pathogenesis of coronavirus-induced infections. review of pathological and immunological aspects.coronaviruses and arteriviruses infect multiple species of mammals, including humans, causing diseases that range from encephalitis to enteritis. several of these viruses infect domestic animals and cause significant morbidity and mortality, leading to major economic losses. in this category are included such pathogens as transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine respiratory and reproductive virus and infectious bronchitis virus. the feline coronaviruses (fecv) generally do not cause infectio ...19989782322
coronavirus reverse genetics and development of vectors for gene expression.knowledge of coronavirus replication, transcription, and virus-host interaction has been recently improved by engineering of coronavirus infectious cdnas. with the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) genome the efficient (>40 microg per 106 cells) and stable (>20 passages) expression of the foreign genes has been shown. knowledge of the transcription mechanism in coronaviruses has been significantly increased, making possible the fine regulation of foreign gene expression. a new family of ...200515609512
sybr green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for the generic detection of coronaviruses.coronaviruses are etiologic agents of respiratory and enteric diseases in humans and in animals. in this study, a one-step real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay based on sybr green chemistry and degenerate primers was developed for the generic detection of coronaviruses. the primers, designed in the open reading frame 1b, enabled the detection of 32 animal coronaviruses including strains of canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis v ...200716941059
feline aminopeptidase n is not a functional receptor for avian infectious bronchitis virus.coronaviruses are an important cause of infectious diseases in humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars), and have the continued potential for emergence from animal species. a major factor in the host range of a coronavirus is its receptor utilization on host cells. in many cases, coronavirus-receptor interactions are well understood. however, a notable exception is the receptor utilization by group 3 coronaviruses, including avian infectious bronchitis virus (ibv). feline amino ...200717324273
prevalence of antibodies to selected viral pathogens in wild boars (sus scrofa) in croatia in 2005-06 and 2009-10.we determined prevalence of antibody to selected viral pathogens important for domestic pigs and livestock in 556 wild boar (sus scrofa) sera collected during 2005-06 and 2009-10 in four counties in croatia. these counties account for an important part of the croatian commercial pig production and have a high density of wild boars. samples were tested for antibodies to porcine parvovirus (ppv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2), swine influenza virus, porcine respi ...201222247381
structural bases of coronavirus attachment to host aminopeptidase n and its inhibition by neutralizing antibodies.the coronaviruses (covs) are enveloped viruses of animals and humans associated mostly with enteric and respiratory diseases, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome and 10-20% of all common colds. a subset of covs uses the cell surface aminopeptidase n (apn), a membrane-bound metalloprotease, as a cell entry receptor. in these viruses, the envelope spike glycoprotein (s) mediates the attachment of the virus particles to apn and subsequent cell entry, which can be blocked by neutralizing a ...201222876187
receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors block proliferation of tgev mainly through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.emerging coronaviruses (covs) primarily cause severe gastroenteric or respiratory diseases in humans and animals, and no approved therapeutics are currently available. here, a9, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (rtki) of the tyrphostin class, is identified as a robust inhibitor of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) infection in cell-based assays. moreover, a9 exhibited potent antiviral activity against the replication of various covs, including murine hepatitis virus (mhv), porcine e ...202031751591
coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus-mediated induction of ifn alpha-mrna in porcine leukocytes requires prior synthesis of soluble proteins.we studied the expression of interferon alpha (ifn alpha)-mrna in porcine non-adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) after induction by the coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev). we found that protein synthesis inhibition by cycloheximide (chx) blocked ifn alpha-mrna expression, except when pbmc were preincubated with a conditioned medium as a potential source of cytokines. these data indicate that ifn alpha-mrna induction by tgev requires de novo synthesis of protei ...19948142954
status report on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the united states.on 16 may 2013, the usda animal and plant health inspection service, national veterinary services laboratories reported the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the united states for the first time.this virus causes severe diarrhea and vomiting in young pigs. porcine epidemic diarrhea virus does not infect humans and is not a food safety risk.this virus is already found in many countries around the world, and there is no us official regulation of the virus and no export restrictions t ...201432288969
