactivated roka-gb2/gd2 infected cells. only animals inoculated with roka-gb2/gd2 developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies to hsv-2. ...200415193381
novel immunogenicity of oka varicella vaccine vector expressing hepatitis b surface antigen.recombinant oka (roka) varicella vaccine expressing hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) and subunit hbsag vaccine (shv) were used as primary and booster hbsag vaccines in 3 combinations (shv-shv, shv-roka, and roka-shv) in guinea pigs. immune responses to hbsag and varicella-zoster virus ge:gi were evaluated. the 3 combinations induced similar levels of the lymphocyte proliferation response to hbsag. of the 3 combinations, shv-shv induced the strongest antibody response to an "a" loop of hbsag a ...200010720546
latent and lytic infection of isolated guinea pig enteric ganglia by varicella zoster virus.varicella zoster virus (vzv) has been demonstrated to infect guinea pig enteric neurons in vitro. latent infection of isolated enteric neurons is established when the cultures predominantly consist of neurons and they are exposed to cell-free vzv. neurons harboring latent infection survive for weeks in vitro and express mrna encoding orfs 4, 21, 29, 40, 62, and 63, but not 14(gc) or 68 (ge) (although dna encoding the glycoproteins is present). the expressed proteins are the same as those that ar ...200312627492
immunization with the immediate-early tegument protein (open reading frame 62) of varicella-zoster virus protects guinea pigs against virus challenge.the ie62 protein, the primary regulatory protein of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and the major component of the virion tegument, was an effective immunogen in the guinea pig model of vzv infection, whereas the orf 29 gene product, a nonstructural dna replication protein, did not elicit protection. all animals immunized with the orf 29 protein had cell-associated viremia compared with 2 of 11 guinea pigs given the ie62 protein (p = 0.005). vzv was detected in ganglia from 38% of the animals given ...19938230489
effect of asp2151, a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor, in a guinea pig model of genital herpes.asp2151 is a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor with antiviral activity against varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus types 1 (hsv-1) and 2 (hsv-2). here, we examined the potency and efficacy of asp2151 against hsv in vitro and in vivo. we found that asp2151 was more potent in inhibiting the replication of hsv-1 and hsv-2 in vero cells in the plaque reduction assay and had greater anti-hsv activity in a guinea pig model of genital herpes than did acyclovir and valacyclovir (vacv), ...201121869749
induction of neutralizing antibody and t-cell responses to varicella-zoster virus (vzv) using ty-virus-like particles carrying fragments of glycoprotein e (ge).during infection with varicella-zoster virus (vzv), the envelope proteins are highly immunogenic and glycoprotein e (ge) is one of the most abundant and antigenic. we have previously identified the immunodominant regions of ge and mapped the b-cell epitopes. in this study, we have evaluated the immunogenicity of recombinant hybrid ty-virus-like particles (vlps) carrying amino acids (1-134) or (101-161) of ge which contain the immunodominant sequences. vzv-specific antibodies were detected by eli ...19979178473
a varicella vaccine stable at 5 degrees c.varicella-zoster virus (vzv), which causes chicken pox and zoster, belongs to the herpes viridae family [1, 2]. the virus is strongly cell dependent and its in vitro stability is very low. following takahashi's work, we have developed and prepared a vaccine with the oka strain virus in the japanese stabilizer. to improve the stability of the virus in a freeze-dried form, we have finalized a new formulation of stabilizer, called v 15-1. this stabilizer is a protein-free solution with defined cont ...19968854014
comparison of virus transcription during lytic infection of the oka parental and vaccine strains of varicella-zoster virus.the attenuated oka vaccine (v-oka) strain of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) effectively reduces disease produced by primary infection and virus reactivation. v-oka was developed by propagation of the oka parental (p-oka) strain of vzv in guinea pig and human embryo fibroblasts. complete dna sequencing of both viruses has revealed 63 sites that differ between p-oka and v-oka, 37 of which are located within 21 unique open reading frames (orfs). of the orfs that differ, orf 62 contains the greatest n ...200616474115
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infects and establishes latency in enteric neurons.Case reports have linked varicella-zoster virus (VZV) to gastrointestinal disorders, including severe abdominal pain preceding fatal varicella and acute colonic pseudoobstruction (Ogilvie's syndrome). Because we had previously detected DNA and transcripts encoding latency-associated VZV gene products in the human gut, we sought to determine whether latent VZV is present in the human enteric nervous system (ENS) and, if so, to identify the cells in which it is located and its route to the bowel. ...201122190254
