evaluation of culicoides insignis (diptera: ceratopogonidae) as a vector of bluetongue virus.based upon epidemiological evidence, culicoides insignis lutz is a probable biological vector of bluetongue viruses (btv) in south florida, the caribbean region and central america. the vector potential of this species for btv was evaluated in the laboratory in a series of experiments using insects caught in the field. although there was great variation in the percentage of flies that fed from any one catch, it was demonstrated that c. insignis became infected after membrane feeding on a mixture ...19921325085
orbiviruses from culicoides in florida.between 1980 and 1983, 45,484 culicoides spp. collected in florida near cattle have been examined for orbiviruses by attempted isolation in cell cultures and intravenous (iv) inoculations of embryonated chicken eggs. bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 2 was isolated from a pool of culicoides insignis trapped at ona. this is the 1st recovery of btv from this species representing the 2nd new world species of culicoides from which bt viruses have been isolated. c. insignis is a neotropical form which ...19852989853
observations on larval habitats of suspected culicoides vectors of bluetongue virus in florida.potential breeding sites for culicoides variipennis (coquillett) and c. insignis lutz, suspected vectors of bluetongue virus (btv) in florida, were examined at 7 livestock facilities located in different geographic regions of the state. the 2 most productive habitats were mud contaminated by effluent from milking parlors (92.3 larvae/sample) and margins of vegetated ponds (18.8 larvae/sample). four species of biting midges, c. crepuscularis malloch, c. haematopotus malloch, c. insignis, and c. v ...19852989856
isolation and identification of bluetongue virus: a serotype new to the u.s.there are 5 known serotypes of bluetongue (bt) virus (btv) in the us: 2, 10, 11, 13 and 17. the most recently discovered us serotype, btv 2, was isolated from blood collected from cattle at ona, florida in 1982. isolations were made from the september through november bleedings and from 1 pool of culicoides insignis lutz collected in october. seventeen viral isolates were obtained by injecting the samples into embryonated chicken eggs (ece) followed by serial passage onto bhk-21 cells. a single ...19852989869
bluetongue virus infection in costa rican and colombian cattle.bluetongue virus (btv) group antibodies are widely distributed in costa rica and northern colombia; prevalence is highest at lowest altitudes. clinical evidence of bluetongue (bt) infection in cattle is not seen. evidence exists of the circulation of btv serotypes 6 and 14 in costa rica and btv serotype 12, 14 and 17 in northern colombia in the period 1981-1983. culicoides insignis is implicated as a probable vector in colombia.19852989904
bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer virus serotypes in northern colombian cattle.there is recent evidence of bluetongue (bt) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (ehd) virus infection of cattle in the american tropics, including bt group reactive antibody in colombian cattle. these observations prompted a study to determine serologically the specific bt and ehd virus types present, and time of infection and to collect culicoides spp. as potential vectors. a prospective study of bt and ehd virus infection was done on two farms in the colombian department of antioquia. sequentia ...19852991365
bluetongue virus isolations from vectors and ruminants in central america and the caribbean. interamerican bluetongue team.a regional prospective study of the epidemiology of bluetongue virus (btv) serotypes covering 11 countries in central america and the caribbean took place between 1987 and 1992. active surveillance revealed btv infection to be endemic in the absence of confirmed indigenous cases of bluetongue. during the 6-year span of the study, over 300 btv isolations were obtained from cattle and sheep. results of the earlier years of the study were summarized, and surveillance activities in the concluding mo ...19948172409
epidemiology of bluetongue in central america and the caribbean: initial entomological findings. regional bluetongue team.forty-four species of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) were caught in insect light traps during the first 2 years of studies on the epidemiology of bluetongue virus in the caribbean and central america. traps were operated near sentinel ruminants which were bled monthly for serologic evaluation and then virus isolation. more than 570,000 individuals were identified. culicoides insignis lutz accounted for 90% of the catch, c. filarifer hoffman/c. ocumarensis ortiz 5%, c. furens poey 3% and c ...19938268483