cd163 and papn double-knockout pigs are resistant to prrsv and tgev and exhibit decreased susceptibility to pdcov while maintaining normal production performance.porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) are two highly infectious and lethal viruses causing major economic losses to pig production. here, we report generation of double-gene-knockout (dko) pigs harboring edited knockout alleles for known receptor proteins cd163 and papn and show that dko pigs are completely resistant to genotype 2 prrsv and tgev. we found no differences in meat-production or reproductive-performance traits betw ...202032876563
design of wide-spectrum inhibitors targeting coronavirus main proteases.the genus coronavirus contains about 25 species of coronaviruses (covs), which are important pathogens causing highly prevalent diseases and often severe or fatal in humans and animals. no licensed specific drugs are available to prevent their infection. different host receptors for cellular entry, poorly conserved structural proteins (antigens), and the high mutation and recombination rates of covs pose a significant problem in the development of wide-spectrum anti-cov drugs and vaccines. cov m ...200516128623
the coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus causes infection after receptor-mediated endocytosis and acid-dependent fusion with an intracellular compartment.aminopeptidase n is a species-specific receptor for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), which infects piglets, and for the 229e virus, which infects humans. it is not known whether these coronaviruses are endocytosed before fusion with a membrane of the target cell, causing a productive infection, or whether they fuse directly with the plasma membrane. we have studied the interaction between tgev and a cell line (mdck) stably expressing recombinant pig aminopeptidase n (papn). by electro ...19989420255
characterisation of the effector cells in antibody-dependent and spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity in swine against target cells infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus.when porcine peripheral blood leucocytes were fractionated, lymphocytes were the most active effectors in both antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (adcc) and spontaneous cell-mediated cytotoxicity (scmc), although both polymorphs and macrophages showed some activity in adcc. adsorption of lymphocytes to antibody-sensitised or unsensitized pk-15-transmissible gastroenteritis (tge) cells caused similar reductions in adcc and scmc effector activities. over 60 per cent of the target-bindin ...19863489968
retrospective serological survey on selected viral pathogens in wild boar populations in germany.the objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the occurrence of porcine parvovirus (ppv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), porcine respiratory coronavirus (prcv), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv) and swine influenza virus (siv) in selected wild boar populations in germany (nā€‰ =ā€‰1,221). commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition tests were used for serological monitoring. the sero ...200932214937
phylogenetic analyses suggest that factors other than the capsid protein play a role in the epidemic potential of gii.2 norovirus.norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. for over two decades, a single genotype (gii.4) has been responsible for most norovirus-associated cases. however, during the winter of 2014 to 2015, the gii.4 strains were displaced by a rarely detected genotype (gii.17) in several countries of the asian continent. moreover, during the winter of 2016 to 2017, the gii.2 strain reemerged as predominant in different countries worldwide. this reemerging gii.2 strain is a recombinant ...201728529975
genomic organization and recombination analysis of a porcine sapovirus identified from a piglet with diarrhea in china.sapovirus (sav), a member of the family caliciviridae, is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in humans and pigs. to date, both intra- and inter-genogroup recombinant strains have been reported in many countries except for china. here, we report an intra-genogroup recombination of porcine sav identified from a piglet with diarrhea of china.201728302145
epidemiological survey of enteric viruses in wild boars in the czech republic: first evidence of close relationship between wild boar and human rotavirus a strains.population of wild boar is increasing in the whole europe, the animals migrate close to human habitats which greatly increases the possibility of natural transmission between domestic animals or humans and wild boars. the aim of the study was to estimate in population of free-living wild boar in the czech republic the prevalence of enteric viral pathogens, namely rotavirus groups a and c (rva and rvc), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), and members of family coronavirid ...201627599927
alphacoronavirus protein 7 modulates host innate immune response.innate immune response is the first line of antiviral defense resulting, in most cases, in pathogen clearance with minimal clinical consequences. viruses have developed diverse strategies to subvert host defense mechanisms and increase their survival. in the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) as a model, we previously reported that accessory gene 7 counteracts the host antiviral response by associating with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (pp1c). in the present work, the e ...201323824792
mouse hepatitis virus strain a59 is released from opposite sides of different epithelial cell types.coronaviruses infect humans and animals through epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts that serve as their primary target. when studying infections in cultured polarized epithelial cells, we found previously that coronaviruses are released from specific plasma-membrane domains; thus, mouse hepatitis virus (strain a59; mhv-a59) leaves murine epithelial kidney cells from the basolateral surface, whereas release of transmissible gastroenteritis virus from porcine epithelial ...19979010286
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