construction of oka varicella vaccine expressing human immunodeficiency virus env antigen.oka varicella vaccine has been used to confer active immunity to varicella-zoster virus (vzv) in healthy and immunocompromised hosts. based on its attenuated nature, oka varicella vaccine expressing human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) env antigen was constructed by inserting the hivenv gene into the viral genome and its immunogenicity was assessed in guinea pigs. the hivenv gene encoding 296-463 amino acids was inserted between the sequences of the hepatitis b surface antigen and the thymidine ki ...200111360239
the cellular localization pattern of varicella-zoster virus orf29p is influenced by proteasome-mediated degradation.varicella-zoster virus (vzv) open reading frame 29 (orf29) encodes a single-stranded dna binding protein. during lytic infection, orf29p is localized primarily to infected-cell nuclei, whereas during latency it appears in the cytoplasm of infected neurons. following reactivation, orf29p accumulates in the nucleus. in this report, we analyze the cellular localization patterns of orf29p during vzv infection and during autonomous expression. our results demonstrate that orf29p is excluded from the ...200616415026
immune response to varicella-zoster virus glycoproteins in guinea pigs infected with oka varicella vaccine.a varicella skin test antigen has been developed based on the induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity to varicella-zoster virus (vzv), and has been used to evaluate the immune status to vzv. the authors have purified gb, ge:gi and gh:gl and examined their cutaneous reactivity in guinea pigs infected with oka varicella vaccine. the cutaneous reaction to each glycoprotein was observed and the maturation process of cutaneous reaction was examined in infected guinea pigs. cutaneous reaction to gh ...19989682389
posttranslational modification and cell type-specific degradation of varicella-zoster virus orf29p.the orf29 gene of varicella-zoster virus encodes a single-stranded dna binding protein that is predominantly nuclear during lytic infection but appears to be restricted to the cytoplasm of latently infected neurons. following reactivation, orf29p accumulates in the nuclei of neurons, suggesting that its confinement to the cytosol may be critical for maintaining quiescence. when autonomously expressed, orf29p accumulates in the nuclei of fibroblasts and the cytoplasm of cells (guinea pig enteric ...200616956951
investigation of the pathogenesis of varicella-zoster virus infection in guinea pigs by using polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction method (pcr) was used to investigate events in the pathogenesis of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infection in strain 2, hartley, and euthymic hairless guinea pigs. vzv was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) obtained 2-5 days after infection in 8 (50%) of 16 strain 2, 4 (40%) of 10 hairless, and 10 (34%) of 29 hartley guinea pigs. the frequency of vzv-infected pbmc was estimated to be at least 1/200,000, which is comparable to that observed in human ...19938380293
combined use of complement and anti-immunoglobulin in an enhanced neutralization assay for antibodies to varicella-zoster virus.an enhanced neutralization assay was developed to permit the sensitive, specific, and reproducible measurement of antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (vzv). optimal neutralization was achieved using a combination of guinea pig complement (c') and rabbit anti-human igg. this provided 625-, 160- and 13- to 64-fold increases in dilution endpoints of human post-zoster serum, varicella-zoster immune globulin and representative sera from recipients of live attenuated varicella vaccine, respectively, ...19957673386
latency of varicella zoster virus in dorsal root, cranial, and enteric ganglia in vaccinated children.despite vaccination, varicella-zoster virus (vzv) remains an important pathogen. we investigated vzv latency in autopsy specimens from vaccinees, in gastrointestinal tissue removed surgically, and in a guinea pig model. we propose that retrograde transport from infected skin and viremia deliver vzv to neurons in which it becomes latent. wild type (wt) vzv was found to be latent in many ganglia of vaccinated children with no history of varicella, suggesting that subclinical infection with wt-vzv ...201223303966