bluetongue virus in south america: overview of viruses, vectors, surveillance and unique features.since the first published report of bluetongue (bt) virus (btv) infection in south america from brazil in 1978, serological surveys have determined that the infection is widespread in sheep, cattle, goats and water buffalo but generally without clinical signs. only four outbreaks of bt disease have been reported so far in brazil. brazil and argentina are the only countries in south america where btv serotypes 12 and 4 have been isolated, respectively. by serology, serotypes 4, 6, 14, 17, 19 and ...200420419641
incidence and isolation of bluetongue virus infection in cattle of the santo tomé department, corrientes province, argentina.sentinel herds were monitored for the detection of bluetongue (bt)-specific antibodies and virus over two periods, namely: june 1999 to august 2000 and september 2000 to april 2001. herds were located in santo tomé (herds 1 and 2) where btv activity was known to occur. from june 1999 to august 2000, the cumulative incidence (ci) of bluetongue virus (btv) infection was 0% and 35% in herds 1 and 2, respectively. in the second period, the ci of btv infection was 10% and 97% in herds 1 and 2, respec ...200420419652
potential distribution map of culicoides insignis (diptera: ceratopogonidae), vector of bluetongue virus, in northwestern argentina.culicoides insignis lutz is incriminated as a vector of bluetongue virus (btv) to ruminants in america. in south america, almost all countries have serological evidence of btv infections, but only four outbreaks of the disease have been reported. although clinical diseases have never been cited in argentina, viral activity has been detected in cattle. in this study, we developed a potential distribution map of culicoides insignis populations in northwestern argentina using maximum entropy modeli ...201628076283
epidemiology of a bluetongue outbreak in a sheep flock in january 2013, an outbreak of bluetongue (bt) a ecting a lacaune sheep ock occurred in vassouras, rio de janeiro state, brazil. from march to august 2013, blood samples collection and clinical examination were performed monthly, in order to monitor the epidemiological pro le of bluetongue virus (btv) circulation and clinical disease in the ock. agar gel immunodi usion (agid) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) targeting btv segment 10 were used as diagnostic assays. ad ...201627723044
bluetongue and other orbiviruses in south america: gaps and challenges.south america (sa) has the ideal climatic conditions for occurrence of bluetongue virus (btv) and other orbiviruses. based on serological evidence of btv circulation, the virus is widespread across sa. however, little knowledge has been acquired about btv origin and distribution, and circulation of specific serotypes is almost non‑existent. the first barrier to a better understanding of bluetongue (bt) in sa concerns its recognition in the field, as most infections of seropositive ruminants are ...201626741241
seasonal abundance of livestock-associated culicoides species in northeastern brazil.culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are of great medical and veterinary importance because the haematophagous females of some species can transmit diseases to humans and animals. in order to determine the presence and seasonal abundance of the bluetongue virus (btv) vector culicoides insignis lutz at domestic animal sheds in northeastern brazil, insects were collected once a month between january and december 2010. light traps were set from 18.00 to 06.00 hours at a pigsty, chick ...201424382216
bluetongue virus infection in naïve cattle: identification of circulating serotypes and associated culicoides biting midge species in better understand risks associated with trading cattle, it is important to know which serotypes of bluetongue virus (btv) are circulating within the exporting and importing country. hence, this study was conducted to identify the circulating serotypes of btv in trinidad. blood samples were collected monthly from sixty btv- naïve imported cattle over a six month period after their arrival in the country. virological (pcr and virus isolation) and serological (elisa) analyses were carried out on ...201729102102
vector competence of florida culicoides insignis (diptera: ceratopogonidae) for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype-2.epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv; family reoviridae, genus orbivirus) is an arthropod-borne virus of ungulates, primarily white-tailed deer in north america. culicoides sonorensis, the only confirmed north american vector of ehdv, is rarely collected from florida despite annual virus outbreaks. culicoides insignis is an abundant species in florida and is also a confirmed vector of the closely related bluetongue virus. in this study, oral challenge of c. insignis was performed to determi ...202133807536
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