latent herpesvirus infections of neurons in guinea pigs and humans.latent herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection of the trigeminal ganglion of guinea pigs and latent varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infection of the trigeminal ganglion of humans were studied by in situ nucleic acid hybridization. guinea pig trigeminal ganglia were removed during the period of viral latency (four to five weeks after corneal inoculation of hsv), and human ganglia were removed at autopsy. radiolabeled hsv and vzv dnas were used to probe ganglion tissue sections for viral-specified rna. ...19873495074
[detection of antibody to varicella zoster virus by immune adherence hemagglutination].anti varicella-zoster virus (vzv) antibodies were detected by an immune adherence hemagglutination (iaha) test, and were compared with the cf test, ifa test and elisa test, respectively. type o, rh-positive rbc for iaha was obtained from five healthy volunteers. all five rbcs had sufficient sensitivity as the indicator cell. optimum incubation temperature was 37 degrees c in the serum and in the complement. the complement was obtained from guinea pig sera, and the most suitable concentration was ...19938409581
immune response to vaccinia virus recombinants expressing glycoproteins ge, gb, gh, and gl of varicella-zoster virus.immunogenicity of varicella-zoster virus glycoproteins ge, gb, gh, and gl expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses (vv) separately or simultaneously was determined in mice and guinea pigs by elisa, western blotting, radioimmunoprecipitation, plaque reduction assay, and skin test. single vv-ge and vv-gb recombinants and double vv-gh/gl recombinant elicited specific antibodies with vzv neutralizing activity in mice. co-expression of ge and gb by one recombinant vv resulted in an increased antibod ...200111162835
the varicella-zoster virus orf54 gene product encodes the capsid portal protein, porf54.the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) orf54 gene was characterized using a guinea pig antiserum prepared to a gst-porf54 fusion protein. a protein of the predicted size, 87kda, was detected in vzv-infected mewo cells but not in mock-infected cells. sucrose density gradient fractionation of porf54 expressed in a recombinant baculovirus system resulted in samples containing enriched amounts of porf54. electron microscopic analysis suggested that the orf54 gene encodes a protein that assembles into ring ...201222475744
high-level cellular and humoral immune responses in guinea pigs immunized intradermally with a heat-inactivated varicella-zoster virus vaccine.the threat of varicella and herpes zoster in immunocompromised individuals necessitates the development of a safe and effective varicella-zoster virus (vzv) vaccine. the immune responses of guinea pigs to the intradermal (i.d.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of a heat-inactivated or live vzv vaccine were investigated. relative to nonimmunized animals, a single 399-pfu dose of vaccine induced nonsignificant increases in gamma interferon (ifn-γ), granzyme b, and perforin mrna expression in ...201525787138
infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells transmit latent varicella zoster virus infection to the guinea pig enteric nervous system.latent wild-type (wt) and vaccine (voka) varicella zoster virus (vzv) are found in the human enteric nervous system (ens). vzv also infects guinea pig enteric neurons in vitro, establishes latency and can be reactivated. we therefore determined whether lymphocytes infected in vitro with vzv secrete infectious virions and can transfer infection in vivo to the ens of recipient guinea pigs. t lymphocytes (cd3-immunoreactive) were preferentially infected following co-culture of guinea pig or human p ...201424965252
novel polyvalent live vaccine against varicella-zoster and mumps virus infections.the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) oka vaccine strain (voka) is a highly immunogenic and safe live vaccine that has long been used worldwide. because its genome is large, making it suitable for inserting foreign genes, voka is considered a candidate vector for novel polyvalent vaccines. previously, a recombinant voka, rvoka-hn, that expresses mumps virus (muv) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) was generated by the present team. rvoka-hn induces production of neutralizing antibodies against muv in g ...201323905963
a varicella-zoster virus mutant impaired for latency in rodents, but not impaired for replication in cell culture.while trying to generate a site-directed deletion in the orf63 latency-associated gene of varicella-zoster virus (vzv) oka, we constructed a virus with an unexpected rearrangement. the virus has a small deletion in both copies of orf63 and two copies of a cassette inserted between orfs 64/65 and 68/69 containing (a) truncated orf62, (b) orf63 with a small deletion, and (c) full-length orf64. the virus was not impaired for growth in human cells, induced higher levels of neutralizing antibodies in ...201020116820
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